Process of Design POWERHOUSE GAMES

Document Authors  Louie Mitchell (Lead Document Writer)  Luke Bale (Document Writer)

POWERHOUSE GAMES Table of Contents
1.0 Initial Problems ................................................................................................................................. 7 1.1 Problem 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Problem 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Problem 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Problem 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.5 Problem 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.6 Problem 6 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.7 Problem 7 ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.8 Problem 8 ...................................................................................................................................... 8 1.9 Problem 9 ...................................................................................................................................... 8 1.10 Problem 10 .................................................................................................................................. 8 1.11 Problem 11 .................................................................................................................................. 8 1.12 Problem 12 .................................................................................................................................. 8 1.13 Problem 13 .................................................................................................................................. 8 2.0 Research ............................................................................................................................................ 9 2.1 Research 1 – Various Species of Bugs and Insect Abilities............................................................ 9 2.1.1 Insect Abilities ........................................................................................................................ 9 2.1.1.1 Senses and Communication ................................................................................................ 9 2.1.1.2 Light Production and Vision ................................................................................................ 9 2.1.1.3 Social Behaviour (Honey Bee) ........................................................................................... 10 2.1.1.4 Walking on Water ............................................................................................................. 10 2.1.2 Various Insect Species .......................................................................................................... 11 2.1.2.1 Most Common Species ................................................................................................. 11 2.1.2.1.1 Stag Beetles............................................................................................................ 11 2.1.2.1.2 Dor Beetle (Dung Beetle) ....................................................................................... 12 2.1.2.1.3 Devils Coach-Horse ................................................................................................ 14 2.1.2.1.4 Click Beetles ............................................................................................................... 15 2.1.2.1.5 Oil Beetle ................................................................................................................ 17 2.1.2.1.6 Titanus Giganteus .................................................................................................. 18 2.1.2.1.7 Hercules Beetles..................................................................................................... 19 2.1.2.2 Other Species of Beetles ............................................................................................... 20 Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 2

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2.1.2.2.1 Glow Worms .......................................................................................................... 20 2.2 Research 2 – Flight Examples in Unreal 2004 Engine ................................................................. 21 2.2.1 – Air Buccaneers................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.1.1 Mechanics Overview ..................................................................................................... 21 2.2.2 Legend of the Ormr .............................................................................................................. 22 2.2.2.1 Mechanics Overview ..................................................................................................... 22 2.2.3 Dragonfly .............................................................................................................................. 23 2.2.3.1 Research ........................................................................................................................ 23 2.2.4 Unreal Demolition ................................................................................................................ 24 2.2.4.1 Research ........................................................................................................................ 24 2.3 Research 3 - Team Based Mechanics .......................................................................................... 25 2.3.1 Army of Two ......................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.2 Gears of War ........................................................................................................................ 25 2.3.3 Prince of Persia (2008 Version) ............................................................................................ 25 2.3.4 Resident Evil: Code Veronica X ............................................................................................ 25 2.3.5 Resident Evil 4 ...................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.6 Resident Evil 5 ...................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.7 GRAW (with Main Tom Clancy Games)................................................................................ 26 2.3.8 Streets of Rage Series .......................................................................................................... 26 2.3.9 Command and Conquer Series ............................................................................................ 26 2.3.10 Nights into Dreams ............................................................................................................ 26 2.3.11 Most Popular Team Mechanics ......................................................................................... 26 2.4 Research 4 - Mythical Creatures Research ................................................................................. 27 2.4.1 Small Mythical Creatures ..................................................................................................... 27 2.5 Research 5 - Weapons Research ................................................................................................. 30 2.5.1 Melee Weapons ................................................................................................................... 30 2.5.1.1 Swords........................................................................................................................... 30 2.5.1.2 Knives and Daggers ....................................................................................................... 31 2.5.1.3 Axes ............................................................................................................................... 31 2.5.1.4 Blunt Weapons .............................................................................................................. 32 2.5.1.5 Chain Weapons ............................................................................................................. 33 2.5.1.6 Spears and Pole Arms ................................................................................................... 33 2.5.1.7 Glove Weapons ............................................................................................................. 34

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2.6 Research 6 - Game Modes .......................................................................................................... 36 2.6.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 ..................................................................................................... 36 2.6.1.1 Onslaught: ..................................................................................................................... 36 2.6.1.2 Capture the flag ............................................................................................................ 36 2.6.1.3 Double domination ....................................................................................................... 37 2.6.1.4 Bombing Run ................................................................................................................. 37 2.6.1.5 Mutant .......................................................................................................................... 37 2.6.2 Halo 3 ................................................................................................................................... 37 2.6.2.1 King of the Hill ............................................................................................................... 37 2.6.3 Battlefield 2142 .................................................................................................................... 38 2.6.3.1 Titan Mode .................................................................................................................... 38 2.6.3.2 Base mode..................................................................................................................... 38 2.7 Research 7 - Character Inventory/ Weapon Selection................................................................ 39 2.7.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 ..................................................................................................... 39 2.7.2 System Shock 2 .................................................................................................................... 39 2.7.3 Halo 2 ................................................................................................................................... 39 2.7.4 Perfect Dark Zero ................................................................................................................. 40 2.7.5 Resident Evil 4 ...................................................................................................................... 40 2.8 Research 8 - Protagonist and Antagonist Names........................................................................ 41 2.9 Research 9 - Player Movement and Character Speed ................................................................ 41 2.9.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 ..................................................................................................... 41 2.9.2 Team Fortress 2.................................................................................................................... 41 2.10 Research 10 - Potential Character Classes ................................................................................ 42 2.10.1 Team Fortress 2 ................................................................................................................. 42 2.10.1.1 Offensive Characters ................................................................................................... 42 2.10.1.2 Defensive Characters .................................................................................................. 42 2.10.1.3 Support Characters ..................................................................................................... 42 2.10.2 Counterstrike ..................................................................................................................... 42 2.10.3 Call of Duty: Modern Warfare............................................................................................ 43 2.11 Research 11 - Naming of Weapons ........................................................................................... 44 2.11.1 Unreal Tournament 2004................................................................................................... 44 2.11.2 Call of Duty: Modern Warfare............................................................................................ 44 2.11.3 Worms Armageddon .......................................................................................................... 44

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2.12 Research 12 – Games Design Document Layout ...................................................................... 45 2.13 Research 13 – Voice Over Script Research ............................................................................... 46 2.13.1 World of Warcraft .............................................................................................................. 46 2.13.2 Unreal Tournament 3 ......................................................................................................... 46 2.13.3 Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots ........................................................................... 46 3.0 Synthesis ......................................................................................................................................... 47 3.1 Synthesis 1 - Bugs and Creatures ................................................................................................ 47 3.1.1 Beetles.................................................................................................................................. 47 3.1.2 Grasshoppers ....................................................................................................................... 47 3.1.3 Pheromone Tracker.............................................................................................................. 47 3.2 Bugs and Creatures 2 .................................................................................................................. 48 3.2.1 Grasshopper Removal .......................................................................................................... 48 3.2 Synthesis 2 - Flight in Unreal 2004 Engine .................................................................................. 49 3.3 Synthesis 3 - Team Mechanics .................................................................................................... 49 3.3.1 Team Mechanics 2 ............................................................................................................... 50 3.3.1.1 Items ............................................................................................................................. 50 3.3.1.2 Vehicles ......................................................................................................................... 50 3.4 Synthesis 4 - Character Design .................................................................................................... 50 3.5 Synthesis 5 – Weapons ............................................................................................................... 51 3.5.1 Weapons 2 ........................................................................................................................... 52 3.6 Synthesis 6 - Game Modes .......................................................................................................... 53 3.6.1 Nodes ................................................................................................................................... 53 3.6.2 Scoring.................................................................................................................................. 53 3.7 Synthesis 7 - Character Inventory/Weapons Selection .............................................................. 54 3.8 Synthesis 8 - Protagonist and Antagonist Names ....................................................................... 54 3.9 Synthesis 9 - Player Movement and Character Speed ................................................................ 54 3.10 Synthesis 10 - Character Classes ............................................................................................... 54 3.10.1 Anti Vehicle Class ............................................................................................................... 55 3.10.2 Medic Class ........................................................................................................................ 55 3.10.3 Anti-Medic Class................................................................................................................. 55 3.10.4 All Rounder Class................................................................................................................ 55 3.10.5 Powerhouse Class .............................................................................................................. 55 3.11 Synthesis 11 - Weapons Naming............................................................................................... 55

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3.11.1 Weapon Naming 2 ............................................................................................................. 56 3.12 Synthesis 12 - Games Design Document Layout ....................................................................... 56 3.13 Synthesis 13 – Voice Over Scripts Layout ................................................................................. 56 4.0 Refinement...................................................................................................................................... 57 4.1 Refinement 1 – Chosen Insects and Insect Powers .................................................................... 57 4.2 Refinement 2 - Flight within Unreal Tournament 2004 Mods .................................................... 57 4.3 Refinement 3 – Final Choice of Team Based Mechanics ............................................................ 58 4.4 Refinement 4 – Final Character Design ....................................................................................... 58 4.5 Refinement 5 – Final Weapons Selection ................................................................................... 58 4.5.1 Weapons Refinement 2 ....................................................................................................... 58 4.6 Refinement 6 – Final Game Mode Selection .............................................................................. 59 4.7 Refinement 7 – Final Choice of Character Inventory/Weapons Selection System ..................... 59 4.8 Refinement 8 – Final Choice of Protagonist/Antagonist Names ................................................ 59 4.9 Refinement 9 – Final choice of Various Character Speeds ......................................................... 59 4.10 Refinement 10 – Final Character Classes Selection .................................................................. 60 4.11 Refinement 11 – Final Names of Weapons............................................................................... 60 4.12 Refinement 12 – Final Games Design Document Layout.......................................................... 60 4.13 Refinement 13 – Final Voice over Script Choice ....................................................................... 60 5.0 Appendices One - Document Figure List ......................................................................................... 62

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1.0 Initial Problems
1.1 Problem 1
What species of Beetle should be implemented within the game for vehicle usage and what special abilities do other some insects have that could be included within the game? Go To Research – Part 1 (Page 8)

1.2 Problem 2
How do the flight mechanics work within the Unreal Tournament 2004 engine? Go To Research - Part 2 (Page 17)

1.3 Problem 3
How will the team based mechanics work within the game? Go to Research – Part 3 (Page 21)

1.4 Problem 4
What sort of mythical/small creature should be used for the design of the protagonists and antagonists of the game? Go to Research – Part 4 (Page 23)

1.5 Problem 5
What sort of weapons will be implemented within the game and how will they be used? Go to Research – Part 5 (Page 26)

1.6 Problem 6
What game modes could be included in the mod? Go to Research – Part 6 (Page 33)

1.7 Problem 7
How will the player select/use items in their inventory and use their weapons? Go to Research – Part 7 (Page 36)

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1.8 Problem 8
What will the main protagonists/antagonists of the game be called? Go to Research – Part 8 (Page 37)

1.9 Problem 9
How fast will the players move in the game and also will their chosen playable character classes affect their movement? Go to Research – Part 9 (Page 37)

1.10 Problem 10
What type of character classes could be included in the game? Go to Research – Part 10 (Page 38)

1.11 Problem 11
What will the weapons included in the game be called? Go to Research – Part 11 (Page 40)

1.12 Problem 12
What sort of layout should the Games Design Document of the game have? Go to Research – Part 12 (Page 41)

1.13 Problem 13
What sort of writing style should the Voice over Scripts be in? Go to Research – Part 13 (Page 42)

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2.0 Research
2.1 Research 1 – Various Species of Bugs and Insect Abilities
2.1.1 Insect Abilities 2.1.1.1 Senses and Communication Many insects possess very sensitive and/or specialized organs of perception. Some insects such as bees can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths, or detect polarized light, while the antennae of male moths can detect the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometres. 2.1.1.2 Light Production and Vision  Fe w insects can create natural light from their own bodies to be used as a defence system, these species include families of insect such as the Poduridae, Onychiuridae, Mycetophilidae, Lampyridae , Phengodidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae.  Ot her functions vary with some species using them to attract mates while others use them to lure prey (Figure 1).  M any species are able to detect light in the infrared, ultraviolet as well

Figure 1 - Picture of Lampris in the wild

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as the visible light wavelengths. 2.1.1.3 Social Behaviour (Honey Bee) The Bee species are well known within the insect world much with association of the ant species to work together within the colony to create honey. They have the drone bees which mainly do all of the fetch and carry work and then they have their superior Queen Bees of the colony which is what the drones are working for, to keep her alive and continue on the process of survival. This element could be a good gameplay mechanic which uses each character to keep all of the others alive and kicking to complete their main objective. This can be seen within (Figure 2) featured below.

Figure 2 - Descriptive Diagram of the average Bee Colony

2.1.1.4 Walking on Water A few species of insects have evolved such an extent that they have gained the ability to walk on the surface of the water which is a great survival technique which other species of insects usually meet their death to. One example of these species are the Family of insects “Gerridae” (Figure 3) which in some circles are called the Water Striders. Other species of insects such as the “Halobates” for instance have adapted to the water so much over the generations that they have started to live on the top of the open ocean
Figure 3 - Picture of the Gerridae within the wild.

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2.1.2 Various Insect Species 2.1.2.1 Most Common Species 2.1.2.1.1 Stag Beetles Latin name: Lucanus cervus Size: The male grows to about 90mm in length, including the antlers, and the female grows to approximately 60mm. Distribution: Mostly found in south and south east of England. Months seen: May to August. Habitat: Woodlands and gardens. Food: Tree sap. The larvae eat rotting wood. Special features: This is the largest beetle found in Britain, and now sadly, quite rare.   The most noticeable feature of the male are the large antler-like jaws, which give the beetle its name. They are used during the mating season to fight with other males over territory. Each male tries to grab his opponent between his jaws, and then throw him. The fully grown male stag beetles can normally be seen flying at dusk between May and August. The warmer temperatures at this time of year encourage them to look for a mate. They will drink tree sap, but do not eat, and will not grow at all. After mating the stag beetle dies. The females (Figure 4) can be recognised by the much smaller jaws. Although both the male and female beetles can give you a pinch, they are quite harmless. Females lay their eggs in, or near, rotten

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wood, and then die.

Figure 4 - Picture of an adult female Stag Beetle.

2.1.2.1.2 Dor Beetle (Dung Beetle) Latin name: Geotrupes stercorarius Size: Grows to 25mms long. Distribution: Found throughout the UK. Months seen: April to October. Habitat: Farmland and woodland. Food: Dung. Special features: The Dor beetle is one of the largest dung beetles. Dung beetles get their name from their rather unattractive habit of eating dung. Both the larvae and the adults eat their own weight of dung every day. While this may seem a strange choice of diet, there is little competition for it, and they do perform a vital cleanup role in the countryside. (Figure 5)  The Dor beetle is mainly associated with cow dung, and on summer evenings they can be seen flying over cattle pastures. Aerial manoeuvrability is not one of the Dor beetles strong points, as they frequently crash into the cattle. Mated pairs together work as a team to find a suitable cowpat, usually at night. The female then digs a hole underneath it,

Figure 5 - Picture of a Male Stag Beetle

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about 60cms deep, with some small chambers off to the sides. The male helps to clear the excavated soil, and brings small bundles of dung into the chambers. The female then lays an egg in each chamber. When the egg hatches, the larva has enough dung to eat for the first few months of its life. When fully grown the larva pupates underground, and the following year it emerges as an adult beetle.

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2.1.2.1.3 Devils Coach-Horse Latin name: Staphylinusolens Size: Grows to a length of around 28mms. Distribution: Found throughout the UK. Months seen: April to October. Habitat: Woodlands, meadows, gardens and hedgerows. Food: Insects, spiders, worms and woodlice. Special features: The devil's coach-horse (Figure 6) is one of around 1000 species of rove beetles in Britain, so-called because they are constantly on the move. The devil's coach-horse is a fast moving beetle which is capable of flight, but prefers to spend most of its life on the ground. The other popular name for this beetle is 'cocktail', because of its habit of raising its tail like a scorpion (as above) when it feels threatened. It cannot sting like a scorpion, but it does have another, rather bizarre defence mechanism. At the end of its abdomen are a pair of white glands which can emit a foul smell. It can also squirt a stinking brown fluid from its mouth and anus. The devil's coach-horse is a carnivorous insect, feeding on other insects and small creatures. It has large pincer-like jaws which can crush and kill its prey. The name of the species came from Irish mythology where this particular beetle was considered symbol of corruption. It was believed to have the power to kill on sight, and that it would eat sinners. When the beetle raised its tail, it was thought to be casting
Figure 6 - Picture of the Devils

Coach Horse in the wild

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a curse upon the unfortunate passerby.

2.1.2.1.4 Click Beetles Latin name: Athous Haemorrhoidalis Size: Approximately 15mms long Distribution: Found throughout the UK Months seen: May to August. Food: The larvae feed on roots and can become a pest of root crops. Habitat: Found in hedgerows and meadows. Special features: There are 65 different species of click beetle (Figure 7) in the UK. They all have a special technique to escape from danger. Click beetles have a special hinge on their thorax, and by arching their body they can create a tension on the hinge, like a coiled spring. The tension can be suddenly released, causing the beetle to leap into the air at a speed of more than 2 metres per second. Their name comes from the "click" sound they make when this happens.

Figure 7 - Picture of a Male Click Beetle Bug Company© Property within the wild. Of Powerhouse Games

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2.1.2.1.5 Oil Beetle Latin name: Meloe proscarabeus Size: Up to 30mms long Distribution: Found in many parts of the UK. Months seen: April to August Food: Vegetation Habitat: Meadows and fields Special features: The female oil beetle (Figure 8) lays thousands of eggs into holes in the ground, and these hatch into larvae which sit around on flowers waiting to jump on board a passing bee. They then get a lift back to the bee’s nest where they feed on the bee larvae. When alarmed, the adult oil beetles can release a foul smelling oil hence the name as a defence mechanism for potential attacks.

Figure 8 - Picture of a Female Oil Beetle within the wild.

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2.1.2.1.6 Titanus Giganteus The world's largest beetle, and insect, is Titanus giganteus (Figure 9) from the Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) native to the Amazonian forest in South America. It can reach 18 cm (7.2 in) in length. The larvae are wood borers and the adults can inflict painful bites to a human and even cut flesh with their powerful mandibles.

Figure 9 - Picture of a Titanus Gigantean within captivity.

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2.1.2.1.7 Hercules Beetles The Hercules beetle (Figure 10) a rhinoceros beetle found in the tropical forests of South America, can reach 6.75 in (170 mm) in length, but is bulkier than the previous species. Still, much of its length is given by the horns. The Hercules beetle is the strongest creature on earth given its size, able to carry 850 times its own body weight. Such a beetle can drag a wood piece of tens of kilograms! At a weight of 60g, this beetle is as big as a mouse.

Figure 10 - A picture of the Hercules Beetle within the wild.

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2.1.2.2 Other Species of Beetles 2.1.2.2.1 Glow Worms Latin name: Lampyris noctiluca Size: Approximately 15mm long Distribution: Not common, but found in parts of south and mid England, lowland Scotland and Wales. Months seen: Active from May to late August. They are most noticeable at night (Figure 11) in June and July when the females light up to attract the males. Habitat: Low growing vegetation. During the day they can be found under stones and logs. Food: The larvae feed on small snails and slugs. The adults rarely feed at all Special features: The glow-worm is not really a worm at all. In fact it's a beetle. This is more obvious in the male, which is about 12mms long, has wings, and is a light brown colour. The green light produced is about as bright as an LED. It is a cold light, so no energy is wasted in heat production. It's created by a substance in the abdomen called luciferin, which when mixed with oxygen, breaks down creating the light.
Figure 11 - Picture showing Glow Worms in their natural habitat

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Go to Synthesis – Part 1 (Page 43)

2.2 Research 2 – Flight Examples in Unreal 2004 Engine
2.2.1 – Air Buccaneers
Title: Air Buccaneers Developer: TMA Genre: First Person Shooter Base Game: Unreal Tournament 2004 Date Released: 2006 2.2.1.1 Mechanics Overview The flight mechanics of air buccaneers are different to most of the air combat games in that the player controls an airship (Figure 12) which in pure game play terms is just a floating platform. The game knows this and as a ship flies the pilot if they are alone must stop flying to go fire the mounted weapons. The floating platforms idea would be good to use in a huge online multiplayer shooter; however the game we are making will be more focused on mounts instead of platforms. Since the player can exit steering the ship at any time an element of strategy comes into play with the player having to decide when to steer and when to load up the cannons and engage combat. The air combat comes in three different ways. There are the mounted weapons on the vehicles such as cannons which have to be loaded and aimed before fired. There are the hand held weapons which the player can fire when not steering or firing the cannon. Lastly is the one most relevant to the game is the ship boarding combat, or simply the grappling hook style rope. The rope allows the player to jump off their ship and attach and climb their rope on both opposing and friendly ships.
Figure 12 - A Screenshot of an online match of Air Buccaneers.

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2.2.2 Legend of the Ormr
Title: Legend of the Ormr Developer: The_Mr_T Genre: 3rd person action / racing game Base Game: Unreal Tournament 2004 Date Released: 2007 2.2.2.1 Mechanics Overview In Legend of the Ormr (Legend) the player controls a mechanical dragon, the aim is to race around engaging other dragons in combat while collecting the pickups. Collect the pickups and you win the race. The flying mechanics in Legend are fairly good but do have some bugs. The developers I think may have used the raptor base class for the dragons and the result is that while the dragon is fast going forward coming down to the ground is very slow and sluggish which does ruin the flow of the game. The level design is fairly sparse with the emphasis on the air combat. However there are some clipping bugs with players able to move in and out of the world through glitches. The combat (Figure 13) between players is similar to firing guns in the alt fire but the dragon breath is executed fairly well with the only problem is the lack of reaction on the opposing player resulting in confusion if the player is hit or not.

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Figure 13 - A Screenshot of the Legend of the Ormr

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2.2.3 Dragonfly Title: Dragonfly Developer: LudoCraft Game Design Genre: 3rd person surreal action game Base Game: Unreal Tournament 2004 Date Released: 2006 2.2.3.1 Research Dragonfly Variations uses a weirdly surreal visual and game play style. The world is seen through the scale of a normal dragonfly so everyday objects become huge pieces of levels (Figure 14). Also dragonfly variations only comes with one very small map which is very uninspired, however it does have mid air upgrades which spawn when goals are met. The game has some mechanics which may be used in the game, the spawning of geometry when certain criteria is fulfilled means we can use this to form asteroids or raindrops. Also the camera zooming in when the mouse wheel is scrolled is useful to handle a unwieldy camera. The actual flying mechanic of the game is well implemented and is another option of how flight is handled in unreal. Since the player is the dragonfly they cannot get off the flying creature as in the game, also the game doesn’t allow the player to stop flying at any time.

Figure 14 - Screenshot of one of Dragonfly's larger levels.

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2.2.4 Unreal Demolition Title: Unreal Demolition Developer: Fooman Genre: 3rd person vehicle combat game Base Game: Unreal Tournament 2004 Date Released: 2007 2.2.4.1 Research Unreal Demolition lacks any air vehicles but where the air combat comes in is that the vehicles use their boost to launch themselves at the other vehicle (Figure 15) and usually this is done over a jump or the player will be airborne. By pressing Q and E; the player can barrel role left or right, this is something that needs to be in the game as it will be a good dodge manoeuvre. The game types are imaginative and help show that while combat will be necessary other game types can be done as well. The downsides of this mod are that the A.I is really bad and limited in their movements.
Figure 15 - Screenshot of Unreal Demolition during a match.

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Go To Synthesis – Part 2 (Page 44)

2.3 Research 3 - Team Based Mechanics
2.3.1 Army of Two Distract enemies with one team member to make the second invisible to the enemies for a few seconds. Eases battle damage between both characters and helps flow of level. 2.3.2 Gears of War Within the gameplay of Gears of War and its sequel, Gears of War 2; you can heal fallen allies in the battlefield and can work together to complete level. 2.3.3 Prince of Persia (2008 Version) Using your team mate Eleka to create advanced attacks and evasion from death e.g. jump large spaces that would normally be a difficult task without team members. (Figure 16)
Figure 16 - Screenshot of the Tem based combat system within Prince of Persia (2009)

2.3.4 Resident Evil: Code Veronica X Within Code Veronica and also some other titles in the Resident Evil series; the player can choose to leave certain items within a universal item box so that their teammate can go back to the box in a different area and use to solve a puzzle or kill a particular boss character. 2.3.5 Resident Evil 4 Helping the other team member e.g Ashley who cannot defend themselves overcome enemy attacks, guide them through the level and overcome large obstacles. 2.3.6 Resident Evil 5 The Playable Character can provide firearm cover for team mate while they go and fulfilling certain objectives within the game world e.g. opening doors or fetching an item from a distance.

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2.3.7 GRAW (with Main Tom Clancy Games) Control other team members in the squad and control their actions such as advance on the enemy, hold back or cover from the enemy. 2.3.8 Streets of Rage Series Can attack the oncoming enemies separately or in the later games in the series can combine with each other and deal more powerful attacks, at a cost of a small amount of the playable characters health points. 2.3.9 Command and Conquer Series Within the Command and Conquer series, you can allocate team members and vehicles separate tasks to help eliminate the enemy. Divide and conquer the enemy in small groups and fulfil larger tasks within the level. 2.3.10 Nights into Dreams Combine two characters to create a more powerful playable character e.g. Elliot combining with Nights to become a physical being and also separate from each other in likeness with Resident Evil 4 to help both characters fulfil their objective. 2.3.11 Most Popular Team Mechanics  Divide and conquer gameplay – one player goes off while other player provides a distraction for the enemies.  Combine Attacks – combine the attack power of both characters to create a larger attack. Healing Fallen Allies in the battlefield.(Figure 17) Providing enemies with weapons, healing items and essential items for the quest. Job Allocation – allocate team members with various jobs that will help with the advancement of the mission and the game. Firearms cover while team mate goes off from helping distance. Helping other teammates overcome larger obstacles to advance through the game.

 

 

Figure 17 Screenshot of The two man army gameplay mechanic from Army of Two.

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Go To Synthesis – Part 3 (Page 44)

2.4 Research 4 - Mythical Creatures Research
As the main characters of the game are small creatures that ride the insects into battle; their inspiration could come from many sources as there are many different types of mythical creature in the world; so researching this topic is essential.          2.4.1 Small Mythical Creatures Borrowers Gnomes Dwarfs Midgets Pygmies Leprechauns Fairies Pixies Kobolds (Originated from German Fokelaw) (Figure 18)
Figure 18 - An Artist impression of the Kobold.

 

Nuno (Philippines) Bes (Ancient Egyptian God; protector of everything good and kept households pure from evil spirits) (Figure 19)
Figure 19 – An artist impression of the Egyptian God Bes.

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 

Pukwudgie (Three foot high troll being from Native America, resemble humans but have large noses, fingers and ears) Abatwa (Zulu) - (Small people who ride ants and hide between blades of grass in the
Figure 20 - An Artist Impression of what a Pukwudgie would look like.

hunt for game) (Figure 20)

 

Alux (Mayan) Little People, assume physical form to communicate with other species. Amanojaku (Small Oni Spirit from Japanese Fokelaw) (Figure 21)

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Figure 21 - A Fan created image of the Amanojaku, seen here holding a crow

 

Barbegaz (Swiss) – small demon with large snowshoe like feet. Dryad - a form of Wood Nymph popularised within role playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons. (Figure 22)
Figure 22 - An fan created drawing of a female Wood Druid/Nymph

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     

Brownie – Small Pixie native to Scotland Heinzelmannchen Duergar (Race of ugly dwarfs) Hamadryad (Small beings that live in trees) Hototsume – kozo (One eyed small elfs native to Japanese Fokelaw) (Figure 23) Jenglot (Vamparic Little people)
Figure 23 - A Fan created image of the Hotosume.

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2.5

Research 5 - Weapons Research
2.5.1 Melee Weapons Melee weapons are by definition a weapon (from French, "mixed", referring to groups of fighters interlocked in close combat) that does not involve a projectile — that is, both the user and target of the weapon are in contact with it simultaneously in normal use. 2.5.1.1 Swords The sword is one of the most widespread of weapons. In essence a long knife with a grip, its greater length and variations in the blade’s shape and areas of sharpness means it can be adapted for cutting or thrusting. Examples of swords include such models as the Dao, Grootzward, Coltellaccio, Gladius and more commonly known Kitana (Figure 24)
Figure 24 - Replica of a traditional Japanese Kitana

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2.5.1.2 Knives and Daggers Daggers were some of the earliest weapons, an evolution of a cutting knife for use in combat. Because of the relative shortness of their blades they are primarily used for thrusting or stabbing. Examples of knives include such examples as the Bayonet, the KM2000 (A popular type of combat/survival knife), A Machete and the Seax. (Figure 25)
Figure 25 - A Replica of a Seax Weapon.

2.5.1.3 Axes The earliest examples of axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze or iron; steel also appeared as these technologies developed. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge - not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However in France and Holland the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 31

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More common examples of an axe is the common place (Within the Video Games Industry) Battle Axe, Masakari, The Ono and Tomahawk (Figure 26)
Figure 26 - An Artists Impression of the Tomahawk.

2.5.1.4 Blunt Weapons Blunt weapons are primarily mêlée weapons designed to use blunt trauma to inflict damage on their targets. Most are club-like, and rely on the user's strength and the mass of the weapon to create blunt force. Examples of various blunt weapons include such items like the Hammer, The Cosh, The Mace, The Boomerang
Figure 27 - a Picture of a traditional wooden boomerang.

(Figure 27) and the Tambo.

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2.5.1.5 Chain Weapons A chain weapon is a weapon made of one or more heavy object attached to a chain, sometimes with a handle. The flail was one of the more common types of chain-based weapons in medieval Europe, although some flails used hinges instead of chains. Many of these weapons were made popular during the Feudal Japan era; these weapons were allegedly used by the ninja at the time. An example of these weapons include the shoge was a ring with a sickle-like knife on a chain that could be used to pierce armour, grapple, and to entangle the legs of the target. Further Examples of these weapons include such weapons as the Chain Whip, Meteor Hammer, the Tabak Toyok, The Kusari Fundo and the Bolas (Figure 28)
Figure 28 - An Instructional picture of how to use the Bala weapon.

2.5.1.6 Spears and Pole Arms A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a sharpened head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with bamboo spears, or it may be of another material fastened to the shaft, such as obsidian, iron or bronze. The most common design is of a metal spearhead, shaped like a triangle or a leaf. Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the Stone Age until the advent of firearms. They may be seen as the ancestor of such weapons as the lance, the halberd, the naginata and the pike. One of the earliest weapons fashioned by human beings and their ancestors, it is still used for hunting and fishing, and its influences can still be seen in contemporary military arsenals as the rifle-mounted bayonet. Spears can be used as both melee and ballistic weapons. Spears used primarily for thrusting may be used with either one or two hands and tend to have heavier and sturdier designs than those intended exclusively for throwing. Those designed for Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 33

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throwing, often referred to as javelins tend to be lighter and have a more streamlined head, and can be thrown either by hand or with the assistance of a spear thrower such as the Atlatls or Woomera. Examples of popular spear weapons include such items as the Pike, the Dory, The Javelin (More commonly used within Olympic sports), the Lance and the Trident (Figure 29)
Figure 29 - Picture of a traditional Trident weapon

2.5.1.7 Glove Weapons Glove weapons have been around since the time of the crusades and in some instances are powerful when in the hands of a master practitioner, some of the more well known examples include the Bagh Nakh (Figure 30) (which is also known as the Tiger Claw) an Indian hand-to-hand weapon designed to fit over the knuckles or concealed under and against the palm. It traditionally consists of four or five curved blades affixed to a fitted glove which can be concealed easily in the palm of the hand; but the origin of the weapon is still unknown .The first well-known usage of the weapon was by the first Maratha Emperor Shivaji and defeated several stronger opponents; even though the weapon is known to be mainly a defensive weapon Another example is the Cestus which is an ancient battle glove, sometimes used in pankration. In effect, it is the classic world's equivalent to brass knuckles. Romans modified the construction by adding metal parts, including spikes, studs, and iron

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plates. Variants of this weapon include the Myrmex or "limb-piercer", and the originally Greek sphairai, thin leather thongs with cutting blades. Further Example of these weapons includes the Neko-te and the Srbosjek.
Figure 30 - Picture of a person using a Bagh Naka.

Go To Synthesis - Part 5 (Page 46)

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2.6 Research 6 - Game Modes
Having a look at game modes within various games will inspire ideas for either a brand new game mode or how to perfectly implement an existing one to suit the gameplay mechanics of the game. 2.6.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 2.6.1.1 Onslaught: Onslaught is one of the more popular modes of the game and mods are just created to improve this mod. The main features of this mode are as follows:   Teams have a base with an energy core. They must connect "nodes" (Figure 31) or capture points in order to travel the energy to the enemy bases core. This deactivates the enemy’s core security and allows players to destroy the core. The nodes must be connected in succession. Multiple nodes can be connected in order to keep the flow of energy. This means that if node 1.2.3 is connected and node 2 gets captured by posit team the energy will still flow. Node 1 is active at the beginning but all other nodes are not active until the next node is captured. Players can spawn at any node when it is captured by their team.

 

 
Figure 31 - Screenshot of UT2004 during an online Onslaught match.

 

2.6.1.2 Capture the flag Players must capture enemy flag and then return it to their base. Players cannot score a point if their flag has been capture. Page 36

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  2.6.1.3 Double domination Teams must capture and hold multiple positions for 10 sec. After 10 sec. Points are reset. 2.6.1.4 Bombing Run Level has a ball in middle Teams must capture ball and through it in enemies goal. (Example 32) If player jumps in goal with ball the score 7 points If ball only 3 points

   
Figure 32 - A screenshot of UT2004 during a Bombing Run match.

2.6.1.5 Mutant  First player to get killed becomes a mutant  All other players then hunt the mutant.  When a player kills the mutant they become the mutant. 2.6.2 Halo 3 2.6.2.1 King of the Hill  Players must capture positions a specific position on the map.  This position is represented by a large ring.  If players from opposite teams are in the ring the ring becomes neutral.  The capture position changes after x sec captured between both team.

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2.6.3 Battlefield 2142    2.6.3.1 Titan Mode Players must capture missile silos in order to destroy the opposite team’s titan ships defences. The silos automatically fire at the enemy titan until they are captured by the enemy. To capture the node players must first de capture it and then re capture the silo. E.g. bring the red bar from 100- to 0 and then make the blue bar go to 100. Once titan shield is destroyed players must then destroy positions with the titan to access the main core. Finally players must destroy the core and escape the titan before it is destroyed 2.6.3.2 Base mode  Players must capture positions around the maps in order to reduce the opposite teams point to 0.

 

Go To Synthesis – Part 6 (Page 47)

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2.7 Research 7 - Character Inventory/ Weapon Selection
Due to the fast passed action of the game, the characters chosen selection of weapons and other additional must be chosen quickly by the player to keep the flow of the game going. 2.7.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 Unreal Tournament 2004 has their weapons hotkeyed to the player’s numeric keys of their keyboard. Usually the layout of the weapons is that the weapons that do less damage are usually hotkeyed to the lesser numbers of the keyboard e.g Shield Gun hotkeyed to key 1 and the Redeemer hotkeyed to key 8. Also with this method of selection, the player can use their mouse scroll wheel to quickly cycle through their inventory of weapons, most players of this game usually use this method of weapons selection as it doesn’t disrupt the gameplay. 2.7.2 System Shock 2 System Shock 2 has a larger RPG element than other shooters and in that respect uses an inventory screen rather than weapons hotkeys. In System Shock 2, on the screen is a layout of the playable character (Example 33) with what items/weapons are being used at that time. With this, the player can drag and drop various parts of their equipment to their characters layout so that they can use that item in that part of the game. The only drawback with this method is that the player can only carry the weapons that will fit in the specific inventory space, much like Resident Evil 4.

2.7.3 Halo 2 Halo 2 has a very bare bones items and weapons selection system which only allows the player to carry two weapons at any time. As for the items, the player can carry their grenades and also carry an additional skull weapon which must be found within Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 39

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certain levels. This plays very well with a game like Halo as their player can duel wield selected weapons that they can find, so the gameplay is not disrupted as there are only two weapons to keep an eye on during gameplay. 2.7.4 Perfect Dark Zero Perfect Dark Zero doesn’t have any item selection system, but does have a player choice based weapons system. Basically this allows the player to choose their weapons before the go into the level, but must be found within the other levels first (Some weak, some strong and some secret weapons). But all of these weapons take up spaces in Joanna Dark’s inventory which is five spaces. Each weapon has its own space allowance as the more powerful the weapon is, the more spaces it will take in the inventory screen. This gives the player some flexibility within the game as it allows the player to play out the levels in the way that they would like. For example the player could take a rocket launcher with limited ammunition, but more destructive firepower into the level but would not be able to take anything else with them as weapons of that calibre would take up a lot of weapons spaces. 2.7.5 Resident Evil 4 Like other Resident Evil titles in the series, the player can choose their characters weapons and what items to use from a central inventory point accessed by the player’s controller/joypads. With this system, there is an additional item box system in earlier titles that allows players to store items and weapons in a central place for later access. But in Resident Evil 4, this was dropped and had a briefcase (Figure 34) which the players can story their items/weapons in, but must be constantly managed in order to carry the most items for their use within the game.
Figure 33 - The inventory system from Resident Evil 4.

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Go To Synthesis – Part 7 (Page 48)

2.8 Research 8 - Protagonist and Antagonist Names
As with any game, the names given to both the main protagonists and antagonists would usually have something in common with the theme or name of the product. For example, In Uncharted: Drake’s Fortune; the playable character is named Nathan Drake who is named after Sir Francis Drake, the famous explorer. With this game, it would be a nice touch to the game if the players of the game are named after something insect/mythical creature related. Examples of insect related terms.       Imago Tagma Hamuli Ectoparacite Hyperparasites Changelings

All these examples are both related to the good sides and bad sides of insect evolution. For example Imago is the last stage of evolution for an insect and when they have officially passed into adulthood and Tagma which is the term for the fusion of insect’s body parts, but can usually result in deformations in certain types of insects. Go To Synthesis – Part 8 (Page 48)

2.9 Research 9 - Player Movement and Character Speed
As this game would be a fast passed multiplayer game as the aim of it is to capture their opponent’s nodes/bases within a certain amount of time, the players movement and essentially speed is on important feature within a game like this. 2.9.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 Within Unreal Tournament 2004, all of the playable characters in both the single player story mode and in the various game modes have the same rate of speed and there are no movement limits for any character, no matter what species or character they are. But the player can make their playable character faster by quadruple tapping the forward movement key when their player’s adrenaline is at 100 to activate their players speed ability. 2.9.2 Team Fortress 2 Since Team Fortress 2 is based all on the use of character classes and their special abilities, they all have different effects on their gameplay. For example some character classes such as the Heavy and the Pyro cannot move quicker in the game as they are more heavily built characters, but their weapons and abilities can deal more damage than any other character. Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 41

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Go To Synthesis – Part 9 (Page 48)

2.10 Research 10 - Potential Character Classes
Character classes have been around in multiplayer games for a good few years ranging from early multiplayer titles like Counterstrike and Team Fortress Classic. But with some class based multiplayer’s (Call Of Duty: Modern Warfare in particular), all of the playable characters look and act the same as each other with only a different weapon set to use for character individuality. But in titles such as Team Fortress 2 and Unreal 2004 mod FragOps, all of their character classes act differently rather than the same. 2.10.1 Team Fortress 2 Team Fortress 2 has some pretty unique character classes that have been carried over from the original title (Team Fortress Classic) but have been recreated in a more cartoon based way. There are now nine character classes in the game which all offer the player a different method of playing the game ranging from the offensive characters, defensive characters and characters which offer support for additional characters playing on their team. Class examples in Team Fortress 2 (Broken down into their character types) 2.10.1.1 Offensive Characters  Scout  Soldier  Pyro (Figure 35) 2.10.1.2 Defensive Characters  Demoman  Heavy  Engineer 2.10.1.3 Support Characters  Medic  Sniper  Spy Each class in the game would have three weapons as their arsenal which would usually be their Primary Weapon, Secondary Weapon and their individual melee weapon which is usually something that would relate to their character e.g. Fire Axe for the Pyro Class. 2.10.2 Counterstrike Counterstrike has a simpler team based gameplay with only two playable teams and no playable characters; these are the Counter – Terrorists and the Terrorists. The game is set into various terrorist situations and each opposing side must stop their opponents from reaching their objective.

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Instead of each player starting with individual weapons sets like in games such as Team Fortress 2, each player will start with a knife and will then have a set amount of money to buy specific weapons at the start of the level and whenever they enter the levels buy zone. This area can also be used to buy armour and additional ammunition for their weapons. If the player’s team wins that round of the match, they can keep their bought weapons for use in the next round with additional money to purchase additional items This team based mechanic is a good example because it encourages players to work well as a team so they can have the advantage in the next round, if they don’t they will only have basic tools to work with inside the level and ultimately fail the match. 2.10.3 Call of Duty: Modern Warfare Call of Duty: Modern Warfare has a unique class system that allows the player to create a unique character class (Figure 36) with the limitations of having three or four weapons as their classes arsenal, but this feature is only available to the player when the player is progressing through the single player campaign of the title. With an additional feature to creating your own character class, you can add personal and individual perks to the custom class such as additional damage to the player or activating your grenades when you have committed suicide or been killed by the opposing players.

Go To Synthesis – Part 10 (Page 49)

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2.11 Research 11 - Naming of Weapons
The naming of the weapons is not the most important feature of a multiplayer combat game, but can be approached in various ways; it would usually depend on the general theme and design of the title. 2.11.1 Unreal Tournament 2004 In Unreal Tournament 2004, the names of the weapons are usually very accurate descriptions on what their function is, for example one of the players starting weapons is the Shield Gun which gives the player protection from other players for a limited time, but on the other hand there are weapons like the Redeemer which cause a small nuclear explosion on the playing field and have a slightly ironic namesake. 2.11.2 Call of Duty: Modern Warfare The Call of Duty series has always strived for realism in its games and the naming of their weapons are realistic from their real world counterparts for example the Desert Eagle, Claymore Mines and AK47. 2.11.3 Worms Armageddon Within Worms Armageddon, there is an arsenal that contains a large mixture of real world weapons with the series trademark cartoonish weapons. For example the players on both sides of teams start with pistols, shotguns, bazookas and other additional weapons. But after playing on the game map for a few minutes; they will gain access to several surreal and wacky weapons such as the Flying Sheep, the Holy Hand Grenade and the extremely powerful Banana Bomb (Figure 37)

Go To Synthesis – Part 11 (Page 49)

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2.12 Research 12 – Games Design Document Layout
The layout of the Games Design Document is the most important aspect of the document itself as a document with a wrong layout would first off not give the reader the most important information of the product first and also could make the document designers of the product look unprofessional. Within the Design Lectures held in the first and second year of the Computer and Video Games Course, Tutor Zuby Ahmed has always shown the correct layout that a Games Design Document should be like, but with some exceptions and also depending on the genre of the game; the set layout of the document would have to be changed. This is the research that was found on the internet: Games Design Document – Layout Research Upon researching document layouts, there have been plenty of amateur level documents released on the internet that show a basic layout of a games design document, but upon further research; there have been professional level design documents released by various Games Designers and Games Companies which show a better example of the document layout; the following are the links to the documents that were discovered upon further research.  Grim Fandango – Puzzle Document. – This is not the full Games Design Document for the game, but part of it which shows the games puzzles. http://www.scribd.com/doc/8350715/Grim-Fandango-Puzzle-Document-Original  Leisure Suit Larry: Series Documents - The creator of the series, Al Lowe as posted several of the series games design documents when he received hundreds of questions about the subject from his website. The site also has additional Games Design Documents for other titles. http://www.allowe.com/gamedesign/index.htm  The Doom Bible – This was the actual games design document that was used to create Doom, while this is a professional document; it doesn’t take itself seriously as it adds jokes into the subtitles and has a special page on the back of the document with all the local Takeaway numbers. Also the document is of an earlier edition of the game when you look at the final product. http://5years.doomworld.com/doombible/

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2.13 Research 13 – Voice over Script Research
Video games use the voiceover scripts for several different purposes within their gameplay, they can be used to narrate the story; tell the player of what is happening within the game at that point and also tell the personal viewpoint of a single playable character within the games plotlines. As with the Games Design Document mentioned before, the way that the scripts of the game are wrote depend on the genre of the game and also what sort of gameplay the game would contain. If it was a first person shooter like Unreal Tournament 2004, it would have voice overs that keep the player informed about what is happening within the match such as the time remaining in the match, how many kills you have left before you win the match and so forth. So here are some examples of games that each uses their voice over scripts in different ways. 2.13.1 World of Warcraft As World of Warcraft belongs to the MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game), it doesn’t have a set storyline for the player to follow which ultimately means that there would be no script. But when the player starts a brand new game with a new character, it does give a brief overview of the species and their starting location via a voice over on the screen. 2.13.2 Unreal Tournament 3 Unlike previous entries to the Unreal Tournament series, Unreal Tournament 3 has a straight forward plot line in its single player campaign. It narrates the plotline of the game and in its multiplayer modes still retains the voice over captions that are needed for the gameplay such as time remaining and other voice over captions like “HEAD SHOT”. 2.13.3 Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots The Metal Gear Solid games have always been known for their long narrative cutscenes and complex storylines which are portrayed in two ways within the game itself. There are the traditional cutscenes shown to the player and also the CODEC conversations with some additional characters in the game; these conversations usually fill in small parts of the information from the plotline that would not been shown in a cutscene and also in some instances give the players’ additional information too. Go To Synthesis – Part 13 (Page 50)

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3.0 Synthesis
3.1 Synthesis 1 - Bugs and Creatures
The research that was initially carried out was mainly going to contain many different species of insects that could be used as a vehicle in some form; but upon reflection that was not necessary because we automatically chose the beetle species to be one of the vehicles within the game. So the revised research mainly focused on the different species of beetles to see which type of beetle would be the best type to model a vehicle on. Also within the research, we looked at some natural abilities that insects have, which could be incorporated within the game as a form of special attribute that the characters have. Once the research was completed, the following insects could be chosen for the insects used within the game. 3.1.1 Beetles Beetles were an obvious choice for a vehicle within the game as their rather larger exterior (With some species of beetles) and also their hardened exterior shells would be some ideal characteristics of a tough vehicle and also because of their size and the smaller size of the playable characters would make it a larger vehicle which could carry multiple players across the level. 3.1.2 Grasshoppers Grasshoppers were not included within the original research. It was going to be included in the game as a quick bug to rival the beetles. The grasshopper would be an ideal species to turn into a vehicle for the game because of their natural flight speed and their lighter bodies which allows them to move quickly around the air and evade enemy attacks, this would be a good idea for a smaller two person vehicle which would be quicker to use than the beetle vehicle would be, but due to their light bodies they would not have as much defensive power compared to the more heavily armoured beetle vehicle. Also looking at some natural abilities that some insects have, here are some powers which could be included within the game to help the player fight their opponents. 3.1.3 Pheromone Tracker Some insects have the ability to sense where other creatures of the same species are in the nearby area which as an ability could be a great USP and game mechanic for a team based shooter like this where you can sense where your allies are at any time, but would have to be limited to your allies and nothing else as this would not provide balance to the gameplay.

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Go To Refinement – Part 1 (Page 51)

3.2 Bugs and Creatures 2
3.2.1 Grasshopper Removal The Grasshopper was removed and replaced with a Wasp. The wasp is easier to implement as it used the same code as the beetle but at a fast speed. However, it did serve the same purpose as the grasshopper was going to fulfil.

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3.2 Synthesis 2 - Flight in Unreal 2004 Engine
In Unreal 2004 there are already some flying vehicles, one of which is called Manta (Figure 38), which is a type of hovercraft. This vehicle already flies and hovers like an insect. Hopefully the code from the Manta can be incorporated with a custom beetle mesh and wing animation to bring the vehicles to life within Bug Company’s custom levels. As for the flying style, it would be in the same style of Air Buccaneers in which one player would fly the vehicle and others can board the vehicle for additional weaponry and backup.

Figure 34 - The promotional art of the Manta Vehicle within UT2004.

Go To Refinement – Part 2 (Page 51)

3.3 Synthesis 3 - Team Mechanics
After researching team-based mechanics that are already part of products in the market, Bug Company would be going to incorporate a few of these gameplay mechanics into a combined effort.    Dropping items for teammates Players are able to jump on vehicles together, one to ride and the others to fire. Capturing nodes will be quickened by the number of teammates in one area. (Figure 39)

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Go To Refinement – Part 3 (Page 51) 3.3.1 Team Mechanics 2 3.3.1.1 Items Items were dropped from the design as time was short and regenerating health seemed to benefit new players. This also meant that players couldn’t share items. 3.3.1.2 Vehicles Players were able to be carried on the beetle as first intended but coding two players to the smaller bee vehicle proved difficult and was dropped from the final release. Players on bees could now defend themselves with a mounted gun.

3.4 Synthesis 4 - Character Design
After looking at inspiration for the characters in Bug Company, some main design points were taken from the following:  Spiderwick Chronicles – The creatures in Spiderwick chronicles wear clothes made from natural resources; leaves, flowers etc. They also have a whole world in which humans don’t realise is right under their nose. Arthur and the Invisibles – Bug Company have taken inspiration from Arthur and the Invisibles, in particular the exaggerated, tiny character design and vibrant, realistic environments. Pans Labyrinth – Pans Labyrinth has inspired the dark creatures and environments in Bug Company. In particular the dirty, dark colours and fantasy elements. The rotting but natural environments are going to influence the dark sides areas. Hellboy 2 – The toothfairy in Hellboy 2 is a mixture of a humanistic, well known fairytale creature that has been morphed with insect body parts to create a more sinister creature. A Bug’s Life – Anthropomorphism has been used to give bugs human like and exaggerated characteristics. The good bugs are vibrant, big eyes and over the top features whereas the evil bugs have a darker colour palette and often have rougher textures or sharper characteristics. Go To Refinement – Part 4 (Page 52)

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3.5 Synthesis 5 – Weapons
After the extensive research that was done for the weapons side of the game, it was finally decided the following weapons catalogue will be created for the game.  Melee – Each player will have one melee weapon which they will be able to choose depending on which class the start the game as. These melee weapons will have no differences apart from the aesthetics. Throwing Projectile – These will be the only personal long range weapons available in ground combat. All players will have the same projectiles. The throwing projectiles will not be very powerful therefore only used to hold back an enemy. Anti Air – There will be various areas in the game where fixed anti air weapons are located. These will often be near nodes that need capturing. The purpose of these is defence; to take down the advancing bugs flying vehicles. The anti air weapons will have a restriction on angle so that players can’t use them against the opposing teams ground troops. Mounted Turrets – Mounted turrets (Figure 40) will be placed on the multi-person flying vehicles in Bug Company. These will be used as an attacking strategy; clearing the enemy from their nodes ready for capture.

Figure 35 – The official concept picture of Bug Company's various mounted turrets created by Lead Artist Emma Hampson.

Go To Refinement – Part 5 (Page 52)

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3.5.1 Weapons 2 Throwing projectile was replaced with a slingshot as a secondary weapon for each character.

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3.6 Synthesis 6 - Game Modes
When looking upon the various game modes that could be used for Bug Company, we looked at the best elements of each and created a band new game mode for the game called Node Capture.      3.6.1 Nodes Each node will give teams a predefined number of points when it has been captured. Once a node is captured, it will give out the predefined number of points every X amount of seconds until the nodes individual timer runs out. When the timer runs out, that node stops giving out points until the game ends or the opposing team takes it over. The nodes closest to a players base will score that team less points than the nodes further into the map. A visual indicator on or near the node will indicate its state, from uncaptured to captured and not giving points. 3.6.2 Scoring To win a game, one team must meet the points limit set at the start of the round or finish with the most points when the round timer runs out. Scoring the points: o Nodes: Players can capture nodes by standing around it without dying. The more players from one team around the node, the quicker it will capture. A predefined set of points will be issued to the nodes capturers every X amount of seconds until that nodes timer has ran out or the node is recaptured by the opposing team. o Kills: Each kill is worth 1 point. This means that players will hopefully concentrate on capturing nodes rather than killing each other.

Go To Refinement – Part 6 (Page 53)

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3.7 Synthesis 7 - Inventory/Weapons Selection
Bug Company will have a Weapon system similar to Unreal Tournament 2004 as we are using the Unreal 2004 engine to create our Mod, similar to other UT2004 mods such as Air Buccaneers, FragOps and Unwheel. All of the weapons that the player has collected or started with will be hotkeyed to the numerical pad of the keyboard, but as we are not having a HUD on the game screen. The name of the weapon could appear on the screen to tell the player what weapon they have. Also the mouse scroll wheel feature of weapons choice will be used in Bug Company. Go To Refinement – Part 7 (Page 53) 3.7.1 Inventory / Weapons Selection Items were dropped from Bug Company when we added regenerating health as a design choice. Weapon selection stayed as mouse scroll and number keys. Go to Refinement – Part 7 (Page ??)

3.8 Synthesis 8 - Protagonist and Antagonist Names
Bug Company will tell the tale of two tribes of mythical creatures known as the Imago and the Tagma. The Imago wants nothing more than to bring peace and love to the rest of their world while the Tagma wants nothing than destroying it. The influences for the names of these races are both names after various forms of evolution from an insect’s lifespan, Imago: Adulthood for an insect and Tagma: Skeleton fusion and rare deformation in certain insects. Go To Refinement – Part 8 (Page 53)

3.9 Synthesis 9 - Player Movement and Character Speed
All of the characters within Bug Company will move and act in the same way due to the limitations of the Unreal Tournament 2004 engine, but to make the gameplay more suited to the multiplayer gameplay of our mods; there will be a movement impairment weapon which will stop the player right in their tracks for a few seconds. Go To Refinement – Part 9 (Page 53)

3.10 Synthesis 10 - Character Classes
Within Bug Company, there will be five player classes for the player to choose from attacking classes, defensive classes and Back-Up Classes. The following classes will be available for the player to choose from:-

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3.10.1 Anti Vehicle Class This class will mainly deal with the disposal of their opponent’s vehicles and have several anti vehicle weapons already in their arsenal. But they lack any defensive weapons so would have to be backed up by an additional player when disposing of vehicles. 3.10.2 Medic Class This class will mainly distribute health to players by using a special weapon that grants health to players instead of having to pick up health packs on the battlefield. 3.10.3 Anti-Medic Class As like the Medic class, this class will do the polar opposite and take health away from their enemies using a special health draining weapon. 3.10.4 All Rounder Class The main foot-soldier class of the game, these players will be doing the fighting on the battlefield with their extended arsenal; also as all characters have regenerative health, the health of the All Rounder will recover quicker than any of the other characters. 3.10.5 Powerhouse Class This is the most powerful class in the game with their impressive arsenal of weapons which deal more damage from the start of the match to opposing players, but will have less health to begin with at the start of the match. Go To Refinement – Part 10 (Page 54) 3.10.1.1 Character Classes 2 Character Classes was cut down to 3 classes due to time constraints. Changes to classes were now dependant on weapons instead of a combination of weapons and attributes such as speed and agility. 3.10.1.1.1 Berry Bugs The Berry Bugs start with the heavy weapon, the Berry Launcher, previously known as the Tank Gun. 3.10.1.1.2 Push Troopers Push Troopers start with the Pusher. 3.10.1.1.3 Sting Soldiers Sting Soldiers start with the Stinger, previously known as the DOT Gun.

3.11 Synthesis 11 - Weapons Naming
In Bug Company, the weapons are named after their primary function like many of the weapons in Unreal Tournament 2004, for example one weapon will simply be called the movement impairment gun. Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 55

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Go To Refinement – Part 11 (Page 54) 3.11.1 Weapon Naming 2 The practical weapon naming conventions were uninspired and were changed last minute to something that was fun, but fitted into the Bug Company world, the Stinger and Berry Launcher for example.

3.12 Synthesis 12 - Games Design Document Layout
The layout of the Game Design Document would stay the same as Tutor Zuby Ahmed has shown within the design lectures of Year 1 and Year 2 as most of the documents that were researched have the same basic layout of this document, but depending on the developers and the author of the document itself this layout could change. Go To Refinement – Part 12 (Page 54)

3.13 Synthesis 13 – Voice over Scripts Layout
As Bug Company does not have any Single Player Campaign, the creation of a voice over script for the cutscenes is not necessary; but introduction cutscenes for the individual teams (The Imago and the Tagma) and a general introduction to the game could be created to give the player a general brief of the storyline which will be important for the player to understand what the events of the game. Go To Refinement – Part 13 (Page 54)

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4.0 Refinement
4.1 Refinement 1 – Chosen Insects and Insect Powers
For the final choice of insects included within the game; we stuck with the beetle as we decided that it would be a good vehicle model from the beginning of the project. But originally; within the synthesis section of the process of design; the game was going to include a grasshopper based vehicle to give the game more balance and the ability for games with fewer player to still be played with these two person vehicles. But instead of the Grasshopper as the model for the vehicle; it was decided that it would be changed to a Bee/Wasp. The reason for this that we felt that a Bee is a naturally quicker insect compared to the Grasshopper and some species of Grasshopper do not have the ability to fly unlike the bee/wasp species which have to fly most of the time when gathering nectar for their hive to create honey. Also the choice of including a sort of Pheromone Tracking mechanic to track where your team mates are on the battlefield has been kept in as it has been included as one of the games core mechanics, core USPs and necessary to find your teammates as there would be no visually HUD on the screen for the character to view as within normal mods of the Unreal 2004 engine. 4.1.1 Insects Refinement 2 Grasshoppers had to be dropped from the game as they were hard to implement the jumping mechanic. These were replaced by a bee. Go to Synthesis Insects 2 (Page 45)

4.2 Refinement 2 - Flight within Unreal Tournament 2004 Mods
Upon researching the different flight examples that have been created within the Unreal Tournament 2004 engine, the flight mechanics of both vehicles would obviously be different because both vehicles have different attributes (The Beetle vehicle is larger than the Bee, but the bee would be quicker) So to resolve this problem, the flight mechanics from both the vehicles were used from previous vehicles already created for the Unreal Tournament 2004 game modes, so the bee/wasp vehicle would fly like a Manta vehicle already mentioned within the document, but the larger beetle vehicle would be controlled like the Goliaths tank featured within the game modes of the game. This vehicle has more armour than the Bee vehicle, but has a slower turning circle and is harder to control in the air. Also when testing the vehicle in a beta build of the game, it was found that the vehicle was too large for the level and was easily destroyed when coming into contact with the rest of the level, so that was the only point which had to be changed about the vehicles.

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4.3 Refinement 3 – Final Choice of Team Based Mechanics
As the team based mechanics are one of the most important mechanics of the game, it was one of the first items that was developed and refined for the game. Items were dropped from the design as regenerating health was thought as more accessible for a new audience. Therefore, item swapping was not incorporated in the final design. Coding two players on one bee vehicle was proving difficult and was also dropped from the final game. Go to Synthesis 3 – Team Mechanics (page 46)

4.4 Refinement 4 – Final Character Design
Originally, both the main protagonists and antagonists of the game were going to be one form of bug species to keep within the theme of the game; but that was later changed to a form of mythical creature as mentioned within Research – Part 4 section of the document. The final character designs are mainly based of the elf or druid type of mythical creature as they have the elongated ears which usually identify the creature as an elf or druid; as there are two different groups for the game; the Imago (Figure 41) and the Tagma. These characters will both look the same of their inspiration; but will both look slightly different than each other so that the players can establish what players are playing as what characters at any time.

4.5 Refinement 5 – Final Weapons Selection
The weapons research has been one of the larger parts of research for the project as the Unreal Tournament 2004 game contains a large arsenal of weapons ranging from the simple assault rifle to the more powerful rocket launcher and Redeemer nuclear rocket. Within the syntheses part of the document for this section; it stated that our weapons catalogue would contain Melee weapons and Throwing Projectiles; but upon the development cycle of the game this provided impossible to complete within the selected time frame; so ultimately was taken away from the final arsenal. The anti air weapons and also the movable turrets will still be included within the selection to keep the balance of the gameplay fair to the players. 4.5.1 Weapons Refinement 2 Melee weapons were dropped as time limited the team from animation. Throwing projectiles were also dropped for much the same reason but were replaced with a slingshot. Go to Weapons Synthesis 2 (Page 48)

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4.6 Refinement 6 – Final Game Mode Selection
One of the main selling points for the game is that it features a brand new gameplay mode for the Unreal 2004 engine called “Node Capture”, this mode has been created from selecting certain features from current game modes and creating a mode which the unique insect vehicles can be used to full effect. At this point in development; changing the game mode when nearly all of the game has been created around this single game mode is an unlikely mode because this would cause the development of the game to halt and the final product not to be completed and released on time which will be a problem for the company.#

4.7 Refinement 7 – Final Choice of Character Inventory/Weapons Selection System
As the game is created within the Unreal Tournament 2004 engine, changing the weapons and item selection system would be a difficult task which would take up more development time which could be used on another part of the project; so the weapons and character inventory system will be kept the same to keep the development of the game as simple as possible.

4.8 Refinement 8 – Final Choice of Protagonist/Antagonist Names
Upon researching the various names that could be used; it was decided to keep to the bug and insect theme of the game and name these characters after something which is also insect related. So the final choice was kept the same which was Imago for the protagonist characters and the Tagma for the antagonist characters as the names given to the characters both describe in some form what the characters personalities are like beyond the main plotline of the game.

4.9 Refinement 9 – Final choice of Various Character Speeds
The initial plan for the game was to include several different player classes that the player can choose from; taking this into consideration each player class would each have different speeds in which the playable character move across the game level; unfortunately the inclusion of the various playable character classes had to be scraped because there was not enough time to develop this feature in the time frame for development; so untimely each playable character will have the same speed and movement patters that the original characters from the Unreal Tournament 2004 levels would have had originally. Also it was found that making each class have their own speed unlike the normal coding of the Unreal 2004 engine in which each player no matter what their species is have the same movement mechanics would be extremely complicated and could result us in going over our allotted timeframe for development which is something we needed to miss

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4.10 Refinement 10 – Final Character Classes Selection
As mentioned above; the inclusion of the character classes within the game had to be scrapped due to less development time to develop the idea further. Originally there was going to be five character classes which is the sort of gameplay layout from the game Team Fortress 2 with each individual character class bringing their own special skills to the gameplay. Upon the beta phase of the game, this was cut down to three character classes due to the development time left to complete the game and finally the idea was scrapped altogether. 4.10.1 Classes Refinement 2 Classes had to be cut down to 3 due to time constraints. Classes were now based on weapons rather than a set of skills or attributes. Go to Classes Synthesis 2 (Page 51)

4.11 Refinement 11 – Final Names of Weapons
The names of the weapons was one of the lesser important sides of the project as they were just called after their actions within the game (Movement Impairment Gun) The weapons were going to have their naming after some relevance within the Bug Company world; for example a web spraying gun called the Webber and a melee weapon called the Leafer; but it became another factor that took effect when the development time for the game took longer than I expected.

4.12 Refinement 12 – Final Games Design Document Layout
The Games Design Document of the game has been one side of the project that has always been constantly updated due to mechanics of the game changing and whole sections of the game that were originally planned being scrapped altogether. Overall there have been 13 versions of the games design document and 12 versions of the Appendices One: Process of Design Document for the game which is what Lead Document Writer Louie Mitchell and Assistant Writer Luke Bale’s main task. The main layout of the document has remained the same throughout the project; with a few exceptions of moving certain parts of the document further to the front of the document to put them in some sort of relevance to the game and also to make it easier for the reader to read also. In a later version; one vital piece of information that was missing for the document was the presence of a game flow diagram which was put in within version 6.0. Due to the ever-changing layout of the game; the document has also had ever-changing contents with some certain information and entire parts of the document being constantly updated.

4.13 Refinement 13 – Final Voice over Script Choice
The voice over script was originally going to be in the style of the MMORPG Game World of Warcraft; as when the player starts using a new character; a small cinematic cut scene will play to tell the Back-story of the character’s species and give a brief overview where the Bug Company© Property Of Powerhouse Games Page 60

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player is within the game world. The cut scenes within Bug Company would have been the same but due to development has to be taken out of the final version of the game

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5.0 Appendices One - Document Figure List
Figure Number Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Description Lampris Picture Bee Colony Description Source www.nationalinsectweek.com
http://bees.ucr.edu/images/dancediagram.gif

Gerridae Picture Female Stag Beetle Picture Male Stag Beetle Picture Devils Coach Horse Picture Male Click Beetle Picture Female Oil Beetle Picture Titanus Gigantean Picture Hercules Beetle In Wild Picture Group Glow Worms Picture Air Buccaneers – Online Match Screenshot Legend of The Ormr Screenshot Dragonfly (Game) Screenshot Unreal Demolition Gameplay Screenshot Prince of Persia (2009 Remake) – Gameplay Screenshot Army of Two Screenshot. Artist Impression of Kobold

www.RedOrbit.com http://www.insectidenfication.org www.3.bp.blogspot.com www.nationalinsectweek.com www.palaeo.bris.ac.uk www.glenloylodge.co.uk www.softpedia.com/news www.wlrs.us

Figure 11 Figure 12

www.sallyd.wordpress.com www.utzone.de

Figure 13

www.charlshallworth.co.uk

Figure 14

www.gamesetwatch.co.uk

Figure 15

www.unrealdemoltion.net

Figure 16

www.game-hub.co.uk

Figure 17 Figure 18

www.ign.com www.dicemonkey.files.worldpress.com Page 62

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Figure 19 Figure 20 The Egyptian God Bes Artist Impression of the Abatwa Fan Image of an Amanojaku Fan Created Image of Wood Druid Fan Created Image of the Hotosume Replica Japanese Kitana Replica of a Seax Traditional Tomahawk Picture Picture of Wooden Boomerang Bolas Weapon – Instructional Picture Replica Trident Picture www.s193.phtotbucket.com www.farm4.static.flikr.com

Figure 21

www.mouryou.ifdef.jp

Figure 22

www.images.epliog.net

Figure 23

www.upload.wikimedia.com

Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26

www.bjorn.foxtail.nu www.powning.org www.geocities.com

Figure 27

www.orbiting-art.com

Figure 28

www.the-ultralight-site.com

Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31

http://www.webprojects.prm.ox.ac.uk

Bagh Naka Picture UT2004 Onslaught Match Screenshot UT2004 Bombing Run Match System Shock 2 Inventory System Resident Evil 4 Inventory Team Fortress 2 - Pyro Class Concept Art Call Of Duty 4: Modern Warfare – Class Screenshot

www.upload.wikipedia.org www.atpm.com

Figure 32

www.freewebs.com/gamershots/ut2004

Figure 33

www.upload.wikimedia.org

Figure 34 Figure 35

www.a248.e.akimai.net www.4.bp.blogspot.com

Figure 36

www.cbwgaming.com

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Figure 37 Worms Armageddon – Weapons Screenshot UT2004 – Manta Vehicle Concept art Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare – Teamwork Screenshot Mounted Turrets – Concept Picture Imago Tribe Concept Picture www.cbfreewebs.com/tfw3d

Figure 38

www.esales.macshop.com

Figure 39

www.cbwgaming.com

Figure 40

Emma Hampson

Figure 41

Emma Hampson

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