This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
economy grew, the Government replaced the old fragmented system of electrical power generation (provided by numerous small companies) with SCECOs – Saudi Consolidated Electricity Companies – each providing electricity for a whole region of the Kingdom. The first SCECO (SCECO-East) was created in 1977, with a capital of SR 5 billion. This was followed in 1979 by SCECOSouth, with a capital of SR 4 billion, serving more than 1,447 cities and villages and SCECO-Central, with a capital of SR 8 billion, serving more than 600 cities and villages, including Riyadh. Electricity for the southwest of the Kingdom was provided by SCECO-West, established in 1982, with a capital of SR 8 billion. To improve and strengthen the power industry, in 1998, the Council of Ministers issued Resolution Number 169 for the restructuring of the electricity sector, aiming to reform its finances and increase the participation of the private sector in its ownership, management and energy conservation. The resolution stipulated the following: • Establishment of a joint stock company for electricity to be called the Saudi Electric Company (SEC). • Merging all the local electricity utility companies, as well as the electricity facilities owned by the General Electricity Corporation into the Saudi Electric Company. • Creation of an independent agency during the first year of the company’s establishment to review periodically the costs and tariffs of the electricity service according to defined principles. • Liquidation of the General Electricity Corporation. A ministerial committee would undertake the development and
announcing the establishment of the Saudi Electric Company.825 1. the current fed from this generator is limited only by its own impedance B. the Minister of Commerce issued Resolution Number 2047.690 216 1989 61. Generators Generators are driven by turbines.624 105. The magnitude of that current is limited only by the impedance of the generator and the circuit impedance between the generator and the fault location.612 3. For a short circuit at the terminals of a generator. diesel engines. while preserving the full rights of its staff.372 SYSTEM MODELING AND REQUIREMENTS A. Synchronous Motors 2 . Statistics on electricity generation between 1970 and 1999 Subject Power generated (million KwH) Power sold (million KwH) Number of subscribers (thousands) 1970 1. or other types of generators.201 2.568 55.259 1999 114.execution of the liquidation plan. When a short circuit occurs. the generator continues to produce voltage because the field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives he generators at normal speed. including the settlement of its liabilities. The generated voltage produces a short circuit current of large magnitude that flows from the generators to the sort circuit. In 2000. water wheel.
C current and a stator winding fed from an A. However. the voltage of the system is reduced to a very low value. outrsuch. the flux in the rotor can not change instantly. The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the stator winding. Then the stored energy in the rotating parts drives the induction motor and a voltage is produced in the stator windings. Capacitors and Transformers The discharge. the motor stops delivering energy to the mechanical load and starts slowing down. This causes a current to flow to the shorts circuit until the rotors flux decays to zero. the inertia of the load and the motors rotor continue driving the synchronous motor C. the shorts circuit current decays in a few cycles. 3 . Induction Motors The inertia of the load and the rotors of an induction motor has the same effect on an induction motors as on a synchronous motor.A synchronous motor is constructed much like a generator/ it has a field winding excited by a D. Consequently. the flux last long enough to produce a current which contributes to the total short circuit current. which is the induction motor has no D/C field winding. During a short circuit. current from power capacitors to a system fault of high frequency with a very shorts time constant (RC). there is a major difference.C source. Since there is not sustained filed current. If the external source is suddenly removed. D. However. However. when a short circuit occurs. The rotors flux remains normal as long as the voltage is applied to the stator from and external source.
Planning And Design In general. the contribution of power capacitors to system faults can be neglected. 4 . Transmission Plan The transmission network is designed to cater for the basic reliability requirement of single contingent outage of network elements. Transformers are not sources producing short circuit current. which includes voltage. the process of the planning and design of transmission lines consists of the following five phases. E. Although the transformers connection greatly affects the ground faults. transformers are never short circuit sources but merely receive and deliver the short circuit current from one side to the other.Thereof. The outline is determined for each transmission line planned. • Planning: The master guidelines of route constructions are settled based on the long-range power supply plan. starting and ending substations. ii) Economics of scales in purchasing. iii) Simplicity in design and operations F. The design of the transmission equipment and cable are standardized. This has the following advantages: i) Minimum inventory costs for spare parts. number of lines. The high reliability is maintained by using proven equipment and the continual monitoring and remote control of the network from the Power System Control Centre (PSCC).
the following representation will be limited to the most frequent ones used in the SEC power system 5 . • Detailed Route: A photogram metric surveying is performed along the basic route. which includes the determination of tower type. tower height and supporting devices. • Route for Implementation: In this phase. All this is done using a medium scale top sheet. the detailed field surveying is performed along the determined route. MODELING OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS A. local communities and regulations in the area of interest etc. technical issues and cost of construction. Based on the results.000) . And engineering design process follows. is collected in this phase and several alternative routes are compared in terms of environmental impact. wires and basement of towers are designed. the detailed position of each tower is determined in the large scale (1:2. Transformers Despite the plenty of transformer connection. Rotating Machines Every rotating machine is represented by its respective saturated direct-axis subtransient reactance which determines the magnitudes of the fault current in the first few cycles. • Basic Route: Basic route is determined by the position of each tower along the proposed routes and interference of radio wave caused by the transmission line is estimated. geological features. and the cost estimation. B. The towers.• Survey: Information about natural environment.
One of the most important differences is that the transmission lines of Al-Senaeyah are underground while the Aramco’s projects use overhead transmission lines. The first one is for Al-Senaeyah. Positive sequence shunt admittance is usually neglected. it is a well known fact that Aramco demands special requirements for its different part and many sites and locations and facilities. these transformers are connected as Y-grounded / Y-grounded in addition to a Delta tertiary winding. it is difficult to mention all of them. The impedances of the primary (p). C. Moreover.Two-winding transformers: the two winding transformers are modeled in the positive. In SEC. During the cope period. these two cases have been chosen. secondary (S). Because of that. The second one is for Aramco. negative and zero sequence networks Three-winding Transformers: three winding transformers are usually used for there bulk transmission level. TWO STUDY CAUSES There are many cases for the process of planning for transmissions lines. Al-Senaeyah 6 . Transmission Lines And Loads Transmission lines (both overhead lines and underground cables) are modeled by their series sequence impedance. I have chosen two cases that show the this process fully. A. Static load are also neglected since they do not represents as sources and hence do not contributes to the fault current. There are many differences between the two areas and because of these differences. and tertiary (t) winding are related to each others. These two cases are discussed in the following pages.
the engineering and design works must be carried out by an engineering and design firm which has registration to carryout engineering and design works in the Kingdome of Saudi Arabia. The engineering design and specifications of equipment/materials supplied must be in accordance with the scope and purpose of the project and the technical specifications. 3. The proposed engineering and design firm must also be from Saudi Electricity Company acceptable list of engineering Design firm or must get pre-qualified. The first one is the systems requirement. All components and accessories required for the completion and successful operations of the project must be available before starting the project in order to cope with the schedule and budget of the project. This part is divided into three sections in order to discuss the process from different angles. The base design shall be finalized at base design review-meeting based on the guideline drawings issued hereof manufacturer’s drawings.The first case is for establishing underground transmission lines for Al-Senaeyah. 2. 1. In this part. System Requirements There are many type of requirements that must be available for completing the ground transmutation lines for Al-Senaeyah. these requirements are presented and discussed. 4. calculations and data sheets and detailed design must be finalized based on the base design review and other required information. 7 . The second one is the planning process and finally the third one is the objectives and output of the project.
Description of work b. fault current withstand capability and grounding e. Special considerations including design. 3. The purpose of the base design phase is to completely define the project in enough details in which all requirements are being incorporated. job phase and quantities of like items. sheath voltage rise and the selection of Sheath voltage limitations (SVL) f. Calculation for cable metallic sheath.5. Calculation for sheath standing voltage. d. a Kick-off meeting must be held for covering issues such as project implementations. scope of the work and schedule. Structure calculation for duct banks on road crossings. Testing and commissioning procedures d. Design calculations which include: a. Calculation of power cables sequence impedance. f. construction operation constraints. This listing is to be broken down by location. 8 . Design basis and data c. The design phase will include: 1. problems areas and proposed solutions. List of items of all equipment/facilities to be installed and description of all work to be accomplished. Major materials purchases requisitions 4. Electrical interference study in case the power cable parallels the communications circuits c. Maintenance aspects e. 2. Detailed project schedule and critical path. detailed cable Ampacity calculations b. Narrative scope of work which include a. Information developed during the design should be used as a guide throughout the project. Planning Process The base design phase of the project is 10-12 weeks period of primary engineering following the kick-off meeting.
Soil investigation report for thermal and electrical receptivity measurement along the whole cable route. Lin box 9 . cable metallic sheath grounding arrangement and details i. cable termination arrangement plan sections and details h. 69kV power cable b. The drawing from this phase must include: a. connections and detail j. 96kV power and fiber optic cables routing plant and profile g. type test report and completed data schedules) of the following equipment: a. Non-Metallic fiber optic cable d. Grounding cables c. details of trenches duct banks and hand holes m. Interface diagram with 69kV switchgear at DIE1A. Plot plan d. Cable pulling tension and sidewall pressure calculations 5. Non-metallic fiber optic system one line diagram f. DIE1Bm DIE1C and 2A substations. Detailed explanation for adopting the major/minor sections arrangement of the cross bonding h. Symbol and legends c. Cable supports g. Abbreviations. link box location. foundation details for 69kv cable box and other support structures l. Drawing control sheet b. elevations and details k. Non-Metallic fiber optic cable accessories e. Bonding of trenches duct banks and hand holes n. Sheath voltage limiter h. bonding method and grounding arrangement details o. Manufacturing’s technical specifications (literature. 96kV power and opticak fiber cable routing sections. 6. 69kV underground system one line diagram e.g. drawings. 69kV cable termination/Splice Kits f. catalog. 7.
single mode.Wire mesh n. Site security plan 12. Al-Senaeyah BSP – DIE Sub # 1B Provide and install approximately 1. Link Box Barricade Arrangement k. 2.8 km 24 cores. Cable warning post o. Cable Warning Tape l. QA/QC plan Objectives And Output There are five types of underground transmission lines for the project of Senaeyah. Al-Senaeyah BSP – DIE Sub # 1C Provide and install approximately 1. Cable title cover q.i. Type test reports for major equipment/materials 9. Cable titles m.8 km 24 cores. Power cable clamps s. Job safety plan 11. These four lines are as the following: 1. Duct sealing units p. non-metallic underground fiber cable along with the 69kV cable in PVC duct/sub ducts from Al-Senaeyah BSP up to the hand hole HH#A opposite to DIE Sub#1B. non-metallic underground fiber cable along with the 69kV cable in PVC duct/sub ducts from Al-Senaeyah BSP to DIE Sub#1B. Factory and site test program 10. Link Box foundations j. PVC conduits and fittings r. 10 . Material related to fiber optic cables 8. single mode. Fire proofing material to protect the cable in cable basement t.
non-metallic underground fiber cable along in PVC duct/sub ducts between DIE Sub#1A and DIE Sub#iB. This part is divided into three sections in order to discuss the process from different angles. The first one is the systems requirement.0 km 24 cores. 11 . DIE Sub#1B to DIE # 1A Provide and install approximately 1. ARAMCO The second case is for establishing overhead transmission lines for Aramco. Al-Senaeyah BSP –DIE Sub# 2A Provide and install approximately 1.Utilize 25mmФ sub duct available in duct bank system from hand hole HH#A up to control room to route the underground fiber optic cable at DIE Sub #1B. single mode. B. 3. Utilize spare 25mmФ sub duct available in duct bank system between DIE Sub # 1A and DIE Sub # 1B to route the underground fiber optic cable. non-metallic underground fiber cable along with 69kV cables in PVC duct/sub ducts from Al-Senaeyah BSP to DIE Sub #2A Spare conduits/subducts available from existing handhole # HH-13 up to 69kV basement will be utilized to route the fiber optic cable inside DIE 2A substation. The second one is the planning process and finally the third one is the objectives and output of the project. 4. single mode.3 km 24 cores.
calculation data sheet and others. 12 . 2. there were many types of requirements that must be used in order to make the process a success. if there is a conflict between the two types of standards. these requirements are presented and discussed. First of all. Moreover. procurement. fabrication and erection of the 230kV and 115kV steel structures 6. The detailed design must be finalized through design conference based on guideline drawings issued hereof. testing storage and handling of required materials 7. The project includes many things such as: 1. However. then a meeting must be held to discuss the best solution. all components. In this part. In addition. materials specifications and installation of materials supplies under the project are in accordance with the SOW/TS and Aramco’s standards. inspection. Mobilization Soil investigation and analysis Line route survey checks and structures staking structure spotting Design. Construction of access roads. materials and required work for the satisfactory completion of the project and other accessories covered under the succeeding scope of the project are supplied and installed according to the planning phase. finger roads and structure pads. 5. manufacturer’s drawings. the material specifications specified herein are to be considered as the minimum requirements and the bidders shall carry their own basic detailed designs necessary for their proposal specification.System Requirements During the planning of the transmission line for Aramco. Supply. 4. Transportation and delivery of all materials to the work site 8. the engineering design. 3.
4.6 km of 320kV O/H T/L looping in and out of the proposed Juaymah 230/115k BBSP. 11. 13 .9. The project that has been made for Aramco involves the construction of the following overhead transmission lines: 1. Installation of conductors.5 TOL km of 115kV D/C T/L using 1-795 kcmil ACSR/AW “Darke” conductor per phase. fabrication and installation of steel bayonet along the existing wood frame structures. OPGW. 10. spacer dampers. using 2-795 of kcmil ACSR/AW “Dark” conductors per phase. One of the existing circuits (circuit A) of the 230kV Ghazlan-Ras Tanura D/C O/H T/L will be cut and loop in and out of the new Juaymah 230/1150kV BSP. The proposed overhead transmission line shall be connected to the exiting 3 overhead transmission lines to provide three circuit connections from the proposed 230/115kV BSP to Juaymah Sub . vibration dampers. testing and construction’s grounding system. Approximately . Design. 13. Design. Demobilization and clean up. Approximately 7.5 kilometers (total o two lines) of 115kV D/C O/H T/L s/CSIN TOL double circuit steel strcuutres of 1-795 kcmil ACSR/AW “Darke” conductor per phase. OGW. 12. Approximately .50. from the new Huaymah 230/115kV BSP up to the Qatif GOSP-1. joint boxes and associated hardware and accessories. Approximately 3. 2. 3. Testing and commissioning 14. Reinstatement of damage concrete asphalt due to construction activates.0 km of 115kV O/H on double circuit steel structures using 1-795 kcmil ACSR/AW “Darke” conductor per phase from the new Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Abu Sa’fa Transition Area.
6. The proposed O/H T/L shal be connected to the existing 115kV Juaymah to Qatif Booster Substation o/H t?l.Juaymah 230/115kV BSP-Juaymah Sub 50 c 3. The purpose of the project base design work is to completely define the project in sufficient detail.Design drawings.Juaymah 230/115Kv BSP-GOSP-1 2. O/H T/L Ghazlan-Ras Tanura Sub. approximately 1. Planning Process The basic design phase of the project is a 10 to 12 week period of preliminary engineering. 80).0 kilometers of 115kV D/C O/H T/L on double circuit steel srtcuutres using 2-336. Information developed under the base design shall be used as guide throughout the project. Approximately 1. Modification of existing 230kV Ghazlan-Ras Tanura 230kV O/H T/L near Ghazlan Power Plant. the project also includes the retrofitting of existing conventional overhead ground wire and OPGW (230kV. design calculations and other documents 14 .4 kcmil ACSR/AW “Oriole” conductors per phase. The existing 230kV O/H T/L shall be diverted and reconnected to the new gantry positions inside Ghazlan Power Plant Switchyard. to satisfy the company that all requirements are understood and are being incorporated. using 2-795 kcmil ACSR/AW “Drake” conductor per phase. installation of OPGW on the following proposed O/H T/L 1. installation o OGW and steel bayonet.Major material purchase requirement 2. In addition to that.5.Qatif Booster of Qatif GOSP-2 and installation of U/G NFOC.0 km long. The base design package will include: 1.
1.Site project plans. The grounding of the anchor structure will be connected to the grounding grid of the substation.Site-pre-commissioning and commissioning tests and plan 7.Loss prevention program 5. B.Schedule of required outages 8. Construction of approximately 7.Site security plan 6. 115kV Overhead Transmission line from New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Sa’fa Substation. The conductor OPGW and OGW will be terminated at the proposed gantries at both ends. The last O/H T/L structure before the gantry structure will be anchor type structure. 3- Objectives And Output There are five types of overhead transmission line work that have been done for Aramco.Manufacturer’s literature. drawings and completed material data schedules. 115kV Overhead Transmission line from New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Qatif GOSP: 1. 2. Construction of approximately 3. brochures. specifications. These five lines are as the following: A.0 km of 115kV single circuit overhead transmission line on double circuit steel monopole structure using one 795 kcmil “Darke” 26/7 ACSR/AW conductor 15 . 4.8 km of 115kV double circuit overhead transmission line on double circuit steel monopole structure using 1-795 kcmil “Darke” 26/7 ACSR/AW conductor per phase with 1-24 core OPGW conventional overhead ground wire (24kA fault current capacity at 0.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature) from New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Saudi Aramco Qatif GOSP-1.
per phase with two conventional overhead ground wire (24kA fault current capacity at 0. The grounding of the anchor structure will be connected to the grounding grid of the substation. D. 2. 2. Line-2 should be one circuits and one circuit position (right side facing New Juaymah 230/1115kV BSP) should remain vacant.80 km of 115kV double circuit steel monopole overhead transmission lines using 1-795 kcmil “Darke” 26/7 ACSR/AW conductor per phase.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature). The last O/H T/L structure before the gantry structure will be anchor type structure. Line-1 should be two circuits with 1-24 core OPGW (24kA fault current capacity at 0.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature) and one conventional overhead ground wire (24kA fault current capacity at 0. C. The last O/H T/L structure before the gantry structure will be anchor type structure up to the gantry for shielding purposes. Two conventional overhead ground wire (24kA fault current capacity at 0. 115kV Overhead Transmission line from New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Juaymah Substation 50: 1. One circuit position which s the left side acing New Juayamh 230/115kV BSP must remain vacant. 230kV Overhead Transmission Line Looping in and out of New Juaymah 230/115/kV BSP from Ghazlan Power Plant and Ras Tanura Substation 80. The conductor OPGW and OGW will be terminated at the proposed gantries at both ends.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature). Construction of approximately two 0.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature) from New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to Abu Sa’fa. 16 .
2. The grounding of the anchor structure will be connected to the grounding grid of the substation. Construction of approximately 1. 80 230kV overhead transmission line is used.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature).30 sec at 50 C initial temperature) and one conventional overhead ground wire (24kA fault current capacity at 0. 17 . E. Cutline circuit “B” between structure #32 and #33 of the existing Ghazaln Power Plant-ras Tanura Sub. 80.30 sec at 50 C initial temperature) from the existing steel monopole structure up to Saudi Aramco Qatif GOSP-2.1.0 km of 115kV double circuit overhead transmission line on double circuit steel monopole structure using two 336. The last O/H T/L structure before the gantry structure will be anchor type structure. The last O/H T/L structure before the gantry structure will be anchor type structure. 2.60 km with two 795 kcmil :Darke: 26/7 ACSR/AW conductor per phase and 2-24 core OPGW (24kA fault current capacity at 0. This Circuit is diverted to the New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP to loop in and out of the New Juaymah 230/115kV BSP using steel monopole structure approximately . The conductors. The grounding of the anchor structure will be connected to the grounding grid of the substation. OPGW and OGW will be terminated at the proposed gantry at Qatif GOSP-2 Substation.4 kcmil “Oriole” 30/7 ACSR/AW conductor per phase with one core OPGW (24kA fault current capacity at 0. 115kV Overhead Tramission Line From Juyamh Power PlantQatif GOSP-2: 1. This diversion will creat new circuit connection from Ghazlan Power Plant to New Juyamh 230/115kV BSP and New Juyamh 230/115kV BSP to Ras Tanura Sub.
CONCLUSION In this report. there are many important aspects about power transmission planning that have been discussed. Finally. This is followed by discussing system modeling and requirements. 18 . And then. the report discusses two cases about power transmission planning. The report mentioned the need for electricity for many different areas. These two cases are about Al-Senaeyah and Aramco. it discusses the modeling of power system components.
sec.REFERENCES www.com 19 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.