Enforcement for Pedestrian & Bicycle Safety

Spring 2010 Greater New O l G t N Orleans P d t i & Bi l P Pedestrian Bicycle Program
State Project No. 737-66-0762 & 737-99-0929

Greater New Orleans Pedestrian & Bicycle Program A Project of the Regional Planning Commission and Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development State Project No. 737-66-0762 & 737-99-0929

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Special thanks to all for their hard work to create this state of the art manual and course for Louisiana law enforcement officers and the pedestrians and bicyclists that they are sworn to protect and serve. Dan Magri Highway Safety Administrator Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Office of Planning & Programming Brian Parsons Bicycle & Pedestrian Coordinator Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Office of Planning & Programming Col. Jim Champagne Executive Director Louisiana Highway Safety Commission Bob Thompson Assistant Director Louisiana Highway Safety Commission Walter Brooks Executive Director Regional Planning Commission Dan Jatres Pedestrian & Bicycle Programs Regional Planning Commission Lt. Stanley Cosper Tulane University Police Department The Chiefs and Officers of: Covington Police Department Gretna Police Department Kenner Police Department New Orleans Police Department, 1st District Peter Flucke WE BIKE etc Larry Corsi Bicycle/Pedestrian Safety Program Manager Wisconsin Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Safety

The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LA DOTD), the Regional Planning Commission for Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, and St. Tammany Parishes (RPC) and the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission (HSC) provided funding to develop the course and create this manual. Created and piloted in 2007 by Peter Flucke of WE BIKE, etc. for the New Orleans Regional Planning Commission to provide specific and quality instruction on enforcement strategies to reduce the number and severity of Louisiana pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. This course and manual are based on the Wisconsin Pedestrian and Bicycle Law Enforcement Training Course and Manual developed by Peter Flucke of WE BIKE, etc. for the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) (2006). Thanks to WisDOT and WE BIKE, etc. for allowing their course and manual to be used as a template for this course and manual. The two-day course carries 16 in-service hour credits through the Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Criminal Justice. Contact the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Planning & Programming or the Regional Planning Commission if your agency or law enforcement educational program, DA‘s office or others in the judicial system are interested in hosting a class or in attending one.

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As the people of Louisiana work to rebuild their communities better than those of the past and ready to face the opportunities and challenges of the 21st Century, a common theme emerges; quality of life. Setting a high standard and raising the quality of life is the key to creating and sustaining a vibrant future for Louisiana‘s citizens. Walking and bicycling, two of the most basic forms of transportation, serve as a foundation on which ―livable‖ communities are built. A community that creates an environment favorable to walking and bicycling is a community that brings about a rebirth for its citizens. By bringing people out of their cars and onto the street, a sense of community is reestablished. Residents reconnect with each other, neighborhood small businesses witness increased economic activity, crime decreases and residents engage in a healthier lifestyle. A community that is pedestrian and bicycle friendly inherently becomes a livable community that attracts residents and businesses. The Enforcement for Pedestrian & Bicycle Safety training aims to promote this idea of a livable community. Law enforcement officers work to make Louisianans safe, whether at home, work, school and everywhere in between. This training provides law enforcement with the knowledge and methods to successfully address pedestrian and bicycle safety concerns. Only law enforcement can protect the public against people whose careless and irresponsible decisions on our roads endanger both themselves and others. Ultimately, this training aims to reduce pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities, in turn promoting livable communities and making Louisiana a national leader in safe walking and bicycling.

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Provide law enforcement officers with basic training about pedestrian and bicycle safety. Develop officer‘s awareness as to the significance of their role in pedestrian and bicycle safety (education and enforcement). Show officers how they can improve traffic safety by enforcing laws, for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists. Demonstrate that educating and enforcing for pedestrian and bicycle safety is integral to improving community safety. Encourage law enforcement agencies to adopt a traffic safety enforcement policy for pedestrian and bicycle safety. Demonstrate the need to develop additional pedestrian and bicycle education curricula and materials for law enforcement.

Create a safer traffic environment for all users. Reduce deaths and injuries to pedestrians and bicyclists. Improve the quality of life in our communities by promoting a greater sense of security. Increase the number of trips made by walking and bicycling. Improve public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes) Promote sustainable communities.

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08:00 08:30 09:00 09:45 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 13:30 14:45 15:45 16:00

Registration and Pretest Welcome & Introductions The Basics Highway Safety Triangle Engineering Bicycle Ride & On-bike Training Lunch Bicycle Ride & On-bike Training How Pedestrian/Bicycle Crashes Happen Education Review Day One & Overview of Day Two Adjourn

08:00 08:15 09:15 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 13:00 13:15 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00

Review Day One Pedestrian/Bicycle Laws Enforcement Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Action Overview Pedestrian Environment Audit Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Action Lunch Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Action Debriefing Bicycle Theft Crash Investigation & Reporting Potential Law Enforcement Partners Debriefing & Course Evaluation Adjourn

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................................... ii VISION STATEMENT ................................................................................................................................. iii COURSE GOALS & OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................ iv COURSE OUTLINE ...................................................................................................................................... v TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................. vii INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 1 THE BASICS ................................................................................................................................................. 3 THE HIGHWAY SAFETY TRIANGLE ....................................................................................................... 7 ENGINEERING ............................................................................................................................................. 9 ON-BIKE TRAINING ..................................................................................................................................18 HOW PEDESTRIAN & BICYCLE CRASHES HAPPEN ...........................................................................20 EDUCATION ................................................................................................................................................31 PEDESTRIAN LAWS ..................................................................................................................................36 BICYCLE LAWS ..........................................................................................................................................44 ENFORCEMENT .........................................................................................................................................54 PEDESTRIAN ENFORCEMENT ACTION ................................................................................................61 BICYCLE THEFT ........................................................................................................................................64 CRASH INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING .........................................................................................65 LAW ENFORCEMENT PARTNERS ..........................................................................................................68 BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................................................69 ORGANIZATIONS AND CONTACTS .......................................................................................................72

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Walking and bicycling have been an integral part of Louisiana life for all ages and abilities since long before motor vehicles were invented. People have always had the right to walk, and bicycles are legal vehicles by state law. Bicyclists have the same rights and responsibilities as the operators of other vehicles, and interestingly, many of our roads were originally paved to make bicycling safer. People walk and bicycle for many reasons including recreation, health, fitness, transportation and to protect the environment. The benefits of walking and bicycling are tremendous. However, these activities are not without risk and this is where law enforcement should come into play. Walking and bicycling are not inherently dangerous. What are dangerous are the oftenillegal behaviors that some pedestrians, bicyclists and motorist engage in. (In a crash between a pedestrian or bicyclist and a motorist, the pedestrian or bicyclist many times is severely injured or killed.) As a Law enforcement officer you come in contact with pedestrians and bicyclists on a daily basis and have a unique opportunity to improve conditions for them. You enforce laws, investigate crashes, teach safety and much more. The public views you and your fellow officers as traffic experts. You are the only ones who can enforce laws designed to protect pedestrians and bicyclists and keep traffic moving smoothly. The enforcement of laws, for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists—along with wellengineered facilities and education—play a key role in improving pedestrian and bicycle safety and enjoyment. But, how much training on pedestrian and bicycle safety have you had? How much do you need? Are these issues something that you should be spending your time on, or are there more important parts of your job? Enforcing for pedestrian and bicycle safety is a great example of community oriented policing. Community oriented policing strives to resolve problems by dealing with their underlying causes. Walking and bicycling are indicators of the overall health of a community. If people can

bike and walk safely and enjoyably in your community, it is probably a great place to live, work and go to school. If they cannot, there are likely much larger problems that you are already dealing with. Why do most law enforcement officers get into law enforcement? To help people! Unfortunately, most officers quickly learn that the majority of the work in their chosen profession is reactionary—you are usually too late to prevent something bad from happening, all that is left is to clean up the mess. However, pedestrian and bicycle safety is different. Most crashes are predictable, and are therefore preventable. With the proper knowledge and training you can actually stop these crashes before they occur. What are the leading causes of pedestrian and bicycle crashes in your community? If you don‘t know then how do you know which laws to enforce to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety? Most law enforcement officers have never received any pedestrian or bicycle-specific training and are ill-equipped to handle these duties. In reality, very little enforcement for pedestrian and bicycle safety is currently taking place because of this lack of training. Throughout the country there are courses, which address specific topics, such as pedestrian and bicycle education for children or police on bikes, but there is little or no basic enforcement education. Without this training it is unlikely that the current situation will improve much in the near future. This course covers such topics as the Highway Safety Triangle, Engineering, How Crashes Happen, Enforcement, Laws, Crash Investigation & Reporting, Education, On-bike Training, Pedestrian Enforcement Actions and Law Enforcement Partners. It is designed to give officers the information that they need to identify dangerous situations and literally stop crashes before they can occur, preventing injuries, deaths—the ability to help people, the reason so many law enforcement officers join the profession.

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The Enforcement for Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Course is designed to give you, the law enforcement officer, the pedestrian and bicycle safety information that you need to manage traffic in your community and improve pedestrian and bicycle safety. Ultimately, it is a tool to assist you with community oriented policing and creating a safer and more livable community.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Briefly describe the evolution of walking and bicycling. Describe who is a pedestrian, a bicyclist. State at least four reasons why people walk and bicycle. List at least three areas where people walk. List at least three areas where bicycles are ridden. State why walking and bicycling are vital to a community.

The ―Father of the Bicycle‖ is thought by many to be German Karl Von Drais, who in 1815 was awarded a patent on his Fahrmaschine or ―travel machine.‖ This was a very heavy, but steerable, wooden device which was straddled and pushed along with the feet. The significance of this invention is the discovery that man can balance on a single track vehicle. Von Drais, both a showman and a businessman, proved the worth of his invention by exceeding, even over journeys of two to three hours, the speed of runners and horse-drawn ―posts.‖ The vehicle, by then known as a Draisienne - a toy for the rich, first made its way to the United States in 1821. ― . . . in about 1839, a blacksmith named Kirkpatrick Macmillan from near Dumfries, Scotland, made the first known attempt to harness leg muscles to turn the wheels directly. He added cranks to the rear wheels of a steerable velocipede (any foot-propelled vehicle) with connecting rods to swinging pedals. Because it made it possible for the rider to pedal and stay continuously out of contact with the ground, Macmillan might be called the originator of the true bicycle. He rode 225 km (140 miles) to Glasgow, an extraordinary feat given the state of the roads in those days and the hilly country, and he received the first known traffic fine of five shillings for knocking down a child in the throng that passed around him.‖ (1)

According to Louisiana revised statute R.S. 32:1 (48), ―Pedestrian” means any person afoot. Walking is the most basic form of any human transportation—humans have always walked. Walking forms the base of any transportation system. Even if you ―drive everywhere‖ you still must walk to and from your car to get where you are going. Beyond simply getting to their cars, many people walk for transportation, either as their primary means or in combination with others (e.g., biking, public transit). People can, and do, walk, in whole or in part, to school, work, shop, and visit friends and much more. Walking and running for recreation and fitness are popular too. More than one parent has told their child, ―When all else fails, walk.‖ The Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) establishes pedestrian speeds as 4 ft/sec for able-bodied adults and 3 ft/sec for seniors.

In Louisiana a bicycle is defined under revised statute R.S. 32:1 (4) as follows: ―Bicycle” means every device propelled by human power upon which any person may ride and designed to travel on two tandem wheels.

In 1861, Pierre Michaux, a carriage maker from Paris, fitted cranks to the front wheel of a Draisienne, sparking the first true bicycle craze. He organized factories that could make five machines a day. With increased interest in the bicycle came the desire to go farther and faster. In order to go faster, ―the front wheels of the ‗Boneshakers‘ (so called due to the poor quality of the ride) were made larger by degrees to give a longer distance per pedal revolution and, therefore, greater speed on favorable ground.‖ (1) These vehicles with the very large front wheels were so common that they became known as ―ordinaries‖ or high wheelers. The 1870s were the years of dominance for this style of bicycle.

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There was, however, a large drawback to the high wheelers. Because the rider‘s center of gravity was so high and far forward, they were prone to abruptly tipping forward, thus the phrase, taking a “header.” John Kemp Starley invented the “Safety” bicycle in 1885. This bicycle featured a reardriven, chain transmission and two wheels of approximately the same size. This reduced the likelihood of taking a header. By 1900, the bicycle had nearly reached perfection and was much as it is today. (1) ―The enthusiasm for bicycles waned soon after the turn of the century with the emergence of the motor vehicle. But unlike in Europe, where motor cars took decades to supersede bicycles, American cyclists never had a chance to coexist with the motoring public. As a result, when automobiles came on the scene, bicycles experienced a sudden drop in popularity and status as they went from being considered a high-class mode of transportation and pleasure to more of a child‘s toy . . .‖ ―Bicycle use increased during World War II among both adults and children, but the sale of bicycles was restricted during the war . . .‖ ―Growth in the popularity of bicycling increased during the 1950s and 1960s, as the ―baby boom‖ generation used the bicycle as a major means of making short trips and for recreation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the (second) ―bicycle boom‖ occurred as young adults, born in the 1950s and 1960s returned to bicycling and purchased lightweight 10 speed bicycles . . .‖ ―In late 1991, the federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) provided significant new language regarding bicyclists. ISTEA required the consideration of bicyclists and pedestrians in the planning of highway improvements that involved the use of federal funds. In addition, all Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and state Departments of Transportation were required to include a bicycle and pedestrian element in their overall transportation plan.‖ (2) From its humble ―velocipede‖ day, the bicycle has changed very little, but the advances in bicycling have been stunning. Here are some records to prove it:

In 1899, Charles ―Mile-a-Minute‖ Murphy pedaled his bicycle behind a train at over 60 mph (This was four years before a car achieved that speed). (3) In 1985, John Howard set a world record by riding his bicycle on the salt flats of Utah at 152.284 mph. (3) On July 2, 2006 in Casa Grande, Arizona, Fred Markham pedaled 53.432 miles in one hour.(4) On July 20, 2006 Greg Kolodziejzyk pedaled 650 miles in 24 hours in Eureka, California. (5) There are as many reasons for walking and bicycling as there are people who do these activities. However, there are a few generally stated reasons which are useful to know when considering why and where people walk and bike.

Walking and bicycling are fun and to many, sport. They can be done by almost anyone and there is a great deal of variety available. According to the National Sporting Goods Association, 87.5 million people walked and 35.6 million people bicycled at least once for exercise in 2006.(6)

Americans are becoming more aware of the benefits of exercise and being physically fit. Both walking and bicycling are life-long, lowimpact forms of exercise that can be done at a wide range of fitness levels.

Walking is the most basic and bicycling is the most efficient form of human transportation. They are inexpensive and convenient for many people. The National Bicycling and Walking Study estimates that almost 80 percent of all daily trips are ten miles or less in length, well within biking distance for most people. (7) People going to work, school and a wide variety of other locations use walking and bicycling every day.

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With the exception of some manufacturing and disposal process, walking and bicycling are totally non-polluting. With increased concerns about protecting our environment (acid rain, the ozone layer, global warming, etc.), this is becoming increasingly important to people.

need in order to successfully get from Point A to Point B. The first key pedestrian characteristic is walking speed. While the average pedestrian can walk at an average speed of 4 ft/sec, large segments of the population walk at slower speeds. This includes seniors, disabled individuals and children. These variations in speed are critical at crossings, especially where higher traffic speed or wider crossings can become a nearly impassable barrier to slower pedestrians. Another important characteristic is the physical condition of a facility, something that can present significant challenges for disabled pedestrians. However, issues such as narrow sidewalks, cracked and displaced concrete or overgrown plants can also easily prevent or discourage able-bodied people from using a facility. For example, narrow spaces create uneasy walking environments by placing pedestrians too close to the roadway or by not providing sufficient ―shy distance,‖ a buffer zone away from vertical objects. These defects are further compounded for disabled pedestrians, who are not just discouraged from using, but often unable to use such facilities. How and where people bicycle is affected by their ability. Bicyclists can be split into three broad categories

As our main transportation system, people have always walked and bicycled on the roads. In fact, according to the League of American Bicyclists (the oldest bicycle organization in the country, founded in 1880), in some areas it was originally bicyclists who pushed for paving the roads to make them safer for bicyclists.

Recreational trails are very popular because they are generally quiet, scenic, and separated from motor vehicle traffic. A good example of a recreational trail is the Tammany Trace in St. Tammany Parish. This 31 mile long trail was built on an abandoned railroad grade. Tammany Trace is Louisiana's first and only rails-to-trails conversion. The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy estimates that as of November 2006 there were 1,412 rail-trails nationwide covering 13,794 miles. (Louisiana ranks 41st nation-wide in total rail-trail miles with 31 on 1 trail.) (8)

People have always hiked off-road but with the development of the mountain bike, there is almost nowhere that a bicycle cannot go. Dirt trails, forest roads, and parks are some of the most popular locations to ride.

The statewide plan defines this group as adults experienced in riding in urban traffic conditions and who favor the most direct routes to their destinations (Section 5 page 1). These cyclists are comfortable riding on arterial and collector roads. In our area, advanced cyclists include competitive sport cyclists, cyclists who ride for exercise and recreation, and a large share of bicycle commuters.

How and where people walk is affected by their ability. Pedestrians come in different shapes and sizes ranging from elderly pedestrians attempting to cross the road to disabled individuals utilizing wheel chairs along sidewalks to joggers running alongside the road. Each group of pedestrians has unique characteristics which affect what they

The statewide plan defines this group as adults and teenagers who have less-developed bicycling skills. The statewide plan identifies them as ―weekend or casual riders who are not as comfortable riding with traffic. These riders prefer low-volume or low-speed streets and additional maneuvering room on higher volume and speed roadways‖ (Section 5 page 1). In our region, this group also includes many bicycle

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commuters, especially low income riders who use their bicycle as transportation.

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Sanders, Nick. The Image and the Dream. Great Britain: Red Bus, 1991. Wisconsin. Dept. of Transportation. Wisconsin Bicycle Transportation Plan 2020. Madison, 1998. Nye, Peter. The Cyclist Sourcebook. New York: Perigee Publishing Group, 1991. Official Speed Records. Human Powered Vehicle Association. 3 July 2007 <http://www.ihpva.org/dempsey_macready_ prize.html>. Official Speed Records. Human Powered Vehicle Association. 3 July 2007 <http://www.eurekareporter.com/ArticleDis play.aspx?ArticleID=13164>. 2006 Participation Ranked By Total Participation. National Sporting Goods Association. 3 July 2007 <http://www.nsga.org/public/pages/index.cf m?pageid=150>. Cheeney, David. ―The National Bicycling and Walking Study.‖ U.S. Department of Transportation—Federal Highway Administration (Publication No. FHWAPD-94-023). Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, September 2006

2. Children riding their bikes to school, the playground, a friend‘s house, or other places in their neighborhoods are in this category (Section 5 page 1). Because children tend ride slower and not be as aware of traffic patterns and laws, they tend to gravitate towards low-intensity neighborhood streets and pathways. A subgroup of the child bicyclists category are preteen riders whose bicycle use is initially monitored by adults, but who are eventually allowed to ride unsupervised on the road system. The majority of their riding will occur on local residential streets with low vehicle speeds and volumes, but they do require access to key destinations such as schools, recreation facilities and neighborhood shopping areas. Most preteens (if they have been given proper bicycle education) will behave more like casual adult cyclists and thus are considered a subgroup. Another subgroup of bicyclists is teenagers who have taken driver‘s education. For many, driver‘s education is where they are first formally introduced to the concepts of vehicular traffic. This information is critical to safe bicycle operation and should be provided at a much earlier age. It is important to recognize that some casual or novice riders will eventually become experienced cyclists if an encouraging bicycle system is developed. It has been estimated that about 20 percent of the cyclists (experienced) ride about 80 percent of the bicycle miles, while 80 percent of the cyclists (casual or novice) only bike 20 percent of the miles. Knowing where people walk and bicycle and where they prefer to do these activities is also important. This allows us to monitor current activities and to predict future trends. Because of the positive affects that walking and bicycling have on recreation, fitness, transportation and the environment they are vital to a community

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. Describe the three major components of the Highway Safety Triangle and how they affect pedestrian and bicycle safety.

The 3E‘s work together much like the legs of a three legged stool. Each leg is equally responsible for the strength and stability of the stool. If one (or more) leg of the stool is weaker or shorter than the others (or nonexistent), the stool will collapse.

The main goals of a transport system are safety, efficiency and accessibility. If these goals are not met, the system will be compromised or fail. Safety is, of course, the most important goal.

Planners and engineers should strive to create and maintain facilities (roads, bridges, sidewalks, trails and paths) which are safe, accessible and efficient for pedestrians and bicyclists. If this is not accomplished, safe walking and bicycling cannot occur and many will simply choose not to walk or bike. For example, roads without sidewalks force pedestrians to compete for space in the roadway with motor vehicles and bicycles. Narrow, high-speed roads, rumble strips, potholes, unpaved shoulders, etc. all make bicycling more difficult and often dangerous. Yet, safe walking and bicycle facilities alone are not enough.

The three key components of highway safety are Engineering, Education and Enforcement. Together they are often referred to as the Highway Safety Triangle, or the ―3E’s.‖ While all three ―E‘s‖ are important individually, no one component has the ability to completely solve pedestrian and/or bicycle safety problems. The most effective safety strategies draw on all three E‘s to come up with a long-lasting solution to a problem.

Good education teaches pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists how to safely and predictably share the road. Each user needs to be taught to use facilities properly or there will be chaos and walking and bicycling will be unsafe no matter how well facilities are designed. Consider that without proper education pedestrians may give motorists and bicyclists mixed messages about their intent to cross the street making yielding at crosswalks confusing. Bicyclists may choose to ride against the flow of traffic (a contributing factor in 1/3 of all bicycle/motor vehicle crashes). And, despite the law, many motorists will continue to be unaware that bicyclists have an equal right to the road. This ignorance of the law leads to many potentially dangerous conflicts. Education can correct many of our current problems. However, just good education is not enough either.

This is your main area of responsibility—after all, only law enforcement officers can enforce the law. If facilities have been designed and built properly and effective education programs developed and implemented then, enforcement is

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only necessary for the small percentage of people who choose to operate outside of the desired and expected norms. Enforcement is often viewed as an adjunct to education, and most enforcement efforts strive to obtain voluntary compliance with the law. Knowledgeable law enforcement officers have the opportunity to educate people who are unaware of the law and proper pedestrian/bicycle/motorist interactions. They have the power to stop those who choose to violate laws and endanger others. Without strong enforcement to back up engineering and education efforts behaviors and attitudes can become lax and chaos and unsafe conditions will remain. Efforts need to be made in all three areas of engineering, education and enforcement to make walking and bicycling safer and more enjoyable. Additional ―E‘s‖ are often added to the ―3E‘s‖ to provide a more complete picture. Encouragement through programs like Safe Routes To School, Bike/Walk to Work and other events and promotions may be necessary to get people involved in non-motorized activities. Setting a good Example is an important component of encouraging appropriate behaviors. This is especially true of law enforcement officers who are presumed to be traffic experts. Your bad behavior is magnified many times over because of your position of authority. Lastly, Evaluation of your traffic safety solutions, both before and after implementation, will give you the information necessary to assess if your solution is actually improving the identified problem.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State why a basic knowledge of engineering is important to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Describe several types of pedestrian facilities. Describe four basic types of bicycle facilities. Identify several types of intersection treatments for pedestrian and bicycle safety. List at least six road hazards which are commonly encountered by pedestrians and bicyclists. Explain the concept of traffic calming.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) publishes the Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities and the Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities.(1, 2) These guides provide information on the development of facilities to enhance and encourage safe pedestrian and bicycle travel. The Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), put out by the U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration, is the standard for highway signs and control devices (including pedestrians and bicycles) in the United States.(3) In Louisiana, the Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan (1998), has been prepared for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. ―…The primary purpose of (the Plan) has been to develop a set of design policy guidelines for improvement to the development and use of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure within Louisiana.‖(4) According to AASHTO‘s Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, ―Planners and engineers should recognize that the choice of highway design will affect the level of use, the types of user that can be expected to use any given road, and the level of access and mobility that is afforded bicyclists. For example, a fourlane divided highway with 3.6-m (12-foot) travel lanes, no shoulder and an 85 km/hr (55 mph) speed limit will attract only the most confident of riders. The same road with a 1.5-m (5-foot) shoulder or bike lane might provide sufficient ‗comfortable operating space‘ for many more adult riders, but would still not be comfortable for children or less confident adults. This latter group might only be accommodated through an alternative route using neighborhood streets linked by short sections of shared use path. If such an alternative route is provided and the four-lane road has a continuous paved shoulder, most experienced and many casual adult riders will continue to use the shoulder for the sake of speed and convenience. (Pedestrians are more comfortable using streets with sidewalks. Without sidewalks, many people will simply not see walking as an option.)

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Pedestrians and bicyclists want to go to the same places as motorists. However, our road systems have been designed primarily for motor vehicle traffic. This singular approach to roadway design has created many roads which are not conducive to safe and enjoyable walking and bicycling. But, this does not need to be the case. As motor vehicles became more popular in this country, roads were built to accommodate them. Over time our roads have been redesigned to make them safer. This same progression towards safer roads (and other facilities) is being accomplished for pedestrians and bicyclists as well. For you as a law enforcement officer to deal effectively with pedestrian and bicycle issues, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of the principles which are used when designing and evaluating streets for nonmotorized use. This knowledge will assist you in identifying areas which need improvement, allow you to better educate pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists about proper facility usage and assist with crash investigations. Additionally, this knowledge will help you communicate more effectively with planners and engineers to jointly find solutions to traffic safety problems. Nationally, there are three basic references for pedestrian and bicycle facility designers. The

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Facilities for bicyclists should also be planned to provide continuity and consistency for all users. Children using a path to get to school should not have to cross a major arterial without some intersection controls, and shoulders and bike lanes should not end abruptly and unannounced at a difficult intersection or busy stretch of highway.‖(2)

lighting improves pedestrian comfort levels while walking at night and can significantly improve visibility and safety.

There are four basic types of bicycle facilities. The latter three are considered ―bikeways‖ because they are actually designated with markings and/or signs as bicycle facilities:

For purposes of this manual, pedestrian facilities are defined as the physical infrastructure that allows for or promotes walking and other forms of pedestrian movement (such as wheelchairs) as a form of travel. Examples of pedestrian facilities include: sidewalks off-road paths shared-use paths shared streets Examples of pedestrian infrastructure include: pedestrian signals curb cuts ramps crosswalks overpasses/underpasses transit stops paved shoulders

According to AASHTO, the definition of a shared roadway is ―A roadway which is open to both bicycle and motor vehicle travel. This may be an existing roadway, street with wide curb lanes, or road with paved shoulders. . . . . . Most bicycle travel in the United States now occurs on streets and highways without bikeway designation.‖(2)

―A shared roadway which has been designated by signing as a preferred route for bicycle use. As with bike lanes, signing of shared roadways should indicate to bicyclists that particular advantages exist to using these routes as compared with alternative routes.‖(2) Shared Roadway signage also serves to alert motorists that bicycles belong on the street and will be traveling along this route.

Facilities separated from motor vehicle traffic (sidewalks, off-road paths, shared-use paths, overpasses and underpasses) are preferred accommodations for persons afoot. Primarily because of the speed differential between pedestrians and motorists, walkers are safer, and feel more comfortable, on facilities that are separated from the roadway either by distance (e.g., a grass median) or by some sort of barrier. All paths are intended for pedestrian use although they are sometimes erroneously called ―bike paths.‖ On-road, lane reductions, and roadway narrowing, reduce the distance pedestrians need to travel to cross the street improving safety. Raised medians provide safe refuge for pedestrians as they cross the street and allow them to cross only one direction of traffic at a time. Driveway improvements such as removing vegetation and restricting parking can remove visual obstructions. Good roadway

―A portion of the roadway which has been designated by striping, signing and pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists.‖(2) Bike lanes are established to improve conditions for bicyclists on streets where higher traffic volumes and speeds lead to more frequent passing of bicyclists by motorists. Many bicyclists will feel uncomfortable bicycling on these streets without the additional space established for them in the form of a bicycle lane. Bike lanes are intended to provide the needed added space on the street for motorists passing bicyclists, to delineate the space for bicyclists and motorists to operate in and to provide for more predictable movements by each. Bike lanes also help to increase the total capacities of the highways carrying mixed bicycle and motor vehicle traffic.

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―A bikeway physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way. Shared use paths may also be used by pedestrians, skaters, wheelchair users, joggers and other nonmotorized users.‖(2)

The three major factors which affect the suitability of a given road segment for bicycling are: Traffic volume In general, the greater the traffic volume and heavier (trucks) the less suitable a road is for bicycling. Roadway width Paved shoulders or curb lane widths over 12 feet tend to improve conditions for bicycle travel. The curb lane includes both the travel lane and parking lane adjacent to the edge of the roadway. The inside lane is the travel lane adjacent to the median or centerline. Speed As motor vehicle speeds increase (especially over 25 mph), the suitability of a road for bicycling decreases. While all three factors are interdependent, positively modifying one or two factors for bicycling may make a road more suitable for bicycling overall.

Narrow Lanes Because of the low traffic volumes, most city streets and narrow town and parish roads are currently suitable for bicycling with no additional improvements. However, travel lanes on major roadways are often too narrow for a motor vehicle and a bicycle to share side by side. This condition discourages bicycling, slows traffic and may increase the risk of crashes. Increasing lane width on roads with high traffic volumes and/or high speeds improves convenience for motorists and conditions for bicyclists. How wide is wide enough? ―A wide curb lane should have a minimum width of fourteen feet and a maximum width of fifteen feet. Curb lanes wider than fifteen feet are not recommended since they can encourage use by two motor vehicles, particularly at intersections. Lane widths of sixteen feet or wider may also be perceived as a travel lane plus parking. The presence of a parked car in the 16-foot lane would lead to undesirable lane restrictions for through vehicles, thereby negating the benefit of the wide curb lane. The lane width must be adjusted for drain grates, gutters, parking or any other obstructions that might confront the cyclist. Lane width should be measured from the lane stripe to the joint line, edge of the gutter pan, parking lane, outside edge of the drain grate, or curb face, whichever is shortest. On multi-lane roadways, it may be possible to increase the width of the curb lane by re-striping the existing roadway. No inside lane should be less than eleven feet in width. Special consideration should also be given to roadways where truck traffic accounts for more then 5% of the total traffic volume. In all cases, a traffic engineer should be consulted prior to reducing any lane widths in order to evaluate properly the impact of the reduction of vehicular traffic. Where right turn lanes exist, the additional width should be added to the right most through lane to minimize conflicts between turning vehicles and through bicycles.‖(4) Bike lanes and paved shoulders provide the desired additional space also. Four generally accepted advantages of wide curb lanes are that they:

In addition to safely crossing streets, pedestrians are most often injured by simple falls caused by surface irregularities such as holes, openings, gaps, unexpected rises such as uplifted sidewalk slabs and curbs or slippery surfaces. Every attempt should be made to identify, sign, mark and repair these hazards before someone is injured. For example, sidewalk irregularities can be ground down or mud jacked. If an injury does occur because of a surface irregularity, again, the hazard should be signed, marked and immediately reported to the proper authority for repair or mitigation.

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Accommodate shared bicycle/motor vehicle use without reducing the roadway capacity for motor traffic. Minimize both real and perceived operating conflicts between bicyclists and motor vehicles. Increase the roadway capacity by at least the number of bicyclists capable of being accommodated. Assist turning vehicles in entering the roadway without encroaching into another lane and better accommodating buses and other wide vehicles.

integrate the curb into the road surface, removing the joint altogether, on concrete roads. Unsafe Drain Grates Drain grates, especially those with openings running parallel to the road, can be very dangerous for bicyclists. If a bicyclist gets a wheel trapped in a grate, this can cause a serious crash. All drain grates should be bicycle safe, having no large openings running parallel to the bicyclist‘s direction of travel. Unsafe grates should be replaced immediately. Railroad Tracks Railroad tracks are notorious for being dangerous to bicyclists. They can be very slippery, especially when wet, and can trap a bicycle tire. Both of these situations are made even worse if tracks cross the road at less than a 45-degree angle. Unnecessary tracks should be removed. Rubberized matting or concrete planking can be installed to fill gaps and make the track area less slippery. Also, wide shoulders or bike lanes can be maintained to allow the bicyclist to cross the tracks as close to perpendicular (the preferred method) as possible without creating conflicts with other traffic.

A. gutter section with 18‖ storm sewer inlet grates, no joint line B. bicyclist‘s width with 10‖ of maneuvering room C. recommended minimum separation distance D. truck and bus width Gaps Between Gutter Flag and the Road Surface Through expansion and contraction, longitudinal joints between the gutter flag (the part of the gutter which extends into the road) and the road can open up. It is very easy for the wheels of a bicycle to get caught in this gap causing the bicyclist to swerve and/or crash. To avoid riding in this gap, some bicyclists ride in the gutter. This is never ―practicable‖ due to the hazard presented by drain grates, debris, the joint and the threat of striking the curb with a pedal. Bicyclists should ride at least a foot to the left of the joint. New road construction should strive to move this joint closer to the curb on asphalt roads or

Poorly Maintained and Repaired Roads Roadway surface hazards, such as pot holes, broken glass, rough construction patches, etc., may cause a bicyclist to fall or swerve unexpectedly into traffic while trying to avoid these hazards. Roads should be maintained to the following tolerances for bicyclists:

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Road Markings Road markings (particularly paint) are often slippery when wet and can cause bicyclists to fall. Paint containing grit may be used in particularly hazardous locations. Bike lanes and shared lanes each have their own roadway marking that is similar yet distinctive to help users identify the two different facility types. Bike lanes use a symbol of a person on a bike with an arrow above indicating the proper direction of travel. Shared lanes use the ―sharrow,‖ a bicycle with two forward pointing chevrons.

*Grooves: A narrow slot in the surface that could catch a bicycle wheel, such as a gap between two concrete slabs. **Steps: A ridge in the pavement, such as that which might exist between the pavement and a concrete gutter or manhole cover; or that might exist between two pavement blankets when the top level does not extend to the edge of the roadway. Unpaved Shoulders on Roads Without Curbs and Gutters Without a paved shoulder, bicyclists are forced to ride in the travel lane even if they would prefer not to. Also, a difference in elevation between the road and the shoulder may be hazardous for a bicyclist. Paved shoulders are generally not necessary on low volume roads because there are sufficient gaps in traffic for motorists to safely overtake bicyclists. Different road conditions (traffic/truck volume, speed) suggest different paved shoulder widths, but four to five feet is usually adequate. Paved shoulders also benefit users other than bicyclists. With a paved shoulders, head-on motor vehicle collisions are decreased, the road lasts longer, there is a place for disabled vehicles, and of importance to law enforcement officers, traffic stops are safer. Traffic Signals With traffic signals, two situations arise: The green phase of the signal may not be long enough to allow a bicycle to clear the intersection before cross traffic enters. Or, traffic sensors (located in the roadway surface or a camera above the intersection), which signal the traffic light to change when vehicles are present, may not detect the presence of a bicycle. Signal timing should be adjusted to allow bicycle traffic to clear the intersection before crossing traffic begins. Bicycle-sensitive sensors may be installed to activate the lights. Lane markings can also be used to show the bicyclist where to sit to activate the signal.

Bicycle Lane Marking

Shared Lane Marking

Crosswalks Marked crosswalks enhance, under certain conditions, the visibility of preferred crossing locations for pedestrians. Although motorists and bicyclists are required to yield to pedestrians within both marked and unmarked crosswalks, yielding may be enhanced at well-marked crossings. Curb Cuts Curb cuts provide a gradual transition between the street and the sidewalk making travel easier for some seniors and disabled persons, particularly those in wheelchairs. The preferred installation of curb cuts is to have them directly aligned with the sidewalk and the crosswalk, generally two curb cuts per corner. This alignment makes a pedestrian‘s desired direction of travel clearer to motorists, aids visually impaired pedestrians, shortens the time a pedestrian is in the street and guides them away

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from the apex of the curve where motorists are turning.

Pedestrian signals only apply to pedestrians and bicyclists who have dismounted from their bicycles and are walking within a crosswalk. Bulb Outs Bulb outs, or curb extensions, extend sidewalks into intersections at street corners or mid-block. This treatment makes pedestrians more visible to traffic, slows motor vehicle speeds and shortens crossing distances, all of which improve pedestrian safety. Raised Medians Raised medians provide a refuge for pedestrians and allow them to cross roadways in stages. It is the single most important improvement to aid pedestrians in crossing an uncontrolled intersection. Medians should be a minimum of 6 feet wide and equipped with curb ramps or provide an at-grade surface for pedestrians. Parking Restrictions Restricting parking near crosswalks improves visibility of and for pedestrians crossing a street. Motorists must park a minimum of 20 feet from a crosswalk at an intersection. Signs and Signals Signs and signals such as ―No Right on Red‖ or ―Turning Vehicles Yield to Pedestrians‖ may be used to improve pedestrian safety. Small Curve Radii Small curve radii force vehicular traffic to decrease speed when turning, improving safety. However, this may make turning for trucks more difficult.

Pedestrian Signals When present, pedestrian signals regulate when pedestrians may or may not cross a street. They may also change the timing of the signal to favor pedestrian crossings. A white hand or ―WALK‖ indicates that pedestrians are permitted to start crossing and that other traffic should be yielding the right of way to them. A flashing red hand or ―DON‘T WALK‖ signal indicates that pedestrians should not start crossing but may continue to cross the street if they have already started to do so. A solid red hand or ―DON‘T WALK‖ signal means that pedestrians should not enter the street or should exit the street as soon as possible. Some signals incorporate a countdown timer that shows pedestrians how much time they have left to safely cross the street. Some pedestrian signals operate automatically while others require that the pedestrian activate them by pushing a button. A ―WALK‖ signal may not appear and the signal timing may not change for a pedestrian at a manual signal if the button is not pushed.

Most of the intersection treatments to improve pedestrian safety also have a positive effect on the safety of bicyclists, those riding on the sidewalk (where permitted) as well as those operating in the roadway as vehicles. The primary benefit of these treatments is that they improve visibility, predictability and slow traffic speeds. There is no state law regulating the use of bicycles on sidewalks, however many parishes

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and municipalities have local ordinances banning or restricting bicycles from sidewalks. Bicycle Lanes -Bicycle lanes may help bicyclists at intersections by encouraging proper lane position. -Bicycle lanes to the left of a right turn only lane set up an intersection for predictable bicycle travel. Modern Roundabouts In addition to stop signs and traffic signals, a relatively new traffic management design, the modern roundabout, is appearing at some of our busier intersections. A modern roundabout is ―a circular intersection with: Yield control on all approaches Islands to separate flows of traffic from each other and from pedestrians Geometric features to slow down traffic‖ (6) The most common advantages to roundabouts include: Lower delays than signals Smaller queues Reduce the need for widening between intersections Fewer, and much less serious, conflicts between vehicle movements To use a roundabout pedestrians should: Cross only at designated crossing locations Watch for cars; motorists must give you the right-of-way but they may not be paying enough attention Not cross over to the center island *Most roundabouts have splinter islands that let you cross one direction of traffic at a time, behind a motorist that is at the yield line. To use a roundabout bicyclists can: Take the lane and circulate like other vehicles Dismount and walk their bicycle like a pedestrian Use a specially marked bike lane or path if one exists Roundabouts circulate traffic instead of bringing it to a complete stop. This increases the capacity of some intersections. Also, the circular traffic

pattern of a roundabout eliminates left turns and has proven to decrease crashes by 35 to 85 percent over traditional stop controlled intersections. Roundabouts may present pedestrians and bicyclists with additional complexities at intersections.

Traffic Calming Traffic calming involves the physical change of streets to reduce vehicular speeds, eliminate cutthrough traffic patterns and to create a more pleasant street environment for residents. Air pollution and noise can also be reduced through calming traffic. Traffic calming is done primarily on neighborhood streets and involves the use of such devices as speed bumps and humps, traffic circles, medians, neck downs and others to control traffic. Bicycle, as well as pedestrian, safety and enjoyment is generally improved through calming traffic. Traffic calming is done primarily on neighborhood streets and involves the use of such devices as speed humps, traffic circles, medians, neck downs and others to control traffic. Pedestrian, as well as bicyclist, safety and enjoyment is generally improved through traffic calming, but if traffic calming is not done considerately, it may become more of a hazard to bicyclists.

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Overpasses and Underpasses Overpasses or underpasses are often good alternatives to crossing large, high trafficked roadways at-grade for pedestrians and bicyclists. This is particularly true for children, the elderly and disabled persons who may not have the mental or the physical abilities necessary to negotiate the complexities of some traffic situations. Required design characteristics include: -Surface equal to adjacent trail plus shoulder -Minimum 8 feet of overhead clearance -Relatively level -Good sight lines Desirable design characteristics: -Open and inviting -Oriented to promote public safety -Lighting Public Transit Pedestrians have long been the main focus of public transit. However, buses are increasingly being equipped with bicycle racks, which enable bicyclists to combine trips for both recreation and transportation with transit. Public transit greatly increases the mobility of pedestrians and bicyclists by combining a safe, enjoyable and inexpensive alternative to walking and bicycling. Public transit also provides a transportation option during inclement weather and in case of a mechanical problem. Several of Louisiana‘s public transit agencies have installed bike racks on some or all of their bus fleets. However, some require passengers to be pre-certified in order to use these racks. Designing for Enforcement Given that no facility can be designed or built to eliminate all illegal or dangerous behaviors, it is important to consider the need for enforcement in the design process. For example, building underpasses and overpasses so that their length can be observed from an adjacent road makes it easy for law enforcement to check the facility for suspicious activity. Providing pullouts near busy intersections gives officers a place to sit with their squad cars and observe traffic and discourage dangerous behavior.

Louisiana Public Transit Agencies with Fixed Routes Buses Certification City Buses with Required Racks Alexandria 8 0 NA (A-TRANS) Baton Rouge 57 57 Yes (CATS) Houma 8 8 Yes (GET) Jefferson 40 40 Yes (JeT) Lafayette 17 12 No (LTS) Lake Charles 7 0 NA (LCTS) LSU Tiger Trails Monroe 25 25 No (MTS) New Orleans 60 60 No (RTA) Shreveport 46 0 NA (SporTran) St. Bernard 5 0 NA (SBURT)

1.

United States. AASHTO. Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Washington: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2004. United States. AASHTO. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Washington: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1999. United States. Dept. of Transportation. Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Millennium ed. Washington: Federal Highway Administration, 2000. Louisiana Dept. of Transportation and Development. Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan, 1998. California. Dept. of Transportation. Highway Design Manual. Chapter 1000, Bikeway Planning and Design, Bikeway Surface Tolerances, Sacramento: February 2001.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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6.

Streetwise - Special Roundabout Insert. Kittelson & Associates, Inc, November 1999.

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Gloves: protect the hands from road vibration and abrasions in case of a fall. Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe why on-bike training is important for law enforcement officers. Perform a basic personal and bicycle safety check. Perform several basic bicycle handling skills. Discuss many of the hazards, which bicyclists encounter on a daily basis. Shorts: pad your butt, but should not catch the bike seat when moving fore and aft. Pants: cuffs should be secured (strap, rubber band, tucked in sox) to avoid catching on the chain ring –Ouch! Shoes (laces): laces (if any) need to be secured (double tied) to avoid catching on the chain ring-Ouch again!

On-bike training is important for all law enforcement officers. No one would consider learning how to shoot a gun by simply watching a video, listening to a lecture, or reading a book. Shooting and bicycling are both skills, and must be learned through hands-on practice. In order to truly understand bicycling, you must ride a bicycle – at least a little..

Before riding any bicycle, you should always do a safety check. Train yourself to scan other‘s bikes for problems as well. Always check the following: A: Air Tire pressure: make sure that the tires are properly inflated. The proper pressure range is printed on the tire‘s sidewall. Higher tire pressures will reduce rolling resistance and give a firmer ride, but will also decrease traction on softer surfaces. Lower tire pressures will increase traction on soft surfaces and will soften up the ride, but will increase rolling resistance and may subject the rim to more damage in high-impact situations. Wheels: spin both wheels and check to see that the rims are true. Watch the distance between the rim and the break shoe as the wheel spins. The distance should be the same all of the way around the wheel. If the distance varies more than 1/16 inch, have it adjusted. Out of true wheels can adversely effect braking. Headset: put on the front brake and rock the bike forwards and back. Listen and feel for any looseness. There should be none. If the headset is loose, have it adjusted before riding the bike. B: Brakes Front and rear brakes: alternately put on the brakes and attempt to move the bike. It

Just as you check your uniform (Do I have bullets?) and squad (Gas? O2?) before you start your shift, it is equally important to check yourself and your bicycle before you ride.

The head to toe check is a good way to ensure that you are good to go before you ride. Understanding how to perform this safety check on yourself will also improve your ability to identify safety problems with other riders. Always check the following: Helmet: the helmet should fit snuggly and level on the head, protecting the forehead. Straps should form a ―V‖ under the ear lobes. The chin strap should be buckled and snug, allowing no more than one or two fingers between chin and strap. Glasses: protect eyes from debris and sun‘s damaging ultraviolet rays. Shirt: should not interfere with bicycling movement or get snagged on bike.

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should not move. Brake levers should not touch the handlebars. C: Cranks and Chain Bottom bracket: grab both crank arms and try to move them sideways. If there is any play, the bottom bracket or axel bolt should be tightened or repaired. This will help avoid any unnecessary pitting to the races or other damage. Quick Check Quick-release hubs: make sure that they are tight. The lever should leave an imprint on your palm. Caution: These can be put on backwards and then are not properly secured—look for locking information. Seat height: if necessary, adjust the seat to the proper height to improve performance and avoid injuries. New riders should be able to touch the ground with their tiptoes while sitting on the seat. More experienced riders should have a slight bend (30 degrees or so) to their knee when the pedal is in the down position and the rider is sitting on the seat. Seat posts may have quick-releases as well. Checkout ride: take a short checkout ride, around a parking lot, to make sure that the gears and bike in general is working properly and is comfortable. Fix any problems before you start your ride. Demonstrate and practice various techniques taught to help cyclists avoid crashes. Braking Looking over shoulder Rock dodge Quick turn Lane positioning Riding in traffic Lane changes Crossing railroad tracks Take a bicycle tour of the local area highlighting as many of the facilities and techniques discussed as possible.

Washington DC: League of American Bicyclists, 2006.

1. League of American Bicyclists. League
Guide to Safe and Enjoyable Cycling.

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OBJECTIVES
Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. State the approximate number of pedestrians and bicyclists killed and injured each year in the United States and Louisiana. Differentiate between ―accident‖ and ―crash.‖ Identify the most common pedestrian and bicycle crash types for children and adults. List the (pedestrian, bicycle and motor vehicle) violations of the law which most significantly contribute to pedestrian and bicycle crashes with motor vehicles and fear of crashes.

one pedestrian is killed or injured in Louisiana every 6.7 hours.

2. 3. 4.

A report of a pedestrian or bicycle crash always gets the blood going a little faster than a ―regular‖ call. Why? In our minds, cars usually hit pedestrians and bicyclists and these crashes usually involve children. As we mentally prepare ourselves for the call, we think, ―This may not be a pretty sight.‖ Data indicates that a high percent of reported crashes are caused by driver error. Therefore, law enforcement is an important component of pedestrian and bicycle crash prevention. Over the past decade, traffic safety experts have been moving away from the term accident in favor of the term crash to describe a collision. An accident is an unexpected happening. It cannot be predicted or prevented. Crashes, on the other hand, are predictable and preventable and, therefore, are not ―accidents.‖ However, due to its common use, the word ―accident‖ may be used from time to time in this manual in place of the word ―crash.‖

In 2007, 698 bicyclists were killed and 43,000 injured in reported bicycle crashes with motor vehicles in the United States.(3) During this same year, in Louisiana, 23 bicyclists were killed, and 545 injured in reported crashes with motor vehicles.(2) That is an average of one bicyclist killed or injured in Louisiana every 12.5 hours. Now consider that the actual number of people injured may be more than 10 times higher than reported. There were two studies done in North Carolina in the mid-1980s using hospital emergency room data, which indicated that only 10-20 percent of bicycle crashes were ever reported.(4,5) Pedestrian crash reporting has been limited as well and, unfortunately, it is unlikely that reporting has improved significantly in the past two decades. For example, between 1999 and 2002, Charity Hospital in New Orleans treated 2,561 people for pedestrian and bicycle injuries. Charity Hospital is where all traumas in Orleans Parish were taken for treatment, so on average there were close to 650 people treated annually in Orleans Parish alone for pedestrian and bicycle crashes (the reported bicycle/pedestrian injuries in 2005 for the 5 parish region was 743).(6) Hospital data indicates that in 1999, 614,594 people were injured from bicycles and accessories nationwide.(7) ―On average, a bicyclist who is not killed in an accident can expect to spend 1.4 days in the hospital and a similar amount of time in bed at home. In addition, the injured bicyclist will lose over four days of work or school and will suffer almost 24 days of pain or discomfort after returning to work or school. It has been estimated that only those bicycle-motor vehicle accidents reported to police involve a total annual cost to society of $275 million dollars.‖ (8) It is vitally important that all law enforcement officers have at least a basic understanding of pedestrian and bicycle crashes and know the crash data for their jurisdiction.

In 2007, 4,654 pedestrians were killed and 70,000 injured in reported crashes with motor vehicles in the United States.(1) During this same year, in Louisiana, 111 pedestrians were killed, and 1,016 injured in reported crashes with motor vehicles. ―Pedestrian fatalities make up approximately 10 percent of all highway fatalities each year in Louisiana.‖(2) On average,

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The most important crash information for officers to know is: What type(s) of crashes are most common? Where do they most often occur? When do they most often occur? Who is most often involved? Why do these crashes occur and reoccur? How can they be prevented? With this information, officers can direct their patrols and enforcement activities to where they will be the most effective.

Vehicle turn/merge at intersection (9.8 % nationally) Description: Pedestrian was struck by turning/merging vehicle at intersection. Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 45-65; 65+ Pedestrian Gender female Driver age 65+ Location urban Time of Day 6-10 am: 10am-2pm Light Condition daylight Traffic Control signal; stop sign Number of Lanes 3-4 Causes: Motorist turns into intersection without searching for and yielding to pedestrian. Relevant state statute: R.S. 32:123, stop at stop sign; R.S. 32:232, traffic-control signal; R.S. 32:101, required position and method of turning at intersections, R.S. 32:64, speed. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws that require motorists to yield the right of way to pedestrians at intersections. Education countermeasures: Teach motorists to search for and yield to pedestrians in intersections. Instruct pedestrians how to safely, and legally cross the street at intersections and teach them about common motorist driving errors at intersections which lead to injury and death of pedestrians. Engineering countermeasures: Removing visual obstructions, narrowing intersections with treatments such as bulbouts and slowing traffic speeds can all improve pedestrian safety at intersections. Intersection dash (7.2% nationally) Description: Pedestrian ran into intersection and/or motorist‘s view was blocked. Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 0-9; 10-14 Road class local Time of Day 2-6pm Light Condition daylight Causes: Pedestrian, often a child, unexpectedly ran into the road. Pedestrian may have misjudged the speed of traffic (motorist may have been speeding) and/or the

We are all pedestrians during some part of our day. If you are an officer on foot patrol or simply getting to and from your patrol car, you are a pedestrian. As a pedestrian, you are subject to all of the same risks and need all of the same accommodations and protections as other pedestrians. How do pedestrian injuries happen?

Falls are the leading cause of injuries to pedestrians. ―For pedestrians, 78 percent of non-collision events occurred off the roadway and over half (58 percent) of these were on sidewalks. Young children were particularly overrepresented in sidewalk injury events, as were senior pedestrians age 65+.‖(9) While the majority of pedestrian injuries are the result of simple falls, most serious injuries and fatalities to pedestrians are caused by a collision of some kind with a motor vehicle. The Federal Highway Administration published a study by Hunter, et al, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s, in 1996, which, based on previous work done in the field and independent research, identified and grouped the leading types of pedestrian vs. motor vehicle crashes. The most common crash types and some of their enforcement, education and engineering countermeasures from the Hunter report are listed below.

As a whole, intersection crashes accounted for 32% of the National crashes. Midblock crashes were significant as well, about 26% nationally. The most common intersection and midblock crash types follow:

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motorist‘s/pedestrian‘s view may have been obstructed. Relevant state statute: R.S. 32:212(B), not yielding to vehicle (cross-walks), sudden entry into roadway, R.S. 32:233 pedestrian-control signals; R.S. 32:64, speed. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws which restrict pedestrians from entering intersections in an unsafe manner. Also, enforce laws which make it difficult for motorists to strike pedestrians who may be crossing intersections at unexpected locations and/or unsafely. Education countermeasures: Teach pedestrians how to cross safely and legally at expected locations and times at intersections. Instruct motorists to anticipate pedestrians at intersections and to watch for common pedestrian crossing errors. Engineering countermeasures: Removing visual obstructions, narrowing intersections with treatments such as bulbouts and slowing traffic speeds can all improve pedestrian safety at intersections. Other intersection (10.1% nationally) Description: This crash type includes multiple scenarios such as driver violations (sign or signal violation, careless driving, etc.), multiple threat (first motorist stops, but second motorist in adjacent lane continues striking pedestrian), trapped (pedestrian is unable to clear intersection before cross traffic enters), pedestrian walks into vehicle. Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 65+ Sobriety pedestrian alcohol Light Condition dark, light Traffic Control signal Number of Lanes 3-4; 5-6 Causes: Multiple causes. Relevant state statute: Multiple violations. Enforcement countermeasures: Multiple countermeasures. Education countermeasures: Multiple strategies.

Engineering countermeasures: Multiple strategies. Midblock dart-out/dash (13.3% nationally) Description: Pedestrian darts out into traffic when the motorist‘s view is blocked or pedestrian dashes (runs) into road when the motorist‘s view is not blocked. Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 0-9; 10-14 Time of Day 2-6pm Light Condition daylight Number of Lanes 2 Causes: Pedestrian did not see or misjudges the speed of approaching vehicle. Relevant state statute: R.S. 32: 213, crossing at other than cross walks; R.S. 32:64, speed. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws which prohibit pedestrians from suddenly entering the roadway midblock. Enforce speed violations to make crossing more predictable for pedestrians and to decrease injuries if pedestrians are struck. Education countermeasures: Teach pedestrians to cross at predictable locations, intersections, and use additional care when crossing at locations other than intersections. Encourage motorists not to speed to assist them in avoiding crashes with pedestrians and to decrease the severity of unavoidable crashes. Walking and driving while intoxicated contribute to pedestrian vs. vehicle crashes. Engineering countermeasures: Traffic calming measures which decrease lane width and slow traffic speeds (bulbouts, medians, speed tables, chicanes, etc.) may improve pedestrian safety midblock. Other midblock (13.2% nationally) Description: This crash type includes multiple scenarios such as multiple threat (first motorist stops, but second motorist in adjacent lane continues striking pedestrian), trapped (pedestrian is unable to clear intersection before cross traffic enters) and pedestrian walks into vehicle.

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Overrepresented Variables: Sobriety Pedestrian alcohol Light Condition dark Road Class State route Number of Lanes 3-4; 5-6 Causes: Multiple causes. Relevant state statute: Multiple violations. Enforcement countermeasures: Multiple countermeasures. Education countermeasures: Multiple strategies. Engineering countermeasures: Multiple strategies. Non-intersection or Midblock Crashes The following crash types are not classified as being intersection or midblock in nature. Not in the Roadway/Waiting to Cross (8.6% nationally) Description: This crash type includes scenarios where the pedestrian and vehicle were not in the roadway; the pedestrian was not in the roadway; vehicle left the roadway and pedestrian was waiting to cross; vehicle was turning. Overrepresented Variables: No overrepresented variables Causes: Motorist failed to observe pedestrian in parking lot, left the roadway or misjudged turn. Relevant state statute: Multiple violations. Enforcement countermeasures: Multiple countermeasures. Education countermeasures: Multiple strategies. Engineering countermeasures: Multiple strategies. Walking along the roadway (7.9% nationally) Walking with traffic; struck from behind walking against traffic; struck from behind Description: Pedestrian was walking along roadway with traffic (71%) and was struck from behind or was walking against traffic (21%) and was struck from behind (passing).

Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 15-44 Sobriety both alcohol Location rural Light Condition dark, no lights Number of Lanes 2 Causes: Motorist was driving without headlights. Pedestrian was hard to see because of lighting conditions and/or clothing and/or did not yield the roadway. Relevant state statute: R.S. 32:64, speed; R.S. 32:216. Pedestrians on highways or interstate highways. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce speed regulations. Enforce laws requiring pedestrians to walk facing traffic and to yield the roadway to approaching vehicles if practicable. Education countermeasures: Teach motorists to use extra caution and to look for pedestrians on the roadway, especially at night. Engineering countermeasures: Provide sidewalks for pedestrians and provide sufficient roadway lighting to improve pedestrian‘s visibility to vehicle operators. Vehicle backing (7% nationally) Description: Motorist backs up (parking lot, travel lane, driveway/alley, sidewalk) and strikes pedestrian. Overrepresented Variables: Pedestrian age 65+ Pedestrian Gender female Time of day 10am-2pm Light Condition daylight Causes: Motorist does not scan properly for pedestrians. Relevant state statute: R.S. 32:281. Limitations on backing. Others vary with location of collision. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws, where applicable, which require vehicle operators to use due care when backing their vehicle. Education countermeasures: Teach vehicle operators to always look for pedestrians whenever backing their vehicle. Teach

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pedestrians to use extra care when in areas where vehicles are backing up. Engineering countermeasures: Try to avoid creating situations where vehicle operators are required to back their vehicles and pedestrians are required to walk behind backing vehicles.

children are based. But, it must be pointed out that this information does have its limitations. The majority of the victims, 63 percent, in the Cross and Fisher study were children under 16 years of age, and fatal crashes are extremely overrepresented as a percentage of total crashes studied. Caution should be taken not to apply the findings in Cross and Fisher to all bicyclists. In 1996, the Federal Highway Administration published a study by Hunter, et al, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s, which essentially validated the findings of the Cross and Fisher study however.(13) A study done by Ross in Madison, Wisconsin in 1992 studied 774 crashes involving bicyclists and motorists.(14) In this study, 88 percent of the victims were 15 years of age or older. This study is probably a much better representation of the types of crashes in which adults are involved. The most common types of car-bike crashes for children and adults are listed below. Descriptions, causes, relevant state statutes and enforcement, education, and engineering coutnermeasures for each crash type are also provided.

When we talk about bicycle crashes, most people assume that we are talking about car-bike crashes. But, car-bike crashes account for only 17 percent of bicycle crashes. In fact, 50 percent of all bicycle crashes are caused by falls. Type of Accident Falls Car-bike Bike-bike Bike-dog All other Proportion 1/2 1/6 1/6 1/12 1/12 Percent(11) 50 17 17 8 8

Note: The data in the above table is based on a study, which was conducted in the mid-1970s using experienced cyclists (Kaplan, Jerome A., Characteristics of the Regular Adult Bicycle User, 1975). While this study represents the best data currently available, it does have limitations due to its age and the types of bicyclists used. Car-bike crashes account for the majority of deaths and serious injuries. Motor vehicles are involved in 90-92 percent of bicyclist deaths and 12 percent of injuries.(11) For this reason, it is important to study car-bike crashes. ―The study of cycling accidents is quite new; there were no scientific studies of accidents to Amercian cyclists until 1974.‖(10) The landmark study in this area was done by Cross and Fisher in 1977.(12) The study (A Study of Bike/Motor Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches) looked at 166 fatal and 753 nonfatal bicycle-motor vehicle collisions in four sampling areas of the United States. These crashes were grouped into six classes containing 37 types of crashes. Together these six classes accounted for 86 percent of the fatal and 89 percent of the nonfatal crashes investigated. The Cross and Fisher study provides a great deal of valuable information and is the study on which most bicycle education programs for

Based on the Cross and Hunter studies, the most common types of crashes children are involved in are as follows: Cross Hunter
Crash Type Nonfatal Fatal Nonfatal Fatal

Bicyclist stop sign or red signal volation Bicyclist unexpected turn/swerve Bicylist rideout

17 %

12%

18 %

12%

14%

16%

15%

9%

14%

15%

15%

22%

Note: Wrong-way riding, although not a crash type, is an important contributing factor in all child bicycle crash types (except for rideouts where wrong-way riding is not possible). Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:197, riding on roadways and bicycle paths.

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Bicyclist stop sign or red signal violation Description: This is a common child crash type, where a bicyclist rides through a stop sign or red signal without stopping and then yielding to traffic, or stops, but then proceeds before the way is clear. The majority of bicyclists were struck by vehicles coming from their left (near) side. Causes: Bicyclist was distracted; bicylist has ridden through intersection many times before and there was rarely any cross traffic, so assumes there will be no cross traffic this time; a friend has just ridden through the intersection and bicyclist assumes that the way is clear for him/her as well; bicyclist has observed motorists and other bicyclists failing to come to a complete stop at this and other stop signs and signals and, therefore, assumes that it is not necessary to stop. Bicyclist sees motorists running the red light at the change between yellow and red, and thus thinks that red signals are not that important. 23 percent of the bicyclists were traveling the wrong-way in the Hunter study. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:123, stop at stop sign; R.S. 32:232, traffic-control signal; R.S. 32:71, Driving on right side of road. Enforcement countermeasures: Communitywide targeted enforcement of bicyclist (motorist) failure to stop for stop sign and red signals. Enforcement of wrong-way riding for young bicyclists. Education countermeasures: Teach bicyclists (and motorists) the importance of always stopping for stop signs and red signals and yielding to cross traffic before proceeding. Teach scanning pattern of left-right-left to bicylists (motorists). Engineering countermeasures: Place stop signs only where they are warranted. Stop sign installations for purposes for which they are unintended, such as speed control or traffic diversion, leads to disobedience of stop signs by motorists and bicylists and can contribute to this crash type. Devices such as traffic circles and roundabouts eliminate cross traffic and the need to stop at intersections. Bicyclist unexpected turn/merge Description: Bicylist turns into the path of a following motor vehicle. The majority of these

crashes result from the bicyclist unexpectedly turning left. In most cases, the motorist does not have time to react. Causes: Bicyclist fails to look behind for traffic before turning; bicyclist misjudged approaching vehicle speed and distance; bicyclist assumes that he/she will hear approaching vehicle; relative difficulty of scanning to the rear; motorist assumes that the bicyclist will continue going straight and/or does not pick up on cues that the bicyclist may turn/swerve, such as kids on other side of street, parked cars, pot holes, debris, etc., on road ahead of bicyclist that bicyclist may swerve around; motorist attempting to pass too closely (less than three feet). Relevant state statutes: 32:101, required position and method of turning at intersections; R.S. 32:64, speed. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce bicycle laws which relate to turning. Enforce laws which effect motorist‘s ability to avoid a crash, such as speed. Education countermeasures: The critical error in this crash type is not looking behind for traffic before turning or changing position on the road. Teach bicyclists that the most important thing to do before changing course is to scan to the rear and make sure that it is safe to turn. Teaching hand signals is not an effective countermeasure. Hand signals do not give the bicyclist enough information to make a safe turn or move over/go around an obstruction. Also, hand signals do not tell following motorists exactly where the bicyclist is going to turn or if the bicyclist is going to wait for the motorist to pass. By looking back, the byclist has the needed information and can communicate with the motorist. Engineering countermeasures: Make sure that the edge of the road, the area where bicyclists ride most often, is free of potholes, cracks, parallel slot drain grates, debris, etc. This enables bicyclists to ride a stright line without swerving around these hazards. Reduce or eliminate on-street parking, widen streets to provide room for bicyclists.

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Bicylist rideout from a driveway, alley or other mid-block location Description: Bicylist enters the roadway from a driveway, alley, or over the curb or shoulder. This crash type is most common among younger children. Most (54-72 percent depending upon the rideout location) are hit by a motorist approaching from their left. Often, there are visual obstructions such as parked cars, trees or other landscaping, fences, etc.(8) Causes: Bicylist did not stop and yield to traffic on the street before entering the road because he/she was distracted, assumed that there was no traffic or that a riding partner had checked for traffic or the rider msijudged a gap in traffic. Young bicyclists do not understand the basic right-of-way rule that traffic entering a street yields to traffic already on the street. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:124, vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building, R.S. 32:64, speed. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws which prohibit bicyclists from entering the roadway in an unexpected manner, enforce laws which affect a motor vehicle driver‘s ability to avoid a crash, such as speed. Enforce on-street parking regulations near driveways, alleys and corners. Enforce building codes and/or zoning ordinances prohibiting visual obstructions at driveways, alleys and corners. Note visual obstructions on crash reports. Education countermeasures: Teach bicyclists to stop and scan left-right-left before entering the roadway; teach motorists to reduce their speed and anticipate where bicyclists may enter the road. Engineering countermeasures: Create street designs which discourage bicyclists from entering the road at locations other than driveways and intersections, limit obstructions such as vegetation and parked cars.

Crash Type Motorist turn/merge into bicyclist‘s path Motorist driving out from a stop sign or flashing red light Motorist exiting a driveway or alley Bicyclist rideout/through intersection Motorist overtaking bicyclist

Ross Frequency 34% 16%

Hunter Frequency 12% 11%

10% 7%

7% 17%

4%

9%

Motorist turn/merge into bicyclist’s path Description: This crash type occurs when a motorist turns into the path of a bicyclist. The most common forms of this crash occurred when the motorist turned left in front of a bicyclist going the opposite direction (23% Ross; 6% Hunter), and when the motorist turned right in front of a bicyclist traveling parallel to him/her (7% Ross, 5% Hunter). Causes: Motorist did not adequately scan for traffic and failed to observe bicyclist in time to avoid crash; motorist misjudged speed of bicyclist; motorist‘s view of bicyclist was blocked by other traffic; improper passing. Relevant state statues: R.S. 32:101, required position and method of turning at intersections; R.S. 32:122, vehicle turning left at intersection; R.S. 32:73, passing a vehicle on the left. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws for motorists (bicyclists) which affect safe turning, right-of-way and passing. Education countermeasures: Teach adult bicyclists that this is a common crash type and to watch oncoming/overtaking drivers for indications that they will turn across your path. Learn emergency/evasive maneuvers (instant turn, quick stop, etc.). Encourage bicyclists to wear bright and retro reflective clothing. Teach motorists to scan for and yield to bicyclists before turning; not to pass a bicyclist close to an intersection or driveway where they are planning to turn right. Engineering countermeasures: Time traffic signals to avoid trapping bicyclists. Reduce visual obstructions at intersections. Intersections should be well lit at night.

According to the Ross and Hunter studies, these are the types of crashes that adult bicyclists are most often involved in. The Ross study had very few fatal crashes to study, so percentages are listed for all crashes.

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Motorist driving out from a stop sign Description: Motorist facing a stop sign fails to yield to a bicyclist. Motorist had stopped at stop sign before proceeding in 90 percent of these crashes in the Ross study, but then failed to yield to the bicyclist before proceeding. About half of the bicyclists in the Ross study had been operating on a sidewalk and were struck in a crosswalk (15% in the Hunter study). 94 percent of the bicyclists in the Ross study struck in the crosswalk were operating against the flow of traffic in the adjacent roadway. Causes: Motorist did not scan to the right for pedestrian or bicyclist traffic on sidewalk before proceeding after stopping. Bicyclist assumed motorist had seen him/her and would remain stopped until he/she passed. Motorist misjudged the speed of the bicyclist. Sidewalk riding (legal or not) is often a contributing factor in bicycle vs. motor vehicle crashes. Sidewalk riding places the bicyclist in an unexpected location for motorists, especially if the bicyclist is riding against the flow of traffic in the adjacent roadway. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:123, stop at stop sign. R.S. 32:71, Driving on right side of road. R.S. 32:197, riding on roadways and bicycle paths. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce stop sign violations for motorists (bicyclists). Education countermeasures: Teach motorists to scan the full width of the street for bicyclists and the sidewalk in both directions for pedestrians and bicyclists before proceeding from a stop sign. Teach bicyclists that this is a common crash type especially if operating on the sidewalk against traffic. Do not ride out from the sidewalk in front of a stopped motorist unless you have eye contact/communication with the driver and are sure the driver is waiting for you to cross. Engineering countermeasures: Only place stop signs where they are warranted. Eliminate site obstructions near intersections to allow good visibility of both the road and sidewalk for a driver stopped behind the stop bar. Provide good lighting of intersections at night.

Motorist exiting a driveway or alley Description: Bicyclist is struck by a motorist while the motorist is exiting a driveway or alley. The motorist was facing forward in 88 percent of the crashes in the Ross study; 75 percent of the bicyclists were struck on the sidewalk in the Ross study, with 78 percent of these traveling against traffic. In the Hunter study, 48 percent of the bicyclists were struck on the sidewalk, with 85 percent of these traveling against traffic. Causes: Motorist fails to stop and/or scan for bicyclists; bicyclist assumed motorist had seen him/her and would remain stopped until he/she passed. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:123, stop at stop sign; R.S. 32:124. vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building. Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce laws which require motorists to stop and yield before crossing sidewalks and entering traffic. Education countermeasures: Teach motorists the importance of stopping before entering traffic and to scan sidewalks and street for bicyclists; teach bicyclists to make good eye contact with motorists and not to assume that they have been seen, especially when the bicyclist is operating on the sidewalk. If riding on the sidewalk, ride in the same direction as traffic in the adjacent roadway. Engineering countermeasures: Eliminate visual obstructions and create better on-street bicycle accommodations. Bicyclist rideout/through intersection Description: Bicyclist rides-out after stopping/slowing at an intersection or rides through and intersection without stopping and strikes a vehicle. Causes: Bicyclist has gone through intersections without stopping in the past and has observed motor vehicles running through the intersection. Bicyclist was distracted, does not look for traffic and enters the intersection without stopping. Bicyclist may see vehicle and assumes the motorist can see them. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:123, stop at stop sign.

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Enforcement countermeasures: Community wide enforcement of laws relating to rideout/through intersections of both bicyclists and motorists. Education countermeasures: Teach bicyclists that riding out or through an intersection is a violation that is a common bicycle/motor vehicle crash type. Teach bicyclists to scan both ways for motor vehicles prior to entering the intersection. They are a vehicle and must follow the same rules and regulations as a motor vehicle. Engineering countermeasures: Only place stop signs where warranted. Traffic roundabouts eliminate cross traffic and the need to stop at intersections. Motorist overtaking Description: Bicyclist is struck from behind by a motorist going in the same direction. More often than not these crashes occurred on rural roads at night and alcohol was often involved (motorist and/or bicyclist). This crash type is different from the bicyclist unexpected turn/merge crash type because the bicyclist did not enter the motorist‘s lane of travel. This type of crash is often cited by bicyclists as a reason to ride against the flow of traffic. However, it needs to be emphasized to bicyclists that the dangers of riding against traffic and frequency of crashes resulting from that action far outweigh the dangers and likeihood of a being struck from behind. Causes: Speed, alcohol, improper lane usage and/or passing, inadequate bicycle lighting and reflectorization. All that is legally required on the rear of a bicycle at night is a red reflector. It does not matter if the bicyclsit had a headlight or not, the motorist was overtaking. Relevant state statutes: R.S. 32:64, Speed; R.S. 32:329, Bicycles; front lamps; side and rear reflectors; R.S. 14:98, Operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OWI - motorists only). R.S. 32:73, Passing a vehicle on the left. R.S. 32:76.1, Passing bicycles Enforcement countermeasures: Enforce bicycle laws and encourage better lighting of bicycles, beyond what is required by law which may not be sufficient. Enforce speed and OWI laws, which may also be contributing factors.

Education countermeasures: Train bicyclists to use proper equipment, teach motorists to search for bicycles and not to drive faster than what their headlights can illuminate. Educate motorists to pass bicyclists no closer than three feet. Engineering countermeasures: Construct wider curb lanes and paved shoulders; provide sufficient lighting for night riding. In the Cross and Hunter studies, males were four times more likely to be involved in a crash than females, but in the Ross study, males were only two times as likely as females to be involved in a crash. Sidewalk riding (legal or not) is often a contributing factor in bicycle vs. motor vehicle crashes. Sidewalk riding places the bicyclist in an unexpected location for motorists, especially if the bicyclist is riding against the flow of traffic in the adjacent roadway.

As can be seen from the data collected in the studies by Cross and Fisher, Ross and Hunter et al, pedestrian and bicycle crashes are predictable and thus preventable through a combined effort of engineering, education and enforcement. In the majority of crashes, some traffic law was broken either by the pedestrian, bicyclist, motorist or a combination thereof. For this reason, it is vitally important that law enforcement officers take an active role in enforcing laws, which affect pedestrian and bicycle safety. Examples of violations which affect pedestrian and bicyclist safety include:

Pedestrians on highways or interstate highways Sudden entry into roadway Traffic-control signal Pedestrian-control signals Crossing at other than cross walks

R.S. 32:216 R.S. 32:212(B) R.S. 32:232 R.S. 32:233 R.S. 32:213

Riding on roadways and bicycle paths Stop at stop sign Traffic-control signal

R.S. 32:197 R.S. 32:123 R.S. 32:232

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Required position and method of turning at intersections Bicycles; front lamps; side and rear reflectors Driving on right side of road.

4. Stutts, J. An analysis of Bicycle Accident
R.S. 32:101 R.S. 32:329 R.S. 32:71 Data from Ten North Carolina Hospital Emergency Rooms. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Highway Safety Research Center, 1986.

5. Stutts, J.C., Williamson, J.E., Sheldon, F.C.
―Bicycle accidents: An examination of hospital emergency room reports and comparison with police accident data.‖ Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, 1988.

Speed Stop at stop sign Traffic-control signal Required position and method of turning at intersections Pedestrians right of way in cross-walks Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building Vehicle turning left at intersection Passing a vehicle on the left Limitations on passing bicycles Operating a vehicle while intoxicated

R.S. 32:64 R.S. 32:123 R.S. 32:232

6. Regional Planning Commission Jefferson,
R.S. 32:101 R.S. 32:212 Orleans, St. Bernard and Tammany Parishes. 2005 New Orleans Metropolitan Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, September 2006.

7. Consumer Products Safety Review.
R.S. 32:124 R.S. 32:122 R.S. 32:73 R.S.32:76.1 R.S. 14:98 Consumer Products Safety Commission. 05 September 2007. <www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/cpsr_nws18. pdf>.

8. United States. Dept. of Transportation.
More Bicycles More Accidents (Contract No. DOT-HS-7-01726). Washington: National Highway Safety Administration.

9. William W. Hunter, Jane C. Stutts. Injuries
Regardless of the above-mentioned studies, however, it is important to remember that each jurisdiction is unique and may have slightly different crash statistics. Enforcement should be targeted to the specific needs of the jurisdiction. to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on hospital Emergency Department Data. USDOT, FHWA Publication No FHWA-RD-99-078. 1999.

10. Forester, John. Effective Cycling.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993.

1. United States. Dept. of Transportation.
Traffic Safety Facts 2007; Pedestrians. Washington: National Highway Safety Administration, 2008.

11. Baker, Susan P., et al. Injuries to Bicyclists:
A National Perspective. St. James: John Hopkins Injury Prevention Center, 1993.

2. Louisiana State University Highway Safety
Research Group. 2007 Louisiana Traffic Records Data Report. Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. 2008.

12. Cross K.D., and Fisher, G. A Study of
Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches. Volume I. Washington, DC: National Highway Safety Administration, September 1977 (Contract No. DOT-HS-4-00982, Ref. PB 282 280).

3. United States. Dept. of Transportation.
Traffic Safety Facts 2007; Pedalcylists. Washington: National Highway Safety Administration, 2008.

13. Hunter, et al. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash
Types of the Early 1990’s. USDOT, FHWA publication No. FHWA-RD-95-163. 1996.

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14. Ross, Arthur. How Bicycle Crashes
Happen. Madison: Madison Department of Transportation, 1992.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. State why law enforcement officers should receive pedestrian, bicycle and motorist education. Describe several ways people receive pedestrian, bicycle and motorist education. Describe how children differ from adults in their ability to walk and cycle safely. List safety education target audiences and describe educational goals for each. Explain why wearing a bicycle helmet is important. Describe several ways officers can provide pedestrian and bicycle education.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Have one-third less peripheral vision than adults. Are not able to perceive danger until they are about nine or 10 years old. Cannot easily judge a car‘s speed and distance. Are easily distracted. Often have difficulty determining the direction of sound. May be impatient and impulsive. Assume that if they can see a car, its driver must be able to see them. Mix fantasy and reality. Concentrate on only one thing at a time. Imitate the (often bad) behavior of others, especially older children and adults.

Pedestrian and bicycle education is important for everyone, adults, children, pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, law enforcement officers and others working in the traffic safety field. Without better education, it is unrealistic to expect that there will be a positive change in pedestrian or bicycle safety in the near future. Improving the skills and knowledge of pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists is important in reducing crash rates. ―( Pedestrians and bicyclists) . . . learn from experience how to avoid … collisions, even though this skill is never taught in school.‖(1) With education, they will learn even faster. Pedestrian and bicycle education is especially important for children. For most children, walking, and then bicycling is their first exposure to the complexities of traffic. It has been said that good pedestrians and bicyclists make better drivers. Children, however, are not just small adults, they have different psychological and motor skills, and these change with age. We need to understand children‘s developmental stages in order to assess their limitations in dealing with traffic, and how to teach them to avoid crashes.

People receive pedestrian and bicycle education from several sources, all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Self-taught: Inexpensive and convenient but may be timeconsuming, and there is no one to learn from; bad habits may be learned and retained. Peers: Convenient and fun, but the information and skills being learned may not be appropriate. Parents: Parents generally have the best interests of their children in mind however, they may not be available; and if they are, they may have bad information and habits. Schools: Very few schools teach pedestrian and bicycle education, but there are several educational curricula available (e.g., Safe Routes To School, The Basics of Bicycling and Bike Ed). Law Enforcement: Pedestrian and bicycle education can be formal or informal. Formal education often includes safety rodeos, jamborees, and school talks. While these are all appropriate activities for law enforcement officers to be involved in, the concern is that the officers doing the teaching may not have been taught themselves. Many

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people incorrectly assume that because a person is a law enforcement officer that he/she is an ―expert‖ and can teach transportation safety. Many officers have not ridden a bicycle in years nor have they gone through any formal pedestrian or bicycle safety education. Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Education Experts: Various professionals including state and local pedestrian and bicycle consultants and coordinators have formalized training in many aspects of pedestrian and bicycle safety and education. These experts can provide an invaluable resource. Unfortunately, there are not as many of these professionals as needed and there may be a fee attached to their services. ENFORCEMENT can be thought of as informal education by law enforcement officers. Every contact that a law enforcement officer has with a pedestrian, bicyclist or motorist sends some kind of message. If an officer sees a violation but fails to act, the message to the offender is that the police do not care and that the violator is not doing anything wrong. This one action, or more precisely, inaction, can defeat hours of good education. Likewise, the law enforcement officer who fails to stop a motorist for violating a pedestrian‘s or bicyclist‘s rights sends the message to motorists that they are more important than other roadway users and can foster a hostile environment for all. Enforcement of pedestrian and bicycle laws, and rights, by police, be it a quick verbal warning or a written citation, can very effectively reinforce the formal safety messages that children and adults are getting. The chart below is one expert‘s estimate of the approximate distance and time required to learn traffic-safe cycling:(1) Type of Learning Self-Teaching Club-Cycling Learning From Books Effective Cycling Inst. (30 hour course) Miles 50,000 5,000 2,500 800 Months 120-240 24 12 3

outside but away from traffic and on the street. Classroom training is very important for learning the concepts and theories associated with walking and bicycling, but it does not take the place of good hands-on instruction. Out-oftraffic instruction adds to classroom work, but it is when students get out on the streets where they actually interact with traffic that the learning becomes real. Walking and definitely riding a bicycle, have skill components and, like any other skills, must be learned through experience, trial and error. No one would expect you to learn how to shoot a gun by reading a book or by having someone explain it to you. The same is true of walking and bicycle riding. Law enforcement officers are in the enviable position of being able to enforce laws, as well as educate, to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety. Yet, while pedestrian and bicycle education are certainly appropriate activities for police to be involved in, it should not replace their primary responsibility for enforcement of laws. Police are the only ones who can enforce laws to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety - others can educate. Arthur Ross, the Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator for the City of Madison, Wisconsin, has developed a table, which sets up an ongoing program of traffic safety starting at the youngest ages and progressing through driver‘s education. This table identifies developmental ability groups and what each needs to hear, see, and practice. It can be very helpful to law enforcement officers when asked to present or evaluate safety programs.

Pedestrian and bicycle education traditionally takes place in three settings: the classroom,

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Target Audience Kids 0-4 (preschool)

Secondary Audience Parents Day Care Providers Preschool Teachers Motorists Police Officers Parents Preschool Teachers Teachers Motorists Police Officers

Educational Goals Directed at parents: How to safely bike with children in a child seat or bike trailer. Riding toy safety (big wheels, etc.); driveway and sidewalk issues; stay out of street (boundaries); helmets. General focus on pedestrian safety. How to cross a street safely; mid-block crossing; curb/edge of road as boundary. Look left-right-left for traffic. Visibility issues (e.g., parked car as a visual screen); make own decision when it is safe to cross, do not just follow the leader. Note: These lessons apply to bicycle safety as well. Beginning bicycling on the street; how to enter the street safely (reemphasis of previous age group lessons); which side of the road to ride on; checking for traffic from behind before turning or changing roadway position; stop signs; hazard awareness and avoidance; communicating with other road users; helmets. Learning should take place on-bike as much as possible. Continuation of previous age group skills and move on to more advanced skills: emergency stop; rock dodge; instant turn; lane position in traffic when turning; multi-geared bikes (cadence); route selection; bike and helmet selection, fit, and adjustment; how to fix a flat tire; nutrition for bicycling (eating and drinking); teaching bicycling as a life-long activity. There are two tracks to follow at this age group: continuation of advanced bicycling skills (operating a bicycle in traffic as a vehicle) and, in driver‘s education, teaching how motorists safely interact with bicyclists (and pedestrians) in traffic. Operating a bicycle as a vehicle in traffic; everything listed above. How to safely share the road with pedestrians and bicyclists. Pedestrians‘, Bicyclists‘ and motorists‘ rights and responsibilities vis-à-vis each other. Proper walking techniques, bike and helmet size, fit, and adjustment; encourage parents to walk and ride with their children, observe their abilities, and grant independence/responsibility as each child is ready. Most parents will need all the information listed above for adult pedestrians and bicyclists as well as the specific information for their children‘s age groups. All of the above as well as the importance of enforcement (of pedestrian, bicycle and motorist violations) as part of the overall traffic safety program.

Kids 5-7 (Grades K-2)

Kids 8-10 (Grades 3-5)

Parents Teachers After School Programs Motorists Police Officers

Kids 11-14 (Grades 6-9)

Parents Teachers Motorists Police Officers

Kids 15-18 (Grades 10-12)

Adult Bicyclists Motorists

Parents Teachers Driver‘s Ed Instructors Motorists Police Officers Motorists Police Officers Police Officers

Parents

Day Care Providers Preschool Teachers After School Programs Youth Group Leaders Police Officers

Police Officers

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cent. Forty percent of bicyclists admitted to hospitals and 70-80 percent of fatally injured bicyclists have head injuries.(3) While most pedestrian and bicycle crashes occur during daylight hours, anyone who has driven a car at night knows how difficult it can be to see unlit pedestrians and bicyclists. Bicyclists are required to have a front light that can be seen for at least 500 feet, a red rear and side facing reflectors, R.S. 32:329. While using a light of some kind is the best way to improve pedestrian visibility, wearing clothing with retro-reflective material will help as well. When was the last time that you passed a pedestrian at night that was only visible because of the retro-reflective material incorporated into their shoes? Visibility of pedestrians and bicyclists can be greatly enhanced through the use of such retro-reflective items as ankle bands, vests and tape added to clothing, helmets and bicycles. Note: Pedestrians and bicyclists are not required by law to use retro-reflective clothing and/or materials, and only bicyclists are required to use lights and reflectors. Motorists must use extra care at night to avoid striking pedestrians and bicyclists using sidewalks and roadways. Helmet Types Regardless of style, all helmets must now meet a single Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) safety standard. Hard shell: May have some advantages in certain types of crashes, usually a little bit heavier, more durable. Micro shell: Lighter than most hard shell helmets, good durability; by far the most common type in use today. No shell: Usually the lightest, may have disadvantages in some types of crashes and usually require a helmet cover. Few helmets of this type are still being sold. NOTE: Children under 12 months of age do not have sufficient neck strength to support a helmet and should be protected in some other way. An infant restraint seat strapped inside a bicycle trail may work. Consult a pediatrician for information specific to your child. Why don‘t people wear helmets? Uncomfortable Hot Heavy Too expensive Nerdy image Peer pressure Lack of parental commitment or knowledge Community leaders not setting helmetwearing example Never thought about it; unaware of the need Messes up the hair Bicycle helmets cost $10 and up but, with quantity purchase, prices may be reduced to less than $10 per helmet. Discounted helmets may be obtained through bicycle rodeos, safety days and association with some service clubs and organizations. Proper fit is important to the function of a helmet. Often, helmets are worn improperly, thus, reducing their effectiveness. A properly fit helmet should be snug and ride level with the ground when looking straight ahead, not tipped backwards. The chinstrap should be snug, not

There are many people who advocate the ―quick fix‖ approach to bicycle safety. ―Just wear a helmet,‖ they say. Granted, the single most important thing that a person can do to increase their chances of surviving a bicycle crash is to wear a bicycle helmet every time that they ride. But, helmets do not make bicycling safer; they make crashes safer. To improve the safety of bicyclists, to decrease the number of bicycle crashes that occur, communities must create traffic environments that are conducive to bicycling. Bicycle helmets are really a last line of defense. If all else fails though, you will be glad you were wearing your helmet. About 540,000 bicyclists visit emergency rooms with injuries every year. Of those, about 67,000 have head injuries, and 27,000 have injuries serious enough to be hospitalized.(3) 1 in 8 of the cyclists with reported injuries has a brain injury.(3) Two-thirds of the deaths here are from traumatic brain injury.(3) A very high percentage of cyclists' brain injuries can be prevented by a helmet, estimated at anywhere from 45 to 88 per

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tight. You should be able to slip one finger between the chin and the strap. Where the front and back straps join, they should form a ―V‖ just below each ear. When properly fitted, you should not be able to pull or twist the helmet off when the chin strap is on correctly. NOTE: Children under the age of twelve are required to wear an approved helmet when operating or riding as a passenger on a bicycle. The helmet must fit well and be fastened securely upon the head with the straps of the helmet, R.S. 32:199.

1. Forester, John. Effective Cycling.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993.

2. The New Children in Traffic: Updated and 3.
Revised. Fredericksburg, VA: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1999. Bicycle Helmet Statistics. Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. 10 September 2007. <www.bhsi.org/stats.htm>.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. State why it is important for law enforcement officers to be familiar with laws which relate to walking. 2. Display a working knowledge of laws related to walking with special emphasis on those laws whose enforcement is most likely to prevent deaths and injuries.

(13) "Crosswalk" means: (a) That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or, in absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway. (b) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. (16) "Driver" means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. (25) "Highway" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for the purpose of vehicular travel, including bridges, causeways, tunnels and ferries; synonymous with the word "street." (26) "Intersection" means: (a) The area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. (c) The junction of an alley with a street or highway shall not constitute an intersection. (27) "Interstate highway" means a fully controlled access highway which is a part of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. (40) "Motor vehicle" means every vehicle which is self-propelled, and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, but excluding a motorized bicycle. "Motor vehicle" shall also include a "low-speed vehicle" which is a four-wheeled, electric-powered vehicle with a maximum speed of not less than twenty miles per hour but not more than twentyfive miles per hour and is equipped with the minimum motor vehicle equipment appropriate for vehicle safety as required in 49 C.F.R. 571.500.

Traffic laws exist for the protection of people and property and to ensure the smooth and efficient flow of traffic. But, in order to achieve this, people, especially law enforcement officers, must be aware of, and abide by, these laws. Law enforcement officers, logically, tend only to enforce laws with which they are familiar and that they can defend. The following is a comprehensive list of state pedestrian and vehicular laws related to walking. Some of the laws are followed by a brief discussion of issues associated with their enforcement. Although there are many laws which affect pedestrians, only a selected few can have a significant impact on safety. There is a list of these ―most important‖ laws at the end of the chapter. In your discussions of these laws remember that laws are not static. They are ever changing to keep pace with new information, technology, politics, and other variables. Also remember that experienced pedestrians may know the laws relating to them better than you do. For a more complete review of these laws, contact the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission or visit the Louisiana legislative website: (http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/tsrssearch.htm).

§ 32:1. Definitions When used in this Chapter, the following words and phrases have the meaning ascribed to them in this Section, unless the context clearly indicates a different meaning:

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(44) "Operator" means every person, other than a chauffeur, who drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon a highway or who is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. (57) "Right of way" means the privilege of the immediate use of the highway. (59) "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular traffic, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. A divided highway has two or more roadways. (65) "Shoulder" means the portion of the highway contiguous with the roadway for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use, and for lateral support of base and surface. (66) "Sidewalk" means that portion of a highway between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a highway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for the use of pedestrians. (74) "Stop" means, when required, the complete cessation from movement. (76) "Street" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for the purpose of vehicular travel, including bridges, causeways, tunnels, and ferries; synonymous with the word "highway." (81) "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. (82) "Traffic control device" means all signs, signals, markings, and devices, not inconsistent with this Chapter, placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic. (83) "Traffic control signal" means a type of highway traffic signal, manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.

(92) "Vehicle" means every device by which persons or things may be transported upon a public highway or bridge, except devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. A bicycle or a ridden animal shall be a vehicle, and a trailer or semitrailer shall be a separate vehicle. Note: There is no state definition of a ―Person with a disability,‖ however the federal Americans with Disabilities Act states the following: ADA § 3.2.A or as 42 U.S.C. § 12202(2)(A) Disability: a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual;

§ 32:123. Stop signs and yield signs; penalties for violations B. Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or traffic-control signal, every driver and operator of a vehicle approaching a stop intersection indicated by a stop sign shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right of way to all vehicles which have entered the intersection from another highway or which are approaching so closely on said highway as to constitute an immediate hazard. Note: Vehicle operators often stop within the crosswalk making it difficult, and dangerous, for pedestrians to cross within the crosswalk. § 32:124. Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from a private road, driveway, alley or building, shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across any alleyway or driveway, and shall yield the right of way to any pedestrian as may be necessary to avoid collision, and shall yield the right of way to all approaching vehicles so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.

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Note: This violation is particularly important to enforce where there are visual obstructions near the sidewalk and/or the road (e.g., vegetation, zero lot line setbacks.) § 32:143. Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified places A. No person shall stand, or park a vehicle, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or traffic control device, in any of the following places: (1) On a sidewalk; (2) In front of a public or private driveway; (3) Within an intersection; (5) On a crosswalk; (6) Within twenty feet of a crosswalk at an intersection; (8) Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb, or within twenty feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone; (14) At any place where official signs prohibit such; (15) Any place where parking will obscure or obstruct visibility of any traffic control device. § 32:212. Pedestrians right of way in crosswalks A. When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way, slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or when the pedestrian is approaching closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger. B. No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close that it is impossible for the driver to yield. C. Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle. D. Sub-section A of this section shall not apply where the pedestrian is crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided. § 32:214. Drivers to exercise due care Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Part, every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian upon

any roadway and shall give warning by sounding the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any confused or incapacitated person upon a highway. § 32:217. Blind and incapacitated pedestrians; use of canes; persons in wheelchairs; vehicles B. Whenever a pedestrian guided by a guide dog, or carrying in a raised or extended position a cane or walking stick which is metallic or white in color, or white tipped with red, or a pedestrian who requires a wheelchair or motorized wheelchair for transportation is crossing or attempting to cross a public street or highway, at or near an intersection or crosswalk, the driver of every vehicle approaching the intersection or crosswalk shall take such precautions as may be necessary to avoid injuring or endangering such pedestrian, and if injury or danger to such pedestrian can be avoided only by bringing his vehicle to a full stop, he shall bring his vehicle to a full stop. C. Nothing contained in this Section shall be construed to deprive any totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person, not carrying such a cane or walking stick or not being guided by a dog, of the rights and privileges conferred by law upon pedestrians crossing streets or highways, nor shall the failure of such totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person to carry a cane or walking stick, or to be guided by a guide dog upon the streets, highways or sidewalks of this state, be held to constitute nor be evidence of contributory negligence. § 32:219. Pedestrians right of way on sidewalks The driver of a motor vehicle emerging from or entering an alley, private road or driveway, or building shall yield the right of way to any pedestrian approaching on any sidewalk extending across such alley, road or driveway, or building entrance. § 32:232. Traffic-control signals Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles… as follows:

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(1) GREEN indication: (a) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn. But vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, shall yield the right of way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited. Note: Even with a green light, vehicle operators are required to ―…yield the right of way …to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited.‖ (b) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. (c) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in R.S. 32:233, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk. (3) Steady RED indication: (a) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, or if none, then before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in Subparagraph (c) of this Paragraph. (b) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow and, unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, or if none, then before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication permitting the movement indicated by such red arrow is shown except as provided in Subparagraph (c) of this Paragraph. (c) Except when a sign prohibits a turn, vehicular traffic facing any steady red signal may

cautiously enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way street into a one-way street, after stopping as required by Subparagraph (a) or Subparagraph (b) of this Paragraph. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. Note: Vehicle operators often stop within the crosswalk making it difficult, and dangerous, for pedestrians to cross within the crosswalk. Further, pedestrians are often struck at intersections by motorists who fail to search the intersection sufficiently for pedestrians before turning right on red. In fact, some motorists are so inattentive that they do not even come to a complete stop before making this maneuver – an even more dangerous situation. (d) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestriancontrol signal as provided in R.S. 32:233, a pedestrian facing a steady red or red arrow signal shall not enter the roadway. (4) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this Section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking, the stop shall be made at the signal. § 32:233. Pedestrian-control signals Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting the words "Walk" or "Don't Walk" are in place, such signals shall indicate as follows: (1) Flashing or Steady WALK--A pedestrian facing the signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right of way by a driver of a vehicle. (2) Flashing or Steady DON‖T WALK – No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but a pedestrian who has partially completed the crossing on the ―walk‖ signal shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the ―Don‘t Walk‖ signal is showing. § 32:281. Limitations on backing A. The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless such movement can be made with reasonable safety and without interfering with other traffic.

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§ 32:58. Careless operation Any person operating a motor vehicle on the public roads of this state shall drive in a careful and prudent manner, so as not to endanger the life, limb, or property of any person. Failure to drive in such a manner shall constitute careless operation. § 32:64. General speed law A. No person shall drive a vehicle on the highway within this state at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and potential hazards then existing, having due regard for the traffic on, and the surface and width of, the highway, and the condition of the weather, and in no event at a speed in excess of the maximum speeds established by this Chapter or regulation of the department made pursuant thereto. § 32:80. Overtaking and passing school buses A. (1) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway meeting or overtaking from any direction any school bus that has stopped for the purpose of receiving or discharging any school children shall stop the vehicle not less than thirty feet from the school bus before reaching such school bus when there are in operation on said school bus visual signals as required by R.S. 32:318, and said driver shall not proceed until such bus resumes motion or the visual signals are no longer activated. (2) The driver of any school bus is authorized to notify the appropriate law enforcement authority of any violation of this Subsection within twenty-four hours of the violation. The school bus driver by affidavit shall provide the authority with the color and license number of the vehicle involved in a violation. (3) The appropriate authority may issue a citation to the owner or, in the case of a leased vehicle, the lessee of the vehicle involved, on the basis of this information. The owner or lessee shall not be cited if the vehicle is stolen, or if another driver is cited for the violation. (4) Any person convicted of violating this Subsection shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both, in accordance with the provisions of R.S. 32:398.2, and shall have his driver's license suspended in accordance with the provisions of R.S. 32:414(A)(2). Note: A citation may be issued for this violation even if the driver of the vehicle cannot be

identified. School bus drivers may report violating vehicles for prosecution. § 32:300. Possession of alcoholic beverages in motor vehicles A. It shall be unlawful for the operator of a motor vehicle or the passenger in or on a motor vehicle, while the motor vehicle is operated on a public highway or right of way, to possess an open alcoholic beverage container, or to consume an alcoholic beverage, in the passenger area of a vehicle. § 14:98. Operating a vehicle while intoxicated A. (1) The crime of operating a vehicle while intoxicated is the operating of any motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, vessel or other means of conveyance when: (a) The operator is under the influence of alcoholic beverages; or (b) The operator‘s blood alcohol concentration is 0.08 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood; or (c) The operator is under the influence of any controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V as set forth in R.S. 40:964; or (d) (i) The operator is under the influence of a combination of alcohol and one or more drugs which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription. (e) (i) The operator is under the influence of a one or more drugs which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription.

§ 32:206. Electric mobility aids A. A person with a mobility impairment operating an electric mobility aid shall have the same rights as an able-bodied pedestrian to use streets, sidewalks, and walkways. In addition, an electric mobility aid may be operated on the following roadways during daylight hours only: (1) A road or street where the posted speed limit is twenty-five miles per hour or less or where suitable sidewalks or bicycle paths are not available. (2) A marked bicycle path or designated bicycle lane. (3) Within any residential subdivision.

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(4) Any street or roadway when necessary to cross or as a reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. 12131, et seq., because of physical barriers, such as a lack of curb cuts or sidewalks, to other means of access by persons using mobility aids. B. An electric mobility aid shall not be considered a vehicle for purposes of defining "equipment" as referenced in Part V of Chapter 1 of this Title. C. A valid driver's license shall not be prerequisite to operating an electric mobility aid. D. Electric mobility aids shall not be required to register and be insured in accordance with R.S. 32:51. E. As used in this Section, an "electric mobility aid" shall mean a mobility aid, usable indoors and designed for and used by individuals and which is prescribed by a physician for a medical condition that affects the user's ability to ambulate independently. To qualify as an electric mobility aid, a mobility aid must not be capable of exceeding a speed of twenty miles per hour on a paved surface when operating under its own power. F. A parish, municipality or the Department of Transportation and Development may prohibit or regulate the operation of an electric mobility aid on any road, sidewalk, street, or bicycle path under its jurisdiction if the governing body of the parish, municipality, or the Department of Transportation and Development determines that such a prohibition or regulation is necessary and in the interest of safety. § 32:212. Pedestrians right of way in crosswalks A. When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way, slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or when the pedestrian is approaching closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger. B. No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close that it is impossible for the driver to yield. C. Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.

D. Sub-section A of this section shall not apply where the pedestrian is crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided. § 32:213. Crossing at other than crosswalks A. Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right of way to all vehicles upon the roadway. B. Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk. Note: This violation is sometimes incorrectly called ―jay walking.‖ Crossing the road midblock is not in and of itself unlawful or necessarily dangerous (notwithstanding subsection B). What is illegal, and very dangerous, is entering the road at an unexpected location, mid-block, and interfering with vehicular traffic. Although vehicle operators have a near absolute responsibility not to strike a pedestrian, no matter where they are, the primary responsibility for avoiding conflicts mid-block falls on the pedestrian. At crosswalks, however, the primary responsibility for avoiding collisions falls on the vehicle operator. § 32:215. Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks. § 32:216. Pedestrians on highways or interstate highways A. Where sidewalks are provided, it shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent highway. B. Where sidewalks are not provided, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall, when practicable, walk only on the left side of the highway or its shoulder, facing traffic which may approach from the opposite direction. C. It shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to cross an interstate highway, except in the case of an emergency. Note: Pedestrians are only required to walk on the left side of the highway or its shoulder, facing traffic, when it is practicable (safe).

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§ 32:217. Blind and incapacitated pedestrians; use of canes; persons in wheelchairs; vehicles A. It is unlawful for any person, unless totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated, while on any public street or highway, to carry in a raised or extended position a cane or walking stick which is metallic or white in color or white tipped with red. C. Nothing contained in this Section shall be construed to deprive any totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person, not carrying such a cane or walking stick or not being guided by a dog, of the rights and privileges conferred by law upon pedestrians crossing streets or highways, nor shall the failure of such totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person to carry a cane or walking stick, or to be guided by a guide dog upon the streets, highways or sidewalks of this state, be held to constitute nor be evidence of contributory negligence. § 32:232. Traffic-control signals Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows: (1) GREEN indication: (c) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in R.S. 32:233, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk. (2) Steady YELLOW indication: (b) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in R.S. 32:233 a pedestrian facing a steady yellow signal is thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red signal is exhibited and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway. (3) Steady RED indication: (d) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestriancontrol signal as provided in R.S. 32:233, a pedestrian facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal shall not enter the roadway. (4) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this Section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application.

§ 32:233. Pedestrian-control signals Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting the words "Walk" or "Don't Walk" are in place, such signals shall indicate as follows: (1) Flashing or Steady WALK--A pedestrian facing the signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right of way by a driver of a vehicle. (2) Flashing or Steady DON'T WALK--No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but a pedestrian who has partially completed his crossing on the "Walk" signal shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the "Don't Walk" signal is showing. Note: Some pedestrians do not understand the intended, and legal, meaning of ―WALK‖ and ―DON‘T WALK‖ signals. This often causes confusion and dangerous interactions between pedestrians and motorists. Pedestrians may only enter a crosswalk when the ―WALK‖ signal is showing. Once the pedestrian has started to cross during the ―WALK‖ phase they may continue to cross even if the signal changes to ―DON‘T WALK‖. Entering the crosswalk during the ―DON‘T WALK‖ phase is dangerous because signal timing may prevent safe crossing (e.g., there is not enough time to cross before the light changes or turning movements across the crosswalk are allowed during this phase). § 14:1033. Disturbing the Peace A. Disturbing the peace is the doing of any of the following in such a manner as would foreseeably disturb or alarm the public (3) Appearing in an intoxicated condition

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Based on crash data, the laws, which will have the greatest affect on pedestrian safety include:

Stop at stop sign Traffic-control signal Pedestrians right-of-way on sidewalks Pedestrians right of way in cross-walks Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building Speed Drivers to exercise due care Possession of alcoholic beverages OWI

R.S. 32:123 R.S. 32:232 R.S. 32:219 R.S. 32:212

R.S. 32:124 R.S. 32:64 R.S. 32:214 R.S. 32:300 R.S. 14:98

Pedestrians on highways or interstate highways Sudden entry into roadway Traffic-control signal Pedestrian-control signals Crossing at other than cross walks Disturbing the peace

R.S. 32:216(B) R.S. 32:212(B) R.S. 32:232 R.S. 32:233 R.S. 32:213 R.S.14:103

Pedestrians Under the Influence Currently it is not illegal to walk while under the influence of intoxicants or other drugs. R.S. 32:300 and R.S. 32:661 apply to motor vehicle operators only. Nonetheless, walking while under the influence is very dangerous for walkers and those around them. Officers should look for opportunities to remove intoxicated pedestrians from the road to a safer location.

1.

Hunter, et al. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s. USDOT, FHWA publication No. FHWA-RD-95-163. 1996. Louisiana Criminal Law and Motor Vehicle Handbook, 2006-2007 Edition. LexisNexis. 2006.

2.

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in this Section, unless the context clearly indicates a different meaning: Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. State why it is important for law enforcement officers to be familiar with laws which relate to bicycling. 2. Display a working knowledge of laws related to bicycling with special emphasis on laws whose enforcement is most likely to prevent deaths and injuries. (4) "Bicycle" means every device propelled by human power upon which any person may ride and designed to travel on two tandem wheels. (13) "Crosswalk" means: (a) That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or, in absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway. (b) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. Note: Bicyclists on the street must yield the right of way to pedestrians in crosswalks. Bicyclists who dismount from their bike and walk in a crosswalk are considered to be pedestrians. (16) "Driver" means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. (25) "Highway" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for the purpose of vehicular travel, including bridges, causeways, tunnels and ferries; synonymous with the word "street." (26) "Intersection" means: (a) The area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. (c) The junction of an alley with a street or highway shall not constitute an intersection. (27) "Interstate highway" means a fully controlled access highway which is a part of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways.

Traffic laws exist for the protection of people and property and to ensure the smooth and efficient flow of traffic. But, in order to achieve this, people, especially law enforcement officers, must be aware of, and abide by, these laws. Law enforcement officers, logically, tend only to enforce laws with which they are familiar and that they can defend. Remember, per R.S. 32:194, ―Every person riding a bicycle upon a highway of this state shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this Chapter, except as to special regulations in this Part and except as to those provisions of this Chapter which by their very nature can have no application.‖ The following is a comprehensive list of state laws related to bicycling. Some of the laws are followed by a brief discussion of issues associated with their enforcement. Although there are many laws which affect bicyclists, only a select few have a significant impact on safety. There is a list of these ―most important‖ laws at the end of the chapter. In your discussions of these laws remember that laws are not static. They are ever changing to keep pace with new information, technology, politics, and other variables. Also remember that experienced bicyclists may know the laws relating to them better than you do. For a more complete review of these laws, contact the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission or visit the Louisiana legislative website, http://www.legis.state.la.us/. § 32:1. Definitions When used in this Chapter, the following words and phrases have the meaning ascribed to them

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(28) "Laned roadway or highway" means a roadway or highway which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic. (40) "Motor vehicle" means every vehicle which is self-propelled, and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, but excluding a motorized bicycle. "Motor vehicle" shall also include a "low-speed vehicle" which is a four-wheeled, electric-powered vehicle with a maximum speed of not less than twenty miles per hour but not more than twentyfive miles per hour and is equipped with the minimum motor vehicle equipment appropriate for vehicle safety as required in 49 C.F.R. 571.500. (42) "Multiple-lane highway" means any highway with two or more clearly marked lanes for traffic in each direction. (44) "Operator" means every person, other than a chauffeur, who drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon a highway or who is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. (57) "Right of way" means the privilege of the immediate use of the highway. (59) "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular traffic, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. A divided highway has two or more roadways. (60) "Rotary traffic island" means any circular area of ground, surrounded by a highway or roadway which is designed to prevent the crossing of traffic on four or more otherwise intersecting highways, in order to require all traffic approaching it to proceed for some distance around a portion of the island before entering one of the intersecting highways and to prevent left hand turns onto such otherwise intersecting highways. (65) "Shoulder" means the portion of the highway contiguous with the roadway for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use, and for lateral support of base and surface. Note: This is an area of legal ambiguity as the definition of shoulder would seem to exclude

their use for bicyclists. However, in practice the shoulders of some roadways have been specifically designed for use by bicyclists, both allowing and encouraging people to operate bicycles in this area. (66) "Sidewalk" means that portion of a highway between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a highway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for the use of pedestrians. Note: No state statutes address bicyclists riding on sidewalks. However, some parishes and municipalities have local statutes prohibiting this behavior. When not prohibited, bicyclists riding on the sidewalk have the same rights and responsibilities as pedestrians, but must use greater care. (74) "Stop" means, when required, the complete cessation from movement. (76) "Street" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for the purpose of vehicular travel, including bridges, causeways, tunnels, and ferries; synonymous with the word "highway." (80) "Through highway" means every highway or portion thereof on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right of way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to yield the right of way to vehicles on such through highway in obedience to either a stop sign or a yield sign, when such signs are erected as provided in this Chapter. (81) "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. (82) "Traffic control device" means all signs, signals, markings, and devices, not inconsistent with this Chapter, placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic. (83) "Traffic control signal" means a type of highway traffic signal, manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is

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alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed. (92) "Vehicle" means every device by which persons or things may be transported upon a public highway or bridge, except devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. A bicycle or a ridden animal shall be a vehicle, and a trailer or semitrailer shall be a separate vehicle. Note: There is no state definition of a ―Person with a disability,‖ however the federal Americans with Disabilities Act states the following: ADA § 3.2.A or as 42 U.S.C. § 12202(2)(A) Disability: a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual;

intersection in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection in the safest lane lawfully available to traffic moving in such direction upon the roadway being entered. C. No person shall drive any vehicle through or over private property, including, but not limited to, any corner parking or driveway facility, from a highway solely for the purposes of entering another highway. Note: This statute applies to a motorist who turns right in front of a bicyclist stopped at an intersection in the curb lane. Vehicle operators are required to make a right turn from as close as practicable to the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway. Bicyclists can discourage this dangerous motorist activity by positioning themselves further into the middle of the lane, thus making it harder for the motorist to turn around them. Such positioning should be encouraged by law enforcement. § 32:122. Vehicle turning left at intersection The driver of a vehicle within an intersection intending to turn to the left shall yield the right of way to all vehicles approaching from the opposite direction which are within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard. Note: Left turning motorists are typically one of the leading causes of crashes for adult bicyclists. § 32:123. Stop signs and yield signs; penalties for violations B. Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or traffic-control signal, every driver and operator of a vehicle approaching a stop intersection indicated by a stop sign shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right of way to all vehicles which have entered the intersection from another highway or which are approaching so closely on said highway as to constitute an immediate hazard.

In all 50 states, bicycles are considered vehicles or are given the same rights and responsibilities as vehicles (see R.S. 32:194 below). § 32:101. Required position and method of turning at intersections A. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection shall proceed as follows: (1) Right turns. Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway. (2) Left turns on two-way roadways. At any intersection where traffic is permitted to move in both directions on each roadway entering the intersection, an approach for a left turn shall be made in that portion of the right half of the roadway nearest the center line thereof and by passing to the right of such center line where it enters the intersection and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the center line of the roadway being entered. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be made in that portion of the intersection to the left of the center of the intersection. (3) Left turns on other than two-way roadways. At any intersection where traffic is restricted to one direction on one or more of the roadways, the driver of a vehicle intending to turn left at any such intersection shall approach the

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§ 32:124. Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from a private road, driveway, alley or building, shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across any alleyway or driveway, and shall yield the right of way to any pedestrian as may be necessary to avoid collision, and shall yield the right of way to all approaching vehicles so close as to constitute an immediate hazard. Note: Vehicles must stop twice before entering the roadway—once before crossing the sidewalk, where many children and inexperienced bicyclists ride, and again before entering the roadway. Bicyclists riding against traffic are particularly exposed to these types of crashes. Motorists do not typically scan in their direction. § 32:212. Pedestrians right of way in crosswalks A. When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way, slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or when the pedestrian is approaching closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger. B. No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close that it is impossible for the driver to yield. C. Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle. D. Sub-section A of this section shall not apply where the pedestrian is crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided. Note: Bicyclists on the street must yield the right of way to pedestrians in crosswalks. Bicyclists who dismount from their bike and walk in a crosswalk are considered to be pedestrians. § 32:232. Traffic-control signals

Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles… as follows: (1) GREEN indication: (a) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn. But vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, shall yield the right of way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited. (b) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. (3) Steady RED indication: (a) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, or if none, then before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in Subparagraph (c) of this Paragraph. (b) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow and, unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, or if none, then before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication permitting the movement indicated by such red arrow is shown except as provided in Subparagraph (c) of this Paragraph. (c) Except when a sign prohibits a turn, vehicular traffic facing any steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way street into a one-way street, after stopping as required by Subparagraph (a) or Subparagraph (b) of this Paragraph. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an

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adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. (4) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this Section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking, the stop shall be made at the signal. § 32:398. Accident reports; when and to whom made; information aid; fees for copies; fees for accident photographs A. The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury to or death of any person or property damage in excess of five hundred dollars shall: (1) Immediately, by the quickest means of communication, give notice of the accident to the local police department if the accident occurs within an incorporated city or town or, if the accident occurs outside of an incorporated city or town, to the nearest sheriff's office or state police station. (2) Give his name, address, and the registration number of the vehicle he was driving and, upon request and if available, exhibit his license or permit to drive to any person injured in such accident or to the driver or occupant of or person attending any vehicle or other property damaged in the accident. (3) Give such information and, upon request, exhibit such license or permit to any police officer at the scene of the accident or who is investigating the accident. B. The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury to or death of any person or total property damage to an apparent extent of one hundred dollars or more shall, within twenty-four hours after the accident, forward a written report of the accident to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Any person who violates the provisions of this Subsection may be imprisoned for not more than sixty days or fined not more than one hundred dollars, or both. D. It shall be the duty of the state police or the sheriff's office to investigate all accidents required to be reported by this Section when the accident occurs outside the corporate limits of a city or town, and it shall be the duty of the police department of each city or town to investigate all accidents required to be reported by this Section when the accidents occur within the corporate

limits of the city or town. Every law enforcement officer who investigates an accident, as required by this Subsection, shall instruct the driver of each vehicle involved in the accident to report the following to all parties suffering injury or property damage as an apparent result of the accident: (1) The name and address of the owner and the driver of the vehicle. (2) The license number of the vehicle. (3) The name of the liability carrier for the vehicle, the name, address, and telephone number of the insurance agent who procured the liability policy providing coverage for the vehicle. F. The state police, any local police department, or any sheriff's office shall provide copies of crash reports to any interested person upon request and may charge a fee, not to exceed the sum of five dollars per report that does not exceed two pages, and seven dollars and fifty cents per report that exceeds two pages. G. The state police, any local police department, or any sheriff's office shall provide copies of photographs of accidents or other photographs required of the investigating agency, video tapes, audio tapes, and any extraordinary-sized documents, or documents stored on electronic media, to any interested person upon request and may charge a reasonable fee for such copies. Note: Bicyclists are subject to the same ―accident‖ reporting requirements as the operators of other ―vehicles.‖ § 32:281. Limitations on backing A. The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless such movement can be made with reasonable safety and without interfering with other traffic. § 32:58. Careless operation Any person operating a motor vehicle on the public roads of this state shall drive in a careful and prudent manner, so as not to endanger the life, limb, or property of any person. Failure to drive in such a manner shall constitute careless operation. § 32:64. General speed law A. No person shall drive a vehicle on the highway within this state at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and potential hazards then existing, having due regard for the traffic on, and the surface and width of, the highway, and the condition of the

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weather, and in no event at a speed in excess of the maximum speeds established by this Chapter or regulation of the department made pursuant thereto. § 32:73. Passing a vehicle on the left The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those limitations, exceptions, and special rules hereinafter stated: (1) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance, and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle. (2) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal, and shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle. Note: This statute is very important when discussing the ability of a bicyclist to operate in the traffic environment. Generally bicycles and motor vehicles are not given separate traffic lanes; they are required to share. In these situations, lane width is key to the ability of these two vehicles to operate (pass) within the same lane. There are traffic lanes which are too narrow to be shared (see the discussion of narrow lanes in the Engineering section.) This statute also applies to situations where a motorist passes a bicyclist and then reenters the lane without leaving enough room for the bicyclist. This is a common occurrence at intersections where the motorist tries to beat the bicyclist to the corner to make a right-hand turn. The car effectively ―cuts off‖ the bicycle and not therefore does not provide the require safe distance. § 32:76.1. Limitations on passing bicycles A. This Section shall be known as the Colin Goodier Protection Act B. The operator of a motor vehicle, when overtaking and passing a bicycle proceeding in the same direction on the roadway shall leave a safe distance between the motor vehicle and the bicycle of not less than three feet and shall maintain such clearance until safely past the overtaken bicycle. F. Any person who violates this Section shall be fined not more than two hundred and fifty dollars.

§ 32:77. No passing zones A. The Department is hereby authorized to determine those portions of any highway where overtaking and passing or driving to the left of the roadway would be especially hazardous, and shall by appropriate signs or markings on the roadway indicate the beginning and end of such zones, and when such signs and markings are in place and are clearly visible to an ordinary observant person, every driver shall obey the directions thereof. B. Where signs or markings are in place to define a no-passing zone as set forth in paragraph A, no driver shall at any time drive on the left side of the roadway within such zone, or on the left side of any pavement striping, designated to mark such no-passing zone, throughout its length. § 32:201. Harassment of bicyclist prohibited; penalties A. It shall be unlawful to harass, taunt or maliciously throw objects at or in the direction of any person riding a bicycle. B. Any person who violates this Section shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than thirty days. § 32:300. Possession of alcoholic beverages in motor vehicles A. It shall be unlawful for the operator of a motor vehicle or the passenger in or on a motor vehicle, while the motor vehicle is operated on a public highway or right of way, to possess an open alcoholic beverage container, or to consume an alcoholic beverage, in the passenger area of a vehicle. § 14:98. Operating a vehicle while intoxicated A. (1) The crime of operating a vehicle while intoxicated is the operating of any motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, vessel or other means of conveyance when: (a) The operator is under the influence of alcoholic beverages; or (b) The operator‘s blood alcohol concentration is 0.08 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood; or (c) The operator is under the influence of any controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V as set forth in R.S. 40:964; or (d) (i) The operator is under the influence of a combination of alcohol and one or more drugs

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which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription. (e) (i) The operator is under the influence of a one or more drugs which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription. (See note on page 52 regarding applicability of R.S. 14:98 to bicycles)

those provisions of this Chapter which by their very nature can have no application. § 32:195. Riding on bicycles A. A person propelling a bicycle shall not ride other than upon or astride a permanent or regular seat attached thereto. B. No bicycle shall be used to carry more persons at one time than the number for which it is designed and equipped. Note: Prohibits passengers from riding on handlebars, foot pegs, or cross bar.

§ 32:106. Methods of giving hand and arm signals All signals herein required to be given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner, and such signals shall indicate as follows: (1) Left turn--hand and arm extended horizontally, with the hand open and the back of the hand to the rear. (2) Right turn--hand and arm extended upward at an angle of forty-five degrees from shoulder or elbow, with the hand open and the back of the hand to the rear. (3) Stop or decrease speed--start--hand and arm extended downward at an angle of forty-five degrees from shoulder or elbow, with the hand open and the back of the hand to the rear. (4) Pulling from curb or side of highway--same as for left turn. Note: Some states now allow a right-hand turn to be indicated by a bicyclist extending the right arm and hand horizontally to the right. This may be easier to teach children and easier for following motorists to understand. This is not currently a legal signal in Louisiana. § 32:193. Operation of bicycles; general provision The regulations applicable to bicycles shall apply whenever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any path set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles, subject to those exceptions stated hereafter. § 32:194. Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles Every person riding a bicycle upon a highway of this state shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this Chapter, except as to special regulations in this Part and except as to

C. A person operating a bicycle shall at all times keep at least one hand upon the handle bars thereof. Note: It would be substantially safer if the bicyclist were required to keep both hands on the handle bars. This would require securing any carried items (packages, etc.) in a safe manner. § 32:196. Clinging to vehicles No person riding upon bicycle, any skates, skateboard or any other nonmotorized rideable device shall attach himself or the bicycle, device to any vehicle upon a highway. § 32:197. Riding on roadways and bicycle paths A. Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as practicable, exercising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction. Note: ―Practicable‖ has been interpreted to mean safe. Recall, from the engineering section, that the gutter flag of some roadways creates a dangerous longitudinal joint, a gap, in the road surface about 1 ½ - 2 feet from the curb. It is not safe for a bicyclist to operate near this gap. Also, debris, drain grates etc., and the curb head itself, make it unsafe to operate within the gutter. In these cases, the edge of the roadway would be considered ―obstructed.‖ B. Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles. C. Whenever a usable path for bicycles has been provided adjacent to a roadway, bicycle riders shall use such path and shall not use the roadway.

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Note: Requiring bicyclists to use so called ―side path‖ may not be practicable, or safe. Modern bike paths are generally, but not always, designed and built for bicyclists traveling at a maximum speed of 20 M.P.H. However, bicyclists often travel in excess of this speed. Motorists expect users of paths to be traveling at a slow rate of speed. They do not expect high speed (15+ M.P.H.) bicyclists at the intersections of roadways and paths. Under these conditions collisions between motorists and bicyclists are likely. There are many users of paths including: wheelchairs, baby strollers, walkers, dog walkers, joggers, in-line skaters, and child bicyclists. These users do not mix well with high speed bicyclists. Bicyclists fair best, and cause fewer conflicts, when they are allowed to ride on the roadway, even if there is an adjacent path. § 32:199. Bicycle helmets; restraining seats A. The following words and phrases when used in this Section shall have the meaning assigned to them: (1) "Approved helmet" means a bicycle helmet that meets or exceeds the following minimum bicycle helmet safety standards: (a) A bicycle helmet that was manufactured prior to March, 1999, shall meet or exceed the minimum bicycle helmet safety standards set by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation. (b) A bicycle helmet that was manufactured after March, 1999, shall meet or exceed the minimum bicycle helmet safety standards set by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. (2) "Bicycle" means a human-powered vehicle with two tandem wheels designed to transport, by pedaling, one or more persons. (3) "Operator" means a person who travels on a bicycle seated on a saddle seat from which that person is intended to and can pedal the bicycle. (4) "Passenger" means any person who travels on a bicycle in any manner except as an operator. (5) "Restraining seat" means a seat separate from the saddle seat of the operator of the bicycle that is fastened securely to the frame of the bicycle and is adequately equipped to restrain the passenger in such seat and protect such passenger from the moving parts of the bicycle. B. With regard to any bicycle used on a public roadway, public bicycle path, or other public right of way, no parent, guardian, or person with

legal responsibility for the safety and welfare of a child shall knowingly allow any of the following: (1) Such child under the age of twelve to operate or ride as a passenger on a bicycle without wearing an approved helmet of good fit fastened securely upon the head with the straps of the helmet. (2) Such child who weighs less than forty pounds or is less than forty inches in height to be a passenger on a bicycle without being properly seated in and adequately secured to a restraining seat. C. Notice shall be provided in accordance with the following provisions: (1) A person regularly engaged in the business of selling or renting bicycles shall post a sign stating the following: "Louisiana law requires a bicycle operator or passenger under the age of twelve years to wear a bicycle helmet when riding a bicycle. Louisiana law also requires a passenger who weighs less than forty pounds or is less than forty inches in height to be properly seated in and adequately secured to a restraining seat." (2) The sign must be at least twenty-four inches in length and twelve inches in width. The lettering on the sign must be at least one inch in height. The sign must be posted conspicuously so that it is clearly visible to all persons buying or renting bicycles. D. The issuance of a citation for a violation of this Section shall not be prima facie evidence of negligence. The comparative negligence statutes of Louisiana shall apply in these cases as in all other cases of negligence. E. The Louisiana Highway Safety Commission shall provide funds to the Louisiana Safe Kids Coalition to be used for the purchase of bicycle helmets. These helmets shall be distributed by the Louisiana Safe Kids Coalition to indigent persons in furtherance of the provisions of this Section. F. The provisions of R.S. 32:57 shall not apply to a violation of this Section. No civil penalties or court costs shall be assessed for any violation of this Section. § 32:263. Special restrictions on use of Louisiana Interstate highways B. No person shall drive, or permit to be driven on any Louisiana interstate highway, any farm tractor, road tractor or other vehicle which is normally operated at a speed of less than 20 miles per hour.

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C. The use of any Louisiana interstate highway by pedestrians, bicycles, or other non-motorized vehicles is prohibited. § 32:329. Bicycles; front lamps; side and rear reflectors A. Every bicycle when in use at nighttime shall be equipped with a lamp on the front which shall emit a white light visible from a distance of at least five hundred feet to the front and with a red reflector on the rear and a reflector on each side facing outward at a right angle to the bicycle frame, all of a type approved by the department which shall be visible from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear may be used in addition to the red reflector. B. After December 31, 1974, no person shall sell or offer for sale any bicycle unless such bicycle is equipped with at least one red reflector on the rear and one reflector on each side as required by this section. This section shall not apply to bicycles while engaged in sanctioned competition races. To be ridden at night, a bicycle must always have a white light to the front and a red rear reflector. A red rear light is optional. There is no size requirement for the reflectors – the bigger the better. § 32:41. Power of local municipal authorities A. Except as otherwise provided by law, this Chapter shall not be deemed to prevent local municipal authorities, with respect to highways other than state maintained highways within their corporate limits, from adopting ordinances: (7) Requiring the registration and licensing of bicycles, including the requirement of a registration fee; § 32:346. Brakes on bicycles Every bicycle shall be equipped with a brake which will enable the operator to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, clean pavement. § 32:71. Driving on right side of road; exceptions A. Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:

(1) When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movement, including passing lanes; (2) When the right half of a roadway is closed to traffic while under construction or repair; (3) Upon a roadway designated and signposted for one-way traffic. B. (1) Upon all multilane highways any vehicle proceeding at less than the normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the circumstances then existing, shall be driven in the right-hand lane then available for traffic except when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway, or passing or overtaking a vehicle proceeding in the same direction, if passing on the left side of it. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize driving any vehicle in the left lane so as to prohibit, impede or block passage of an overtaking vehicle in such lane and in such event the vehicle in the left lane prohibiting, impeding or blocking passage of an overtaking vehicle shall expeditiously merge into the right lane of traffic. (2) In addition to the requirement of Paragraph 1 hereof, any vehicle proceeding on a multilane highway at a speed slower than ten miles per hour less than the posted maximum speed limit shall be driven in the right hand lane then available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing a vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway. Persons in violation of this Paragraph shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both.

Based on bicycle crash data, the laws which will have the greatest affect on bicycle safety include:

Stop at stop sign Traffic-control signal Required position and method of turning at intersections

R.S. 32:123 R.S. 32:232

R.S. 32:101

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Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building Drivers to exercise due care Possession of alcoholic beverages OWI

R.S. 32:124 R.S. 32:214 R.S. 32:300 R.S. 14:98

Required position and method of turning at intersections Vehicle turning left at intersection Stop at stop sign Vehicle entering highway from private road, driveway, alley or building Speed Limitations on passing bicycles Possession of alcoholic beverages Harassment of bicyclist prohibited OWI Bicyclists Under the Influence

R.S. 32:101 R.S. 32:122 R.S. 32:123

R.S. 32:124 R.S. 32:64 R.S 32:76.1 R.S. 32:300 R.S. 32:201 R.S. 14:98

A Louisiana Supreme Court decision, State of Louisiana v. Carr, 99-2209 (La. 5/26/2000); 761 So.2b 1271, ruled that the language ―other means of conveyance‖ found in R.S. 14:98 does not apply to bicycles. Therefore, this statue can not be used to cite an individual operating a bicycle while under the influence. Nonetheless, operating a bicycle while under the influence is still dangerous for both the bicyclists and those around them. Officers should look for opportunities to remove intoxicated bicyclists from the road to a safer location.

1.

Hunter, et al. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s. USDOT, FHWA publication No. FHWA-RD-95-163. 1996. Louisiana Criminal Law and Motor Vehicle Handbook, 2006-2007 Edition. LexisNexis. 2006.

2.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. List six goals of law enforcement. 2. State several reasons why officers typically do not enforce pedestrian and bicycle laws. 3. Describe several enforcement strategies. 4. List the advantages of targeted enforcement. 5. Articulate which law violations should be targeted to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety. 6. Describe why different enforcement options are effective.

Who should enforce? There are many options as to who should enforce laws for pedestrians and bicyclists, and each of them has been used successfully. The individual characteristics of your department and community will determine the best option. For this reason, no specific recommendations are given here—only a brief outline of various options. Officers in squad cars Advantages: Already available, minimal additional cost, easier to stop motorists, more authority presence for some violators Disadvantages: Other traffic and crime take priority, difficult to stop pedestrians and bicyclists Motorcycle officers Advantages: More credible to bicyclists, can stop motorists and bicyclists Disadvantages: Weather, fewer motorcycles available, other duties Police bicycle squad Advantages: More credible to bicyclists (and pedestrians), better motivation, fewer training problems, simplified administration and record keeping, good for small departments with a few motivated officers, fits in with community oriented policing concepts Disadvantages: Loss of coverage for other types of enforcement, other officers may not enforce pedestrian and bicycle laws, relative difficulty of stopping motorists Foot patrols Advantages: More credible to pedestrians (and bicyclists), fits in with community oriented policing concepts Disadvantages: Relative difficulty of stopping motorists and bicyclists

As we have seen from the information presented thus far, the most promising ways to reduce deaths and injuries to pedestrians and bicyclists seem to be through a combined approach of engineering, education and enforcement. Suppose for a moment that we were able to design transportation systems, which were perfectly safe for pedestrians and bicycles. Also suppose that we could provide everyone with education which would give them the ability to avoid crashes. Wouldn‘t we then have a crashfree pedestrian and bicycling environment? NO! There will always be individuals who choose to operate outside of the law, and these people are dangerous to the rest of society. Most people who were involved in a crash and had broken a law were aware that they had done so. Why, then, did they break the law? People obey laws primarily because they fear the consequences of violations—tickets, fines, insurance increase, parental discipline, etc.

Improve voluntary compliance with the laws Identify and correct violator behavior Affect a behavioral change in the community Reinforce education efforts Reduce the number of crashes Reduce the consequences resulting from these crashes

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Civilian bike patrols Advantages: Frees up regular officers, lends visibility to the program, can provide good public relations (bike ambassadors), few motivational problems Disadvantages: Higher operational costs, time required to train patrols, young patrollers may have difficulties with older violators, not as effective without citation power, there my be legal challenges to civilian-issued citations, bad patrols equal bad public relations, may target only pedestrian and/or bicyclist behavior (not motorists), may target only children, regular officers may resent bike patrollers, regular officers may not enforce ped./bike laws, ―it isn‘t their job.‖ Combined Approach While each of the above-mentioned approaches has its advantages and disadvantages, the best solution may lie in a combined approach. For example, officers in squad cars could assume primary responsibility for the program during the off season; then they could be joined by motorcycle, bike, foot officers and civilian patrollers during the peak months for added support. Why don’t police enforce pedestrian or bicycle laws? As obvious as it sounds, you cannot enforce laws that you do not know and you will not enforce laws that you cannot justify.

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Common Excuses and Rational for Non-Enforcement Peer Pressure ―Pedestrian and bike laws aren‘t important enough‖ (few police envision them as part of their role). ―They‘re not real crime‖ (this does not fit with their stereotype of what the job is). ―Are you afraid to do real police work?‖

Excuse or Rationale Busters Few police envision enforcement for pedestrian and bicycle safety as part of their role. This does not fit with their stereotype of what the job is. Many officers don‘t know or care that enforcement is a powerful tool in preventing crashes, injuries, and deaths. Many don‘t realize that law enforcement with pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists shapes future motor vehicle driving habits. Society and its police may have developed a ―tolerance‖ for pedestrian and bicycle crashes until it affects someone they know or love. It is considered a hazard of walking and bicycling. Do you let what others say affect your enforcement activity? Name one other program or activity to protect people, especially children, that your community has opposed. How many times have you heard a motorist complain about those ―crazy walkers or bicyclists?‖ Pedestrians and bicyclists complain about motorists too. If the police don‘t enforce the laws, WHO WILL?

Social Pressure

―Why aren‘t you out catching burglars?‖ ―Why don‘t you pick on someone your own size?‖ ―Don‘t you have something better to do?‖

Lack of Training

Police Administration

―They never taught me about pedestrian and bicycle laws in recruit school or field training, they must not be important.‖ ―My chief (or Sgt.) wouldn‘t want me to make a pedestrian or bicycle stop.‖ Not a department priority.

Administration is affected by the same stereotypes you are. They may need education. Chiefs generally support the realistic demands of the community they serve. Most chiefs support programs which benefit citizens, especially children, and are popular with the community (DARE, McGruff Houses, fingerprinting, etc.). While there are undoubtedly exceptions, are you sure your chief won‘t support enforcement for pedestrian and bicycle safety if well-planned and professionally presented and conducted?

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State‘s Attorney (Prosecutor)

―This matter is too petty.‖ ―My calendar is crammed, and you bring me this?‖ Does the prosecutor even know the laws or how to handle one of these cases?

Enforcement can still be effective without sending people to court, citations are but one option. Do you agree with every decision your prosecutor hands down? Do you quit doing your job simply because the prosecutors don‘t or won‘t do theirs? Same as above. Remember, judges and prosecutors can be swayed by a vocal minority of reasonable, knowledgeable people (e.g., MADD). Pedestrian and bicyclist‘s fines are usually less than those issued to motor vehicle drivers for the same offense. These violations rarely, if ever go on a driver‘s record. Do fine schedules ever make all of the police happy? Do you have time for other self-initiated traffic enforcement? Do you have time for more important citations like expired registration, parking violations, or equipment violations? Do these more important violations have the potential to save a life, or do they just fit more into the stereotype of what a police officer does? If you are busy, you can always give a verbal warning over the P.A. What you remember from your childhood has a name—history! Equipment and technology are different. The way police operate is different. Years ago, you rarely saw a police officer in school. Today they are commonplace. Society has changed. Highways are crowded, people are in a hurry, tempers are short, and violence over minor traffic squabbles is increasing - Road rage. As times change, so must the police. As the job changes, old stereotypes must go out the door! If the new millennium has a name, it is change.

Courts

Same reason as prosecutor, who often repeats what the judges told them.

Fines

―Too high‖ ―Too low‖ ―It doesn‘t go on their record.‖

Time

―I don‘t have time for trivial matters.‖ ―I only have time for ‗real‘ crime.‖

Remembering Own Childhood

―Cops never stopped me for riding my bike or crossing the street wrong.‖ ―That‘s not what police do.‖

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Communication With Children

Not comfortable talking to kids. Don‘t like kids. Don‘t want to scare them or make them cry. Don‘t want to give them a ―bad‖ image of the police.

How many times during your shift do you deal with juveniles? Do you treat them any differently than adults? Do you not take action simply because they are juveniles? Treat them as responsible or potentially responsible people; don‘t ―talk down‖ to them. What officer has never had a car stopped when an emergency came out? Figuring out how to clear is rarely a problem! If this is your excuse for avoiding selfinitiated activity, it is doubtful that you have any. Why don‘t you join the fire department? Physically this maybe true, but not emotionally, civilly, or financially. Even ―innocent‖ drivers experience anxiety and stress when they are involved in a crash, especially if it‘s a fatality. Many drivers carry emotional scars forever. Civilly, totally faultless drivers can be sued and incur costs for lawyers, deductibles, increased rates, etc. Have you ever had to make a death notification to the loved one of a pedestrian or bicyclist killed in a traffic crash? But they only hurt themselves!

Waiting for THE BIG ONE

―If I tie myself up with this minor stuff, I won‘t be able to back my partner or respond to an emergency.‖

They Will Only Hurt Themselves

―Look at that idiot. Fortunately, he will only hurt himself if he gets run over.‖

(Adapted from: Bicycle and Pedestrian Enforcement Issues. Presented by Coon Rapids, Minnesota Officer Kirby Beck at the 1994 Wisconsin State Bicycle Conference.)

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Enforcement Strategies There are two basic types of enforcement strategies—the shotgun approach and targeted enforcement. The shotgun approach involves enforcing every violation. In this approach, the attempt is to make a statement (―You will follow the pedestrian and bicycle laws!‖) and to obtain rapid compliance. This approach, however, has several disadvantages. It requires massive participation, it may be very expensive, there may be negative responses from the public, and it is hard to maintain the necessary energy level with other priorities pressing for attention. Consequently, this approach only works for a short period of time. Targeted enforcement, on the other hand, targets violators by location, time of day, infraction, age of violator, etc. By targeting the violation, the officer is essentially looking for crashes about to happen. There are several advantages to targeted enforcement: Prevents crashes: Focuses on those violations which most often result in crashes. Budgets time: The officer is being most effective on his/her shift by targeting those violations. Promotes public support: Answers the question, ―Why am I being stopped?‖ The officer can say with unquestionable validity that the violation is the type that is likely to result in a crash if it is not corrected. The public is less likely to see bicyclists, especially children, as being picked on. Rather, safety is the message. Encourages officers to learn the pedestrian and bicycle laws: It is important to know what you are talking about. The ―serious‖ bicyclist (or pedestrian) is much better informed than the average street cop on pedestrian and bicycle laws. Officers gain respect when well informed. Applies effective, identified countermeasures to a specific traffic problem or area: targeted enforcement is an accepted law enforcement practice.

and injuries. If they are curtailed, it would be expected that a significant decrease would be seen in the number of deaths and injuries over time. Note that the target violations include pedestrian, bicyclist and motorist violations. Target pedestrian violations Officers will have the greatest impact in reducing pedestrian-error crashes by working to reduce these violations: Sudden entry into roadway Not yielding to vehicles (mid-block, crosswalks) Interfering with vehicle at controlled intersection (when crossing on red signal) Target bicyclist violations Officers will have the greatest impact in reducing bicyclist-error crashes by working to reduce these violations: Disobeying stop signs or red lights Riding on the wrong side of the road Failure to yield right of way (at uncontrolled intersections, when entering the road, or when making a left turn) Headlight/reflector requirements Improper change of course (unexpected left turns) Target motorist violations Failure to yield right of way (when making turns, including right turns on red lights, left turns, and when entering the roadway) Speed OWI Improper passing

Positive reinforcement programs May range from stickers and sports cards to ice cream and meals to drawings for walking and bicycle gear. (These activities have traditionally been targeted towards children; however, positive reinforcement for adults may work as well.) Create positive peer pressure Great PR for the police department Reinforces other enforcement efforts Note: Some officers have expressed concerns about ―stopping‖ pedestrians and bicyclists when they haven‘t broken a law (without probable cause). Many opportunities exist to reward nonmotorized travelers without ―stopping‖ them. Observing good behavior and then waiting in a

Information from crash studies indicate that, generally speaking, there are several violations that should be targeted. These are the violations which contribute to the greatest number of deaths

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location where pedestrians or bicyclists will naturally stop is one option. Another is to give out the rewards in much the same way as football cards. Quiz the pedestrian or bicyclist on safe behavior. Verbal warning Education, not punishment Can be done quickly May be done without leaving the car Good positive contact between police and violator Reinforces other enforcement efforts Written warning This is not an option under current Louisiana law R.S.398.1C The issuance of warning citations for violations of motor vehicle laws of this state is hereby specifically prohibited Citation Issued just like any other type of citation (identify violator, location, type of vehicle (brand, model, speeds, color, serial or registration number), facts of the violation, traffic conditions, weather conditions, other factors) Reinforces other enforcement efforts Fines/penalty (fine, bicycle class, community service, peer court for juveniles)

Build community support. This can be done by advertising in the media, giving informational presentations, etc.

When starting a bicycle enforcement program, there are several key steps which must be taken: Make sure there is department administration support for the program Identify your specific situation and show how law enforcement can help Select a program coordinator A motivated coordinator has been the key to many successful programs Obtain the support of the courts and prosecutor Explain your program and solicit input before it starts Establish department policies and procedures before starting out. Explain your program and solicit input before it starts. The model policies and procedures in this manual should be of assistance Educate all those affected about the program

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. Describe a Pedestrian Enforcement Action 2. Describe the benefits of conducting a pedestrian Enforcement Action. 3. Explain how to conduct a Pedestrian Enforcement Action.

Sometimes referred to as a ―Sting‖, the modern Pedestrian Enforcement Action was developed by Lieutenant John Miner and Officer Betsy Cable, of the City of Redmond, Washington Police Department.(2) Pedestrian Enforcement Actions have been successfully introduced in many states throughout the United States including Nevada, Florida, Oregon and Wisconsin.

Nearly everyone is a pedestrian during some part of their day. Ensuring that pedestrians are able to safely and enjoyably cross the street is critical to pedestrian safety and mobility. ―…drivers have a near absolute duty to avoid running down persons in the street, regardless of whether they were there legally or not.‖(1) A Pedestrian Enforcement Action is a law enforcement activity and media event with two main goals: 1) Identify, stop and warn or cite motorists and bicyclists who fail to yield the right of way to pedestrians and bicyclists legally using a crosswalk, 2) Educate the general public about pedestrian safety and pedestrian, bicyclist and motorist rights and responsibilities under the law.

100 80 60 40 20 0 20mph 30 mph 40 mph

Pedestrian Enforcement Actions have proven to be effective in identifying and stopping violator and repeat violator behavior. The purposes of a Pedestrian Enforcement Action are to: Identify and stop violators Educate the general public Effectuate a cultural change Improve pedestrian safety (perceived and actual) To conduct a Pedestrian Enforcement Action: Identify high risk locations Observe the problem and identify the types of violations Calculate stopping distance Select ―pedestrian(s)‖ to be used Alert the media Enforce target violations

Pedestrian Enforcement Actions may be conducted on any road with a crosswalk, marked or unmarked. However, certain locations will be more desirable than others. When picking a location consider crash history, perceived

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conflicts, pedestrian and vehicular traffic volumes, number of traffic lanes, speed, enforceability and officer safety.

to position themselves where they can both observe any violation and make the violator stop.

Before conducting a Pedestrian Enforcement Action take the time to observe the location chosen for the action. Take not of: Pedestrian and motorist behavior Potential hazards to pedestrians, vehicles and officers Common law violations Where enforcement officers will be positioned Time of day with most conflicts Calculate stopping distance Buffer Zone Measurements 30 mph 35 40 45 mph mph mph 44.1 fps 51.45 58.8 66.15 Vehicle fps fps fps traveling 88.2 ft. 102.9 117.6 132.3 ft Two ft. ft. second perception/ Reaction distance 50 ft. 68.13 89.2 112.63 Braking ft. ft. ft. distance** 138.2 ft. 171.03 206.8 244.93 Total ft. ft. ft. Buffer Zone Distance *Speed distances are calculated using 1.47 feet per second per mph. **Braking distances are slide to stop formulas using a .6 co-efficient of friction. (Braking distance source: Reno Police Department Traffic Division.)

As above, one or more ―chase‖ officers may be used as staffing permits.

The media should be notified when large-scale Pedestrian Enforcement Actions are going to be conducted. Because of the logistics of conducting these actions (including cost and staffing issues), only a limited number of vehicle operators and pedestrians can be reached directly. However, if the media is invited, a much larger audience can be made aware of the need to use caution in and around crosswalks. The media can be informed of pending Pedestrian Enforcement Actions via news releases which provide the date, location, time and purpose of the activity. This section should not imply that Pedestrian Enforcement Actions cannot be conducted without the media. In fact, officers should be encouraged to enforce crosswalk, and other pedestrian violations as part of their “routine” patrols.

Enforcing the following violations at intersections will help prevent the majority of pedestrian/vehicle crashes. Target Violations: Vehicle Operators Stop at stop sign R.S. 32:123 Traffic-control signal R.S. 32:232 Pedestrians right of way in R.S. crosswalks (one vehicle) 32:212(A) Pedestrians right of way in R.S. crosswalks (passing stopped 32:212(C) vehicle) Pedestrians right of way on R.S. 32:219 sidewalks Vehicle entering highway from R.S. 32:124 private road, driveway, alley or building Drivers to exercise due care R.S. 32:214 Speed R.S. 32:64

Traditionally, Pedestrian Enforcement Actions have used plain clothed law enforcement officers (or officers in highly visible-florescent-clothing) as ―pedestrians.‖ This method allows the ―pedestrian‖ officer to observe violations first hand and then radio the violation, violator and vehicle description to a ―chase‖ officer who then makes the stop. If staffing is not available for ―chase‖ officers, a single officer in a patrol car may conduct the Pedestrian Enforcement Action alone. With this method officers simply observe normal pedestrian behavior and stop any motorist violators. This method requires officers

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Target Violations: Pedestrians Sudden entry into roadway Pedestrians on highways or interstate highways Crossing at other than crosswalks Traffic-control signal Pedestrian-control signals

R.S. 32:212(B) R.S. 32:216(B) R.S. 32:213 R.S. 32:232 R.S. 32:233

1. Education & Enforcement. Walkinginfo.org. 13 July 2006 http://www.walkinginfo.org/ee/enforcement_over view.htm 2. Education & Enforcement. Walkinginfo.org. 13 July 2006 http://www.walkinginfo.org/ee/sting.htm

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. State the significance of the bicycle theft problem. 2. Describe several techniques used to steal bicycles. 3. Describe several methods of preventing bicycle thefts.

Techniques Used to Defeat Bike Locks Device Technique Cable cable cutters, snips Chains bolt cutters, hacksaws U-Locks car jacks (leverage) and New York pry bar method (these two methods account for approximately 90 percent of U-lock failures) other methods (Freon, drilling, torch, zip wheel, picking, sledgehammer, saws, and bolt cutters) Theft Prevention Techniques for preventing bicycle thefts: 1. Reduce crimes of opportunity (unlocked or improperly locked bicycles) 2. Educate the public in how and where to secure bicycles 3. Install adequate bicycle parking facilities 4. Educate police in bicycle theft methods 5. Increase prosecution of thieves 6. Promote bicycle registration 7. Promote bicycle engraving (Note: engraving social security number may not facilitate owner identification due to data privacy laws) 1. Bicycle theft. National Bike Registry. 10 February 2003, 10 October 2007 <www.nationalbikeregistry.com>. Integrated Cycle Systems, Lock Smart Handbook, San Francisco: Integrated Cycle Systems, Inc., 1993.

How big a problem is bicycle theft? Is it a problem? Here are a few statistics from the National Bike Registry:(1) Over 1.5 million bikes are stolen each year. The average value of a stolen bicycle is at least $250. Bicycle theft costs Americans upwards of $200 million annually. By some estimates, a bike is stolen every 1.2 minutes. Bikes are stolen at three times the rate of cars. Only 20-50 percent of bicycle thefts are reported. Half of all stolen bikes end up in police property rooms. Less than two percent of stolen bikes get returned. Integrated Cycle Systems has claimed that:(2) ―A four-year college student has a 53 percent chance of having his or her bicycle stolen.‖ A nationwide campus crime survey conducted by Lock Smart with participation by the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators and the National Crime Prevention Institute found that bicycle theft rates between 1989 and 1993 rose a dramatic 59.6 percent. 38.7 percent of bicycles are stolen while secured with a cable or chain. 33.8 percent are stolen while secured with a U-lock. It takes a ―good‖ thief seven seconds to violate a U-lock, cable, or chain.

2.

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Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. List items specific to pedestrian and bicycle crash scenes which should be noted in a crash report and why. 2. State what role alcohol plays in crashes for motorists, pedestrians and bicyclists. 3. State why reporting traffic crashes is important. 4. Describe when there is a legal requirement to report a traffic crash. 5. Describe situations in which a pedestrian or bicycle crash may not get reported. 6. List several keys to working with the media. Crash investigation (reconstruction)(1) As with any crash investigation, pay close attention to the statements of victims and witnesses. Does what they say match the evidence at the scene? Make special notes on: The Pedestrian or Bicyclist Age, gender, experience level Alcohol or drug use or other impaired physical condition Helmet use; type, evidence of impact (bicyclist) Color of clothing (retro-reflective material) Glasses/eye protection (bicyclist) Headphone use; volume level The Bicycle Make, model, serial number, and/or registration number Type (road, mountain, BMX - girl‘s or boy‘s) Frame size (this is not the wheel size) Number of gears (gear position/front and rear) Headlight, reflector, taillight; others attached to rider Mirror on bike or rider Brakes (type and operating condition) Tires (new or worn; if flat from blowout crash) Overall bike condition

The Road Pedestrian facilities; e.g., sidewalk, crosswalk (marked, unmarked), path Bicycle facilities; e.g., bike lane, bike route, adjacent path Surface type, number of lanes, parking lanes, curb height, curb flag width Shoulder width and surface type Surface condition/hazards; potholes, cracks, uneven pavement, or debris (rocks, glass, trash) Visual or other obstructions for bike or car within 200 feet; e.g., parked cars, construction barricades, shrubbery Speed limit Weather Conditions Visibility: daylight, dark, cloudy, foggy, etc. Precipitation: type, amount, accumulation on road surface Wind: speed, direction; gusts or crosswind (was the bicyclist riding into a head wind?)

Pedestrians Nationally In approximately 10 percent of crashes alcohol is listed as a contributing factor.(2) Males 24-44 years of age were most likely to have been using alcohol.(2) Louisiana According to the Highway Safety Commission, between 1999 and 2007, at least 257 of 917 pedestrians killed (28%) has a BAC of greater than .08. Bicyclists Nationally ―Overall, use of alcohol or drugs by bicyclists occurred in about five percent of all crashes.‖(2) Males 24-44 years of age were most likely to have been using alcohol.(2) Louisiana According to the Highway Safety Commission, between 1999 and 2007, 44 of 183 bicyclists killed (24%) has a BAC of greater than .08.

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Crash reports are the primary source of pedestrian and bicycle crash information. When and how well they are filled out has a great deal to do with the quality of the statistics, which can be derived from them. Many times reports that are received are inaccurate and/or incomplete. Great care needs to be taken when filling out these reports. The Crash Report When completing a crash report form for a pedestrian or bicycle crash, make sure that all boxes are filled in properly and completely. Since you likely respond to pedestrian and bicycle crashes less often than motor vehicle only crashes, take whatever extra time is necessary to ensure that the form is filled out properly and that valuable information is not lost. Crash reports for pedestrian and bicycle crashes are utilized by engineers and planners in the same way that motor vehicle crash data is utilized: to identify specific problem areas and allocate scarce resources to such areas. The time you spend to accurately investigate a crash and submit a report will pay off by providing policymakers with the best information possible to identify problem areas and address them through engineering, education and enforcement Narratives and diagrams on pedestrian and bicycle crash forms are often unclear. Remember that the narrative and diagram must paint a picture of what led to the crash in short and precise sentences. Unit two, a bicycle, was traveling east bound, on the roadway, in the 400 Block of Wilson St. Unit one, a SUV, traveling west bound on Wilson St., turned left into the driveway of 410 Wilson St. Unit one struck unit two on the left side. The driver of unit one said he did not see unit two.

There are several problems with this definition as it relates to pedestrian and bicycle crashes and the gathering of bicycle crash related statistics.

1. There is no requirement to do a report on a
crash if it occurs off of the traffic way. Many bicycle crashes occur off of the traffic way and thus are not reported. If there is not a motor vehicle involved, the crash does not need to be reported. Only about 17 percent of all bicycle crashes involve motor vehicles. If the crash does not involve a death or injury and property damage is less than $500, no report needs to be completed. In a collision with a motor vehicle, a bicycle may be totally destroyed and the $500 limit may still not be met.

2.

3.

Given these reporting problems, it is easy to see why only about 10 percent of all bicycle crashes get reported nationwide.(4, 5) A crash report should be completed on every reported pedestrian and bicycle crash. If the crash is not ―reportable‖ based on state reporting requirements an internal report should still be taken and kept on file. The information from these reports is invaluable in determining the extent of the pedestrian and bicycle crash problem and in identifying particularly hazardous locations, times of day, etc. This information can assist in the design of countermeasures to reduce these crashes.

For advanced analysis of pedestrian and bicycle crashes the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed the Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT). This computer bases programs allows large numbers of crashes to be analyzed for similarities (crash typing) which assists with the development of engineering, education and enforcement countermeasures.

The State of Louisiana requires an accident report to be filed if there was: 1. Injury to or death of any person or; 2. Property damage in excess of $500

1. Beck, Kirby, The Minnesota Peace Officer’s
Guide to Bicycle Traffic Management, Seattle: Outdoor Empire Publishing, Inc., 1991.

2. Hunter, et al. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash

Types of the Early 1990’s. USDOT, FHWA publication No. FHWA-RD-95-163. 1996.

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3. Stutts, J. An analysis of Bicycle Data from
Ten North Carolina Hospital Rooms. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Highway Safety Research Center, 1986.

4. Stutts, J.C., Williamson, J.E., Sheldon, F.C.
―Bicycle accidents: An examination of hospital emergency room reports and comparison with police accident data.‖ Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, 1988.

5. Jones, Bobby. ―Bicycle/Pedestrian Crash
Reconstruction Workshop.‖ Madison, Wisconsin: Madison Police Department, 1999.

6. ―Community Bicycle Safety Course for Law
Enforcement.‖ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002.

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Anyone providing work, facilities, promotions, endorsements, time or money Upon completing this section, students will be able to: 1. Explain why it is important for law enforcement to partner with other professions and individuals to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety and enjoyment. 2. List several potential law enforcement partners. 3. Describe ways to recruit new partners. Typical partners for improving pedestrian and bicycle safety include: Law enforcement Bicycle and running clubs Emergency medical services State and federal advocacy groups Public and private schools Insurance companies Planners and engineers Architects Public works departments Municipal staff Elected/appointed officials Bicycle retailers Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Etc.

Law enforcement is a powerful tool in improving pedestrian and bicycle safety and enjoyment. However, law enforcement alone is seldom the complete solution to a highway safety problem. Law enforcement officers and their departments have limitations in terms of their ability to control all of the factors which effect pedestrian and bicycle safety and enjoyment. Trying to fix a highway safety problem via a single perspective or profession (e.g., law enforcement) is seldom effective and can be extremely frustrating. ―Injuries and fatalities due to bicycle (and pedestrian) crashes are not solely a police problem but also a community problem. Partnership efforts may be the single most important means of preventing injuries and saving lives. Partnering means giving up the ―lone Ranger‖ mentality and focusing on solving mutual problems and achieving mutual goals.‖(1) ―The general reason to build a partnership within the community is to ensure the success of the program.(1) Problem solving approaches that involve multiple groups, organizations and individuals who are involved in all aspects of highway safety problem solving (Engineering, Education and Enforcement) are generally much more effective and satisfying. Program partners come in many shapes and sizes and include: Active supporters (e.g., individuals, organizations, businesses) Workers, volunteers, promoters, contributors

―A key component to remember when recruiting: WIIFM (What‘s In It For Me?). In order to get new partners to join your program efforts, you will have to show them that the program has something to offer them.‖(1)

1. ―Community Bicycle Safety Course for Law
Enforcement.‖ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002.

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Grady, Sgt. Paul. Policing by Mountain Bike. Seattle: PDG Enterprises, 1991. 2005 Louisiana Traffic Records Data Report. Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. Louisiana State University Highway Safety Research Group, 2005. Baker, Susan P., et al. Injuries to Bicyclists: A National Perspective. St. James: John Hopkins Injury Prevention Center, 1993. Beck, Kirby. The Minnesota Peace Officer’s Guide to Bicycle Traffic Management. Seattle: Outdoor Empire Publishing, Inc., 1991. Bicycle Institute of America, Bicycling Reference Book, 1993-94. ―Bicycle Traffic Enforcement Policy.‖ Seattle Police Department Policy Manual. Seattle. Brown County Planning Commission. Brown County Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Update, 1998. Cheeney, David. The National Bicycling and Walking Study. U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration (Publication No. FHWA-PD-94-023). ―Community Bicycle Safety Course for Law Enforcement.‖ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002. Cross K.D., and Fisher, G. A Study of Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches. Volume I. Washington, DC: National Highway Safety Administration, September 1977 (Contract No. DOT-HS-400982, Ref. PB 282 280). California Department of Transportation. Highway Design Manual, Chapter 1000, Bikeway Planning and Design, Bikeway Surface Tolerances, Sacramento: February 2001. Forester, John. Effective Cycling. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993. Hunter, et al. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s. USDOT, FHWA publication No. FHWA-RD-95-163. 1996. Hunter, W. W., and Stutts, J. C. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual. North Carolina Department of Transportation, September 1981. Hurley and Thompson. Model Programs in Pedestrian/Bicycle Safety for Wisconsin Communities, 1973. Institute of Police Technology and Management, University of North Florida, Bicycle Law Enforcement Seminar, Presented at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, September 28-30, 1987. Integrated Cycle Systems, Lock Smart Handbook, San Francisco: Integrated Cycle Systems Inc., 1993. Jones, Bobby. ―Bicycle/Pedestrian Crash Reconstruction Workshop.‖ Madison, Wisconsin: Madison Police Department, 1999. Kittelson & Associates, INC. Streetwise-Special Roundabout Insert. November 1999. League of American Bicyclists. League Guide to Safe and Enjoyable Cycling. Washington DC: League of American Bicyclists, 2006. Louisiana Criminal Law and Motor Vehicle Handbook, 2006-2007 Edition. LexisNexis, 2006. Louisiana Dept. of Transportation and Development. Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan, 1998. Louisiana Revised State Statutes, 2006-2007. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, ―Community Bicycle Safety Course for Law Enforcement.‖, 2002. Nye, Peter. The Cyclist Sourcebook. New York: Perigee Publishing Group, 1991.

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Perry, David B. Bike Cult. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1995. Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, January, 2006. Regional Planning Commission Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard and Tammany Parishes. 2005 New Orleans Metropolitan Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, September 2006. Rodgers, Gregory B. Bicycle Use and Hazard Patterns in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1994. Ross, Arthur. Bicycling in the 90’s: Implications for Police Officers. Wisconsin Traffic and Safety Officers Association Conference, 1994. Ross, Arthur. How Bicycle Crashes Happen. Madison: Madison Department of Transportation Wisconsin, 1992. Sanders, Nick. The Image and the Dream. Great Britain: Red Bus, 1991. Sorton, Alex. Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Workshop. Northwestern Traffic Institute, 1994. Stutts, J. An analysis of Bicycle Data from Ten North Carolina Hospital Rooms. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Highway Safety Research Center, 1986. Stutts, J.C., Williamson, J.E., Sheldon, F.C. ―Bicycle accidents: An examination of hospital emergency room reports and comparison with police accident data.‖ Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center, 1988. United States. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Washington: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1999. United States. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Washington: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2004. United States. Dept. of Transportation. Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Millennium

ed. Washington: Federal Highway Administration, 2000. United States. Dept. of Transportation. More Bicycles More Accidents (Contract No. DOTHS-7-01726). Washington: National Highway Safety Administration. United States. Dept. of Transportation. Traffic Safety Facts 2005; Pedalcyclists. Washington: National Highway Safety Administration, 2006. United States. Dept. of Transportation. Traffic Safety Facts 2005; Pedestrians. Washington: National Highway Safety Administration, 2006. William W. Hunter, Jane C. Stutts. Injuries to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on hospital Emergency Department Data. USDOT, FHWA Publication No FHWA-RD-99078. 1999. Wisconsin. Dept. of Transportation. Wisconsin Bicycle Transportation Plan 2020. Madison, 1998.

Bicycle Law Enforcement. Jacksonville, Florida: Institute of Police Technology and Management, 1986. Children in Traffic: Updated and Revised. Fredericksburg, VA: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1999. Effective Cycling. Tallahassee: Seidler Productions Inc., 1992. Enjoy the Ride. League of American Bicyclists, 2006. Laws for All. League of Michigan Bicyclists, 1994. Lock Smart—The National Campaign Against Bicycle Theft. Ride on By. California: Santa Barbara Police Department, 1976.

2006 Participation Ranked By Total Participation. National Sporting Goods Association. 3 July 2007

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<http://www.nsga.org/public/pages/index.cfm?p ageid=150>. Bicycle Helmet Statistics. Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. 10 September 2007. <www.bhsi.org/stats.htm>. Bicycle theft. National Bike Registry. 11 February 2003 <www.nationalbikeregistry.com>. Consumer Products Safety Review. Consumer Products Safety Commission. 05 September 2007. <www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/cpsr_nws18.pdf>. Education & Enforcement. Walkinginfo.org. 13 July 2006 <http://www.walkinginfo.org/ee/enforcement_ov erview.htm> Education & Enforcement. Walkinginfo.org. 13 July 2006 <http://www.walkinginfo.org/ee/sting.htm> Official Speed Records. Human Powered Vehicle Association. 3 July 2007 <http://www.ihpva.org/dempsey_macready_priz e.html>. Official Speed Records. Human Powered Vehicle Association. 3 July 2007 <http://www.eurekareporter.com/ArticleDisplay. aspx?ArticleID=13164>. Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. The Federal Highway Administration> '> s (FHWA) Safety Office hired the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC). Date <http://www.walkinginfo.org/pp/howtoguide200 6.htm> Police-reporting of Pedestrians and Bicyclists Treated in Hospital Emergency Rooms. Jane C. Stutts and William W. Hunter 14 march 2006 <http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/docs/00144 .pdf> Statistics. Bicycle Retailer and Industry News. 21 June 2001 <www.bicyclereteiler.com>.

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Flucke, Peter President WE BIKE 1144 Hawthorn Road Green Bay WI 54313-5812 (920) 497-3196 (920) 499-8492 (fax) info@webike.org www.webike.org www.dot.wisconsin.gov

Adventure Cycling Association 150 East Pine Street PO Box 8308 Missoula, MT 59807 (800) 755-2453 (406) 721-8754 (fax) info@adventurecycling.org www.adventurecycling.org Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP) PO Box 93 Cedarburg, WI 53012 (262) 228-7025 (866) 720-3611 (fax) info@apbp.org www.apbp.org International Police Mountain Bike Association (IPMBA) 583 Frederick Road, Suite 5B Baltimore, MD 21228 (410) 744-2400 (410) 744-5504 (fax) info@ipmba.org www.ipmba.org Law Enforcement Bicycle Association (LEBA) 204 Willow Bend Drive Clermont, FL 34711 (407) 832-4912 (800) 861-4912 (fax) info@leba.org www.leba.org League of American Bicyclists (LAB) 1612 K. Street NW, Suite 800 Washington, DC 20006-2850 (202) 822-1333 (202) 822-1334 (fax) bikeleague@bikeleague.org www.bikeleague.org

Jatres, Dan Pedestrian & Bicycle Programs New Orleans Regional Planning Commission 10 Veterans Memorial Blvd New Orleans, LA 70124 (504) 483-8505 (504) 483-8526 (fax) djatres@norpc.org Parsons, Brain Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development PO Box 94245 Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9245 (225) 379-1954 (225) 379-1807 (fax) brian.parsons@la.gov Parsons, Karen Senior Transportation Planner New Orleans Regional Planning Commission 10 Veterans Memorial Blvd New Orleans, LA 70124 (504) 483-8511 (504) 483-8526 (fax) kparsons@norpc.org

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The National Bike Registry Inc. 1475 Powell Street Suite 101 Emeryville, CA 94608 (800) 848-BIKE (2453) (510) 614-2400 (510) 428-0802 (fax) NBR@boomerangit.com www.nationalbikeregistry.com National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW) 8120 Woodmont Ave, Suite 650 Bethesda, MD 20814 (301) 656-4220 (301) 656-4225 (fax) info@bikewalk.org www.bikewalk.org Pedestrian Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) 730 Airport Road, Suite 300 Campus Box 3430 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3430 (919) 962-2203 (919) 962-8710 (fax) pbic@pedbikeinfo.org www.bicyclinginfo.org Rails-to-Trails Conservancy The Duke Ellington Building 2121 Ward Court NW 5th Floor Washington DC 20037 (202) 331-9696 (202) 331-9680 (fax) railtrails@transact.org www.railtrails.org

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