Property Definition pH value Litmus paper effect Acids A substance that produces Hydrogen + ions, H , when dissolved in water Above 7 Turns blue litmus paper red Alkalis A metal oxide or metal hydroxide that produces is soluble in water Below 7 Turns red litmus paper blue

Strong acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) fully ionize in water to form H+ ions. HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Weak acids (ethanoic acid: CH3COOH) only partially ionize in water to form H+ ions. CH3COOH (aq) CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq)
Reactions Acid + Base --> Salt + H20 Acid + Metal --> Salt + H2 (g) Acid + Metal Oxide --> Salt + H20 Acid + Metal Carbonate --> Salt + C02 (g) + H20 Chemical Equations HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l) H2SO4 (aq) + Zn (s) --> ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g) HNO3 (aq) + Mg0 (aq) ---> Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H20 (l) HCl (aq) + Cu(OH)2 (aq) --> CuCl2 + C02 (g) + H20 (l)

Strong alkalis (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH4OH) fully ionize in water to form OH- ions. NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Weak alkalis (NH3) only partially ionize in water to form OH- ions. NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
Reactions Alkali + Acid --> Salt + H20 Alkali + Ammonium salt --> Salt + NH3 (g) + H20 (l) Alkali + Metal salt (aq) --> Metal Hydroxide + another salt Chemical Equations NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l) NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) --> NaCl (aq) + NH3 (g) + H20 (l) Ca(OH)2 (aq) + KCl (aq) --> KOH (aq) + CaCl2 (aq)

Basic Oxide Metal Oxides Amphotetic Oxide Transition metal Oxides Acidic Oxides Non-metal Oxides Neutral Oxides Some non-metal Oxides

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Soluble + + + Na , K , NH4 , NO3 Cl 2SO4 Na2CO3, K2CO3 ,(NH4)2CO3 Insoluble PbCl2, AgCl BaSO4, CaSO4, PbSO4 CO32-

Cation Ca2+ 3+ Al 2+ Zn 2+ Fe 3+ Fe Pb2+ Cu2+ NH4+ NaOH(aq) White ppt White ppt White ppt Green ppt Brown ppt White ppt Blue ppt No ppt Excess NaOH (aq) Insoluble Dissolves Dissolves Insoluble Insoluble Dissolves Insoluble NH3 (aq) No ppt White ppt White ppt Green ppt Brown ppt White ppt Blue ppt Excess NH3 (aq) No ppt Insoluble Dissolves Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Dissolves, deep blue solution

Anion ClINO32SO4 2CO3

Test Add HNO3 and AgNO3 Add HNO3 and AgNO3 Add NaOH (aq), warm, add Al Add HNO3 and Ba(NO3)2 Add HCl (aq)

Observations White ppt (AgCl) Yellow ppt (AgI) NH3(g) liberated White ppt (BaSO4) CO2(g) liberated

Gas H2 O2 CO2 Cl2 NH3 SO2

Test Extinguishes a lighted splint with a pop sound Relights a glowing splint Forms white ppt with limewater Moist blue litmus turns red then white Moist red litmus turns blue Turns potassium dichromate green

Testing for H2O Anhydrous CuSO4 (white) turns blue, Anhydrous CoCl2 (blue) turns pink.

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Workout Questions
1. Element X burns in air to form an oxide that dissolves in both acids and alkalis. What is X likely to be? a. Carbon b. Potassium c. Zinc d. Calcium 2. Bubbles are seen when which of the following is added to dilute sulphuric acid? a. NaOH (aq) b. Cu (s) c. MgO d. ZnCO3 3. Which of the following is true of alkalis in aqueous solutions? a. They produce CO2 (g) when reacted with metal carbonates b. They produce a pungent gas when reacted with ammonium salts c. They produce bubbles when neutralized with acids d. They turn blue litmus paper red 4. When Y dissolves in HNO3 (aq), the gas produced extinguished a lighted splint with a pop sound. What could Y be? a. Hydrogen gas b. Carbon dioxide c. Zinc d. Copper 5. When CaCo3 is added to aqueous HCl, which of the following takes place? a. A gas is produced that turns limewater chalky b. There is a white ppt produced c. A gas is liberated that relights a glowing splint d. The resulting solution turns red litmus paper blue 6. Which compound will not neutralize acidic soils? a. Sodium carbonate b. Sodium chloride c. Sodium oxide d. Sodium hydroxide

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7. A sample of aqueous nitric acid has a pH value of 2. What could be a possible pH value after adding Potassium Iodide? a. 2 b. 5 c. 7 d. 9 8. When Ammonium Chloride is added to solution P, gas Q is liberated. Which is likely to be P and Q?
a. b. c. d. P Hydrochloric acid Calcium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Water Q Chlorine Carbon dioxide Ammonia Ammonia

9. Which of the following will produce Copper(II) Sulphate when added to H2SO4? I. Copper II. Copper Oxide III. Copper Carbonate IV. Copper Hydroxide a. b. c. d. I only II and III only II, III and IV only All of the above

10. Which of the following react to produce salt and water only? a. HCl and Ca(OH)2 b. H2SO4 and MgCl2 c. Ca(OH)2 and NH4Cl d. HCl and ZnCO3 11. Barium carbonate is added to an excess of nitric acid. a. Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for this reaction

b. What is observed? ________________________________________________________________________

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12. Write out balanced chemical equations with state symbols for the following reactions. Describe any expected observations and briefly outline tests for any gases formed. a. Calcium hydroxide and ammonium sulphate

b. Hydrochloric acid and copper

c. Sulphuric acid and iron (III) carbonate

d. Phosphoric acid and aluminium oxide

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