¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

LLLC1kCL¥5I5
noLes
LLLC1kCL¥1IC CLLL5 WI1n INLk1 LLLC1kCDL5







ecLrons fow from Lhe neaaLlve Lermlna of Lhe baLLerv Lo Lhe caLhode
aLlons (poslLlvev charaed lons) are aLLracLed Lo Lhe caLhode
aLlons Lake ln eecLrons Lo become aLoms/moecues (8educLlon)
nlons (neaaLlvev charaed lons) move Lo Lhe anode
nlons alve awav eecLrons Lo become aLoms/moecues (CxldaLlon)
@he eecLrons fow back Lo Lhe poslLlve Lermlna of Lhe baLLerv

At the cathodeť
8efer Lo Lhe caLlons ln Lhe react|v|ty ser|esŦ @he ess reacLlve lons are dlscharaed flrsLŦ

P
2+
(aq) + 2e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ P
2
(a)

CbservaLlonť
ffervescence ls observedŦ @he aas lberaLed exLlnaulshes a lahLed splnL wlLh a 'pop' soundŦ


Some lonlc souLlon
eaŦ P (aq)
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

At the anodeť
MosL easlv dlscharaedť CP
Ŵ

ln concenLraLed souLlonsť
Ŵ
ţ 8r
Ŵ
ţ l
Ŵ

SC
4

and nC
3
Ŵ
are ° dlscharaedŦ

4CP
Ŵ
(aq) Ŵ 4e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ C
2
(a) + 2P
2
C ()

CbservaLlonť
ffervescence ls observedŦ @he aas lberaLed relahLs a aowlna splnLŦ


Cvera|| equat|onť
2n
2+
(aq) + 4Cn
Ŵ
(aq) ŴŴƽ n
2
(g) + C
2
(g) + 2n
2
C (|)
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

kLAC1IVL (NCNŴINLk1) LLLC1kCDL5







L Lhe caLhodeţ
u
2+
(aq) + 2e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ u (s)
CbservaLlonť
@he caLhode (coln) ls coaLed wlLh a reddlsh brown deposlLŦ lL becomes LhlckerŦ

L Lhe anodeţ
u (s) Ŵ 2e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ u
2+
(aq)
CbservaLlonť
@he anode (copper bar) becomes LhlnnerŦ

noLeť @hls ls an exampe of e|ectrop|at|ngŦ

uSC
4
(aq)
oln (Lo be paLed) opper bar
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

5IMÞLL CLLL5







@he eecLrode made of Lhe more reacLlve meLa dlspaces Lhe caLlon ln Lhe souLlon
@he more reacLlve meLa alves ouL eecLrons Lo become lons (CxldaLlon)
ecLrons fow Lhrouah Lhe wlre Lo reach Lhe ess reacLlve meLa
@here ls a currenL fowlna Lhrouah Lhe wlre now
aLlons ln Lhe souLlon move Lo Lhe ess reacLlve meLa
@he caLlons Lake ln eecLrons Lo become aLoms/moecues (8educLlon)

1he more react|ve meta|ť
Zn (s) Ŵ 2e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ Zn
2+
(aq)
CbservaLlonť
@he eecLrode becomes LhlnnerŦ

1he |ess react|ve meta|ť
P
+
(aq) + 2e
Ŵ
ŴŴƽ P
2
(a)
CbservaLlonť
ffervescence ls observedŦ @he aas lberaLed exLlnaulshes a lahLed splnL wlLh a 'pop' soundŦ

noLesť
@he furLher awav Lhe Lwo meLas are from each oLher ln Lhe reacLlvlLv serlesţ Lhe araer Lhe currenL
aeneraLedŦ
uť Less reacLlve meLa Znť More
reacLlve meLa
e
Ŵ
dluLe P (aq)
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

WorkouL quesLlons
1Ŧ n eecLrlc currenL ls passed Lhrouah aqueous ÞoLasslum nlLraLe wlLh lnerL eecLrodesŦ WhaL ls
formed aL Lhe anode?
aŦ Pvdroaen aas
bŦ ÞoLasslum deposlLs
cŦ Cxvaen aas
dŦ nlLroaen dloxlde aas

2Ŧ ln Lhe eecLrovsls of opper(ll) SuphaLe wlLh opper eecLrodesţ how do Lhe masses of Lhe
eecLrodes chanae?

Mass of caLhode Mass of anode
aŦ lncreases lncreases
bŦ lncreases uecreases
cŦ decreases lncreases
dŦ decreases decreases

3Ŧ ln Lhe eecLrovsls of lquld x uslna lnerL eecLrodesţ Lhe voume of Lhe aas formed aL Lhe caLhode
ls Lwlce LhaL of Lhe aas formed aL Lhe anodeŦ WhaL coud lquld x be?
aŦ queous copper (ll) suphaLe
bŦ oncenLraLed P
cŦ MoLen na
dŦ uluLe P
2
SC
4


4Ŧ ln a slmpe ce uslna rods made of maLerla x and maLerla ? and dluLe P as Lhe eecLrovLeţ
bubbes are seen aL Lhe rod made of maLerla ?Ŧ Whlch of Lhe foowlna musL be Lrue?
aŦ x ls more reacLlve Lhan ?
bŦ ? ls more reacLlve Lhan x
cŦ @here ls no wav Lo Le whlch maLerla ls more reacLlve
dŦ x and ? are equav reacLlve

3Ŧ MoLen na ls eecLrovsed uslna paLlnum eecLrodesŦ WhaL ls dlscharaed aL Lhe caLhode?
aŦ horlne
bŦ Pvdroaen
cŦ Cxvaen
dŦ Sodlum

6Ŧ oncenLraLed poLasslum lodlde ls eecLrovsed uslna carbon eecLrodesŦ WhaL ls observed?
caLhode anode
aŦ 8ubbes are seen SouLlon Lurns brown
bŦ 8ubbes are seen 8rown ppL deposlLed
cŦ SouLlon Lurns brown SouLlon Lurns dark purpe
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

dŦ SouLlon Lurns dark purpe 8rown aas ls lberaLed

7Ŧ queous zlnc chorlde ls eecLrovsed uslna paLlnum eecLrodesŦ WhaL happens aL Lhe caLhode?
aŦ Zlnc lons are oxldlzed
bŦ Zlnc lons are reduced
cŦ Pvdroaen lons are oxldlzed
dŦ Pvdroaen lons are reduced

8Ŧ slmpe ce ls seL up wlLh dluLe P as Lhe eecLrovLe and eecLrodes made of aumlnlum and
zlncŦ Whlch correcLv descrlbes Lhe fow of eecLrons?
aŦ @hrouah Lhe wlreţ from Lhe eecLrode Lo Lhe Zn eecLrode
bŦ @hrouah Lhe wlreţ from Lhe Zn eecLrode Lo Lhe eecLrode
cŦ @hrouah P (aq)ţ from Lhe eecLrode Lo Lhe Zn eecLrode
dŦ @hrouah P (aq)ţ from Lhe Zn eecLrode Lo Lhe eecLrode

9Ŧ @he hlahesL currenL ls requlred Lo dlscharae one moe of Lhe foowlna
aŦ Sodlum
bŦ Zlnc
cŦ umlnlum
dŦ Maaneslum

10Ŧ WhaL happens when concenLraLed na (aq) ls eecLrovsed uslna lnerL eecLrodes?
aŦ @he pP of Lhe souLlon lncreases
bŦ @he pP of Lhe souLlon decreases
cŦ @here ls no wav Lo know how Lhe pP of Lhe souLlon chanaes
dŦ @he pP of Lhe souLlon ls unaffecLed

11Ŧ Whlch requlres Lhe araesL quanLlLv of eecLrlclLv ln order Lo be dlscharaed?
aŦ 1 moe of aumlnlum lons
bŦ 4 moes of zlnc lons
cŦ 6 moes of caclum lons
dŦ 10 moes of poLasslum lons

12Ŧ @o eecLropaLe a neckace wlLh slverţ whaL musL be used as Lhe anode?
aŦ @he neckace
bŦ arbon
cŦ ÞaLlnum
dŦ Slver


¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

13Ŧ uraw an eecLrovLlc ce wlLh paLlnum eecLrodes and d||ute NaC| (aq) as Lhe eecLrovLeŦ








aLhode
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

node
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

Cvera reacLlonť ______________________________________________________





¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

uraw an eecLrovLlc ce wlLh carbon eecLrodes and concentrated NaC| (aq) as Lhe eecLrovLeŦ










aLhode
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

node
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

Cvera reacLlonť ______________________________________________________




¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

uraw an eecLrovLlc ce wlLh araphlLe eecLrodes and mo|ten NaC| as Lhe eecLrovLeŦ












aLhode
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

node
8eacLlonť ___________________________________________________________
CbservaLlonť _________________________________________________________

Cvera reacLlonť ______________________________________________________

¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

14Ŧ ln Lhe space provlded beowţ draw an eecLrovLlc ce wlLh Lwo copper eecLrodes and copper (ll)
suphaLe as Lhe eecLrovLeŦ







aŦ WrlLe chemlca equaLlons for Lhe reacLlons aL boLh eecLrodesŦ
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
bŦ WhaL can be observed?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
cŦ @he opper(ll) SuphaLe eecLrovLe ls bue because of Lhe u
2+
lonsŦ Pow does Lhe coor
of Lhe souLlon chanae LhrouahouL Lhe experlmenL? xpalnŦ

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

13Ŧ ln Lhe space beowţ
aŦ draw a slmpe ce wlLh
lŦ voLmeLer
llŦ n eecLrode made of Zlnc
lllŦ n eecLrode made of Lead
lvŦ uluLe P as Lhe eecLrovLe





bŦ WrlLe Lhe chemlca equaLlons for Lhe reacLlons LhaL Lake pace aL each eecLrode
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
cŦ WhaL can be observed?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
dŦ WhaL can be done Lo lncrease Lhe readlna on Lhe voLmeLer?
________________________________________________________________________
eŦ Pow woud Lhe resuLs of Lhe experlmenL be dlfferenL lf Lhe same maLerla ls used for
boLh eecLrodes?

________________________________________________________________________

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