¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

LIGn1ť LLN5L5ţ kLILLC1ICNţ kLIkAC1ICN
nC1LS
Converalna ravs

ulveralna ravs


Ml88C8 lMACLS









LLnSLS






mlrror
ob[ecL lmaae
l 2l l 2l
vlrLualţ uprlahL lma
8ealţ lnverLed lma
Maanlfled lma
ulmlnlshed lma
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

WA1L8
kef|ect|onť anale of lncldence (Lo Lhe normal) ƹ anale of reflecLlon (Lo Lhe normal)







kefract|onť from deep waLer Lo shallow waLer (bendlna 1CWA8uS Lhe normal)







kefract|onť from shallow waLer Lo deep waLer (bendlna AWA? from Lhe normal)

¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

LlCP1







Less dense medlum (alr) Lo denser medlum (waLer)ť Lhe llahL rav bends towards Lhe normalŦ
uenser medlum (waLer) Lo less dense medlum (alr)ť Lhe llahL rav bends away from Lhe normalŦ

D|fferent mater|a|s have d|fferent refract|ve |ndexesŦ
n |s a|ways ǀ 1

1C1AL ln1L8nAL 8LlLLC1lCn






ln flaure 2ţ Lhe refracLed anale ls benL so much LhaL lL ls 90' from Lhe normalŦ 1he lncldenL anale LhaL
causes Lhls Lo happen ls called Lhe cr|t|ca| ang|eţ cŦ When Lhe lncldenL anale ls laraer Lhan Lhe crlLlcal
analeţ Lhere ls no more refracLlonŦ lnsLeadţ LoLal lnLernal reflecLlon occursť flaure 3Ŧ
kefract|ve |ndex
n ƹ
Gˇˌˇ
GˇˌG
ƹ
͹
Y

8efracLlon
8efracLlon
I|gure 1 I|gure 2
I|gure 3
1oLal lnLernal
reflecLlon
Alr
WaLer
Alr
WaLer
Alr
WaLer
c
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

WC8kCu1 CuLS1lCnS
1Ŧ 1he observed lmaae of an ob[ecL ls sllahLlv smaller Lhan Lhe acLual ob[ecL when Lhe ob[ecL ls
placed 11 m awav from a converalna lensŦ 1he lmaae appears Lo be laraer when Lhe ob[ecL ls
shlfLed such LhaL lL ls now 9 m awav from Lhe lensŦ WhaL ls Lhe focal lenaLh of Lhe lens?
aŦ 3 m
bŦ 10 m
cŦ 13 m
dŦ 20 m

2Ŧ A converalna lens has a focal lenaLh of 30 mŦ When an ob[ecL ls placed 60 m awav from lLţ Lhe
lmaae observed ls
aŦ 8ealţ uprlahLţ dlmlnlshed
bŦ 8ealţ lnverLedţ maanlfled
cŦ 8ealţ lnverLedţ same slze
dŦ vlrLualţ uprlahLţ same slze

3Ŧ A converalna lens has a focal lenaLh lŦ 1o use Lhls lens Lo focus sunllahL Lo seL a leaf on flreţ whaL
ls Lhe besL dlsLance beLween Lhe lens and Lhe leaf?
aŦ 0Ŧ3 l
bŦ l
cŦ 1Ŧ3 l
dŦ 2 l

4Ŧ A convex lens pro[ecLs a sharp lmaae on a screenŦ 1he screen ls now shlfLed back and Lhe lmaae
becomes blurredŦ WhaL can be done Lo aeL a sharp lmaae aaaln?
aŦ ShlfL Lhe lens Lowards Lhe screen
bŦ ShlfL Lhe ob[ecL Lowards Lhe lens
cŦ ShlfL Lhe ob[ecL awav from Lhe lens
dŦ ShlfL Lhe lens awav from Lhe screen

¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

3Ŧ A beam of llahL ls shone from alr lnLo subsLance qţ Lhen lnLo subsLance xŦ llnd Lhe refracLlve
lndex of subsLance q and subsLance xŦ















SubsLance q
SubsLance x
30'
10'
10'
70'
¹ Han, 2011. All rights reserved.

6Ŧ A beam of llahL ls shone lnLo a alass blockŦ Clven LhaL Lhe refracLlve lndex of alass ls 1Ŧ3ţ flnd
anale xŦ












7Ŧ LlahL Lravels aL a speed of ŵźŹ˲ŵŴ%˭ÈJ˩JJ˯IJˮIJI˥˲Ŧ Clven LhaL Lhe speed of llahL ln a
vacuum ls 3Ŧ0 x 10
8
ms
Ŵ1
ţ flnd Lhe refracLlve lndex of subsLance xŦ









8Ŧ Clven LhaL Lhe refracLlve lndex of waLer ls 1Ŧ33ţ flnd Lhe speed of llahL ln waLerŦ

60'
10'

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