679 views

Uploaded by Debabrata Podder

- Ht 030 Solution
- User subroutines reference manual in Abaqus
- FEM of Welded Joint
- Abaqus Heat Transfer Tutorial
- 1-s2.0-S0924013604009896-main
- Welding Simulation with Abaqus 2005
- Abaqus DFLux Subroutine Example
- Welding Processes
- Tutorial_3_Heat_Exchanger.pdf
- Sec-I 139
- ABAQUS User Subroutines Overview[1]
- ABAQUS User Subroutine
- 72.Pandian
- Motivation and Highlights
- Transient Cooling of Waxy Crude Oil in a Floating Roof Tank
- CV in ARAMCO Format
- 05.0Review of Requirements
- Heat Balance When Wearing Protective Clothing
- ME-D.pdf
- Catool User Guide v5

You are on page 1of 7

Fanous

Mem. ASME

3-D Finite Element Modeling of

e-mail: fanous@aucegypt.edu

Maher Y. A. Younan

the Welding Process Using

Mem. ASME

Professor of Mechanics and Design,

Element Birth and Element

e-mail: myounan@aucegypt.edu

Movement Techniques

American University in Cairo,

Cairo, Egypt

The modeling and simulation of the welding process has been of main concern for differ-

ent fields of applications. Most of the modeling of such a problem has been mainly in 2-D

forms that may also include many sorts of approximation and assumptions. This is due to

limitations in the computational facilities as the analysis of 3-D problems consumes a lot

Abdalla S. Wifi of time. With the evolution of new finite element tools and fast computer systems, the

Professor

analysis of such problems is becoming in hand. In this research, a simulation of the

e-mail: aswifi@hotmail.com

welding process with and without metal deposition is developed. A new technique for

Mechanical Design and Production Department,

metal deposition using element movement is introduced. It helps in performing full 3-D

Cairo University,

analysis in a shorter time than other previously developed techniques such as the element

Cairo, Egypt

birth. 关DOI: 10.1115/1.1564070兴

nique could give a general overview of the residual stresses due to

Many models for the welding simulation have been developed

welding.

in the past few years. Most of the models had to include some Hibbit and Marcal 关6兴 have performed an advanced modeling

approximations in order to avoid long computing time and geo- procedure for a complete 3-D simualtion of the welding process.

metrical nonlinearity. Also, most of them were intended for spe- The loading of the welded structure due to operation conditions,

cial applications in which reducing the model from 3-D to 2-D, temperature dependent material properties and phase transforma-

for example, could be a valid assumption. On the other hand, tion were accounted for in their model.

some 3-D models were developed in which approximations were Friedman 关7兴 developed a comprehensive two-dimensional

applied to the material behavior at elevated temperatures, and analysis. Noting that the temperature profile does not vary with

without including the metal deposition. time but moves at constant speed along the welding line, the prob-

Nguyen, Ohta, Matsuoka, Suzuki and Maeda 关1兴 have devel- lem size was reduced so as to evaluate the temperature profile at a

oped an analytical procedure for evaluating the transient tempera- section perpendicular to the welding line.

ture profile during the welding process. They used Goldak’s 关2兴 Detailed analyses for 2-D and 3-D welding using the ADINA

formulation of the double-ellipsoidal heat source and compared software were shown by Wilkening and Snow 关8兴. They consid-

the results with an experiment that he conducted. They assumed ered most of the non-linear aspects of the analysis including

that there is no heat loss neither through convection nor radiation temperature-dependent material properties and metal deposition.

from the surfaces of the plate, which lead to some discrepancy in The element birth technique was used to simulate the metal depo-

temperature predictions. sition. The moving heat source was modeled using a time curve

To calculate the residual stresses, Ueda and Yuan 关3兴 and Mo- for nodal heat flux.

chizuki and Hattori 关4兴 used the inherent strain method. It is based In the present work, a new technique of element movement is

on the assumption that the inherent strain of a complicated welded developed for full 3-D simulation of the welding process. The

structure can be approximated by another of a similar simpler standard commercial code ABAQUS is used to model this prob-

structure. The inherent strain is affected by other parameters such lem as it has been used extensively in such a highly nonlinear

as the material of the base metal, the difference between the ma- problem in previous researches. In the first model considered in

terial of the base metal and that of the filler, the welding speed, the this research, the dimensions and thermal load values are acquired

amount of heat input, etc. Hence, to use the inherent strain tech- from the research done by Friedman 关7兴 for comparison and veri-

nique, a database of the profile for different parameters should be fication. In this case, simple butt welding of two coplanar plates

developed. However, for a complicated structure, the use of inher- without considering metal deposition is simulated. In the other

ent strain method becomes inaccurate. two models that are considered in this research, larger thicknesses

Dong 关5兴 has developed a model utilizing the element birth are assumed to include the effect of adding filler material in the

technique to simulate the metal deposition that is valid in the weld pool between the plates.

cases with no thermal analysis of the sudden large temperature

variation. This model is a combined two 2-D model with a small Finite Element Models

allowable variation in the results along the thickness. This concept In developing a general purpose model for the welding process,

eliminates the effect of the heat transfer through the thickness of it is important to consider the moving heat source, heat loss,

the plate, which is of great effect in case of the thick plate weld- temperature-dependent material properties and metal deposition.

ing. The technique used for developing a cross-sectional model A moving heat source is modeled by setting a heat flux distribu-

tion that varies with time applied to the top surface of the weld

Contributed by the Pressure Vessels and Piping Division and presented at the pool zone. Using ABAQUS, it is simulated by developing a user-

Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, August 4 – 8, 2002,

of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. Manuscript received by

defined subroutine to which time and position of interest are

the PVP Division April 26, 2002; revised manuscript received February 5, 2003. passed as parameters and returns the heat flux accordingly. Simi-

Associate Editor: S. Y. Zamrik. larly, another subroutine is developed to simulate the heat lost

144 Õ Vol. 125, MAY 2003 Copyright © 2003 by ASME Transactions of the ASME

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Fig. 1 The diagram of the welding process of case 1

from the top surface of the body. These subroutines are verified in

‘‘Model 1’’ which simulates the welding process of two plates, Fig. 3 The moving heat source of Model 1

without considering metal deposition, and compares to the results

of Friedman 关7兴. Also, the material properties are entered to the

model for different temperature values as described later in this

The total heat input Q is evaluated according to the type of heat

paper. The verified subroutines of the heat load and heat loss and

source. For example, in electric arc welding

material data are then used to simulate another welding process

that includes the addition of filler material to the base plate. Ini- Q⫽ VI (2)

tially, ‘‘Model 2’’ is developed to simulate the process utilizing

This distribution, according to 关7兴, represents 95% of the total heat

the element birth technique to simulate the metal deposition as has

Q when applied within a circle with radius r b . The distance r in

been used in previous researches. This model shall be used as a

Eq. 共1兲 shown in Fig. 4 is the distance from the center point of the

reference for verification of ‘‘Model 3’’ utilizing the element

heat source to the point for which the heat flux is being calculated

movement technique that is developed in this research.

and is given by

Verification Model „Model 1…. The model simulates basic

arc welding of two coplanar plates along the parting line as illus- r⫽ 冑共 x⫺x h 兲 2 ⫹y 2 (3)

trated in Fig. 1. The model is developed similar to that of 关7兴 so as where

to be able to verify the subroutine of the heat source and heat loss

in comparing the thermal history, and the structural boundary con- x h ⫽ 共 t⫺t 0 兲v (4)

ditions in comparing the residual stresses. The value of t 0 is the time taken for the center point of the heat to

Each plate has a length of 100 mm (x direction兲, width of 50 reach the first node along the welding line that has a value of zero

mm (y direction兲 and height of 2.5 mm. The welding speed is 2 in Model 1. This way, as the time increases, x h increases simulat-

mm/s. The electric input is 24 V and 30 A, and the arc efficiency ing the motion of the circle of the heat load zone as shown in Fig.

is assumed to be 90%. The process is modeled using one plate 3. Therefore, when the value of r is less than or equal to r b , the

upon which symmetry loading and boundary conditions are ap- heat flux is calculated according to 共1兲. Otherwise, the heat load is

plied. Parametric meshing is used in order to easily track the set to zero. r b is set to 5 mm according to 关7兴.

results along a certain predefined path in any direction. The thermal boundary conditions include the radiation and con-

The element used is an 8-noded brick element that can perform vection to the environment from all sides of the welded plate

a coupled displacement-temperature analysis. For thermal symme- except the symmetry surface and the area upon which the heat is

try, the heat flux passing across the surface of symmetry shown in applied. For all sides of the plate that lose heat, the heat lost is

Fig. 2 is assumed to be zero, and, for structural symmetry, the calculated by

translation in the y direction of the same surface is also zero.

Besides, for structural stability of the model, fixture point 1 is q⫽h convection共 T i ⫺T a 兲 ⫹ em bol共 T i4 ⫺T 4a 兲 (5)

constrained in the x and z directions, and fixture point 2 is con- 2

The connection coefficient is 8 W/m °C, which is assumed to be

strained in the z direction. constant as it depends primarily on the ambient temperature, and

The moving heat load is applied as distributed heat flux to the the emissivity is 0.5.

top surface of the model, Fig. 3. The region within which the heat Another subroutine called FILM is developed in 关9兴 in conjunc-

is applied has a circular shape assuming the heat source is applied tion with DFLUX to account for the variation of the heat loss

perpendicularly to the plate without any inclination. A user sub- coefficients with time for the top surface. In this code, the location

routine named DFLUX is developed in 关9兴 using the FORTRAN under consideration is checked if it lies within the circle of appli-

language and included in the model to calculate the heat flux at a cation of the load using Eqs. 共3兲 and 共4兲, and, if it is true, there is

certain time and location within the surface of elements upon no heat loss. Otherwise, heat is lost by the same coefficients as the

which the load is applied according to Eq. 共1兲. other sides from the area of the top surface other than that of the

3Q 2

q共 r 兲⫽ e ⫺3(r/r b ) (1)

r 2b

Fig. 2 General boundary conditions Fig. 4 Zones of heat load and heat loss

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Fig. 6 General boundary conditions

However, it initially stays a while at the beginning of the welding

process for the filler material to start melting. Then the heat flux

starts to gradually impose its effect as shown in Fig. 5. Note that

there is no heat load at the initial state. This effect is modeled by

using the DFLUX and FILM subroutines as developed in Model 1

having the initial time t 0 greater than zero,

Fig. 5 The moving heat source of Model 2 rb

t 0⫽ (8)

v

At time zero, x h equals to ⫺r b . This makes the heat source just

heat load. The coefficient calculated in the FILM subroutine is a out of the model at the beginning of the analysis with the first

combination of both the convection and radiation coefficients group of elements being active. As the heat source moves and

which is given by starts to go out of the current active element slice, the next slice of

elements is activated, as illustrated in Fig. 5. The total heat input

h total⫽h convection⫹ em bol共 T i3 ⫹T i2 T a ⫹T i T 2a ⫹T 3a 兲 (6) rate is 1300 W.

such that the total heat loss in Eq. 共5兲 becomes The analysis procedure is divided into several steps. In each

step, a new group of elements is activated. This means that every

q⫽h total共 T i ⫺T a 兲 (7) step performs analysis over a time period t i ⫽x i v where x i is the

length of the group of elements 共along the x direction兲 to be

Element Birth Technique „Model 2…. To broaden the appli- activated in that step. A step is added when all elements are acti-

cation of the modeling procedure, the problem of Model 2 simu- vated to allow for heat loss only over a long period of time 共40

lates arc welding of two coplanar plates with the addition of a min兲 simulating cool down. Finally, an extra step is added in

filler material between them. By developing several trial models, which the fixation of the far surface is released, as mentioned

it was found that a length of 100 mm (x direction兲, a width of 50 before, to be able to check for the residual stresses at no load.

mm (y direction兲 and a thickness of 5 mm (z direction兲 are ad- It is important to note that the automatically estimated time

equate for a single pass welding process. The welding speed is increment in the analysis drops to a very small value due to the

assumed to be 1 mm/s. vast difference in the temperatures of consecutive nodes in the

The metal deposition of the filler material is considered using reactivated elements. This effect can be dramatic for small ele-

the element birth technique. This technique is based on deactivat- ment sizes of the weld pool at the fusion surface 共the parting

ing and reactivating the elements of the weld pool as the welding surface兲. In addition, the part of the heat passed to the base plate

progresses. The meshing of the base plate and the weld pool has a is neglected in this model. Therefore, it is important to gradually

clear parting surface between them. That way, when the elements transfer heat from the filler material to the base plate to smoothen

of the weld pool are deactivated, the remaining elements would the contact between the two parts.

have the initial shape of the base plate with its modified edge that

forms the cavity of the weld pool. The meshing in the weld pool is Element Movement Technique „Model 3…. The meshing in

fine enough to account for the high temperature gradient calcula- this model is similar to that in Model 2. However, the elements of

tions and that in the base plate has similar meshing characteristics the weld pool are separated from those of the base plate so as to

described in Model 1 with the elements near the fusion surface be free to move as shall be discussed in the next section. Paramet-

having a size close to the ones in the weld pool. ric meshing is used in both parts in order to be able to handle

The elements defining the weld pool are grouped to form slices. nodes along a certain path or on a certain plane within the two

Having the elements of the weld pool initially deactivated, every parts. In order to impose the gradual heat transfer effect, the part

slice is then reactivated as the heat sources moves along the weld- of the weld pool is shifted in the z direction a certain distance

ing line as shown in Fig. 5. The nodes that appear due to the from the base plate as shown in Fig. 7. This way, the thermal and

reactivation of the elements have an initial temperature above the

liquidous temperature.

The structural boundary conditions described in Model 1 are

not sufficient for the base plate since it is free to deform in the y

direction. The welding process is assumed to be in a large struc-

ture that can allow for slight movement of the far surface in Fig.

6, but with no rotation about any axis which is simulated by

forcing the displacement of all the nodes on the far surface to be

the same. This is modeled by using a constraint equation that

couples the y component of the displacement of each two con-

secutive nodes on the surface. Therefore, with reference to Fig. 6,

the y displacement of node 1 is set to be equal to that of node 2

and that of node 2 is set to be equal node 3, etc... Fig. 7 Gap clearance

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Fig. 8 „a… The effective area, and „b… thermal conductivity ver-

sus the gap clearance of the gap elements

the distance d between them.

To avoid large skewing of the elements due to the moving ones

simulating metal deposition, the initial gap between the weld pool

and the base plate is set to be small compared to the element size

in the z direction. The type of element used is the same as that in

the previous models with structural and thermal degrees of free-

dom in order to perform coupled displacement-temperature Fig. 9 The steps of the element movement technique

analysis.

Having the weld pool and the base plate parts separated re-

quired the introduction of gap thermal and structural interaction

weld pool are allowed to penetrate the elements of the base plate

between the two bodies. The gap links, named GAPUNIT in

共a criteria know as over-closure in ABAQUS explained in 关10兴兲

ABAQUS, are used between the two parts to take care of the

when they are moved towards it.

interaction by joining adjacent nodes together. These links are

When modeling the element movement, the nodes lying on the

two-noded elements and are modeled such that they allow heat to

same y-z plane move together towards the base plate by applying

be transmitted between nodes of the weld pool and the adjoining

translational boundary condition equivalent to the initial gap

nodes of the base plate, which implies that the meshing of the

clearance. With reference to Fig. 9, the nodes that are yet to move

adjoining surfaces must be the same in the horizontal and vertical

in the following steps are held in position in order not to allow

directions of the surfaces as illustrated in Fig. 7. The gap elements

any deformation in the remaining portion of the weld pool. In this

are assigned thermal conductivity, which is at the room tempera-

case, the elements formed by the nodes that moved towards the

ture. Its effective area which is the contact area that each gap

base plate and the next group of nodes posses some strain. There-

element represents on the contact surfaces is shown in Fig. 8(a).

fore, the group of nodes that has just reached the base plate is held

To avoid heat to be transmitted from the weld pool to the base

in position until those of the next step follow them. This way, the

plate before any deposition, the thermal conductivity of the gap

strain in the translated elements shall tend back to zero. When the

elements are initially set to zero. However, since the base plate is

second group of nodes is lowered, the first one is released to

at room temperature and the weld pool is at the melting point, the

deform freely without being affected with the strain previously

conductivity cannot be set to its maximum value just at the time of

generated in neighboring element. In order to reduce the strain

contact since there will be coincident points having temperatures

generated in the element, the nodes move only half of the gap

greatly different. This may cause problems in the automatic incre-

distance every step, which implies that the nodes reach the base

menting process since a major parameter for calculating the time

plate after two subsequent steps. The welding speed is the length

increment is the maximum change in temperature per increment.

This should not exceed a certain limit selected to be 200°C 共larger

value of the temperature change limit may cause loss of accuracy

and smaller value would lead to longer analysis time兲. Therefore,

the thermal conductivity of the gap elements gradually increases

from the initial value of zero at a certain gap clearance to the

maximum value at zero clearance according to the values shown

in Fig. 8(b). This way, when the elements of the weld pool reach

those of the base plate, the temperature of the two coincident

nodes shall become approximately equal. This early interaction

accounts for the heat lost from the molten metal to the base plate

while falling into the weld pool. Also, by increasing the value of

thermal conductivity in the range before contact, the transferred

amount of heat can be increased and, thus, account for heat being

transmitted from the heat source to the base plate directly. This is

important in the model simulating arc welding where the heat is

generated through the electric arc between the electrode 共the filler

material兲 and the base plate. Also, in gas welding, there is some

heat not subjected to the filler material and is applied directly to

the base plate. However, it is necessary to keep the conductivity at

zero clearance to be at a value similar to that of the base plate

material so that the flow of heat across the gap element would be

equal to that through the material itself.

Due to the possible expansion of the base plate, elements of the Fig. 10 The moving heat source of Model 3

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Fig. 11 Zones of heat load and heat loss

of each element divided by the time of each step. When the nodes Fig. 13 Stress distribution along the midsection

of the weld pool reach the base plate, a coupling equation is

activated between the coincident nodes of both parts to simulate

the fusion process. These coupling equations force the deforma-

tion of the coincident nodes to be equal. Hence, the weld pool and with the base plate. In other words, since the first group of nodes

the base plate act as one body at this point. A user subroutine reaches the base plate in two consecutive steps, the value of t 0

MPC is developed in 关9兴 to activate the coupling between every shall be twice the time taken for each step, which is 2 s for the

group of nodes that come into contact at a specific time according model in hand. Figure 10 shows the motion of the heat load whose

to the welding speed. In this subroutine, the x-coordinate of every center 共the darkest point兲 reaches the first node of the welding at

group of nodes is checked if it is less than the x-coordinate of the time⫽4 s.

center point of the heat source, and, if it is true, the coupling Finally, the thermal heat loss is modeled such that heat is lost

equation is activated. Usually, the fusion at different points be- from all sides of the plate and the weld pool except those surfaces

tween the weld pool and the base plate depends on the peak tem- that are in contact. Just as it is mentioned in the previous case, the

perature and the time during which the coincident points stay in heat from the top surface is modeled using the previously devel-

the liquid state. However, this criterion is not included in the oped FILM subroutine with the value of t 0 identical to that just

research and all coincident points on the contact surfaces are as- calculated for DFLUX. However, since the topmost elements of

sumed to have full fusion because the model is designed to check the weld pool that are yet to be deposited are considered part of

for the residual stresses. the top surface, they must not be considered in the heat loss area.

The heat source has the same concept as that of Model 2 in Therefore, the FILM subroutine is slightly modified so that ele-

which the heat source must stay a while at the start of the welding ments with x-coordinate larger than that of the center point of the

process before it moves along the welding. However, when apply- heat source must have a heat loss coefficient of zero. Figure 11

ing the DFLUX subroutine developed earlier, the value of t 0 will shows the heat load and heat loss regions in Model 3 according to

be different to match the deposition process. It is assumed that the the modifications in the FILM subroutine.

center point of the heat source should be at the first node of the The analysis steps in this case are similar to that of Model 2

welding line just as the first group of nodes comes into contact with two extra steps added to the procedure in order to account for

the depositing groups of nodes, and that the deposition of each

group is done in two steps

Table 1 Material properties versus temperature

Young’s modulus 共GPa兲 200 0.2 2⫻10 ⫺5

2⫻10⫺5

Poisson ratio 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

Yield strength 共MPa兲 290 1 0.01 0.01

Yield strength at strain 1.0 共MPa兲 314 1 0.01 0.01

Thermal expansion (1/°C⫻10⫺6 ) 10 15 15 15

Thermal conductivity (W/m.°C) 50 30 30 30

Specific heat (J/kg.°C) 450 400 400 400

Latent heat 共J/kg兲 260,000

Models 2 and 3

Element Element

birth movement

Min. time increment 0.000002872 0.00011

No. of increments 1753 966

No. of iterations 4758 3471

Total analysis time ⬃48 h ⬃24 h

Fig. 12 Temperature history

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Fig. 15 Comparison between the element birth and element movement techniques for „a… x „longitudinal stress… and „b…

y „transverse stress… history at the monitoring points, „c… x and „d… y distribution along the midsection, „e… x and „f …

y distribution along the welding line, and „g… and „h… along the fusion line

Material Properties. The material used in Model 1 is Inconel Results and Discussion

Alloy 600 that is used by Friedman 关7兴. The material properties

used with metal deposition in Model 2 and Model 3 were acquired Verification Study. Good agreement appeared between the

from Brown 关11兴 whose properties are shown in Table 1. The thermal and structural results of Model 1 and those of Friedman

latent heat indicated is included by ABAQUS in the specific heat 关7兴. Figure 12 shows the temperature history at 3 monitoring

variation with temperature between the liquidous and solidous points indicated in Fig. 2 along the mid transverse line on the top

levels. and bottom surface. Figure 13 shows the history of the variation

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

of the longitudinal stress along the transverse direction (y direc- be very effective. It allowed for early thermal interaction between

tion兲 along the top of the midsection. the weld pool and the base plate reducing the analysis time. Also,

the stress history and the residual stress distribution resulting from

Element Birth Versus Element Movement Technique. The

both techniques compared well, with an acceptable difference

results of the element movement technique 共Model 3兲 had a very

when evaluated versus the computing cost.

close match with those of the element birth 共Model 2兲. Figure 14

shows a comparison of the temperature history at the monitoring

point near the fusion surface shown in Fig. 6. The slight reduction Nomenclature

in the peak temperature predicted using the element movement is q(r) ⫽ heat flux at distance r from center of heat source

due to the gradual flow of heat from the weld pool to the base. (W/m2 )

Besides, due to the difference in the node arrangement between Q ⫽ total heat input rate 共W兲

the two techniques in having two separate bodies in Model 3 r b ⫽ radius at which total heat input is 95% of actual

instead of one in Model 2, there is a difference in the arrangement value 共m兲

of the integration points representing similar nodes. This caused a h convection ⫽ convection coefficient (W/m2 °C)

difference in the temperature of the monitoring points due to the em ⫽ emissivity

high temperature gradient. In addition, it can be observed that the bol ⫽ Stefan-Boltzman constant (5.669⫻10⫺8 W/m2 K)

temperature of the monitoring point at the top is lower than that at

T i ⫽ expected temperature for current increment 共K兲

the bottom since the distance of the former from the welding line

T a ⫽ ambient temperature 共K兲

is larger than that of latter.

t i ⫽ time of step i (s)

Table 2 shows a comparison between the two techniques in the

v ⫽ welding speed 共m/s兲

analysis steps and timing. This illustrates the huge reduction in the

time spent to perform the simulation using the element movement

technique. References

Figure 15 illustrates a detailed comparison of the longitudinal 关1兴 Nguyen, N. T., Ohta, A., Matsuoka, K., Suzuki, N., and Maeda, Y., 1999,

( x ) and transverse ( y ) stresses between the two models. A very ‘‘Analytical Solutions for Transient Temperature of Semi-Infinite Body Sub-

close match in the history of the stress components at the moni- jected to 3-D Moving Heat Sources,’’ Weld. J. 共Miami兲, Aug., pp. 265–274.

关2兴 Goldak, J., 1990, ‘‘Keynote Address: Modeling Thermal Stresses and Distor-

toring point 共Fig. 6兲 is shown in Fig. 15(a) and (b). The mid tions in Welds,’’ Recent trends in welding science and technology, ASM Inter-

section 共Fig. 6兲 was selected for monitoring since it gives an over- national.

view of the behavior of the whole welded structure. A very close 关3兴 Ueda, Y., and Yuan, M. G., 1993, ‘‘Prediction of Residual Stresses in Butt

match can be observed between the two techniques in the distri- Welded Plates Using Inherent Strains,’’ ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 115,

Oct., pp. 417– 423; 116, July 1994, pp. 285.

bution of the residual stresses along the mid section’s top and 关4兴 Mochizuki, H., and Hattori, H., 1999, ‘‘Residual Stress Analysis by Simplified

bottom paths as illustrated in Fig. 15(c) and (d). Finally, the Inherent at Welded Pipe Junctures in a Pressure Vessel,’’ ASME J. Pressure

welding line, being the hottest part, and the fusion line, where a Vessel Technol., 121, Nov., pp. 353–357.

great variation in the residual stress distribution is expected to 关5兴 Dong, P., 2001, ‘‘Residual Stress Analyses Multi-Pass Birth Weld: 3-D Special

Shell versus Axisymmetric Models,’’ ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123,

occur, were also selected for monitoring. The variation of the May, pp. 207–213.

residual stresses along these paths of Model 2 compared well with 关6兴 Hibbit, Hugh D., and Marcal, Pedro V., 1973, ‘‘A Numerical, Thermo-

those of Model 3 as shown in Fig. 15(e) – (h). Mechanical Model for the Welding and Subsequent Loading of a Fabricated

Structure,’’ Comput. Struct., 3, pp. 1145–1174.

关7兴 Friedman, E., 1975, ‘‘Thermomechanical Analysis of the Welding Process Us-

Conclusion ing the Finite Element Method,’’ ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 97, Aug.,

In the verification model, the results of the 3-D model simulat- pp. 206 –213.

关8兴 Wilkening, W. W., and Snow, J. L., 1993, ‘‘Analysis of Welding-Induced Re-

ing the welding process compared well with that of 关7兴. The sub- sidual Stresses With The Adina System,’’ Comput. Struct., 47共4/5兲, pp. 767–

routines in that model can be used confidently to simulate most of 786.

the moving heat source used in the welding processes. It can be 关9兴 Fanous, I. F. Z., ‘‘3D Modeling of the Welding Process Using Finite Ele-

further developed to simulate inclined heat sources to cover a ments,’’ M.Sc. thesis, The American University in Cairo, February 2002.

关10兴 Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorensen, ‘‘ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual,’’ 6.2,

wider range of applications. 2001.

In comparing the element movement technique versus the ele- 关11兴 Brown, S., and Song, H., 1992, ‘‘Finite Element Simulation of Welding Large

ment birth technique, it can be observed that the former showed to Structures,’’ ASME J. Eng. Ind., 114, Nov., pp. 441– 451.

Downloaded 14 May 2011 to 203.110.246.230. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

- Ht 030 SolutionUploaded byKTINE08
- User subroutines reference manual in AbaqusUploaded byNguyễn Hữu Hào
- FEM of Welded JointUploaded bybysktyvkto
- Abaqus Heat Transfer TutorialUploaded byhasib
- 1-s2.0-S0924013604009896-mainUploaded byYusuf Çelebi
- Welding Simulation with Abaqus 2005Uploaded bySIMULIACorp
- Abaqus DFLux Subroutine ExampleUploaded byjangdini
- Welding ProcessesUploaded byborchec
- Tutorial_3_Heat_Exchanger.pdfUploaded byBipin Giri
- Sec-I 139Uploaded byPanchal Shailesh
- ABAQUS User Subroutines Overview[1]Uploaded bySheng Lai
- ABAQUS User SubroutineUploaded byknan1
- 72.PandianUploaded byTrishul Sampath
- Motivation and HighlightsUploaded bycaptainhass
- Transient Cooling of Waxy Crude Oil in a Floating Roof TankUploaded byATUL SONAWANE
- CV in ARAMCO FormatUploaded byRichard Periyanayagam
- 05.0Review of RequirementsUploaded byrodwellb
- Heat Balance When Wearing Protective ClothingUploaded byBasil Oguaka
- ME-D.pdfUploaded byaciddrops
- Catool User Guide v5Uploaded byTaufik Rizal
- API 1104 VT TEST.docxUploaded byKali Abdennour
- NME OSWVCUploaded bypellazgus
- myyyyyUploaded byzizoo1428
- Is 600 Mm Sufficient to Keep BDV FunctionalUploaded bysachin2010
- Regimul Termic Al Anrocamente Pavate În Regiunile Permafrost de-A Lungul Qinghai-Tibet Inginerie CoridorulUploaded byLuca Patricia Konstantina
- 690230523_ftpUploaded bygad480
- cv_fresher_sample.pdfUploaded byAnjanKumarMahanta
- Approximation of Heat LossUploaded byArshavin Watashi Wa
- Welding syllUploaded byanwer
- MODULE 2: Worked-Out ProblemsUploaded bycaptainhass

- Laser TransmissionUploaded byReb Kirk
- 1 Introduction to ANSYSUploaded byAdityo Putranto
- Modelling of Angular Distortion of Double-pass Butt-welded Plate.Uploaded byDebabrata Podder
- A Numerical, Thermo-mechanical Model for the Welding and Subsequent Loading of a Fabricated Structure.Uploaded byDebabrata Podder
- Analysis of Residual Stresses and Distortions in T Joint Fillet WeldsUploaded byDebabrata Podder
- Full M.E. ThesisUploaded byDebabrata Podder
- Three Dimensional Modeling Weld Solidification CracksUploaded byDebabrata Podder
- Mesh Free Method 111Uploaded byDebabrata Podder

- GDN-218Uploaded byVasant Kumar Varma
- Cult of KUUploaded byEli Giudice
- Surgical Treatments for Otitis Media With Effusion a Systemic ReviewUploaded byranirahmani
- Applied LinguisticsUploaded byAgus Juniarta
- Engineering MEchanics Part - AUploaded byPreethi Sharmi
- Aitchison Hay GaugeTheories II TOC Only (book)Uploaded byandrushkkutza
- Cerebral Palsy-Classification and EpidemiologyUploaded byharry333335
- Philippine Constitution SOURCE: de Leon HectorUploaded byAlexander Kim Waing
- t2dm 2009Uploaded byapi-148758015
- Itec 100 ch5Uploaded byHas
- romanticism realism neoclassicalismUploaded byapi-346377291
- wonder 2Uploaded byAinhoa Campo Ramajo
- A Collection of Lots of Sops of Lots of Seniors From IIT , BombayUploaded bySunny Sheikh
- Rest Man 1Uploaded byRebel Shams
- Sunflower MechanismUploaded byMalidu Madawala
- PPHI Project 3 Advertisement 01Uploaded bySaddam Mengal
- Integrating Lync Server and CUCMUploaded byHector Armstrong
- Devops a Software Architect s Perspective Len Bass(Www.ebook Dl.com)Uploaded bySanToe Aung
- Mitsubishi F700 Drive.pdfUploaded byIsai Anguiano
- Christian Terp - CVUploaded byChristian Blicher Terp
- Sud Unit 1 Definitions CompleteUploaded bydenim2serv
- bes annual report submission p&p final 2014Uploaded byapi-280978086
- Lesson 18 FinalUploaded bynarenivi
- AdmixtureUploaded byElaMazlan
- 12.03.15 The NickelUploaded byliz6085
- Optimization Design of Motorcycle FramesUploaded byrace egr
- teamg finalprojectplanUploaded byapi-282901577
- Electronic CommunicationUploaded byHet Patel
- Taqleed or the Following of the ImamsUploaded byYaaRasoolallah
- NISD Henderson Elem WorldBk OrderUploaded bygigi77774742