Line Balancing

or an unattended machine like robot performs a particular set of tasks. A work center is a small grouping of identical workstations . The goal of analysis of production lines is to determine how many workstations to have and which tasks to assign to each work station so that the minimum number of worker and the minimum amount of machines are used to provide the required amount of capacity . with each work station performing the same set of tasks . • Production lines have workstations and work centers arranged in sequence along a straight or curved line. A workstation is a physical area where a worker with tools .a worker with one or more machines .Feature • Line Balancing is an analysis process that tries to equally divide the work to be done among workstations so that the number of worker or workstations requires on a production line is minimized.

position pencil on paper to write . Precedence of each task is known from a listing of tasks that must immediately precede it. Grasp pencil.Terminology of Production Line Analysis • Tasks : Elements of work. Task times are usually expressed in minutes. and write the number 4 is an example of a task. • Cycle time : The time in minutes between products coming off the end of a production line . . • Task times : The amount of time required foe a well-trained worker or unattended machine to perform a task. Task precedence : The sequence or order in which tasks must be performed .

If more than one workstation is required to provide enough production capacity . Workstation are usually of two types : a manned workstation containing one worker who operates machines and/or tools .start-ups .breakdowns .Terminology of Production Line Analysis • Productive time per hour : The number of minutes in each hour that a workstation is working on the average.they are combined to form a work center . • Workstation : Physical location where a particular set of tasks is performed. A workstation may not be working because of such things as lunch .and shutdowns.personal time .and an unmanned workstation containing unattended machines like robots. • Work center : A physical location where two or more identical workstations are located .

Terminology of Production Line Analysis • Number of workstation working : The amount of work to be done at a work center expressed in number of workstations. calculate by Sum of all Task time = Sum of all takt times x Demand per hour Cycle time Production time per hour . • Minimum number of workstation : The least number of workstation that can provide the required production.

Each worker becomes a specialist. This is usually calculate by Minimum number of workstations x 100 Actual number of workstation • Specialization of labor : Called “ division of labor” this principle asserts that when a large job is divided into small tasks and each task is assigned to one worker. • Utilization – The percentage o time that a production line is working. One of the major explanations of specialization of labor is the learning curve . the worker becomes the single task.Terminology of Production Line Analysis Actual number of workstations : The total number of workstations required on the entire production line.

• Line pacing . which paces the line to mechanized conveyor . in which each component is manufactured to sufficiently close tolerances that any part of a certain type can be selected for assembly with its mating components. rendering assembly line methods impractical. Workers on an assembly line are usually required to complete their assigned tasks on each product unit within a certain cycle time. • Work principle in material handling which provides that each work unit flows smoothly through the production line . traveling minimum distances between stations.Terminology of Production Line Analysis • Interchangeable parts .

3.Line Balancing Procedure 1. 5. Calculate the cycle time 6. Draw a precedence diagram. Estimate takt times. 2. Determine which tasks must be performed to complete one unit of a particular product. Calculate the minimum number of workstation . This is a flowchart wherein circles represent tasks and connecting arrows represent precedence 4. Determine the order or sequence in which the tasks must be performed.

and they are usually not helpful in solving large problems.dynamic programming . have used to develop good solutions to these problems – not optimal solutions . But these methods are beyond the scope of this text .and other mathematical models to study linebalancing problems.Line Balancing Procedure • Line balancing heuristics Researchers have used linear programming . Among these methods are the incremental utilization (IU) heuristic and the longest-task-time (LTT) heuristics.or methods based on simple rules . Heuristic methods . . but very good solutions .

• The incremental utilization heuristics is appropriate when one or more task time is equal to or greater than the cycle time . .however .An important advantage of this heuristics is that it is capable of solving line-balancing problems regardless of the length of task times relative to the cycle time. If the primary focus of the analysis is to minimize the number to workstations or if the tools and equipment used in the production line are either plentiful or inexpensive.this heuristic create the need for extra tools and equipment. Under certain circumstances . Then this procedure is repeated at the next workstation for the remaining tasks. this heuristic is appropriate.Line Balancing Procedure • The Incremental utilization heuristics : simply add tasks to a workstation in order of task precedence one at time until utilization is 100 percent or is observed to fall.

Line Balancing Procedure • The Longest-task-time heuristic adds tasks to a workstation one at a time in the order of task precedence. If a choice must be made between two or more tasks .the one with the longest task time is added . Tasks with shorter times are then saved for fine-tuning the solution . This has the effect of assigning as quickly as possible the tasks that are the most difficult to fit into a station .

It remains an important production system throughout the world in the manufacture of automobiles. However. Stations capable of working faster are ultimately limited by the slowest station. Each base part travel through successive stations and workers add components that progressively build the product. in some manual line. A mechanized material transport system is typically used to move the base part along the line as it is gradually transformed into the final product.a portion of the total work is performed on each unit. The common practice is to” launch” base parts onto the beginning of the line at regular intervals. and other assembled products made in large quantities listed . Manual assembly line technology has made a significant contribution to the development of American industry in the twentieth century. As indicated in our Historical Note. a portion . The production rate of an assembly line is determined by its slowest station. the product is simply moved manually from station-to-station. • . consumer appliances.Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • A manual assemble line is a production line that consists of a sequence of workstations where assembly tasks are performed by human workers.

while other allow the workers to sit. major appliances.Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • Assembly Workstations : A workstation on a manual assembly line is a designated location along the work flow part at which one or more work elements are performed by one or more workers. The work element represent small portions of the total work that must be accomplished to assemble the product. then walks back to . such as cars. Typical assembly operations performed at stations on a manual assembly line are . trucks.A given workstation also includes the tools required to perform the task assigned to the station. The worker begins the assembly task near the upstream side of the station and moves along with the work unit the task is completed. This is common for assembly of large products. When the workers stand. • Some workstations are designed for workers to stand. The typical case is when the product is moved by a conveyor at constant velocity through the station. they can move about the station area to perform their assigned task.

Both methods provide the fixed routing (all work unit proceed through the same sequence of station) that is characteristic of production line. .Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • Work Transport Systems : There are two basic ways to accomplish the movement of work units along a manual assembly line:(1) manually or (2) by mechanized system.

In other cases. storage buffers are sometimes used between station. the units of product are passed from station-to-station by hand. its means that unit to the downstream station because that worker is not yet ready to receive it. . Two problems result from this mode of operation : starving and blocking. but the next unit has not yet arrived at the station. When a station is blocked. In some cases. work units are moved individually along a flat table or unpowered conveyor.To mitigate the effects of these problems. the work unit made at each station are collected in batches and then moved to the next station. The worker is thus starving for work. The operator is therefore blocked form working.Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • Manual Methods of Work Transport. In manual work transport. Starving is the situation in which the assembly operator has completed the assigned task on the current work unit.

The trouble with this method of operation is that it can result in significant work-in-process. Hence. Also. which is economically undesirable. This provides an available supply of work for the station as well as room completed units from upstream station.Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • When the task is finished at each station. the worker simply pushes the unit toward the downstream station. Space is often allowed for one or more work units in front of each workstation. . workers are unpaced in line that rely on manual transport methods. starving and blocking are minimized . and production rates tend to be lower.

and asynchronous transport.Fundamentals of manual assembly lines • 2 Mechanized Work Transport. There major categories of work transport systems in production lines are: continuous transport. These are illustrated schematically identifies some of the material transport equipment commonly associated with each of the categories. These systems can be designed to provide paced or unpaced operation of the line. Powered conveyor and other types of mechanized material handling equipment are widely used to move units along a manual assembly line. synchronous transport. .

And the line must operate at a specified production rate. Invariably . the line balancing problem is concerned with assigning the individual work element to workstation so that all workers have an equal amount of work.Based on these concepts we can define performance measures for solution to the line balancing problem.the sequence in which these elements can be performed is restricted. at least to some extend.Given condition. Two important concepts in line balancing are the separation of the total work content into minimums rational work elements and the precedence constraints that must be satisfied by these elements .The Line Balancing Problem • The work content performed on an assembly line consists of many separate and distinct work elements. . which reduces to a required cycle time .

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