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URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 4 1
streetscape and urban form. Why are Amalgamation and Subdivision important in new areas? The size and shape of sites has a direct relationship to building type and form. Why are Amalgamation and Subdivision important in established areas? Amalgamation or further subdivision of lots may occur to accommodate changes of use or new development. The combination of site and block type and development controls will determine densities and to some degree appropriate building type for an area. while amalgamation describes the merging of two or more sites into a larger land holding. Typology studies can determine most suitable development types. Subdivision is the process of dividing sites into smaller land holdings. This process can have major impact on the streetscape.Amalgamation and Subdivision What are Amalgamation and Subdivision? Amalgamation and subdivision are important structuring instruments in the redevelopment of Manukau City because they define new patterns of land ownership and development in areas undergoing change. Where amalgamation or further subdivision is not possible. In turn the pattern of sites that make up a block will have an impact on the movement network. 036 An aerial photograph with cadastral information can help identify existing subdivision patterns and potential subdivision and amalgamation opportunities. URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 4 3 . 037 A spatial structure plan can identify how to develop land to accommodate changes of use or new development. the size and shape of building lots will determine the possible building types and density.
> Blocks are typically subdivided into lots whose size and shape may be determined by function. RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . it also relates directly to building footprints. 039 Building envelopes can then be developed based on footprints in order to shape the three dimensional form of the site and show future building bulk. > Amalgamation may (but not always) allow a more appropriate development response in existing areas. privacy. > Public open space should be accessible and visible and its interface with other development must be carefully considered. > The ideal block sizes in urban areas are 80m x 80m. > Determine the most appropriate site size and shape for the type of development envisaged. This block size maximises choice and accessibility. pedestrian walkways and public open space in preference to private elements such as shared right of ways. > Site size and shape. Site Size and Shape Site size and shape will have a significant impact on the form of development. specific sites and buildings can be developed in accordance with “the plan” to maximise efficiency of land. 038 After undertaking a study of the larger area. > Consider how landform and subdivision might improve or reduce outlook. overlooking and access to outdoor space. > The introduction of public streets is essential in large sites undergoing development. block patterns and street layout should respond to the landform in new subdivisions. This includes the building typology but also extends to the desired street layout and the design of the public realm. > Promote the use of public domain elements such as streets.What are some of the considerations when deciding if Subdivision or Amalgamation is appropriate and how it should occur? Topography and Landscape Features Topography and natural landscape features will affect the pattern of development. Street and Block Structure > Streets and blocks should be laid out to facilitate movement and connectivity and encourage alternative modes of transport such as walking and cycling.
Soil and Stormwater. Pedestrian Access. Visual Privacy. Location and Orientation What is meant by Bulk. 041 The location of the building on the site responds to the street with a large area of open space. Open Space. > Design and position the building on the site to provide larger areas of consolidated open space. Views may also be a consideration. > Ensure buildings are separated with sufficient distance to allow solar access and prevent overshadowing. both within the development and in adjacent developments. > Single aspect apartments should have a northerly or easterly aspect and a reduced depth to allow for access of natural light. Basic Principles > Optimise solar access for dwellings both within the development and on neighbouring sites. ‘location’ means the position of the building on the site and ‘orientation’ describes the way internal spaces are directed to physical and environmental elements such as sun. views or the street. ‘Leftover’ spaces should be minimised. location and orientation describe the way a building sits on its site and relates to its physical context. Related chapters and references: > Building Envelopes. which respond to the streetscape while optimising solar access. and provide large. balconies and other private open space within the building provides optimises both solar access and visual amenity. consolidated areas of open space. the access to daylight for residents. Location and Orientation? Bulk. Design issues to be resolved include the quality and quantity of open space provided for inhabitants. Vehicles and Parking URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 4 5 . Design Guidance > Position and orient the building(s) to maximise north facing walls so as to optimise natural sunlight to apartment living spaces. ‘Bulk’ refers to the overall massing of a building. Apartments facing into the courtyard also overlook the street. location and orientation can have a significant impact on the environmental qualities of both the public and private domain.Bulk. The bulk and siting of the building should aim to minimise overshadowing. 042 The orientation of the living spaces. > Consider building configurations such as ‘L’ shaped and courtyards. Bulk. The building orientation should try to optimise the number of apartments with solar access throughout the day. > Consider different building heights for different parts of the building to further aid solar access. Building Entry. Boundary Conditions. and the overall quality of the public realm. > Maximise the number of apartments with dual orientation. 040 The overall massing of the building responds to the streetscape while optimising solar acess. > Ensure the building massing. > Improve the thermal efficiency of new buildings. Landscape Design. location and orientation enhance the quality of communal open space areas.
Building Envelopes What are Building Envelopes? A building envelope is the volume that defines the extent of a building in any direction. Landscape Design. Building envelopes should be at least 20-25 % greater than their achievable floor area to allow for building articulation. Boundary Conditions. measured in metres. intersection hierarchy and open space. > Where floor space/plot ratio controls are used. Building envelopes ensure that the “leftover space” is defined and organised to form a coherent spatial structure for the hierarchy. Vehicles and Parking RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . Building envelopes are often used as part of a wider Spatial Structure Plan which determines and controls the appropriate urban form in a given area. > Identify the building type most appropriate for the given building envelope. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. councillors and development applicants. Building envelopes set the appropriate shape of future development in terms of footprint and height in relation to the street layout and block and lot sizes for a particular location. building envelopes should be approximately 85% of envelope for commercial developments and 80% of envelope for residential developments. depth and height of the building zone. Building envelopes are defined by the length. points of difference. It describes the overall shape and mass of the building zone within which a future building can be built. 043 The building envelope defines the volume within which a new building may be developed. Building Entry. > Understand the way future development might impact on the project by considering adjacent building envelopes and the Spatial Structure Plan for the given area. > Building envelopes communicate and illustrate the future bulk and distribution of new development to planners. > Building envelopes can be used to define the street hierarchy. Design Guidance > Understand the building envelope controls in relationship to other development controls. Open Space. Basic Principles > Building envelopes shape the three-dimensional form of an area by determining appropriate density for a site and its context. This allows for balconies and wall thickness.
It can also provide the opportunity for recreation and social activities and water cycle management. provide a pleasant outlook and increase visual privacy between apartments. > Provide areas where it is possible to have communal and/or private gardens. > Locate open space to optimise individual apartment daylight access in winter and shade in summer. yard. Design Guidance > Communal open space should be considered in terms of the urban context. > Ensure ventilation outlets from basement car parks and other ducts are located away from communal open space. Open Space. The scale and design of the space will depend on the number of apartments provided and the context of the site. The proximity of public parks. > Locate communal open space to maximise solar access to apartments and minimise overshadowing. such as daylight and ventilation.Open Space What is Open Space? Open space is designed space that provides core amenities to adjacent buildings. Landscape Design. Soil and Stormwater URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 4 7 . Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. > Provide areas on the site for landscaping and vegetative stormwater treatment and filtration. This will depend on the size of the development. > Ensure residents have ready access to passive and active recreational opportunities. garden. recreational facilities and other amenities will have a bearing on the scale and design. Visual Privacy. 044 The inclusion of public open space in developments provides amenity to residents and the public. courtyard and/or roof terrace. > Consolidate open space on the site into well defined areas where communal ownership is clear. Boundary Conditions. Public open space is also likely to improve access to sunlight and ventilation for adjacent apartments. Open space can be public. terrace. helps to maintain privacy between units. and visual privacy. > Trade offs can be considered between the amount of communal open space and private open spaces in small developments. private. > Provide private open space for each apartment in the form of a: balcony. outlook and views. deck. or communal. Basic Principles > Provide core amenities as outlined above to apartment residents. Building orientation and the communal open space between them. 045 Private open space in the form of balconies is clearly defined from communal open space.
topography. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. Open Space. Boundary Conditions. recessed balconies. vertical fins. > Optimise visual privacy without compromising view.g. site configuration. the scale of the development and the layout of the apartments. solid or semi-solid balustrades. in private open spaces. The degree of visual privacy provided will affect residents’ ability to carry out private functions within the confines of their apartment and private open space. Design Guidance > Optimise visual privacy between buildings both on site and on neighbouring properties by: > ensuring adequate building separation and setbacks > providing separation between apartment windows and communal open space and through-site access routes > utilising a change in level between ground floor apartments and the public space > using building design elements e. Visual Privacy. louvred screens give residents control over levels of visual privacy and help to filter sunlight. outlook and ventilation. Basic Principles > Provide adequate levels of visual privacy both within the apartment interior and also outside. 046 Opaque balustrades provide a barrier to direct sight lines from the street into apartments. screen panels etc. therefore it is fundamental to have a thorough understanding of the building context.Visual Privacy What is meant by Visual Privacy? Visual privacy describes how private the interior and private exterior spaces of an apartment are from outside view. Balconies RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . Landscape Design. Facades. The level of visual privacy provided needs to be balanced against access to sun. 047 Moveable. outlook and ventilation.
Visual Privacy. different owners and between public and private space. Basic Principles > Provide clear definition between different functions. Vehicles and Parking URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 4 9 . light and air. whilst planting along the street boundary softens this interface and provides an additional privacy buffer for residents. 049 A change in level distinguishes private terraces from the public realm. Design Guidance Boundary design should consider and respond to the associated contexts of street. Landscape Design. Considerations may include: height. > Use planting to complement scale and give spatial definition to any raised terraces to the street. > Reinforce the identity of the development and enhance the streetscape.Boundary Conditions What is meant by Boundary Conditions? Boundary conditions are a very important consideration in good site design. position of openings and material selection. Building Entry. side and rear boundaries may require different treatments depending on adjacent properties. The way that boundaries are defined can impact on the understanding of private and public areas and can also convey differences in function or ownership of space. Boundary design also provides an opportunity to reinforce the identity of developments in Manukau. Pedestrian Access. 048 Modulation within fence reinforces the identity of the development whilst providing privacy from the street. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. > Select materials which are graffiti resistant and easily cleaned. side and rear locations. > Contribute to the amenity of the public domain by limiting the length and height of blank fences and retaining walls along street frontages. The design of boundary treatments will affect residents’ real and perceived privacy and security. Front. > Ensure privacy and security. Boundary Conditions. > Design fences and walls which provide privacy and security while preserving outlook.
Open Space. > Enhance the energy efficiency and solar efficiency of the apartments through the appropriate type and placement of trees. > Design landscapes which respond to the streetscape and the amenity of the public realm. > Use landscape design to screen cars and service areas. Boundary Conditions. > Ensure that any planting on structures such as podiums is considered in terms of providing adequate sized planters (depth and width) for the type of planting designed including trees. > Enhance environmental conditions within the development and provide a habitat for native plants and animals. > Design landscapes which respond to the site’s unique and positive characteristics. > Minimise and control the impacts of stormwater runoff. Design Guidance > Enhance open spaces with landscape design that provides shade through trees and structures. appropriate species. views and a high level of amenity for residents. Visual Privacy. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. > Provide accessible routes through the development. Basic Principles > Provide privacy. > Improve air quality within urban environments. Design should be considered in terms of quality of construction and ongoing maintenance. Vehicles and Parking RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . outlook. > Use landscape design to indicate entries and to differentiate private space from communal space. > Contribute to storm water management through the use of vegetative filtration techniques and choosing appropriate plant species. > Ensure that trees form part of the design. The use of sustainable systems within the landscape scheme can provide a means of integrating these considerations. 050 Above: Planting can be used to define access routes. Soil and Stormwater. Varying ground surface treatment also helps with definition of public and private areas. and ongoing maintenance are considered and integrated into the design. Landscape design is a critical part of apartment development as it provides amenity to residents and can significantly enhance the adjacent public realm. its sense of place.Landscape Design What is Landscape Design? Landscape design is the design of the site areas not covered by building. > Ensure that appropriate soil conditions and irrigation. Consider both the rhythms of the street and any need to mediate the scale of the building.
The introduction of water into landscape can provide relief from paving and planting. URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 5 1 . 052 Above: Use landscape as a way of providing visual connections through the site. 053 High quality landscaped developments contribute to the amenity of the communal/ semi private realm.051 Above: Changes in level can be used to accommodate the extra soil depth for larger trees.
Many existing urban areas were developed before stormwater quality measures were implemented and envisaged much smaller dwellings and lower densities. Open Space.Soil Conditions and Stormwater Management Why is it important to preserve Soil Conditions & manage Stormwater? Preservation of natural soil profiles and the sustainable management of stormwater is a matter of primary importance in the Manukau region. Landscape Design RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . Design Guidance > Consolidate earthworks so as to maximise the potential areas of natural soil profile. Stormwater is planned for and managed at two different levels: > at catchment area level > at site level. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. collecting run-off from roofs and balconies. The quantity and quality of stormwater run-off and discharge at site level has an impact on the overall quantity and quality of stormwater to be dealt with at catchment level. sustainable water management techniques can be employed to control the stormwater flow and improve the quality of the water. Recommendation > A minimum of 25 % of the open space area of a site should be a deep soil area and be planted with medium or large-size trees. Infill and redevelopment of existing areas can place greater pressure on services that are already stretched to capacity. > Consider recycling greywater for use in toilet flushing and site irrigation. > Consider using sustainable urban drainage devices such as swales and raingardens to filter stormwater runoff. This may be the case in many business zone sites redeveloped for residential uses. choosing appropriate vegetation in landscaped areas. On some sites there may not be a natural soil profile. > Reduce the volume of stormwater discharged into the mains drainage system by minimising impermeable paving areas. In addition. However. protecting stormwater quality and the water table. The retention of natural soil profiles within a development can assist with stormwater management by reducing the stormwater discharge rate. new development can also provide the opportunity to employ on-site stormwater management solutions and thereby minimise the impact of new building at catchment level.
054 Areas of medium to large trees can be used adjacent to buildings in areas where sunlight penetration is not required. > To improve the amenity of development by the planting of large or medium-size trees. > To reduce the amount of sediment and other pollutants entering the drainage system. URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 5 3 . This can also reduce cooling costs in the summer months.Basic Principles > Minimise and control the impacts of stormwater run-off.
> Position letter boxes for convenient access by residents and posties. Co-ordinate entrances with existing street elements such as street planting. Basic Principles > Provide a threshold between public and private realms which reflects building identity and provides a legible experience for building users. Vehicles and Parking RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . Boundary Conditions. > Ensure the design and location of letter boxes does not detract from the appearance of the building. > Ensure entries and adjacent circulation spaces are an appropriate size and shape to allow for the movement of furniture between apartments and the street. > Ensure entrances are well lit. > Provide letter boxes that allow for A4 mail Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. > Enhance streetscape quality and complement the building facade design.Building Entry Why is Building Entry important? The entry to an apartment building provides an interface between public and private realms. Multiple entry points will help to animate and activate the street. and different activities. Pedestrian Access. As such. pedestrian routes. Design Guidance 055 Clear sight lines between exterior and interior contribute to safe and usable entrances. The mail slot should be between 600mm and 1600mm from the ground. Building entry can provide direct access into an individual apartment or it may operate as a threshold between the street and communal spaces of a building. > Ensure entrances are accessible to the able and mobility or sensory-impaired alike. Landscape Design. > Use separate entries for different functions such as pedestrian and vehicle access. Safety. block layout. > Ensure letterboxes are designed and located to complement the building and provide easy access. > Ensure letter boxes are clearly numbered. highly visible spaces that provide shelter from the elements but avoid ambiguous publicly accessible blind areas. 056 An accessible entrance ramp integrated with well designed landscaping provides a legible point of entry and contributes to street amenity. > Improve building legibility and contribute to the street quality by ensuring entrances are integrated yet identifiable elements within the street. > Avoid letter boxes with spring-loaded flaps. Locate letter boxes to be convenient for both residents and postal workers. it has the potential to contribute to both building identity and the quality of our city streetscapes.
Pedestrian Access What is meant by Pedestrian Access? Pedestrian access describes the walkable areas in and around an apartment development. context and topography in terms of developing a scheme which maximises accessibility. Basic Principles > Provide well designed pedestrian areas which facilitate connections with the public realm. Boundary Conditions. well lit pedestrian access through a development. access ways and lifts to accommodate their needs. Landscape Design. 058 Innovative solutions ensure pedestrian access routes are maintained through the development. Well designed pedestrian areas will ensure residents and visitors can easily access apartments and communal space and will facilitate connections with the public realm. Incorporate accessible elements such as ramps into the overall landscape design. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. Open Space. paths. > Ensure high quality accessible design to all pedestrian routes. Safety. 057 High quality materials and fittings provide well designed. Building Entry. Vehicles and Parking URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 5 5 . > Ensure all residents and visitors (able bodied. mobility or sensory-impaired) are able to readily access apartments and communal areas. The design should ensure equitable access to the able and mobility-impaired alike. > Ensure access ways are an appropriate width to enable two people to pass comfortably. Design Guidance > Consider site layout. high quality and pleasant. > Utilise accessible apartment design for ground floor units. Consider people who use prams and wheelchairs. Pedestrian access to apartment developments should deliver safe. and design minimum grade ramps. people with bicycles and the elderly. > Ensure equitable access from street and carparking areas. walkable environments which prioritise people. > Differentiate pedestrian and vehicular access ways. This should extend to associated private open space wherever possible. Consider providing public and semi-public access through the site as appropriate to enhance connections to the public realm.
etc. Related Chapters: > Building Entry. > Minimise opportunities for crime and contribute to the safety of the public realm.g. lifts. clear definitions of territory. 059 Above: Buildings oriented towards public spaces provide extra illumination to the safety lighting in these areas. > Avoid blind corners or dark alcoves which might conceal intruders near entrances. > Provide well lit. direct access from car parks to apartment lobbies where possible. indoor car parks and walkways. functional and safer building entrances by ensuring entrances address the street and establish clear sight lines from the foyer through the entrance to the street. Pedestrian Access.Safety How can apartment design deal with Safety? The design and layout of buildings can contribute to real and perceived levels of safety and security for residents and building users. from parking areas. > Clearly define the boundaries between private and public space. > Provide appropriate levels of illumination throughout the development. to individual units. This will encourage casual surveillance. > Separate access to apartments from other functions in mixed-use buildings. > Ensure planting structures do not act as stairs to access apartments. > Ensure all entrances and access routes are well lit (e. Basic Principles > Ensure apartment developments are designed to be safe and secure for residents and visitors. The principles of secure design include casual surveillance. stairwells.) > Encourage casual surveillance by orienting living areas towards views over communal or public spaces. Vehicles and Parking RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE . > Provide visible. controlled access and management of spaces. Design Guidance 060 Above: Ensure apartments are oriented towards public and communal areas.
> Separate the sale of car parks from the sale of apartments. and should be designed to avoid conflicts with existing traffic patterns and pedestrian movement. > Utilise underground parking especially in larger developments. > Where possible. > Ensure the safety and security of car park areas by providing direct access between car parking and the interior of the apartment building where possible. soil issues. lot size and proportion.Vehicles and Parking Why is the design of Vehicles and Parking important? Parking requirements and vehicle access can have significant impacts on site layout. Building Entry. and access to public transport. > Provide sufficient car parking for residents and visitors allowing for the size and type of development proposed. landscaping and stormwater management. Safety URBAN D E S I G N G R O U P > 5 7 . Landscape Design. topography. organise vehicle access points off side streets or lanes. Provide natural ventilation where possible and incorporate entrances and grilles into the overall façade design. maintenance and service vehicles. > Ensure vehicle access does not impede the active use of street frontages or quality street design. streetscape and building form. Basic Principles > Reduce car dependency and encourage alternative modes of transport such as walking. > Recess entry points to garaging where possible. cycling and public transport services. > Consider any site limitations which may restrict the area of car parking on-site e. building façade and streetscape. 061 Left: Introduce landscape to areas such as parking to improve amenity. Related Chapters: > Building Envelopes. > Ensure car parking and vehicle access are integrated into the overall planning and design of the site. its proximity to recreational and retail services and facilities. This minimises the visual impact of the garaging . 062 Access to car parking is attractively designed with a recessed garage door faced in the same material and patterning as the facade. Pedestrian Access. The area of car parking to be provided will depend on the requirements of the district plan however proximity to local services and public transport should also be taken into consideration. These will affect the quality of our environments in Manukau and should therefore be considered early on in the design process. Access should be designed as an integral part of the site layout. > Ensure the structural system of the building will both accommodate a rational car parking layout and facilitate well designed apartment layouts and access.g. water table. > Avoid entry points to garages occuring at the end of a street. Boundary Conditions. Open Space. Design Guidance > Consider the parking requirements of the district plan alongside the proximity of the development to recreational and retail services and facilities and public transport. Vehicle entry points should ideally integrate access for car parking. building design.
> Ensure vehicle access points are located at an appropriate distance from street intersections and provide clear unobstructed views at pedestrian and vehicle crossings. > Reduce the visual impact of on-grade car parking by locating car parks to the side or rear of the building and through the use of appropriate landscape design. Consider concealing parking behind the building façade or wrapping other uses (e.g. retail) around it. > Design attractive vehicle access points which provide screening to rubbish collection. 063 Parking is integrated into the overall site design and the visual impact is reduced through attractive and appropriate hard and soft landscaping. enclosed car parking by ensuring parking is not exposed to the street.Design Guidance > Minimise the visual impact of above-ground. > Minimise the width and number of entry/exit points in order to maximise the potential for active street frontages and allow for quality streetscape design. > Provide security doors and screens to entry points through the facade. loading and service areas to minimise the visual impact from the street. RESIDE N T I A L F L AT > D E S I G N CO DE .
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