The Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

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Understanding the Ancient Hebrew language of the Bible based on Ancient Hebrew Culture and Thought

Jeff A. Benner +

The Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Unless otherwise noted, the Scriptures are taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION. Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Bible Publishers. About the cover: Photo taken at the University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The inscription reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is inscribed on a piece of broken pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE. Cover and Illustrations by the author “The Anicent Hebrew Language and Alphabet,” by Jeff A. Benner. ISBN 1-58939-534-4. Published 2004 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College Station, TX , 77842, US. 2004 Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this book may be copied for non-profit educational purposes only, without prior permission. Otherwise, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Jeff A. Benner. Manufactured in the United States of America.

who has taught me more about Hebrew thought through her actions then all the books I have read.To my wife Denise. .

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................................... Functional Description......................17 Two ...............Ancient Hebrew Alphabet Reconstruction ................................................................................................................................................................................40 Creator.......................................Word Studies ..............Hebrew origins of English.............66 Picture ....................................................67 Hebrew sound......................40 God..26 Four .........................30 Five ...........................................9 Why study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture?......................16 How do we study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? .......22 Three .......................45 Conclusion...........................................67 English name ......................................34 Words ....................................41 Voice .............................................................................................35 Benefit of studying words from a common root....................................................................................................4 The evolution of the Hebrew alphabet ....................Learn to Read Ancient Hebrew ..............Reconstructing the Original Hebrew Alphabet.....................67 Hebrew name..................................................1 One ......66 Introduction ............................................................................................ concrete thought ..........50 Appendix B ...................................................................................32 Child Roots.................................The Hebrews ..........................................33 Adopted Roots..............................49 Appendix A .........................21 Passive vs..The Root System of Hebrew......................................19 Abstract vs...........................................................66 English letter ........................................................................................................................Hebrew Thought ........................................Hebrew Prefixes .................................................................................................37 Six ....................................................................................................................................................................................32 Parent Roots ....................................................................Table of Contents Introduction ..............................................................................37 Methods for reconstructing the original Parent Root ............................................................................ Active Nouns .....................................................................24 Letter Characteristics...........24 Reconstruction of the Alphabet .....................................................................................................43 Seven .........68 ......42 Ancient Hebrew Words ...............3 Who were the Hebrews?...................................................3 The Origin of the Hebrew Language and Alphabet..20 Appearance vs......................................36 Reconstructing the Parent Roots ....................................................................

..............................Ancient Hebrew Number .......184 Strong's Number .............207 ii ...............................................................117 How to use the Lexicon..................................................184 Ancient Hebrew Number ...............92 Appendix D – Alphabet Charts .........History of the Hebrew Script ...........................................................118 Appendix F – Number Cross References ...............................................116 Derivatives ..196 Bibliography..115 Ancient Hebrew........................................................................117 Purpose of the Lexicon...................................................................................Ancient Hebrew Parent Root Dictionary ...............Strong's Number ....................117 Cross reference to Strong’s numbers..................................Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Hebrew meaning ....................................................................................................................115 Modern Hebrew..........................68 Appendix C ...........116 Appendix E .......................................................................................................

.... 900 BCE .................................. 2500 BCE ...................................... ......................10 Figure 8 Aramaic inscription on stone incense altar c.13 Figure 15 Greek writing on New Testament papyrus c............................14 Figure 17 Sumerian Pictograph on clay tablet c........... 500 BCE .................................. 800 BCE ..List of Illustrations Figure 1 Pre-flood pictograph found in the pre-flood city of Kish.................. 200 CE ............46 .............................. 1500 BCE ............................. 3000 BCE ............10 Figure 7 Ugarit cuneiform inscription on clay tablet c........... 100 BCE ..8 Figure 3 Ancient Shemitic/ Hebrew pictographic inscription on stone boulder c..... 1000 BCE ...............................................................12 Figure 12 Pictographic Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c....32 Figure 20 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c.... 1350 BCE ..............5 Figure 2 The scattering of the descendants of Noah's three sons........... 1000 BCE (mirror image)..13 Figure 16 Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Book of the Dead c...................45 Figure 21 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c.......10 Figure 6 Ammonite inscription on stone c....................................... 900 BCE.......... 900 BCE ..... 1400 BCE ..12 Figure 13 Samaritan scripts............................. 20 CE...14 Figure 18 Sumerian Cuneiform on clay tablet c............. 200 BCE11 Figure 11 Modern Hebrew script from the Hebrew Bible...........12 Figure 14 Greek inscription found on bowl c....15 Figure 19 Hebrew root word systems...............................................11 Figure 10 Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c...................................... ..9 Figure 4 Ancient Hebrew inscription on potsherd c.........9 Figure 5 Moabite inscription on stone c.......11 Figure 9 Aramaic inscription on stone plaque c..

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or pictographs. The study of any Ancient culture is like putting together a puzzle. The definitions of Hebrew words. Sometimes the gaps in the puzzle are small and easy to fill in based on the pieces around it. We will never have all the pieces to the puzzle. change and evolve over time. we piece together and attempt to fill in the gaps as efficiently as possible. The study of the Ancient Hebrew language and alphabet begins with an understanding of the Ancient Hebrew culture as both are intimately related. there will undoubtedly be some misinterpretation of the Ancient Hebrew culture and pictographs. Each picture represented an object whose definition is closely related to the agricultural lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews. similar to Egyptian Hieroglyphs.Introduction ____________________________________ This book is unique in that it will look at the Biblical Hebrew language of the Bible through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrews who wrote it. Modern readers often ignore the fact that the Bible is an Ancient text and must be read as an Ancient text. By studying the culture and lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews we can better understand their language. but the pieces we do have. At other times . just like any other language. The original letters of the Hebrew alphabet was actually pictures. In a work such as this. It is the goal of this work to bring out the Ancient Hebrew meanings of words to the student of the Bible as never before done.

will take on the challenge of continuing the research needed to piece together the puzzle.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet these gaps are large and difficult to fill in. who have the same love for the Ancient Hebrew language and culture. There is much work to be done in this area of language and word study and I hope that others. 2 .

13) Is Abraham the first Hebrew? The Hebrew word for "Hebrew" is yrb[ / eevriy2 and comes from the root word rb[ / avar which means. "One who had escaped came and reported this to Abram the Hebrew". (Genesis 14. "to cross over".One . A Hebrew is "one who has crossed over". Known as Abram before God changed his name.The Hebrews ____________________________________ Who were the Hebrews? The first person mentioned in the Bible as a "Hebrew" is Abraham1. 3 Genesis 11. One of Abraham's ancestors was Eber3 (rb[).16 2 1 . and usually a "v" within a word. The letter b (beyt) is pronounced as a "b" when at the beginning of a word.

Adam and Eve and their descendants spoke Hebrew. Abraham. sun (shemesh). stars (kokhaviym) and man (adam). The Bible is the story of God and his covenant relationship (Hebraicly understood as "crossing over" from death to life) with an ancestral line beginning with Adam through his descendants Noah. The first use of the Hebrew language is recorded in Genesis 1. The man also used this same language to give names4 to 4 Genesis 2. A Hebrew was one who had "crossed over" into a covenant relationship with God.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet The name Eber also comes from the same root rb[ / avar. meaning.19 4 . rwa yhy (yehiy or). In the creation account God gave Hebrew names to the sky (shamayim). Any references to the "Ancient Hebrews" in this book.28).1) From this we can conclude that God. "light exist". making it possible that Eber was also a "Hebrew". who became the "nation of Israel" also known as "the Hebrews". When God formed Adam he gave him this spoken language and communicated with him (Genesis 1. moon (yerey'ach). land (erets). Jacob and Jacob's descendants." (Genesis 11. beginning with Adam. Isaac. and of one speech. The Origin of the Hebrew Language and Alphabet Prior to the incident of the Tower of Babel. "And the whole earth was of one language. only one language existed.3 where God says. which will be discussed later. is referring to the ancestral line from Adam to the Nation of Israel.

As will be demonstrated later. 24th) 44-5. beasts (hayah sadeh) and woman5 (iyshah). Several of the letters in this tablet are identical to the original Hebrew letters7 (See Appendix D). Genesis 2. The first indication of writing is found in Genesis 4. the Ancient Hebrew language (speech) and alphabet (script) are dependent upon each other. Mi: Zondervan. supporting a simultaneous appearance of the language and alphabet. Benner all of the birds (oph). Since God is the originator of the Hebrew language. he is also the originator of the alphabet. Pre-flood writings have been discovered in the city of Kish6 (fig. Halley. The Hebrew word for "mark" is twa / owt and is also the Hebrew word for a "letter" indicating that it may have been a "letter" that God placed on him.Jeff A. 7 Over time all alphabets evolve. it is possible for the writing system of Noah's day to differ from the alephbet given to Adam. Therefore. Figure 1 Pre-flood pictograph found in the pre-flood city of Kish. animals (behemah). Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids.15 where God puts a "mark" on Cain. 1). 6 5 5 .23 Henry H.

In order to cause the descendants of Noah to scatter and fill the earth. 11 Genesis 11.1) Noah's descendants remained in the area known as Mesopotamia10. equivalent to BC) 9 8 6 . 10 A Greek word meaning "between (meso) rivers (potamia)". the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. (BCE . and there confound their language. After the incident of the Tower of Babel. each See Genesis 5:29 A literal flood that covered the whole earth. the Hebrew name Adam means "man" and he was the first "man".: 115. 1977 ed. Noah had three sons. we find three major languages. "Tower of Babel. We know that these names are Hebrew rather than another language because all of the names have meaning only in Hebrew and are related to their character as described in the Biblical text.Before the Common Era. Methuselah means "his death brings" and the flood came in the year that he died. "let us go down. Morris. Unger. Here man began to build the "Tower of Babel". Noah means "comfort" as he will bring comfort to his people8.7 12 Merrill F. that they may not understand one another's speech"11. Shem. Only Noah and his family were spared. God commanded Noah and his descendants to: "be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth" (Genesis 9. Whitcomb and Henry M. See The Genesis Flood by John C. Ham and Japheth. For instance. God said.000 BCE12. which occurred around 4." Unger's Bible Dictionary.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Genesis chapter 5 gives a genealogical record from Adam to Noah where we find that all the names are Hebrew. It is during their lives that God brought the great flood9 because of man's wickedness.

William White.: 710. It is interesting to note that while all three have a very similar pictographic14 form of writing.10) also known as Babylonia. 2). traveling west speaking Hebrew. Later cultures." 987." 987 and Madelene S. The Sumerian pictographs evolved into the cuneiform (wedge-shaped) writing familiar to most people. Sumerian and Hebrew. 16 The land of the Sumerians was known as Sumer. 15 The Shemites (aslo called Semites) are the Hebrews. 1995) 337. 1973 ed." 288. Akkadians. 14 A word of Greek origin meaning picture-writing where a picture represented a sound or combination of sounds. "Scythian. such as the Phonecians. probably a sub-group of the Scythians17. Nelson's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts (Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Egyptian. 7 . which is Shinar in the Bible (Genesis 10. 17 Unger. The arrival of the Egyptian and Sumerian languages seems to have mysteriously appeared out of nowhere. the sounds for each of the letters are different. Amonites and Arameans sprouted out of the Hebrews and are also part of the Shemitic family. See Unger. just as God planned (fig. It is believed that the Japhethites traveled north the Black and Caspian seas and are the ancestors of the Sumerians. Moabites. Packer. The Shemites15 were the descendants of Shem. Jr. Benner very different and unrelated to each other13. a record of the scattering of the descendants of the sons of Noah.. The Hamites traveled south into Africa and became the Egyptians speaking Egyptian.I. speaking Sumerian. As a result of the Tower of Babel man began to migrate in three different directions from Mesopotamia. 13 J. possibly indicating the method which God used to confuse the language of men. "Sumer. Tenney. Canaanites. In Genesis 10 we find the "table of nations"." Harper's Bible Dictionary. "Scythian. Merril C. Unger. The Japhethites traveled north becoming the Sumerians16. Miller and J. Lane Miller.Jeff A. "Egypt.

18 19 See Strong's #5248 See Strong's #5455 20 The construction of Hebrew words.: 238.8). 8 . 21 Will Smith. Words that do not follow these patterns are suspect of being of foreign origin. It is not until we come to Noah's grand-children that we find names that are of a language other then Hebrew. including names. Sabteca19 (Genesis 10. "Hebrew Language. It has long been a tradition within both Judaism and Christianity that Hebrew is the mother of all languages21. follows a set of patterns.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Figure 2 The scattering of the descendants of Noah's three sons. correlating in time with the confounding of the language at the Tower of Babel." Smith's Bible Dictionary. 1948 ed.7) and many others whose names have no meaning in Hebrew20. such as Nimrod18 (Genesis 11.

900 BCE The Hebrews splintered into sub-groups such as the Phoenicians. Akkadians. Canaanites. 8). 9 . Moabites (fig. all 22 Also known as "Shemitic". and others. Arameans (fig. Ammonites (fig. 1500 BCE After the Tower of Babel. each representing an object such as water (top left corner) or a shepherd staff (second from right at bottom). 4) similar to the original pictographic alphabet. 6).Jeff A. 5). Semitic" "proto-siniatic". 3) of the Ancient Hebrew alphabet22 consisted of 22 letters. Figure 3 Ancient Shemitic/ Hebrew pictographic inscription on stone boulder c. the Ancient Hebrew alphabet began to evolve into a simpler script (fig. protocanaanite" and "paleo-hebrew". Figure 4 Ancient Hebrew inscription on potsherd c. Benner The evolution of the Hebrew alphabet The original pictographic script (fig.

900 BCE Figure 6 Ammonite inscription on stone c. consisting of 30 letters where the original pictographic script evolved into a cuneiform23 script24 (fig. 24 Because the Ugarit language is so similar to Hebrew. 7) sometimes called Hebrew cuneiform. their alphabet script evolved similarly. is written with a stylus that is pressed into a clay tablet to form the letters. alphabet scripts evolved very differently. "wedge-shape". 1400 BCE 23 Cuneiform. 10 . 900 BCE At other times. The most unique is the Ugaritic.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet known as Shemites. the Ugarit cuneiform is called Hebrew cuneiform. meaning. Figure 5 Moabite inscription on stone c. Due to the close proximity and interaction of these Shemitic cultures. Figure 7 Ugarit cuneiform inscription on clay tablet c.

When the Hebrew people were taken into Babylonian captivity. 8) and began to evolve independently of other Shemitic groups. the Hebrew language has been written in the Aramaic script (fig. 200 BCE 11 . From this point to the present. By 400 BCE it no longer resembled the original pictographic script (fig.Jeff A. used extensively in the Babylonian region. 500 BCE Figure 9 Aramaic inscription on stone plaque c. 10). they adopted the Aramaic script abandoning the Ancient Hebrew script. 9). 20 CE. Figure 8 Aramaic inscription on stone incense altar c. originated in the Hebrew script around 1000 BCE (fig. Benner The Aramean script (Aramaic). Figure 10 Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c.

12).Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet The Modern Hebrew script has remained very similar to the Hebrew of the first century BCE (fig. the Ancient Hebrew pictographic script was not lost and was still used on occasion. The coins of this era used the Ancient pictographic Hebrew script as well as some scrolls such as those found in the Dead Sea caves (fig. As a result of their isolation they are the only culture to retain a script (fig. Figure 12 Pictographic Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c. 100 BCE The Samaritans lived in the land of Samaria. While the majority of the Hebrew texts of the first century BCE and into the first century CE were written in the Aramaic script. 11). Figure 13 Samaritan scripts 12 . 13) similar to the Ancient Hebrew script and is still used to this day. Figure 11 Modern Hebrew script from the Hebrew Bible. they were not taken into Babylon with Israel. at the time of Israel's captivity. a region of Israel.

Jeff A. Note the "K" (first letter from the left) and the "E" (fourth letter from the left). While all the Shemitic scripts shown above were usually written from right to left. it was preferable to right from left to right so that the hand would not smear the ink. figure 14 was written from right to left. 13 . For example. which is written from left to write. a right to left writing was natural. Compare these with the same letters in figure 15. 800 BCE Figure 15 Greek writing on New Testament papyrus c. Since the hammer was held in the right hand and the chisel in the left hand. 200 CE 25 Ancient inscriptions were often written on stone using a hammer and chisel. When ink began to be used. 15) used today. Benner Around 1000 BCE. Figure 14 Greek inscription found on bowl c. Note the direction of the "E" (first letter from the right) and the "K" (fifth letter from the right). Around 500 BCE the Greeks finalized a left to right form of writing while the Shemites finalized a right to left form of writing. This Ancient Greek alphabet began to evolve over the centuries to become the Greek script (fig. the Greeks adopted the Ancient Hebrew script (fig. The directions of the letters reveal the direction of writing. 14). they were written from left to right at times25.

16) where each pictograph represented one. In addition to the alphabet. these pictographs evolved into a cuneiform script (fig. Figure 16 Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Book of the Dead c. the Egyptians were writing with an alphabet almost identical to the Ancient Hebrew script. 1350 BCE To the east of the Shemites were the Sumerians whose system of writing was very similar to the Egyptian with several hundred pictographs (fig. Figure 17 Sumerian Pictograph on clay tablet c. the Egyptians used a complex system of pictographs called hieroglyphs (fig. 3000 BCE 14 . Over time.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet To the south of the Shemitic peoples. two or three syllables. 17). 18) similar to the Ugaritic.

Appendix "C" includes a set of two charts for each of the 22 Hebrew letters. One chart includes all the known scripts of 14 languages. 2500 BCE Due to the common origin of all the scripts above. Ancient Semitic Moabite Aramaic Samaritan DSS Hebrew Hebrew Ammonite Hebrew/Aramaic Greek Modern Hebrew Since the Egyptian. similarities of the script of different cultures can be observed. One example is the letter "lamed" that can be seen in several of the inscriptions above. Arabic. as well as noting its similarity to our "L". tracing their history and evolution is beneficial to reconstructing the original Ancient Hebrew script.Jeff A. The other is a flowchart showing the evolution of the letter through the centuries 15 . Benner Figure 18 Sumerian Cuneiform on clay tablet c. Greek. Aramaic. Hebrew and other Shemitic cultures have their origins in the Ancient Hebrew script. Sumerian.

To my grandparents and their generation. Another example of the importance of understanding the cultural setting can be seen in the word "dinner". "the coming down of water from the clouds in the sky". with a circumstantial biasness. different people will interpret the word "rain" in different ways.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Why study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? The Hebrew people.500 and 500 BCE. wrote the Bible between 1. while to the farmer in the middle of a drought season. "dinner" was the main meal of the day eaten at noon and a light "supper" was eaten in the evening. For example the Bible speaks of keeping and 16 . There are countless examples in our own English language of how word meanings change over time according to the culture. dinner is the main meal eaten in the evening. but the interpretation of the word rain will be influenced by the context of the culture. it has a positive connotation. our culture and lifestyle often influence our interpretation of the words and phrases of the Bible. When we read the Bible as a 21st Century American. The bride and groom who are prepared for an outdoor wedding view this news with a negative connotation. A word such as "rain" has the meaning. Many times our cultural influence will give a different definition to words that was not intended by the Biblical authors. To the Ancient Hebrew nomads the word "rain" was usually equated with "life" since without it. their very existence would not be possible. This is true even in our own culture where the word "rain" can be interpreted differently. If the local weather station forecasts a "rain" shower for tomorrow. whose culture and lifestyle were very different than our own. Where as today.

The Ancient Hebrew understanding of these words is not about mechanical obedience and disobedience of his commands. Throughout the world there remains primitive cultures whose lifestyles have remained the same for thousands of years. providing us with a close up view of how these Ancient cultures lived.Jeff A. without an understanding of the Hebrew culture we cannot fully understand their language. Benner breaking the commands of God. To cross this cultural bridge. Anthropologists interpret these artifacts to determine the Ancient culture's way of life. How do we study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? Archeologists who uncover Ancient artifacts study the Ancient cultures.000 years ago. Will you cherish his commands or throw them on the ground and walk on them? A people's language is very related to their culture. and cherish" while the Hebrew word for "break" is rrp / parar and literally means "to trample underfoot". One of these groups is the desert nomad of the Middle East who still live much the way Abraham did over 3. Many Ancient cultures have left 17 . opening the door to their manner of speech and alphabets. but ones attitude towards them. protect. The words "keep" and "break" are usually interpreted as "obedience" and "disobedience". we need to understand the Ancient Hebrew culture. lifestyle and language. The Hebrew word for word "keep" is rmX / shamar) which literally means "to guard. Linguists and etymologists study the ancient languages. But this is not the Ancient Hebraic meaning of these words.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ancient texts recording their thoughts and lifestyle. we open the door to the culture and lifestyle of Ancient cultures. which will give us a deeper. The most notable text of the Ancient Hebrews is of course the Bible. The purpose of this book is to teach the relationship between the Hebrew language and the Hebrew culture. When we combine and study the material provided by these fields of study. which they have recorded in the Bible. 18 . more accurate. By studying these resources we can better understand their words. understanding of Biblical words.

Hebrew Thought ____________________________________ In the world. Both of these cultures view their surroundings. and West (Greek). What happened to this Ancient Hebrew thought and culture? Around 800 BCE. . such as Europe and America. This new culture began to view the world very much differently than the Hebrews. such as today’s oriental cultures of the Far East. Over the following 400 years the battle raged until finally the Greek culture won and virtually eliminated all traces of the Ancient Hebrew culture. the Greek culture arose in the north. lives.Two . The Ancient Hebrews were Eastern thinkers. Our own American culture and even the Modern Hebrew culture in Israel today are strongly influenced by the Greek culture. The Greek culture then in turn. more closely related to today’s Orientals than Americans or even Modern day Hebrews in Israel. there are two major types of cultures. Around 200 BCE the Greeks began to move south causing a coming together of the Greek and Hebrew culture. and purpose in ways that would seem foreign to the other. past and present. influenced all following cultures including the Roman and European cultures. This was a very tumultuous time as the two vastly different cultures collided. which has adopted a western culture. East (Hebrew).

ideas that cannot be experienced by the senses. we read the Hebrew Bible as if a 21st Century American had written it. Ancient Hebrew thought views the world through the senses (concrete thought).Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet As 21st Century Americans with a strong Greek thought influence. The words compassion. Concrete thought is the expression of concepts and ideas in ways that can be seen. which yields its fruit in season. Examples of Abstract thought can be found in Psalms 103:8. smelled. hearing. grace. “The LORD is compassionate and gracious. Why do we find these abstract words in a passage of 20 . abounding in love”. “He is like a tree planted by streams of water. Abstract thought is the expression of concepts and ideas in ways that cannot be seen. touched. writing and reading the Hebrew language. All five of the senses are used when speaking. but here we will confine our focus on those differences that impact the interpretation of words. and whose leaf does not wither”. tree. In this passage the author expresses his thoughts in concrete terms such as. smelled. we must examine some of the differences between Hebrew and Greek thought. tasted and/or heard. In order to understand the Ancient Hebrew culture in which the Bible was written in. There are many differences between Hebrew and Greek thought. Slow to anger. tasted or heard. An example of this can be found in Psalms 1:3. concrete thought Greek thought views the world through the mind (abstract thought). touched. Abstract vs. anger and love are all abstract words. Abstract thought is a foreign concept to the Ancient Hebrew mind. fruit and leaf. streams of water.

Jeff A. The translators often translate this way because the original Hebrew makes no sense when literally translated into English. these are abstract English words used to translate the original Hebrew concrete words. Benner concrete thinking Hebrews? Actually. a concrete word. is actually the Hebrew word @a / awph which literally means “nose”. "it is yellow and about eight inches long". A Greek description of a common pencil would be. he begins to breath hard and the nostrils begin to flare. A Hebrew sees anger as “the flaring of the nose (nostrils)”. Let us take one of the above abstract words to demonstrate the translation from a concrete Hebrew word to an abstract English word. verbs are used much more frequently then adjectives. When one is very angry. the English reader would not understand. Anger. Functional Description Greek thought describes objects in relation to its appearance. To our Greek way of thinking a deer and an oak are two very different objects and we would never describe them in the same way. Appearance vs. The Hebrew word for both of these objects is lya / ayil because the functional description of 21 . A Hebrew description of the pencil would be related to its function such as "I write words with it". If the translator literally translated the above passage “slow to nose”. Hebrew thought describes objects in relation to its function. an abstract word. Notice that the Hebrew description uses the verb "write" while the Greek description uses the adjectives "yellow" and "long". Because of Hebrew's form of functional descriptions.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet these two objects are identical to the Ancient Hebrews. The Greek culture recognizes words such as knee and gift as nouns. A deer stag is one of the most powerful animals of the forest and is seen as "a strong leader" among the other animals of the forest. This same word "ayil” is also translated as a "ruler" (a strong leader of men) in 2 Kings 24. therefore. The wood of the oak tree is very hard compared to other trees and is seen as a "strong leader" among the trees of the forest. Active Nouns Greek nouns are words that refer to a person. "The voice of the LORD makes the strong leaders turn ". But.15. The Hebraic definition of lya is "a strong leader". just as in most Ancient 22 . The literal translation of this verse in Hebrew thought would be. which is why we have two different ways of translating this verse. The NASB and KJV translates it as "The voice of the LORD makes the deer to calve" while the NIV translates it as "The voice of the LORD twists the oaks". Notice the two different translations of the Hebrew word lya in Psalms 29:9. in Hebrew. place or thing. the Greek thinking translator will give a Greek description to this word for the Greek thinking reader. When translating the Hebrew into English. which by themselves impart no action. The Hebrews are active people and their vocabulary reflects this lifestyle. Hebrew nouns refer to the action of a person place or thing. the same Hebrew word is used for both. Passive vs.

therefore. Benner languages26. Giorgio Fano. all words are related to action. The Hebrew mind sees the knee ($rb / berak) as "the knee that bends" and a gift (hkrb / berakah) as "what is brought with a bent knee". The Greek mind designates a knee and a gift as inanimate nouns unrelated in meaning. Even the Hebrew nouns for father and mother are descriptive of action. The Origins and Nature of Language (Indiana University Press. We need. there is no distinction between nouns and verbs.Jeff A. leaving them for reading the Modern classics. Bloomington. The Hebrew word for father is ba / av and literally means "the one who gives strength to the family" and mother ~a / em means "the one that binds the family together". to suppress our Western Greek minds. 1992) 66 23 26 . When we read the Ancient texts of the Hebrew Bible we must remember that the words used are related to the Ancient Hebrew culture and thought.

they are compared to artifacts of other cultures and other time periods to determine the distinctive characteristics of the culture and civilization.The original letter is pictographic. The Ancient Hebrew alphabet has four characteristics: form. When studying Ancient alphabets. culture or way of life of Ancient civilizations. Pictographic (form) -. Letter Characteristics We usually associate two characteristics for each letter. As artifacts are found.Three . a form and a sound. The process of reconstructing the original Hebrew alphabet is similar to the field of archeology. 1. meaning and sound. meaning it represents a picture of . which digs down to hidden depths to determine the origins. sound. as in the first letter of our alphabet whose form is "A" and has the sound "a".Reconstructing the Original Hebrew Alphabet ____________________________________ The Ancient Hebrew letters form the foundation to the Ancient Hebrew language and a thorough study of these letters is essential to understanding the cultural background to the words they form. name and meaning. one digs down into the depths of time and compares the artifacts of pictographic and non-pictographic scripts to determine dates.

Syllabic (name) -.The mnemonic meaning of a pictograph is the extended meanings related to the pictograph27. These mnemonic meanings most often are related to the pictograph by their function rather than appearance. 2. is a picture of a mouth. The name of the pictograph p is "peh"28 and is also the Hebrew word for "mouth". 28 27 When translating the Hebrew into English. 1992) 20. Phonetic (sound) -. The phonetic value of the pictograph p / peh is "p". 4.Each pictograph is associated with a single syllable of two consonants. it is often necessary to add vowels.Jeff A. The Origins and Nature of Language (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. This syllable is also the name of the pictograph. and has the extended mnemonic meanings of speak. blow and open. 3. such as the pictograph p representing a mouth. the pictograph p. These added vowels will be italicized. Mnemonic (meaning) -. Giorgio Fano.The first letter of the syllabic name provides a singular sound for the purpose of forming words and sentences. 25 . For example. Benner something.

and anthropology. Modern Hebrew names will no longer reflect the actual picture. the name of the pictograph "d" is "tld" (dalet) which means "door" revealing the identity of the picture as that of a door. This historical chart can then be used to follow the progression of script evolution from one culture to the next throughout their written history. Comparison of Semitic scripts .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Reconstruction of the Alphabet By applying the below methods. Over time the fields of archeology. Just as scripts evolve. 26 . Form The original form of the letter is pictographic. 2. but other languages do. the word gimel (meaning a camel)29 is now assigned to c with no apparent connection. These charts can be seen in appendix "C". For example. For example. and their discoveries of artifacts and Ancient inscriptions. Names of the pictographs . the original Hebrew alphabet can be reconstructed with a fair amount of accuracy. may contribute additional information about the Ancient Hebrews to bring us even closer to the original.Each letter of the Semitic cultures are carefully compared and arranged according to time and sub group. the picture p is the form of a letter representing a mouth. Occasionally. so do their names. The Arabic 29 This Hebrew word means camel and has caused some confusion where this pictograph has been interpreted as a picture of a camel. meaning it represents a picture. 1. For example. and their discoveries in linguistics and culture.Each Hebrew pictograph have a name directly related to the picture.

Original Hebrew language . This can help to fill in missing evolutionary changes. 4. 3.What the pictograph represents is the first clue to what the name of the letter is. Benner language has retained the original name of "gam" as has the Greek. called adopted roots. For example. meaning house. 2. but around 1000 BCE they shifted to a vertical orientation. most of the pictographs were oriented in a horizontal position. The Hebrew word for an eye is !y[ (ayin) and is the Modern name for this letter.By following the progression of each letters evolutionary process we see some common changes in the letters. Many times the Hebrew culture will reveal the meaning of the picture. For example. Ancient Hebrew culture . the pictograph b is named "beyt".As will be demonstrated later. the letter o is an eye. "gamma".The Ancient Hebrew language is very closely related to their lifestyle. as the pictograph is a perfect representation of the floor plan of the tent. the original Hebrew language consisted of Parent and Child Roots while many of the three-letter roots. For example. Progression of letter evolution .Jeff A. From 27 . Name Just as the pictograph of a letter evolves over time. Pictograph . The name of the pictograph p is peh and is also the Hebrew word for "mouth". the names of the letter occasionally evolve or on rare occasion replaced. The connection between the pictograph and name is lost without knowledge of the Ancient houses made of tents. were formed at a later time. 1.

3. the name of the pictograph p is "pey" and has the phonetic value of "p".The first letter of the name gives the phonetic value of the pictograph. the same sound is carried through the different culture. When there is a difference. The sound other cultures apply to the Hebrew alphabet . and two letters are assigned the "S" sound (s and X). The name of the letter . For example.In the Modern Hebrew alphabet.In most cases. For example the p (P) and e (H) form the word PH (peh). is not the original name of the letter. two letters are assigned the "T" sound (j and t).The names for each letter is usually transferred from one culture to another with either a slight change or no change at all. two letters are silent (a and [). all but five Modern names are a parent or Child Root word. It is more likely that the original Hebrew alphabet did not waste letters by duplicating sound or using them as silent. 2. Interestingly.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet this we can conclude that any letter. 1. whose Modern name is an adopted root. Sound Each letter represents a singular sound that is used to form words. Names of the letters of other cultures using the Hebrew alphabet . 3. the names are compared to determine the more original name. A unique sound for each letter . 28 . For example the p in its various forms through the different cultures all assign this letter a phonetic value of "P".

which use these letters. or a vowel as in the word "fly".The name of the letter is a Hebrew word with meaning and usually more than one. speak. Appendix "A" provides a detailed view of the reconstruction of the pictographic. mnemonic. The name of the letter . The Origins and Nature of Language (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Meaning The meaning of a letter is related to the picture30 the form of the letter represents. 1992) 20. Vowels . Benner 4.All of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet are consonants. 1. For example the name of the letter p is "peh" and can mean mouth. Some of these letters doubled as vowels much like the "Y" in the Roman alphabet. which can be a consonant as in the word “yellow”. syllabic and phonetic attributes of each Hebrew letter. These meanings are then a part of the meaning of the words. Giorgio Fano. blow or edge. 29 30 .Jeff A. Appendix "D" is a detailed chart of the Modern and Ancient Hebrew alphabet.

their cultural understanding and their application in the Hebrew language. and this letter is a representation of the tent. This letter means "to" or "toward".Four . When the letter b/B is placed in front of a word such as yra/erets (land).Hebrew Prefixes ____________________________________ The idea of the form of a letter as providing meaning is foreign to our understanding of the purpose of the alphabet. l The Hebrew shepherd always carried a staff and was used to move the sheep toward the destination. rather it is implied. we have yrab/be'arets (in a31 land). b/B. l/L. f/W and e/H. we have yral (to a land). 31 Hebrew does not express the idea "a" or "an". m/M. this letter means "in". These examples will demonstrate the relationship between the pictographs of each letter. When the letter l/L is placed in front of the word yra. The door is in front (top left of the picture) and a wall (middle of the picture) separates the men’s side (left side) from the women’s side (right side). b The nomadic Hebrews lived in tents. Since the family resides inside the tent. In this chapter we are going to look at five Prefixes that are commonly added to Hebrew words. .

we have yram/me'erets (from a land). When the letter m/M is placed in front of the word yra. look at this. When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "the" as in identifying someone or something in particular When the letter e/H is placed in front of the word yra. 31 . we have yraf/ve'erets (and land). When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "and" in the sense of adding things together. f This letter is a picture of a tent peg used to secure the tent. When the letter f/W is placed in front of the word yra. When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "from" in the sense of coming out of someone or something. Benner m This letter is a picture of water and can also mean the flowing water in man and animals (blood). or a nail used to attach things together. Blood is seen as the passing down a line from one generation to another. we have yrae/ha'erets (the land).Jeff A. e This letter is a picture of a mans arms raised or extended toward someone or something as if saying "behold.

a Parent Root word is formed. Figure 19 Hebrew root word systems Parent Roots When two letters/pictographs are put together. When the b (bet.Five . a seed which continues the . a house) is combined with the n (nun.The Root System of Hebrew ____________________________________ The Hebrew language uses a root system for its vocabulary. The root system is like a tree where the leaves (words) come from the branches (Child Root). The Branches come from the trunk (Parent Root) and the trunk comes out of the roots (letters).

This Parent Root means "a sharp mouth" or simply "a serpent" whose sharp fangs are in the mouth. often requires a three consonant root. Harper PH. 34 Ernst Ettisch. As in our example above. A Child Root is formed by adding one of the consonant/vowels as a prefix (in front).. a suffix (at the Hebrew is written from right to left. 1910) 35. The p is a mouth. 1987) 87. e (e). Hebrew word structure. William R. 4 double as consonants and vowels34.Jeff A. as will be seen later. the a (a). D. f (o and u) and i (i). The Biblical word for serpent is "shaphaph" a lengthened form of the parent root "shaph". Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (London: Oxford. The meaning of this derivative from the Parent Root is usually identical in meaning to the original Parent Root.. 1895) 17. The s is a picture of the two front teeth meaning "sharp". Child Roots Of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The two letters of this root have the combined meaning of "the house of seeds" or "the seeds that continue the house/family" and are usually translated simply as "son". also meaning "serpent". E. the second letter p is doubled. 33 32 33 . Kautzsch. The Hebrew Vowels and Consonants (Brookline Village Ma: Branden Publishing Co. Benner next generation) the Parent Root nb (pronounced ben32) is formed. therefore the second consonant in the Parent Root is duplicated to turn the two consonant Parent Root into a three consonant root. Another example is the Parent Root ps (shaph)33. Elements of Hebrew (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. forming the root pps (shaphaph).

The Child Root pna / @na / anaph also means angry.h. all the Child Roots formed from the Parent Root are directly related in meaning to the Parent Root.flood: a heavy flowing of water .w.l . a new type of Child Root is formed.wilt: a flowing away of life . These significantly smaller numbers of combination roots indicate that these roots have a 34 .aged: a flowing away of youth .panic: a flowing of the insides .empty: flowing out of contents . Adopted Roots There are two forms of adopted roots that were probably derived at a later time through the evolution of the language35 or adopted from another Shemitic language. For example.l b. Below are the Child Roots.stream: a flowing of water By placing the consonant letter n (nun) within the Parent Root. This Child Root is very closely related to the parent.l b. the Parent Root pa / @a / aph means nose or the flaring of the nostrils as when angry. which has the generic meaning of "flow". Therefore. the purpose of the Child Root is to separate out the various mnemonic meanings of the Parent Root. lba lbe leb elb lfb lbi a.l y. While the Parent Root represents a concrete subject with a wide range of mnemonic meanings.b.b.l h.b. demonstrating the close relationship to each other and the Parent Root. while the remaining 20% are derived from the combination roots.h b.l. as found in the Biblical text.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet end) or an infix (in the middle) to the Parent Root. formed from the Parent Root lb / lb / bal. 35 Approximately 80% of all the words found in the Bible are derived from the parent or child root words.

Jeff A.s p. Some of the most common additions to the original root found are: 1.k p.break off .r. Adding specific letters in specific places within the root word forms other words. Child Root or adopted root. rp hrp krp xrp qrp yrp p.ts . words exchange letters for similar sounding letters and additional letters are added. As a language evolves.c p.break apart .Parent Root meaning break . For example the word !hk/kohen. meaning "priest". a m/m/m or t/t/t added to the front or back of the root word relatively late origin and are not part of the original Hebrew vocabulary. Benner The first is formed by adding a third consonant to a Parent Root forming a new root more specific in meaning than the parent. such as the examples below.break open The second type of adopted root appears to be a three consonant root that evolved from the Parent Root into a new word with a similar sound. For example the word krd/derek meaning "road" probably evolved out of hr/rach meaning "path".r. comes directly from the Child Root !hk.r p. Words The most common words are those derived directly from the parent.break forth .r. 35 .break in pieces .r.r.q p.

this will in turn help us to better define the roots and words derived from the parent. 38 The Kaph is written as $ when at the end of a word and a k when in a word. the clearer the picture of the parent root will be. Benefit of studying words from a common root As all the roots and words. we can compare their meanings37 to form a clearer picture of the original meaning of the Parent Root.k as an example. are related in meaning to the Parent Root36. a e/h/h. Let us use the Parent Root kl/$l38/l. 22. 37 36 36 . tf/tw/wt or nf/!w/wn added to the back of the root word 3. Once the meaning of the Parent Root is determined. which are derived from the Parent Root. While these pictographs can have a wide range of Horowitz.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2. The more roots and words available. a f/w/w or i/y/ee added in front of the last letter of the root word. The pictographs of the Parent Root will also help us to determine the original meaning of this Parent Root. Root Parent Child Word kl kle kile ekle klem ekflem kli Meaning Walk Walk Step March Walking Walk Walk Child The original pictographs of the Parent Root are kl and are the pictures of a shepherd staff and the palm of the hand.

fat and meat.The pictographs provide the basic meaning of the root as demonstrated previously. fowl. "rhb" (BHR) meaning. A working dictionary of the Parent Roots is beneficial to word studies and Biblical understanding. grain. but can also mean any product of the grain. The Child Roots carry the more specific meaning such as. Therefore. Benner meaning due to the various mnemonic understandings. Methods for reconstructing the original Parent Root 1. losing the original generic meaning. "arb" (BRA) meaning. such as. and "hrb" (BRH) meaning. Reconstructing the Parent Roots The meanings of the Parent Roots provide the foundation for the meaning of all the Child Root that are formed out of it. fat. not all of the Parent Roots have survived to this day and second. those that have survived have often become specific in meaning. These Parent Roots were generic in meaning whereas the Child Roots derived from them become more specific in meaning. fowl. we can understand the pictographs to mean "to carry a staff in the palm for walking". soap and clean. soap and clean.Jeff A. the words that are derived from it have the meanings of walk. 37 . the Parent Root "rb" (BR) means. Pictographs . there are techniques to reconstructing it for the purpose of Biblical studies. While the entire Parent Root system cannot be achieved completely. "rba" (ABR) meaning. grain. Two problems arise when working with Parent Roots. For instance. meat. step and march. First.

Phoenician. All of the Child Root definitions will then help to reconstruct the generic meaning of the Parent Root. "rb" (BR) means. which are only used once or twice in the Biblical texts. grain. words and Child Roots contribute to reconstructing the Parent Root.By comparing all of the words that are derived from the Parent Root.All of the words derived from a child root help to reconstruct the original meaning of the Child Root in the same manner as mentioned above for the Parent Root. and "rrb" (BRR) means. While the pictographs. But. clean or pure. Child Roots . the clearer the definition of the Parent Root will be. are closely related to Hebrew and many times the words are identical. Translating Hebrew words. fowl. are very difficult to define due to a lack of context. etc. The use of this Root System of the Hebrew language is beneficial to finding the correct Hebraic meaning to words by looking at the bigger picture of related words and roots. For instance. This can be very beneficial when attempting to translate obscure or frequently used words. "rbrb" (BRBR) means. the Parent Root will in turn assist with defining the Child Roots and Words. Sister Languages . 38 . The words from these languages can assist with the reconstruction of the Child and Parent Roots. Aramaic. when using the root system of Hebrew. 4.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2.Semitic languages such as Ugarit. 3. we can use the many related words derived from the same Parent Root to assist with defining the word. Moabite. the generic meaning of the Parent Root can be found. Words . The more words available.

Appendix "F" cross-references the Strong's Dictionary numbering system to the Ancient Hebrew Dictionary numbering system. This dictionary gives the cultural background and its relationship to the Child Roots. or other related language. Appendix "E" is a dictionary of the Ancient Hebrew Parent Roots. it can still be reconstructed by using the above methods and still be useful for defining the other words and roots formed out of it. which are derived from them. Benner Even if a Parent Root is not found in the Biblical text. 39 .Jeff A.

" (Genesis 14. through Hebrew parallelism. The Ancient pictographs for this root are la.Word Studies ____________________________________ The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with the tools and resources to read the Bible with a Hebraic understanding and see the text through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrew who wrote it. The first picture (remember Hebrew is read from right to left) is an ox head representative of power because of his great strength.22) We will examine two words within this sentence. Let us now put all this "technical" information to work by looking at a passage through Hebraic eyes. Creator of heaven and earth. Both of these words are abstract words from Greek thought. God "God Most High. describes the yoke as a "staff on the shoulders". God and Creator. also made of wood. The second is a shepherd's staff and is representative of authority as well as a yoke39.Six . 39 Isaiah 9. was . The wooden staff used by the shepherd to guide the sheep toward a location. Our goal is to find the tangible concrete Hebraic context of these words that will reveal the heart of God the Creator The Hebrew word translated as "God" is la / al and is a Parent Root word.4. The yoke.

for his children. The Hebraic meaning of la / al is a "powerful leader". The Child Root enq / hnq has the meaning of acquiring the materials for the nest. is the Hebrew word hnq qaneh derived from the Parent Root !q / qen meaning a nest. Before the bird lays her eggs she gathers material together to build a nest. an older more experienced ox as the leader was yoked to the younger. The mnemonic meaning of this letter is a gathering together. Creator.9-12 41 . Creator The second word. The pictographs for this word are nq. the heavens and the land. Benner A team of oxen yoked together pulled a cart or plow. The first pictograph is the sun at the horizon where light is gathered. The Hebraic understanding of this verse is that God brought together the heavens and the earth as the nest for his children he could nurture and care for them as a mother and teach and guide them into truth by yoking them to himself. The combining these letters mean a "gathering together for the seeds". The Ancient Hebrews saw themselves yoked to God who taught them how to walk a proper life. also used to guide the oxen toward a location. The second picture is a seed.Jeff A. To train the younger oxen. The Ancient Hebrews saw God as a bird40 that builds a nest. 40 See Deuteronomy 32. Both the shepherd's staff and the yoke perform the same function.

The second is the shepherd's staff. The staff is a sign of his authority over the sheep.22 as another example of how the Hebraic understanding of words reveals the heart of God." Two words in this passage.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Voice Let us look at Deuteronomy 5. "These are the commandments the LORD proclaimed in a loud voice to your whole assembly there on the mountain from out of the fire. to gather. We have previously looked at these two pictographs in this chapter. The Hebrew word leq / lhq / qahal (translated as "assembly" above) is "the gathering of the sheep to the voice of the shepherd". The shepherd carried a staff as a tool to lead and guide the sheep as well as to discipline and protect them. The first letter is the sun at the horizon meaning. Combined they have the meaning of "to gather to the staff of the shepherd". they recognize his voice and gather to him. 42 . The Hebrew word lfq / lwq / qol (translated as "voice" in our passage above) is "the voice of the shepherd". assembly and voice. When the shepherd calls the flock. come from the same Parent Root lq / lq / qal. The Ancient Hebraic understanding of this verse is that God is the shepherd who will teach and protect his sheep and when he calls them they come to him as his flock.

meaning "strong". The second letter. As the ox is strong."strong water". These 43 . The Hebrews made glue by boiling animal skins in water. meaning "strong". the letter also has the meaning of strong.Jeff A. is the picture of the tent or house where the family resides. As the skin broke down a sticky thick liquid formed at the surface of the water. b/bet. The second letter is the m/mah. Father The first letter is the a/al. we can better understand the Hebraic definition of these words. The second letter is the h/hhets. a picture of an ox. This thick liquid was removed and used as a binding agent . a picture of a wall. The two letters give us the meaning of "strong water". Benner Ancient Hebrew Words By examining the titles of family members through the pictographic letters that form the words. meaning water. ma: One who glues/binds the family together Brother This word also begins with a/al. ba: One who gives strength to the house Mother This word also begins with the letter a/al.

meaning "tent" or the "family" which resides in it. nb: One who continues the family line 44 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet letters give us the meaning "strong wall" or "strong barrier". The seed is a new generation of life that will grow and produce a new generation. no matter the construction. The second letter is the n/nun. the picture of a seed. The English concept of a wall is descriptive of anything with a tall vertical appearance. ha: family One who acts as a strong barrier to protect the Son This word begins with the b/bet. The Hebrew concept of a wall is any barrier.

for the Latin alphabet. as the Greeks. as it appeared around 1000 BCE41 (fig. 1000 BCE When the above alphabet is reversed42.Seven . The Romans in turn adopted the Greek alphabet. from which our English alphabet comes. the direction of writing often shifted to a left to right direction to prevent the hand from smearing the ink. 21). who adopted the Ancient Hebrew alphabet. When ink came into use. wrote from left to right. Below is the Ancient Hebrew alphabet. our own alphabet is derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs. the Modern Hebrew alphabet is derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs. causing a right to left direction of inscribing. Figure 20 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. we can see a very close resemblance to our English alphabet (fig. Indirectly. Most Ancient inscriptions were written on stone using a hammer and chisel. 41 42 The alephbet is read from right to left. also derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs.Hebrew origins of English ____________________________________ As we have discussed. 20). The hammer was held with the left hand. .

The English words pear. The English fruit words apple and plum. "v" and "f". As an example. 46 . sh" sounds which are given sound by blowing air through the mouth. are also derived from the rp / par root with the "p" exchanged for a "b" and "f" sound. From this root several English words are derived and related to "grain". bread and beer (products of grains). Another common sound change is made with the lips such as the "b". The "r" and "l" sounds are often interchanged as both are vocal43 consonants and can be pronounced for a prolonged time. the Hebrew word yrp / periy. is a derivative of the Parent Root rp / par. persimmon and apricot. The English fruit words berry and fruit. Through the evolution of language. all fruits. In addition. prune. 1000 BCE (mirror image) A surprising number of our English words are derived from Hebrew.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Figure 21 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. Another example is the Parent Root rb / bar. meaning fruit. such as: barley (a grain). letters will some times change position such as the fruit word grape and ripe. "p". are derived from the rp / par root. meaning grain. boar. it is common for similar sounds to replace the original sound. are also derived from the rp / par root with the "r" exchanged for an "l" sound. bird and bear 43 As opposed to the frictives like the "s.

Jeff A. 47 . and barn (a storage place for grains). Benner (animals fattened on grains). Below is a very small list of Hebrew words practically identical in pronunciation and meaning to English.

Hebrew Pronunciation Meaning English Xya dwn lmg lpn rb[ @la lj Xa rpk lwq ryps qX rwt @t #ra dc rs $s hdX qwm ql bl hsk eesh nod gamel naphal over eleph tal eysh caphar qol saphiyr saq tur taph erets tsad sar sak sadeh moq laq lev kasah each nod camel fall over bull tall fire cover voice sapphire sack travel beat land side prince shack field mock lick heart cover each nod camel fall over elephant tall ash cover call sapphire sack tour tap earth side sir shack sod mock lick love case .

Other resource materials. It is the hope of the author that others will discover the value and joy of studying the Ancient Hebrew language.Conclusion ____________________________________ Contained within this book are the tools you will need to begin searching the pictographic meanings of Hebrew words. The Seminaries and Universities emphasize the Greek language. Bible Encyclopedias are another valuable resource for learning about the culture and lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews. For further information or questions on the Ancient Hebrew language and alphabet. please visit our web site at: The Ancient Hebrew Research Center http://www.ancient-hebrew. There is very little research and study being done in this area of linguistic study at this time. which you will find beneficial in your word studies. but hopefully this will change in the future. alphabet and Biblical Text.org . are dictionaries such as "Vines Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words" or "Strong's Hebrew Dictionary". practically ignoring the language and culture of the Ancient Hebrews.

Stag -.an older experienced ox. Yoke -. Pillar. The original two-letter name must have evolved to its present three-letter name long ago.the strongest of the woods. arch -. a Al Pictographic (form): All sources agree that the original form for this letter is a.Appendix A . Mnemonic (meaning): Muscle -.the strong part of the sheep. We then turn to the . Ram -.the strong leader of the flock. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew. as the leader. an ox head.the strong members which support a building. Greek and Arabic name for this letter is aleph.the strong leader of the forest. was often yoked to a younger ox to teach him. Oak tree -. Chief -.the ox is the strongest of the livestock animals.Ancient Hebrew Alphabet Reconstruction ____________________________________ Below is the process of reconstructing the original characteristics of each Hebrew letter using the methods previously outlined.the ox is placed in a yoke for pulling a load or plowing. Fat tail -. This is the only pictograph for which the original two-letter name cannot be found.

the family that is inside the tent is of importance. This letter was originally a vowel and most likely an "ah" sound. Mnemonic (meaning): Family -.the residents of the tent. Many Near Eastern cultures worshipped the god "la / el or al". . 51 . this letter is silent but did have an "a" sound when the Greek language adopted it. depicted as a bull in their carvings of the god. There are various suggestions to the original form of this letter including . not the structure itself. and b. b Beyt Pictographic (form): The Hebrew word beyt means "house" or "tent". When Israel formed an image of God at Mount Sinai they chose a calf (young bull). The picture b is a perfect representation of the nomadic tent which was divided into two sections. This evidence shows that the word "la / el" was understood to be a bull. a men's and women's. Phonetic (sound): In Modern Hebrew as well as Arabic. with the entrance at the front of the tent in the men's section and an entrance from the men's to the women's section. Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew (beyt). Inside -. Greek (beta) and Arabic (beyt) agree with the original name of tb / bet. house or tent. meaning.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction culture of the Ancient Hebrews and sister cultures to find the original name.

such as p-ph. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is gimel. a derivative of the sound "g". c-ch. The Greek (gamma) and Arabic (jeem) names for this letter. Phonetic (sound): The Modern Hebrew and Greek agree that the letter is pronounced "g" while Arabic has the sound "j". 44 It is a common practice among Latin languages to add an "h" to a consonant to show a different sound.a gathering of people or things. t-th. Carry -. In this case the bh is pronounced as a "v".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Phonetic (sound): The Modern sounds for this letter are "b" and "bh"44 and are probably original. Mnemonic (meaning): Walk. s-sh. Group -.the function of the foot. provide us with the original two letter name of ~g / gam meaning to gather. Gather. 52 . c Gam Pictographic (form): The earliest known pictograph for this letter is c and is probably a picture of a foot similar to the Egyptian Hieroglyph .

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction

d

Dal

Pictographic (form): Ancient alphabet charts include two possibilities for the Ancient pictographic form for this letter, (a fish -- "dahg" in Hebrew) and d (a picture of a tent door -- "dahl" or "delet" in Hebrew). The Modern name for this letter is dalet meaning a door indicating that the original form of the letter is the d. Mnemonic (meaning): Dangle -- the tent door hangs down from the horizontal pole as seen in the picture of the letter; Movement -- the door is used to move in and out or back and forth through the tent; Weak, Poor -- one who hangs his head down, as in poverty. Syllabic (name): While the Modern Hebrew name for this letter is dalet (3 consonants), the Arabic name of ld / dal (the original 2 consonant root), meaning door, gives us the original two letter name. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew (dalet), Greek (delta) and Arabic (dal) agree that the sound for this letter is "d".

e

Hey

Pictographic (form): Most all sources agree that the original picture is e, a man with his arms raised out as if pointing toward something. Mnemonic (meaning): Look -- when one sees a great sight he throws his arms toward it and sighs saying "look at that"; Reveal -- a pointing to a sight to show to another; Breath -- as when sighing.

53

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew (hey) and Arabic (hey) have retained the original two letter name of ah / hey meaning look. Phonetic (sound): This letter originally had a consonant "h" sound, as retained in Modern Hebrew, as well as a vowel "e" sound as retained in the Greek.

f

Waw

Pictographic (form): Ancient alphabet charts include two possibilities for the Ancient pictographic form for this letter, f and . The Hebrew word vav / waw means a peg. The tent pegs were made of wood and may have been Y-shaped as in the first picture to prevent the rope from slipping off. Mnemonic (meaning): Add, Secure -- the peg is used for securing or tying the tent or other items together. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is ww / vav, meaning peg, retaining the original two letter name. Phonetic (sound): While the Modern pronunciation for this letter is "vav", the original sound for this letter was "w" and is retained in the Modern Arabic as "waw". This letter also doubled as a vowel with a "ow" and "uw" sound which Modern Hebrew has retained.

z

Zan

Pictographic (form): The most Ancient picture for this is z, a picture of an unknown agricultural tool, probably a
54

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction

type of plow, hoe or sickle. The Egyptian hieroglyph is very similar and is a hoe and may be the original form for this letter. Mnemonic (meaning): Harvest, food -- from the cutting of the crops with the tool; Fed, Fattened -- from eating the crops; Jar -- for storing the harvested foods; Broad -from the broad blade of the tool; Paddle, Ear, Spade -from their broadness. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name is !yz / zayin, a derivative of the two letter word !z / zan, meaning crops, which is the original Greek name for this letter. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew, Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "z".

h

Hhets

Pictographic (form): There are three possible Ancient pictographs for this letter, , e and h. The first is apparently a string or cord. The second is a man with his arms extended and belongs to the fifth letter hey. The third is a nomadic tent wall, which is "hhets" in Hebrew. The two horizontal lines are the top and bottom and the four vertical lines being the poles. All the letters from 3,000 BCE to the present day in the Hebrew, Arabic Greek and their sister cultures have used a derivative of the third pictograph, the tent wall. Mnemonic (meaning): Outside, Inside -- the function of the wall is to separate these two; Half -- a dividing into two parts; Secular -- what is outside; Arrow, Slingstone -from their dividing of flesh
55

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name is tx / chet, meaning a string. A very similar word is #x / hhets, meaning a wall, most likely the original name for this letter. Phonetic (sound): The original sound for this letter is probably a guttural "hh" (as in the name Bach and the German word ich), as in Modern Hebrew and Arabic.

u

Thet

Picture: The oldest form of the original pictograph is u, apparently a type of basket or container. Mnemonic (meaning): Store, Contain -- baskets were used for storing foods, supplies and other necessities of the nomadic life; Mud, Clay -- a material for making baskets and other containers. Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew has retained the original two letter word jj / tet, meaning mud or clay, for the name of this letter. Phonetic (sound): The 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet is a tav with a "t" sound. It is unlikely that the original Hebrew had two letters with the same sound. When the Greeks adopted the Hebrew alphabet the Hebrew tet became the Greek theta. Most likely the original sound for this letter is "th".

56

Thanks -a giving of the hand as a gesture.the palm of the foot. k Kaph Pictographic (form): The Ancient form of this letter is k.from the placing of the hands at the mouth for amplification. Phonetic (sound): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic sound for this letter is a "y". Greek and Arabic. Palm Branch . agree that the original name for this letter is @k / kaph. palm.from the function of the hand. Mnemonic (meaning): Sole -. the open palm of a hand. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name dwy / yud is a derivative of the two letter word dy / yad meaning "hand". meaning. Throw -.from the curved palm shape. as an open hand signifies submission. Worship. Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction i Yad Pictograph: The most Ancient form of the letter is i. Make. This letter also doubled as a vowel that can be seen from the Greek form of this letter. Shout -. Tame. Curve -. Bowl.the shape of the open palm. 57 . Mnemonic (meaning): Work. or "ee" sound. Bend. which is an iota with an “i”.from the bending of the will. Subdue -. an arm and hand.

Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "k" and a guttural "kh" (as in the name Bach or the German word ich). Toward -.the staff was used to push. m Mah Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is m. a shepherd's staff.the sea is the place of the unknown representing any unknown thing. Chaos -.as liquids. Authority -the staff as a sign of the shepherd's authority. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. Mnemonic (meaning): Sea -.from the fastening of the yoke. Why. l Lam Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is l. and is similar to the Greek name of lamda. How -. meaning staff.a staff on the shoulders of the oxen for directing. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is dml / lamed. Mnemonic (meaning): To. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "l".a large body of water. When. Grape Juice -. or pull one of the flock in a direction.from the storms of the sea. Who.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Phonetic (sound): Modern Hebrew. Tie . Where. The Arabic name is ~l / lam retaining the original two letter word. Yoke -. 58 . Mighty. Blood. Massive -from the size of the sea. waves of water. Bind. What.

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction Syllabic (name): The Hebrew letter ~m / mem is from the word ~ym / mayim meaning waters and is the plural form of the two letter word hm / mah. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "m". 59 .the perpetuation of the father through his children. a seed sprout. All the letters from 3. (possibly a window) or x (a thorn).The seed perpetuates or continues the plant generation after generation. Mnemonic (meaning): Continue. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "n". Arabic Greek and their sister cultures have used a derivative of x suggesting that this is the original letter. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is !n / nun meaning to continue or perpetuate. Perpetuate -. n Nun Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is n. Heir -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. (possibly a thorn).000 BCE to the present day in the Hebrew. x Sin Pictographic (form): The four possibilities for the original form for this letter are (a fish). Offspring.

Phonetic (sound): The original sound for this letter must be an "s" to which the samech and sin both agree.thorn bushes were used by the shepherd to build a wall (shield) made to enclose his flock during the night to protect them from predators. Pay attention. an eye. meaning thorn. o Ghan Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is o.as a shading of the eyes to remove the glare of the sun.as a wall of sharp weapons for protection. Mnemonic (meaning): Watch. Boot -. Furrow -60 . Hate -. Warrior -. and later was divided into the samech and !f / sin (which then became associated with the !v / shin).as protected in the wall of thorns. The Greek sound for the letter is "ks".from the sharpness of the thorn. The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is xms / samech. with no apparent connection to a two letter word or to the original picture of this letter. similar to the "s". Sharp . It is possible that the original name for the samech was !s / sin. Pierce.as keeping a close eye on something. The Arabic alphabet does not have this letter and the Greek name for the letter is ksi. Heed -.as a piercing of the heart) Syllabic (name): Of all the letters this is the most difficult to reconstruct due to the limited archeological and textual support.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Mnemonic (meaning): Shield -. All the words using the sin are related in meaning to the words using a samech in the same place as the sin. Cover -. !v / Shin (sh) and !f / Sin (s).as protection from thorns. Flock -. The 21st letter of the Hebrew alphabet (X) has two names and sounds.

Ostrich. which is silent.one with a furrow between the eyes. the ayin.l. Poor. Occupation -.a bird that watches Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is ayin. Both words llg (g. Arabic has two names for this letter.one paying attention to the task. p Pey Pictographic (form): There are several Canaanite pictographs believed to be this letter. The Egyptian hieratic alphabet also has a "ghayin" with a "gh" sound. a "g" would be the closest). Owl -. where the "tt" is only slightly pronounced and in the Hebrew name l[b / ba'al where the ayin is used as a glottal stop. Arabic has two forms. The gimel (g / g) has been mistaken for the ghayin ([ / gh) in Hebrew. Humble -. The "gh" also served as a glottal stop.l) mean "around" showing that the two letters were phonetically common. none of which 45 Pronounced as an "ng" as in "ring". they attributed a "g" sound to the ayin indicating a sound similar to a "g" (since Greek does not have a "gh".l) and ll[ (gh. Phonetic (sound): This letter is silent in Modern Hebrew. Abode -.l. Worry. When the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) transliterated place names such as r[p to Pegor and hrm[ to Gemorah. as in our English word bottle. Spring. Source -the eye of the landscape. Affliction.as a place carefully watched. and the ghayin with a "gh"45 sound.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction formed between the eyes from squinting. 61 . ayin and ghayin. The Greek name is "Omicron" (a definite name change by the Greeks).

Word. as the original two letter name. Sword.a place to lay in wait. Net.as one laying on his side or crouched in concealment. Beard -. Region -. and y.Tools of the hunter.the lips as the edge of the mouth. Mnemonic (meaning): Hunt. The word "tsad" means "side" as a man lying on his side and may be the meaning of the last two pictographs. Scatter -.Things with edges. Blow -. Here. Chase -. Arabic and Greek names agree with hp / peh.the meat of the hunt 62 . Stronghold. y Tsad Pictographic (form): The three Ancient pictograph possibilities for this letter are .by blowing. Arabic. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet resemble a mouth (the meaning of the name of the letter). Edge -. Arabic. Most of the Hebrew. Game -. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "p". Snare -. and does look like a mouth. The Hebrew. meaning mouth. Mnemonic (meaning): Speak. The South Arabian and Egyptian pictograph is p. Tower -. Greek and their sister cultures use a pictograph similar to the p.a place with an edge Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew.the function of the mouth. Greek and their sister cultures use pictographs which closely resemble the last picture indicating that this was the original form of the letter. Fortress. This letter also has a "ph" sound in the Modern Hebrew and is probably an original sound as well.

from its circles through the sky marking the times and seasons. q Quph Pictographic (form): Most of the pictographs used for this letter are or something very similar. Condense -. "go around" and "revolution of the sun".Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is tsade or tsad meaning side. possibly depicting the sun at the horizon (when rotated 90°.as a revolution of the sun Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is the parent root @q / quph meaning. reflecting the meaning of the Hebrew words derived from quph. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "ts".from the arching of the sun in the sky. 63 . Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "q". The South Arabian pictograph has a similar pictograph of . meaning. a common shift in Ancient letters). circle or go around.from the condensing of the light when the sun rises or sets. Mnemonic (meaning): Sun -.from the rising and setting of the sun. Circle . Horizon -. The original form of this letter was probably q. Time -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew.

Chief -.the head of the tribe. Possession. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "r". s Shin Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture s is the two front teeth. duplicate. Mnemonic (meaning): Top. Cliff -. meaning head. Poor -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "sh". Press -.as the top of the body. Needy.one in need of a ruling from the chief.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r Resh Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is r. meaning teeth. 64 . Mnemonic (meaning): Sharp. again -as the two front teeth Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is !X / Shin.decided by the chief Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is Xr / resh.the function of the teeth. Ivory -. Beginning. Two.as a tooth. repeat. Modern Hebrew also assigns an "s" to this letter but it was originally the sound for the 15th letter "sin". the head of a man. second.the role of the chief. Rule -. Inheritance -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. First -. double.the tusks of the elephant as teeth.

Room. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "t". mark. Signature. This letter retains the original two-letter word. places or things. Desert.as a marker to identify people. . Arabic and Greek names for this letter is wt / tav (or taw). Identification -. that is two Mnemonic (meaning): Mark. Sign. meaning. probably of two sticks crossed to mark a place similar to the Egyptian hieroglyph of crossed sticks. Dwelling -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. 65 .as marked Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction t Tav Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture t is a type of "mark".

e = grey. The letter "G"48 originated in the Hebrew letter "c". which is gam47.Appendix B . For instance. o = bone. name and sound of the Hebrew letter "c". The similarities to the ancient Hebrew alphabet and ours will also assist in learning the letters. a = father. 46 47 The word "game" comes from the Latin "gamb". u = tune. meaning "leg". the pictograph of each letter is the origin for our own English alphabet. . which is used to play games46.Learn to Read Ancient Hebrew ____________________________________ Introduction Learning to read the ancient Hebrew language is a fairly simple matter since our English alphabet and language are derived from the ancient Hebrew alphabet and language. Picture The original pictographic script of "early Hebrew". It is now an easy step to learning the original name of the letter. The vowels in the names will be pronounced as follows. the picture. In addition. can easily be associated with the word "game". The sound for the letter is therefore "g". i = feet. 48 The letter "G" was formed out of the letter "C". The picture is a foot.

a. h. English name The name of the letter will be learned with an English word. ch. p. z Gutturals .d. In most cases. i. f. the letter "d" is a picture of a door. the Hebrew name for this letter is "dal".Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew English letter Each Hebrew letter will be associated with the English letter that derived from it. By being able to see the English letter within the Hebrew. There are certain letters that are commonly exchanged for another as listed below. k.s. the English word is very close to the Hebrew. The English letter will be oriented to a form closer resemblance of the Hebrew letter. The name of each letter is also the Hebrew word for what the picture is. v. which in Hebrew means. r Nasals . x. o. n Vowels . ts. w Tooth letters . the sound of the letter will more easily be remembered. 67 .b. c. Many times a word from one culture will be slightly changed when adopted by another culture. For example.g.m.l. q Lip letters . sh. e. Aspirates . "door". t Liquids . u Hebrew name The original Hebrew name of the letter will then be revealed.

Once the letters are understood in their original Hebrew context. 68 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Hebrew sound The sound of the letter will be defined and is always the sound of the first letter of the Hebrew name. which are formed by combining letters together. The pronunciation of the word will also be seen through the letters of the word. Hebrew meaning The meaning of the letters will be explained. These meanings will be related to the picture and name. we will look at a few Hebrew words. The meanings of these letters will then supply the definition to the Hebrew word.

The ox was used to pull carts or a plow. it provided meat and leather and it was one of the animals used in sacrifices. The Hebrew word "al" means "ox" and is the original name of this letter. English Letter: (A) English Name: All This animal was the "all" powerful and "all" versatile animal of the Hebrews.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew a Picture: Head of an ox The ox was the strongest and most versatile animal among the Hebrews livestock. Hebrew name: al The original name is the same as the English equivalent. This is the only Hebrew letter used as a vowel only. In Modern Hebrew this letter is silent. 69 . Meaning: Strong Because of the great strength of the ox.

male and female sections. Hebrew name: Bet The original name for this letter is bet meaning.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet b Picture: Tent The Hebrews lived in goat hair tents that were divided into two halves. This letter can also mean "in" or "inside" as the family resides "in" the tent. and divided by a wall. The "bh" is a spirant meaning. the sound can continue and is used when the letter is not at the beginning of the word. Hebrew sound: b. The above picture is a representation of the floor plan to the tent. the sound is made and abruptly stops and is used at the beginning of a word. bh (v) The "b" sound is a stop meaning. A common sound shift over time is a "t" sound to a "d" as they are both similar in sound and are formed by the tongue and teeth. English Letter: (B) English Name: Bed The tent was the place where the family laid their "bed". 70 . The entrance is seen at the top left. tent or family in Hebrew. Meaning: Family The function of the tent is to provide a covering for the family.

on foot. working as well as playing "games".Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew c Picture: Foot English Letter: G English Name: Game The Hebrews were always on their feet for traveling. gathering at the nearest watering hole. Hebrew name: gam Our word "Game" comes from the Latin word "gam" meaning "leg" coming from the Hebrew word "gam" meaning "foot". Hebrew sound: g Meaning: Gather Men and animals would walk. This letter can also mean walk or carry. 71 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet d Picture: Door A curtain suspended from a horizontal pole covered the entrance of the Hebrew’s tent. This letter can also meant movement as one moves in and out of the tent through the door. English Letter: English Name: Door Hebrew name: dal Another common shift in sounds is the "l" to an "r". The Hebrew word "dal" meaning "door" became our word "door". Hebrew sound: d Meaning: Hang The door hangs down over the opening of the tent. (D) 72 . The picture of this letter represents the "door" of the tent.

e This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel. Hebrew sound: h. 73 . Hebrew name: hey There is no change from the English equivalent to the original Hebrew. "look". "look". The Hebrew word "hey" means "behold". Meaning: Look The man pointing out a wonderful sight says. or "look". This letter can also mean sigh or breath. This is a picture of a man pointing at a wonderful sight and saying.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew e Picture: Man with arms raised The picture is of a man with his arms outstretched at seeing a great sight. English Letter: (E) English Name: Hey A man waves to another and says "hey".

Hebrew sound: w. These pegs were made of a branched piece of hardwood preventing the ropes from slipping off the peg. This letter can also mean add as a peg or nail can be used to add something to something else. Hebrew name: waw The Hebrew word for a peg is "waw". Meaning: Secure A peg is used to secure the tent in place. u This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet f Picture: Peg Ropes attached to pegs driven into the ground supported the tent. English Letter: F English Name: Wave No English word is derived from this letter but the picture is similar to the hand of a man "waving". 74 . o.

this letter can mean a weapon. an agricultural tool for working the fields of crops. As the mattock can be used as a weapon. Hebrew name: zayin The Hebrew word for Mattock is "zayin". which comes from the harvest. It can also mean food.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew z Picture: Mattock The picture is of a mattock. 75 . Hebrew sound: z Meaning: Cut The mattock is representative of tools used for cutting. English Letter: Z English Name: Z There is no English word derived from this Hebrew letter but it is similar to the letter "Z" which did evolve out of this letter.

Meaning: Separate The purpose of the wall is to separate the two halves of the tent.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet h Picture: Wall English Letter: (H) English Name: Half The tent was divided into two sections. This letter can also mean outside as the walls of the tent separate the people inside from what is outside. written as "ch". 76 . Hebrew sound: ch The Hebrew sound. with a wall separating the tent in "half". Hebrew name: chets The Hebrew word "chets" means a "wall" as well as "half" as the wall divides the tent in half. is not used in English. It is a hard guttural sound made in the back of the throat as in the German name "Bach" or the word "ich".

Hebrew name: Tet The Hebrew word "tet" means "basket" and is the original name for this letter. English Letter: No English letter is derived from this Hebrew letter.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew u Picture: Basket Baskets were common and used to store foods and supplies. 77 . Hebrew sound: t Meaning: Contain A basket contains the foods and possessions of the family. This letter can also mean mud or clay as this material was often used to make baskets. English Name: Tote A "tote" is a type of basket.

as a measurement. This letter can also mean throw or worship. 78 . Hebrew name: Yad The Hebrew word "yad" means. Our word "yard". "hand".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet i Picture: Hand The picture is the hand and arm of a man. from fingertip to elbow is called a cubit. Meaning: Work The hand is the part of the body that does the work. both is actions of the hand. is the length of the arm. English Letter: (I) English Name: Yard The length of the arm. i This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel. Hebrew sound: y.

Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew k Picture: Palm The picture is the open palm of the hand. while the "kh" is a spirant. as opening an opportunity. kh The Hebrew sound. English Letter: (K) English Name: Cup The palm facing up and bent forms a "cup" shape. written as "kh". This letter can also mean open or allow. Hebrew name: Kaph The Hebrew word for the palm of the hand is "Kaph". Meaning: Bend The palm is representative of anything that is bent. 79 . The "k" is a stop consonant. Hebrew sound: k. is similar to the "ch" and is a hard guttural sound made in the back of the throat as in the German name "Bach" or the word "ich".

leather and milk. English Letter: (L) English Name: Lamb The staff also had a curved end that could be used to pull a "lamb". The Hebrew shepherd always carried a staff that could be used as a weapon to protect the flock from predators as well as to discipline the sheep.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet l Picture: Shepherd staff The Hebrews raised sheep for wool. Hebrew sound: l Meaning: Authority The staff is seen as the authority and protection of the shepherd over his flock. The kings' scepter comes from this imagery. 80 . food. which was a staff on the shoulders and also used to guide the ox in a particular direction. Hebrew name: lam The Hebrew word for the shepherd staff is "lam". It can also mean a yoke. This letter can also mean to or toward as the staff s used to guide the flock to a particular direction.

from the singular word "mah". English Letter: M English Name: M There is no English word derived from this letter. a plural word. Hebrew sound: m Meaning: Mighty The Hebrews saw the sea as a mighty and chaotic place because of the storms and turbulent waters. but our letter "M" was derived from this letter. Hebrew name: mah The Hebrew word for water is "mayim".Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew m Picture: Water The picture is of the waves of water on the sea. 81 . This letter can also mean the red juice (water) of the grape or the red blood (water) of man.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet n Picture: Seed The picture is a seed with the root coming out of it. Hebrew name: nun The Hebrew word for a continuation of new life is "nun". Hebrew sound: n Meaning: Continue The seed is the continuation of a new generation. 82 . This letter can also mean a son or heir as the next generation. English Letter: (N) English Name: New The seed is the beginning of "new" life.

83 . he would construct a corral of thorn bushes to protect the flock from predators. Hebrew sound: s Meaning: Hold A thorn holds onto the skin or fur of animals. English Letter: X English Name: Sin Our word "sin" comes from this letter as it also causes pain in our flesh like a thorn. When a shepherd was in the wilderness overnight with the flock.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew x Picture: Thorn The desert of the Hebrews has many species of thorns and thistles. The picture is a thorn that attaches itself to the flesh causing pain. This letter can also mean to protect. Hebrew name: sin The Hebrew word for a thorn is "sin".

84 . a vowel becoming the "O" in our alphabet. Hebrew sound: gh The "gh" sound is like the "ng" in "ring". the origin of our word "eye". The sound is soft and often silent. this letter became the omicron. English Name: Eye Hebrew name: ghayin The Hebrew word for "eye" is "ghayin" often pronounced as "ayin".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet o Picture: Eye English Letter: O When the Greeks adopted the Hebrew alephbet. This letter can also mean know as we know our surroundings through the eye. Meaning: See The eye is for seeing.

English Letter: (P) English Name: Pit There is no English word from this letter but can represent a "pit" as it is an open hole. This letter can also mean edge. as the mouth is the edge of the opening. 85 . Hebrew sound: p. Meaning: Open The mouth is the opening into the body.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew p Picture: Mouth The picture is the mouth and represents something that is open. ph The "P" is a stop consonant while the "ph" is a spirant. Hebrew name: pey The Hebrew word for "mouth" is "pey".

Meaning: Side One lies down on his side. This letter can also mean to lie in wait or to hunt by lying in wait for the prey.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet y Picture: Man lying on his side English Letter: No English letter is derived from this Hebrew letter. Hebrew sound: ts The original sound for this letter is a "ts" as in our word "pots". 86 . English Name: Side Hebrew name: tsad The Hebrew word "tsad" is the origin of our word "side".

This letter can also mean to circle. Hebrew sound: q Meaning: Condense When the sun is at the horizon the light is condensed at the horizon.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew q Picture: Sun at the horizon This is a picture of the sun at the horizon where the light is concentrated at this point. 87 . Hebrew name: quph The Hebrew name for this letter is "quph" meaning the circling of the sun around the earth. English Letter: (Q) English Name: Come The "coming" together of the light. while the rest of the sky is dark.

Hebrew name: resh The Hebrew word for the head is "resh". the origin of our word "raise". head or beginning of something. 88 . Hebrew sound: r Meaning: Top The head. This letter can also mean first as the top in rank or beginning as the top of a time.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r Picture: Head of a man English Letter: (R) English Name: Raise The picture is the head of a man that is "raised" up to look. as the top of the body is representative of anything that is at the top.

As the teeth are used to press down on the food. English Letter: (S) English Name: Shine The whiteness of the teeth "shine". eat or devour.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew s Picture: Teeth The picture is of the two front teeth. this letter can also mean press. Hebrew name: Shin The Hebrew word for "tooth" is "shin". Hebrew sound: sh Meaning: Sharp The front teeth are sharp for cutting meat. 89 .

Hebrew name: taw The Hebrew word for a mark is "taw". English Letter: T English Name: Target A mark such as a "target" one aims at when shooting. Hebrew sound: t Meaning: Sign A mark is used as a sign to identify someone or something.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet t Picture: Mark The picture is of two crossed sticks as a mark to identify a location. 90 .

u z hh th y.i k l m n s gh p ts q r sh t All Bed Game Door Hi Half Tote Yard Cup Lamb New Sin Eye Pit Side Raise Shine - A B C D E F Z H I K L M N X O P Q R S T 91 .o. a b c d e f z h u i k l m n x o p y q r s t Ox Tent Foot Door Arms Peg Mattock Wall Basket Hand Palm Staff Water Seed Thorn Eye Mouth Side Horizon Head Teeth Mark Al Bet Gam Dal Hey Waw Zan Hhets Thet Yad Kaph Lam Mah Nun Sin Ghan Pey Tsad Quph Resh Shin Taw a b g d h.e w.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew Letter Picture Name Sound English Derivitives .

The evolution of each letter will enable the student to more easily recognize the ancient letters by their association with English as well as modern Hebrew. the second table is the evolution of each letter from its original pictograph to five modern alphabets. The first table for each letter lists all the various forms of the letter as found in ancient documents and inscriptions portraying the 2. Since one of the primary purposes of this book is to assist the student of Hebrew with learning the ancient Hebrew language and alphabet.Appendix C .000 year evolution of each letter through its journeys from one culture to the next.History of the Hebrew Script ____________________________________ The following are twenty-four tables (two for each letter) documenting the history of each letter. . Greek. Arabic and Samaritan (for those familiar with these alphabets).

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script a .Al 93 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet b / Bet 94 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script c / Gam 95 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet d / Dal 96 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script e / Hey 97 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet f / Waw 98 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script z / Zan 99 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet h / Hhets 100 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script u / Thet 101 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet i / Yad 102 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script k / Kaph 103 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet l / Lam 104 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script m / Mem 105 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet n / Nun 106 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script x / Sin 107 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet o / Ghan 108 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script p / Pey 109 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet y / Tsad 110 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script q / Quph 111 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r / Resh 112 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script s / Shin 113 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet t / Taw 114 .

scatter. enter dal d look. house.ph wait.bh gather. heir. leader al a family. press. worship yad y. to. bind lam l chaos. circle. eat.Appendix D – Alphabet Charts ____________________________________ Ancient Hebrew Script Picture a Head of an ox b Tent floorplan c Foot d Tent door e Arms raised f Tent peg z Mattock h Tent wall u Clay basket i Closed hand k Open palm l Shepherd staff m Water n Sprouting seed x Thorn o Eye p Open mouth y Man on his side q Horizon r Head of a man s Two front teeth t Crossed sticks Meaning Name/Sound strong.e add. son nun n grab. hate. reveal. mighty. sigh hey h. signature taw t . in bet b. chase. two shin sh mark. mud thet th work. edge pey p. know.o. half hhets hh surround. shade ghan gh blow. allow. sign. hook waw w. divide. throw. secure. hang.i bend. protect sin s watch. walk. hunt tsad ts condense. top resh r sharp. contain. tame kaph k.kh teach. blood mah m continue. cut. power. carry gam g move.u food. yoke. time quph q first. weapon zan z outside. beginning.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Script a b g d h w z x j y $.k l ~.u z hh t y k.n s [ @.kh l m n s silent ph ts q r sh. 116 .J K L M N X O P Q R S tav t Τ T * Ancient letter not carried over into Modern Greek.G D E F Z H I.s Β Γ ∆ Ε f* Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π M* Q* Ρ Σ B C.bh g d h v.m !.f t Name aleph beyt gimel dalet hey vav zayin hhet tet yud kaph lamed Mem nun samech ayin pey tsadey quph resh shin.o.sin Modern Hebrew Derivatives Sound Greek Latin silent Α A b.p #.c q r v.

The goal of the dictionary is to show the original understanding of Biblical words based on the Hebrew culture and thought so that the Modern reader can see the text through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrews who wrote it. and words that are derived from it. Appendix E will list the Strong’s number49 followed by the Ancient Hebrew parent root number. which lay the foundation for all the child roots. find the Strong's number using any exhaustive concordance keyed to Strong's. The 49 Only those words which are derived from a parent or child root will be listed 117 . This dictionary is written to fill this hole of Biblical understanding. A more comprehensive dictionary including the child roots and words will be completed in the future.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary Appendix E .Ancient Hebrew Parent Root Dictionary ____________________________________ Purpose of the Lexicon All Modern Hebrew dictionaries and lexicons are written from a Western/Greek perspective. Cross reference to Strong’s numbers To find the parent root of a given Hebrew word. This dictionary will only include the parent roots. ignoring the original Hebraic concrete understanding of words.

Appendix E will also list the Ancient Hebrew parent root number followed by the Strong's numbers of all the words derived from the parent. etc. the word aa is 001. 118 . The parent root number. Some numbers will be missing. The letter a is an ox meaning 2. For example. The pictographic Hebrew for the parent root.6 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1. The brothers of the house are the protectors by surrounding the house to protect it. How to use the Lexicon Below is a Sample entry from the lexicon describing the format of the parent root entry. 3. This will allow the student to see all the words that are related to each other from the parent. This definition is based on the meanings of the two letters of the root.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet definition of the parent root will then provide the concrete understanding to this word. ba is 002. A transliteration of the Hebrew letters into Roman letters. ca is 003. 4. This number is derived alphabetically. such as "001" as there is no Hebrew word in the Bible derived from this parent root. The meaning of the Hebrew pictographs of the parent root. 0081 ha2 AHh3 strong wall4 -5: The hearth around the fire Hearth protected the house from the heat and embers of the fire.

and the c is a wall. By looking up the Strong's number in the Appendix you can find the Parent Root that this word is derived from. 6.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 5. 119 . Following the Parent Root Lexicon is a cross-reference table (Appendix F) for the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon and Strong's Dictionary. An English word equivalent to the Hebrew meaning of the parent root. By looking up the Parent Root number you can find all of the Hebrew words. derived from this root. with a combined definition of "strong wall". strong. All of the child roots and words derived from the parent will be related in meaning. The concrete understanding of a strong wall is a "hearth". by Strong's number. The cultural background and meaning of the Hebrew parent root.

provider of offspring to continue the family line. support and structure of the tent. place (where). He was the commander of the family army. the priest and teacher. The sigh of one searching for. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 004 da AD strength at the tent door -Smoke: The cooking fires of the family were located at the tent door. A thought is a turning over and bringing together.Time: The farmers year revolved around the harvest. support and structure to the household.Pole: The poles provided the strength. A desire is what one stands in support of. The father fulfilled many functions for the family.Sigh: The ox snorts (sighs) when desiring food. a person (who). A large amount of smoke could accumulate at the door causing discomfort to the family. The father of the family also provides the strength. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 007 za AZ strong harvest -. arrange and gather the wood in the fire to reduce the smoke. 120 . The pole is pointed at one end so that it can be thrust into the ground and can double as a weapon against an enemy. time (when) or event (how). The times of the harvests were at specific times according to the solar calendar. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 005 ea AH strong breath -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 002 ba ABh strength of the house -. thing (what). A fire poker is used to turn.

Muscle: Oxen.Tame: The ox. The older ox in the yoke is the "strong authority" who. Often two oxen were yoked together. as the strongest of the livestock. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 012 la AL ox in a yoke -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 008 ha AHh strong wall -. the strongest of the livestock. The yoking together of two parties. more experienced ox would be teamed up (yoked) with a younger. needed to be corralled so that it may be tamed in order to be trained to do work.Hearth: The hearth around the fire protected the house from the heat and embers of the fire. teaches the younger ox. The God of the Hebrews was seen as the older ox who is yoked to his people in a covenant relationship. through the yoke. A treaty or covenant binds two parties together through an oath (yoke). An older. The oath included blessings for abiding by the covenant and curses for breaking the covenant (see Deuteronomy 28). The brothers of the house are the protectors by surrounding the house to protect it. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 009 ua ATh ox contained -. less experienced ox. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 121 . were placed in a yoke (see Isaiah 9:4) in order to harness their power for pulling loads such as a wagon or plow. The pictographs of this parent root can also be interpreted as a "strong authority" where the ox represents strength and the staff of the shepherd represents his authority over the flock.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 014 na AN ox seed -. The mother of the family is the one who binds the family together by holding in her arms and by the work of her arms. A ship searches through the sea for a distant coastline (of an island or mainland) in search of the produce for trade. 122 . A search for someone in order to produce something. a thick sticky substance formed at the surface of the water. the fruit must be searched out.Glue: Glue was made by placing the hides of animals in a pot of boiling water.Nose: The nostrils of the ox flare when snorting just as a man's does when he breaths heavy through the nose when in passion or anger. The searching may result in success or failure. since the fig is green and blends in with the leaves. This substance was removed and used as a binding agent. The arm is seen as a glue as it encircles and holds together (a cubit was the length of the arm from elbow to fingertip). or person causing it to move. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 018 ya ATs ox side -. As the hide boiled. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 017 pa APh ox mouth -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 013 ma AM strong liquid -. The tribe is the larger family bound together by blood relation.Press: An ox will often lean or press on something such as a fence. tree. The fig tree produces fruit that is desirable and prolific. The heat of passion or cooking.Produce: The male searches out the female and approaches her for reproducing (see Jeremiah 2:24).

destination or person. Additionally.Light: The day (light) begins with the rising of the sun in the east.7). The traveling toward a mark.Plow: The plow point is used to cut a deep furrow in the ground for planting seeds. The light brings order.Fire: A fire is made by firmly pressing a wooden rod down onto a wooden board and spinning the rod with a bow drill. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 021 sa ASh strong pressing -. Wood dust is generated from the two woods rubbing together and is heated by the friction creating a small ember in the dust. the plowman drives the oxen toward a distant mark in order to keep the furrow straight. When plowing a field with oxen. The pressing down of the soil to form a firm and flat surface. Small tinder is then placed on the ember and is blown ignited the tinder. the first day of creation (as a strong beginning) was the creation of light. Boxes are used for storing items to put them in order. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 022 ta AT ox to the mark -. The pressing together of soil by God to form man (Genesis 2.Wild goat ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 020 ra AR strong beginning -. The arrival of one to the 123 .Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 019 qa AQ ? -. A traveler arrives at his destination by following a mark.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 124 . A branch is separated from the tree. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 024 bb BBh great inside -.Pupil: The eye is the window into the soul.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet mark. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 026 db BD tent door -. A liar is separated from the family or causes a separation in the family because of his false words. A place separated from people is a place of ruin.Empty: A space that is empty that needs to be filled. A void within oneself that desires to be filled. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 027 eb BH inside revealed -. The coming toward a mark. To come or go into a space is to fill it. A thread is separated from the cloth. Many things are separated from the whole.Separate: The father of the tent often sat alone at the door of the tent. with the family mark hangs as a sign. A "you" is an individual who has arrived to a "me". A liar is separated from the family or causes a separation in the family because of his false words. Here he could receive shade from the sun. A box. or flag. watch over his household and watch the road for approaching strangers. A standard. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties. A wanderer is one alone or lost.

as the river rises and overflows its banks.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 029 zb BZ house harvested -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 033 kb BK ? -. the surrounding lands are flooded depositing the water for growing the crops ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 035 mb high.Flow: A flowing or mixing of a liquid. Disrespect and scorn are a plunder of the heart. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 031 ub BTh house surrounded -. Panic as a flowing of the insides. A large flowing of water such as a flood.Tears: Tears from a lamenting or billowing smoke in the eyes.Plunder: An enemy would plunder a household for goods to supply the troops. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 034 lb BL ? -. BM ? -. Vain as a useless flowing of work. A flowing of tears. An emptying by a flowing out or away.High: Anything that is tall or 125 .Slaughter: A slaughter by the knife or sword where the inside is opened. A flowing away of life and strength.Refuge: The home as a refuge. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 030 hb BHh inside outside -. The home is the place for safe idle talk with the family.

the hair strips are replaced with stones as the major building material. Since the tent is only replaced one small piece at a time the tent lasts forever.Tent panel: The tent was constructed of woven goat hair. Man-made stones were made by mixing clay and straw to form bricks. Just as the tent is continually being renewed with new panels. The planning and building of a house. The ground inside is heavily trampled by the livestock. Over time the sun bleaches and weakens the goat hair necessitating their continual replacement.Corral: A pen constructed of thorn bushes to hold the livestock inside. The old panel is removed (being recycled into a wall or floor) and the new strip is added to the tent. approximately 3' wide and the length of the tent. one for the females and the other for the male. The wall makes a distinction between the two sides. Each year a new panel. sons are born to the family to continue the family line. The thumb as the part of the body understood as the builder by the Hebrews.3). structure or family. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 037 xb BS house of thorn -. The tent was usually divided into two parts. the family is continually being renewed with new sons. 126 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 036 nb BN house continues -. When building more permanent structures. Just as the tent panels are added to continue the tent. is made by the women. There are many similarities between building a tent out of goat hair panels and the building of a house out of sons (The idea of building a house with sons can be seen in Genesis 30.

becomes strong for the long flight. A "covenant” involves the cutting of a fat animal prepared for slaughter. The fowl.White Clay: On the sides of the swamps and marshes. fed on grain. A lesion that pours out liquid.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 038 ob BGh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 041 qb BQ ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 040 yb BTs in the side -.Grain: The plant family of grains such as wheat and barley have a cluster of seeds at the top of the stalk called "heads". An overwhelming desire. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 127 . a white clay is gathered. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 042 rb BR house of heads -. The white clay was desirable for making pottery. Livestock are fattened on grain to prepare them for the slaughter.Swell: A gushing over or swelling up as an eruption or a fountain. The stalks of the grains were burned to make potash for making soap.Bottle: A container for storing and pouring out a liquid. What is cleaned with soap becomes white or bright. These grains were used for food for both man and livestock.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 048 dc GD gather the door -.House: A family takes the name of the father or ancestral father which the family is descended from. A locust with a long back that cuts leaves ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 047 cc GG great lifting -.Roof: The wall and roof of the tent are one piece of cloth that is lifted up onto the poles.Dig: Digging is performed by the work of the bent back. etc. plant.Slit: When one enters the tent. pits and cisterns are dug inside the ground and the dirt is lifted out. The water rushing by the riverbank undercuts a furrow inside the bank. The smell of a dried up marsh. The animal’s tendon is used for making bowstrings and cords. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 046 bc GBh lift the inside -. tent or family. Any cut or furrow made for making an entrance. Shame is one who has failed or dried up.Wither: A drying up of a land. A troop or band of people. stream. the door is opened by parting the door. which support it. This name becomes the mark of the family such as 'the house of Israel'.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 043 sb BSh ? -. An attacker slices through the ranks making an opening for them to enter in. making a slit for passing through. Wells. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 044 tb BT tent mark -. The tendon is 128 . The house.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary removed by making a slit in the flesh and entering for its removal. Pride is the lifting up of ones self. A healing as a lifting of an illness.Round: Something that is round or a second coming around of a time or event. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 129 . one much lift the wall and slide in on the belly like a snake. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 056 lc GL ? -. Redemption is the buying back of someone or something. A pond as a round pool of water.Sheer: The sheering and removal of the wool fleece from the sheep. The cutting or sheering of grass.Back: The back is used for lifting. A dancing in a circle. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 051 zc GZ lift the harvest -. A stump as a tree sheared. A valley is surrounded by hills as the back of the landscape. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 049 ec GH lifter reveals -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 052 hc GHh lift the wall -. The back and forth sweeping action of a sickle cutting grasses. other than through the front entrance.Belly: when crawling into the tent.

The throat is the place where fear is felt. When a stranger meets another he lays 130 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 061 pc GPh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 058 nc GN gathering of seeds -. he is often in fear. bandits and wild animals. A bowl as a container enclosed by walls. The native is responsible for providing and protecting the stranger according to Ancient custom. The reeds of the watering holes were made into ropes. animals and plants.Garden: A garden is a place for growing crops and is surrounded by a rock wall or hedge to protect it from grazing animals.Gather: The watering well or other place of water is a gathering place for drinking of men.Gasp: When taking a difficult breath such as in gasping or in death. the eyes roll up. Because of the unknown territory. Any gathering of people.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 057 mc GM walking to water -. things or ideas.Traveler: One traveling through his non-native land is a stranger to the people and culture. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 060 oc GGh lifting the eye -. Men and animals may walk great distances for these watering holes while plants grow in abundance in them.Close ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 064 rc GR walking man -.

livestock and the road for approaching visitors (see Genesis 18:1). A 131 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 068 bd DBh door of the tent -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 065 sc GSh ? -. Here he would watch his family. Anger is the result of fear. A net as a tool for catching fish. A net full of fish is an abundance or increase.Breasts: The part of the female body invoking heat of passion and love. treaders walk in the vat to crush the grapes freeing up the juices. The back and forth movement of the fish's tail.Grope ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 066 tc GT foot marked -.Fish: The tail of a fish moves back and forth to propel itself through the water. A relaxing in a quiet place. The treaders feet and lower parts of their clothing are stained red. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 070 dd DD two danglers -. A slow walk due to a sorrow or loss.Winepress: After the grapes are placed in the wine vat. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 069 cd DG moving foot -. a sign of their occupation (see Is 63:1-3).Rest: The door of the tent was the place of relaxation for the father.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary prostrate in homage to the other.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 077 kd DK movement in a cup -. A poor or weak person hangs the head in poverty.Mortar: Seeds are placed in a stone bowl called a mortar. The door was then moved to the side for going in and out of the tent. The gentle walk of a woman. A trampling to crush. covering the entrance to the tent. the stone pestle is used to crush the seeds into a powder. The hair hangs from the head.Door: The tent door was hung down as a curtain. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 071 ed DH back and forth movement -Dart: The back and forth rapid flight of a bird. from a horizontal pole (staff). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 074 hd DHh door of the wall -. branch from a tree or a door. A pot used for boiling liquids. such as a bucket.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet loved one. Anything that dangles down and swings back and forth. A thrusting of something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 078 ld DL door on a staff -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 132 .Push: The door is pushed to the side to enter. Any object that dangles such as a bucket that is hung from a rope down a well to retrieve water.

When the blood is shed. the man or animal becomes silent.Rule: The goal of one who rules or judges is to bring a pleasant and righteous life to the people. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 083 pd DPh door opened -. the color of blood. which moves through the body. One who has knowledge is one who has experience.Myrtle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 082 od DGh door of the eye -.Blood: The grape plant takes water from the ground and moves it to the fruit where the water becomes the blood of the grape.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 079 md DM movement of water -. An quarrel requiring the need of a ruler or judge to mediate the incident. man and the earth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 080 nd DN door of life -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 133 . A son from the blood of his father resembles his father. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 081 xd DS ? -.Push: The door is opened by pushing it aside.See: Through the eyes one experiences his world and learns from it. The color red. A deliverer as one who brings life to his people. The blood of man is also water.

Gift: One does not choose the household which one is born into. parents. comes to maturity. Each generation expands the size of the family. a mark is given as a sign of continued allegiance. movement to the side -. including tribe.Circle: A man is born. The repetitious rhythmic running of a horse. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 087 sd DSh back and forth pressing -. marries and gives birth to sons. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 086 rd DR movement of man -. What comes from the grains. children and wife (as marriages 134 . A circling around as the flight of a bird or a dance.Roof: The roof of the tent provides protection from the heat of the sun.Covenant: When two parties agree to follow the terms of a covenant.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 084 yd DTs leap to the side. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 088 td DT enter a mark -.Leap: A ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 085 qd DQ way out of the sun -. repeating the cycle of life. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 090 be HBh behold the house -.Tread: The treading out of the grain for removing the hulls from the grain.

he extends his arms out and sighs as if saying. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 091 ce HG great burden -. A sigh of desire.Dream ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 100 le HL looking toward -. He or she as one who is pointed at. it is a gift from God.Star: The looking toward a light in the distance. When the shepherd has been out 135 . "ah. The expressions and actions toward the family that one was privileged with. look at that" or "behold". The stars have always been used to guide the traveler or shepherd to find his home or destination.Shout: When shouting the hands are put up to the mouth. A looking toward a breath taking sight or action. These gifts are seen as a privilege and are to be cherished and protected.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary were often arranged by the father).Meditate: a murmuring or soft speech. A sigh of pain. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 095 ze HZ ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 092 de HD ? -. for the removal of a burden.Look: When one sees a great site close by or in the distance. A splendor as something that shouts out ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 093 ee HH arms extended out -.

To cause a shining of one by praising or giving thanks to another or to ones self.Still ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 108 re HR the head -. turbulent surf and the commotion of the waves.Hill: A mountain or hill as the head rising up above the landscape.Break in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 136 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 102 ne wealth. and love of the family as well as food and water. An uproar. safety.Sea: A large body of water seen as a place of chaos because of its storms. An abundance of something. he can see his tent from a great distance because of the glow of the fires.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet in the wilderness with his flock all day and is returning home in the dark. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 110 te HT ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 101 me HM the water -.Heavy: Heavy or abundant in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 103 xe HS ? -. HN ? -. he knows that here is the comfort.

Puss as a yellow discharge. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 135 cz ZG harvest by foot -. Any yellow thing such as gold or an animal. the "y" shape prevents the rope from slipping off the peg.Pegs: The tent peg is a "y" shaped wooden peg. a harvesting tool. The stalks are gathered together and 137 .Yellow: The yellow grain is the main staple of the house used for making breads. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 136 dz ZD food at the door -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 116 ff WW two tent pegs -. The tent ropes were attached to these pegs. which is driven into firm soil.This: Something that stands out or is pointed out.Grapeskin: The juice of the grape is removed/harvested by treading on them in a vat leaving the grapeskins behind.Wealth: The sickle. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 134 bz ZBh food of the house -.Soup: The tent fire located near the door is used for boiling water and making soups. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 137 ez ZH ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 139 zz ZZ great harvesting -. is swung back and forth cutting the stalks of grain.

The broad ear for picking up sounds. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 144 lz ZL cut the staff -.Shake: A staff is made by cutting a branch from the tree. This implement had a wide blade for cutting a plant stalks at the roots. (see Isaiah 18.5) A shaking out for removal. 138 Plan: The .Loose ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 143 kz ZK ? -. A moving back and forth from a fixed location. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 145 mz ZM harvest chaos -thoughts and plans that bring about chaos. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 140 hz ZHh ? -. The crops were harvested for a supply of foods. A good supply of food from the harvest will keep the family nourished. Any implement or object that is broad. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 146 nz ZN mattock of the seed -. which were stored in jars.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet stored for future use.Glass: A glass without impurities is transparent and pure. this green branch shakes and bends easily until it has hardened. The neighing of a horse usually accompanied with the shaking of the head.Harvest: One of the many agricultural tools was a hoe or mattock.

? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 152 rz ZR harvest of heads -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 148 oz ZGh harvest experience -. The oil is also used as a medicinal ointment. the heads are thrown into the wind where the chaff is blown away and the seed falls to the ground where they can be gathered.Tremble: The hard work of the summer harvest brings sweat and exhaustion. The span of the hand with the fingers spread out. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 139 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 149 pz ZPh boats.Bind: The arms or feet are bound with chains.Tar: A pitch used for sealing ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 151 qz ZQ ? -.Olive: The oil from the olive fruit was used as an anointing oil for those to hold a kingly or priestly office. A scattering.Winnow: after the grain has been harvested and the heads of grain have been broken open. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 154 tz ZT harvested marker -. The binding of different metals to form alloys.

A uniting together.Life: The family camp is comprised of many tents.Refuge: The walls of the house enclose the home as refuge for the family. A parable is a story that brings unity between the hearer and the listener. The family carefully watches and guards the property.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 156 bh HhBh wall of the house -.Watch: The crops are enclosed by a wall which is watched and guarded against intruders. Only through the door can one enter or exit uniting the inside with the outside. livestock and crops. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 161 zh HhZ wall of the harvest -.Unite: A wall seperates the inside from the outside. 140 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 158 dh HhD wall door -.Festival: The participants of a festival would gather together and dance in a circle. which are laid out in a circle forming a wall of tents. A refuge functions a place of hiding from any undesirable person or situation. One approaching this wall knows that there is an abundance of life within. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 157 ch HhG surround and gather -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 159 eh HhH wall reveals -. but the actual meaning is not understood causing a division between the two.

The spinning around in joy. By moving the bow back and forth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 165 kh HhK wall of the cup -.Cord: Cords are used for binding as well as measuring. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 166 lh HhL ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 163 uh HhTh ? -. Rust bores through metal. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 141 .Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 162 hh HhHh great wall -. Sick as a spinning of the insides. and firmly pressing down.Bore: A hole is drilled with a tool called a bow drill.Thistle: The wall around crops or livestock was constructed on thistles or rocks with thistles laid on top. A cord is also used as measuring device by placing knots incrementally. The cord is stretched between the two points to measure and the knots are counted. The string of the bow is wrapped around the drill. A hook as a sharp point.Pallette: The curved roof of the mouth is divided by a ridge or wall. When the mouth is dry the tongue sticks to the roof of the mouth causing the speaker to wait to speak. The drilling takes patience as the process takes time. The thorns prevented intruders from entering. An army bores through the enemy by strongly pressing in. the drill spins around drilling the hole.

The first step to setting up the tent is to arrange the poles. The tents are placed in a circular configuration.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 167 mh HhM separate water -. forming one continuous wall surrounding the camp. The camp can have as many as fifty tents or more in it. The bag was hung out in the sun and pushed back and forth. Within this wall is the family clan. A 142 . One is supported by his family line. churning and the natural enzymes in the leather of the bag caused the fat (curds) and water (whey) to separate.Camp: A nomads camp consists of many family tents which make up the clan camp. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 168 nh HhN tent wall continues -.Support: The fabric of the tent walls are supported by the ropes and poles. The tent poles were sharpened at one end (and could be used as a weapon) and were driven into the ground.Cheese: Cheese was made by placing milk in a bag made out of the skin of an animal. The whey could be drunk and the curds eaten or stored for future consumption. compassion and beauty. An encampment of tents. just as one person who is weak is supported by (leans on. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 169 xh HhS wall for holding -.Cover: The tent is opened to allow one into its covering for protection. trusts) another who is strong. The combination of the heat. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 171 ph HhPh wall opened -. a place of freedom.

an army or other attacker. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 175 sh HhSh wall presses -. Here the family resides in privacy and protection from the elements of wind. Rather than work in the heat of the sun.Tent Wall: The tent wall divides or separates the inside from the outside. rain and sun. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 174 rh HhR outside man -.Heat: A man outside in the desert sun becomes pale and hot. 143 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 173 qh HhQ separation and coming together . A haven as a place covered over for protection. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 172 yh HhTs separation of sides -. The appointment is inscribed so that both parties have a reminder of the coming event. An arrow divides the flesh.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary secret is something that is covered and hidden. Anger as a hot emotion. The writing is fixed to the tablet as the event is fixed in time. one waits until the breeze of the day.Appointment: The time between the present and an appointment is a wall of time. advances for destruction. A bleaching by the sun. the closer one gets to the appointment the smaller the wall gets. A stillness in the midst of turmoil.Hurry: The wall. The wages earned for the work.

The fibers were also woven and spun into other products such as baskets. pots and bowls is clay.Thorn ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 181 eu ThH basket seen -. Clay as a common material for constructing baskets.Basket: The basket or bowl. love.Good: The house is surrounded by grace.Terror ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 178 bu ThBh surround the house -. Limestone was ingested to calm an upset stomach.Broom: The fibers of the broom plant were course and strong and used to make brooms.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 176 th HhT ? -. beauty. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 185 uu ThTh contain -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 184 hu ThHh contain the wall -. The powder was mixed with water to and used as a strong and durable plaster for coating walls and floors.Grind: Limestone was ground into a powder. was used for storing foods and other supplies in the nomadic tent. health and prosperity. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 180 du ThD ? -. 144 . made of clay or wicker.

Dew: A covering over of an area. ThPh ? -.Wall: A wall that surrounds one for protection or as a jail. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 192 ou ThGh ? -. The hammering of a metal into a sheet to cover wood.Trip: A tripping around like ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 196 ru ThR surround man -. The spots that cover a lamb’s fleece. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 189 mu ThM container of water -.Wander ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 193 pu children.Weave: A tapestry or basket as woven items.Unclean: A bowl of water is used to wash dirt off. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 145 . The closing of the doors to the wall.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 188 lu ThL ? -. an overlay. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 190 nu ThN basket continues -.

A flowing of water in a 146 .Sea: The sea or other large body of water is the place of storms and heavy surf. kill or heal. over the Mediterranean sea. The throwing out of the hand for throwing.Cry ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 202 di YD hand moves -. A shout is done by throwing the hands up to the mouth for amplifying.Pounce ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 200 bi ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 212 ni YN ? -.Shovel ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 218 ri YR hand of man -. Considered a place of chaos and terror. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 211 mi YM working water -. praising or thanking.Work: The hand is the part of the body that enables man to perform many works. With it he can throw away or grab hold. make or destroy.Throw: The hand of man is used for the throwing.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 197 su ThSh ? -.Wine ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 214 oi YGh ? -. The day ends and the new day begins when the sun sets in the west.

Pain: A pain as a fire that causes the insides to bend. The throwing down of water in rain. A throwing of the finger to show a direction to walk or live.Strength: Through strong word the land and animals are tamed to produce crops and livestock. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 232 lk KL tame for the yoke -. One eats once the harvest is complete. construction of holding pens. milk or meat.Jar ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 225 ek KH ? -. The throwing of an arrow. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 224 dk KD ? -. 147 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 222 bk KBh bend the inside -. Awe or fear where one throws himself at the foot of one in authority.Complete: An animal or land that is tamed has been worked and is complete and ready for use.Dark ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 228 hk KHh tame the outside -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary river. harvesting of crops. An animal is tamed through chastisement. The stars appear as fires in the sky. The ability to do the work. Taming include. putting the soil to the plow.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 235 xk KS palm that grabs hold -.Cup: The curved palm covers. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 237 pk KPh palm open -.Palm: The curved shape of the open hand. Words or names that are given in support of another. A firm or sure position.Caterpillar ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 148 . Any type of covering. The placing of the palm on something and pressing down or pushing. A bag or pocket. Any curved or hollowed out object. A priest as one who stands firm between God and the nation. To cover a group by counting. A tall tree can only stand tall and firm because of the strong root system which supports it. The bending of the will of an animal. A seat that is covered by the sitter. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 239 qk KQ ? -. The plant rises out of the ground forming the stalk of the plant.Root: When the seed opens the roots begin to form the base of the plant by going down into the soil.Desire ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 234 nk KN opening of a seed -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 233 mk KM ? -. holds and hides the contents inside it.

The wall of a trench that is dug out. 149 .Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 240 rk KR bent man -. Thirst as an Inside desire for water.Child: The bearing of children. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 245 cl LG ? -.Study ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 246 dl LD ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 244 bl LBh authority inside -. Also for digging.Weary: An young oxen unaccustomed to the weight and operation of the yoke becomes tired. A work that comes to nothing.Crush: The crushing of the olives produce olive oil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 247 el LH great yoke -. A joining to the yoke. the heart. A bowl as an hollowed out object. A farm as a place where one digs the ground for growing crops. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 242 tk KT cover the covenant -.Leap: One bends down before leaping.Heart: The consciousness of man is seen as coming from deep inside the chest. An ornamentation placed on the neck as a yoke. used as a covering for ceremonial purposes.

Turn aside: A turning away from truth. A common writing material is wet clay. The camouflaging capability of the lizard to hide. The sound of the wolf.Moist: When the lips are dry. the tongue licks the lips to moisten them. A stairway that rolls around itself. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 251 ul LTh authority contained -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 249 zl LZ authority cut -.Night: When the night comes. a night predator.Walk: A nomad traveled on foot with a staff in his hand to provide support in walking as well as a weapon to defend against predators or thief’s. 150 . When daylight comes. the night sky is rolled out like a scroll. the night sky is rolled up like a scroll. The letters can be easily inscribed and the clay hardens to preserve the record. Anything that is moist or fresh. A messenger as one who walks for another ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 254 ll LL ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 253 kl LK staff in the palm -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 250 hl LHh tongue outside -.Veil: A covering to hide the face.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 255 ml LM staff of might -- Staff: The shepherd always carried his staff for guiding, leading and protecting the flock. The flock was bound to the shepherd, as the staff was a sign of his authority over the sheep. The yoke was a staff laid across the shoulders of two oxen. The oxen were then tied to the yokes at the neck, binding the two together for plowing or pulling a cart. A people bound together. A wound bound with bandages. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 256 nl LN bound continually -- Remain: To remain in a place or position for a long duration. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 258 ol LGh tongue seen -- Throat: When looking down the throat you see the tongue. A swallowing. The blurting out of words coming from the throat rather than the heart. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 259 pl LPh ? -- Stick

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 260 yl LTs tongue of trouble -- Mock

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 264 sl LSh ? -- Knead

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Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 267 cm MG water carries -- Disolve: The washing away by water. A fainting or melting. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 268 dm MD water at the door -- Carpet: A carpet was stretched out to cover the dirt floor of the tent. A bowl of water was located at the door so that one could wash his feet before stepping on the carpet. Just as the carpet is stretched out to cover the floor, the garments worn by the nomad is stretched out to cover the body. Also, a string is stretched out for measuring. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 269 em MH water behold -- Sea: The sea (Mediterranean) is a place of the unknown (what is beyond or what is below). It is feared by the Ancient Hebrews because of its size, storms and fierceness. Anything that is unknown or a question to find the unknown (who, what, when, where, why, how). A hundred as an unknowable amount. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 271 zm MZ mighty harvest -- Barn: A storage facility for the harvest. The stomach as a storage place for food. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 272 hm MHh liquid inside -- Marrow: The marrow is a buttery liquid inside the bones and is used as
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Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary

a choice food. To obtain the marrow, the bone must be struck to break it open. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 273 um MTh liquid contained -- Branch: A green branch still contains water allowing the branch to be flexible. The yoke is cut green then shaped to the desired shape and left to dry. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 275 km MK might subdued -- Low: Something brought low in submission, humility or wealth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 276 lm ML ? -- Reduce: The reduction of quantity or quality. Sickness as a reduction in health. A reduction by being cut off. Yesterday and what is before as a time cut off. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 277 mm MM great chaos -- nothing: Anything that is considered useless or without value. A blemish that causes something to be valueless. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 278 nm MN blood continues -- Kind: Each species (kind) continues by passing its blood to the following generation which comes from the parent. A large group of the same kind are stronger than one. Refusal as a strength of the will. An assigning of a group
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Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

together who are of the same kind. Those of the same kind, look alike. The right hand as the strong hand. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 279 xm MS water grabs hold -- Disolve: The dissolving or melting away of something. Fainting is a dissolving of the inside. A spurning as dissolving away of another. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 280 om MGh ? -- Bowels

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 282 ym MTs ? -- Chaff: The seed is thrown on the threshing floor, the oxen trample over the seeds, putting them under pressure forcing the seed out of the hull (chaff). A sucking as a pressing with the lips. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 283 qm MQ water expands -- Dissipate: When water is poured out on the ground it dissipates. A mocking, as a dissipating of another. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 284 rm MR water head -- Bitter: The headwaters of a river are only a trickle and have stagnant pools causing the water to be bitter. Rebellion is one with a bitter attitude. The headwaters may also be a life-giving source of water in the desert. The headwaters of a river have very low flow where water collects in holes or pools.
154

A removal or fleeing for a time such as during menstruation.Death ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 288 bn NBh seed inside -.Shake: A back and forth movement such as the shaking of the head or the quivering of the lips. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 291 en continue the breath -. A driving out of another people to sit in their place. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 285 sm MSh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 289 cn NG ? -. Words may be spoken as bitter or sweet. The plant rises and produces fruit. 155 .Draw out ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 286 tm MT chaos mark -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary Because of the lack of flow it is bitter tasting.Germinate: A seed opens and the plant bores through the soil to the surface.Bright ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 290 dn ND continue back and forth -. A prophecy is a germinating of words that will bring about fruit.Sit: The continual sitting or dwelling in one place for any reason. An exchange as a going oneway to another.

Sprinkle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 294 hn NHh ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 293 zn NZ ? -.Drowsy: The state unconsciousness that allows speech from the heart.Beat: A continued beating with the palm plays the drum. A sigh of rest. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 156 of .Rest: The shepherd would guide his flock to a place of water. Once the flock arrives. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 295 un NTh seed in a basket -. the seeds spread out flat allowing for more room for the seeds. Here is water for drinking as well as green grass for pasturing.Complete ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 299 mn NM ? -. they are free to rest after the long journey. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 297 kn NK continue the palm -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 298 ln NL ? -. A guided journey to a place of rest.Settle: Seeds from the harvest were placed in baskets for storage. When the basket is shaken.

Suckle: The innocent cry of a baby when hungry.Region: The border that encircles an area.Rattle: A shaking. This cycle continues generation after generation. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 302 on NGh ? -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 300 nn NN seed of seed -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 301 xn NS continue to grab hold -.Despise: A quarrel. which is attached to a vertical pole such as a sail. The flag as the place of refuge that one flees to. is lifted up to be seen from a distance. The flag. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 157 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 304 yn NTs ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 303 pn NPh continual edge -. or standard.Flag: The tribal flag or standard that is hung from a horizontal pole. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 305 qn NQ life drawn in -.Continue: The seed is the continuation of life from the parent plant. Something that is lifted up or exalted.

Plow: Rains in the mountainous areas cause a flooding of the rivers. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 311 cx SG ? -. the land is plowed by the use of a plow attached to the yoke of the oxen. The old. the turned up soil glistens in the sun from the water remaining in the soil.Debt: A debt or loan that causes pressure or sickness. gray haired ones. This water is necessary for the seed to begin germination. While the surface is dry.Foundation: A level piece of ground is found for setting up the tent. A deception that brings one indebted to another.Increase ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 312 dx SD ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 306 rn NR seed beginning -. A lampstand also brings forth light. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 307 sn NSh continual pressing -.Dizzy: One drunk from strong drink. The floor of permanent homes were sometimes covered with a lime plaster for a smooth floor. The rivers swell causing the water to flood the land next to the river. The elders are the foundation of the community who make decrees. turns from dizziness. After the flood season. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 310 bx SBh turning of the inside -. A witness brings an account to the elders who meet on the floor of the tent for 158 . easily become dizzy. This is the only water that the land will see and is necessary for crop production.

The pond provides a quiet and serene place for meditation. The lifting of oneself in pride. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 313 ex SH protector reveals -. These coverings were often constructed on an elevated position. The floating on the water or one floating in meditation. and from materials readily available such as bushes. A limestone plaster is made for the floor of buildings to form a smooth and level surface. The growth around a pond.Booth: The watcher over the crops. wind or rain. thorns and small trees. flock or herd. One who sits by the pond to ponder as a plant sits by the water. A wound was covered with olive oil as a medicine. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 159 . would construct a covering (booth) as a shelter from the sun. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 316 hx SHh thorn wall -.Turn aside ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 319 kx SK protective covering -. A place for swimming and bathing. A level field of ground. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 317 ux STh turn around -.Veil: The veil is lifted to reveal the face that is hidden.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary rulings.Pond: The edge of the pond is a wall of plants.

To set anything in a place.Turn: The twisting and turning of a bird in flight or a horse playing.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 320 lx SL turn of the staff -. This was a convenient means of gathering meat for the table. Measured weights were added to the other tray until the tray being weighed raised and became level with the other tray. The desert traveler often comes in contact with these thorns and brushing the leg against them causing pain. A wall of thorns for protecting the sheep from wolves. After quail land after crossing a large sea they are unable to lift themselves up any longer due to exhaustion. The same thorns are used by the shepherd to build a wall (shield) made of these thorn bushes to enclose his flock during the night which will help keep predators out. Hate as a thorn in the heart. A rising up of something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 321 mx SM ? -. At both ends of the beam was attached a tray for placing objects. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 323 xx SS great turning -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 322 nx SN protective seed -.Balance: A balance scale consisted of a small wooden beam (staff) held in place at the center. Boots were designed to protect the legs from thorns. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 160 .Store: A storehouse where stores are put.Thorn: A thorn bush can be a blessing or a curse. The object to be weighed would lower.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 330 tx ST turn from the covenant -Provoke: To lead or provoke another in a different direction.Lips: The edge of the mouth. One who rules turns the people to his direction. attached to the neck. The turning the head of the child or student into a particular direction.Sack ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 328 rx SR turn the head -. A turning around. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 332 bo GhBh experience the tent -. The yoke. The lips gather the food into the mouth. is used by the driver to turn the head of the ox.Rush ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 325 px SPh protection of the mouth -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 327 qx SQ ? -.Dark cover: The tent is made of a covering of thick and heavy black or dark brown goat hair.Direct: The turning of the head to another direction. 161 .Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 324 ox SGh ? -. A fishhook that turns the head of the fish.

Stylus: When a bird of prey drops down on its prey. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 335 eo GhH by twisting. ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 339 uo GhTh depress around -.Yoke: The yoke.Cake ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 334 do GhD experienced back and forth -Witness: A place. time or event that is repeated again and again. a staff is lifted over the shoulder.Ruin: To bring down in a heap ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 337 zo GhZ know a weapon -. A writing stylus is a small pointed stick that is pressed into the clay for inscribing. A goat stands firm in its strength. A tight wrapping around. and firmly presses around it causing the talons to be buried into the prey. A testimony is a repeating of an account. An appointed place. is attached to the 162 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 342 lo GhL experience the staff -. the talons grab hold of the prey.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 333 co GhG ? -.Bold: A refuge as a place for making a firm and fierce stand. time or event that is repeated.

People: A group who reside with each other where the masses become as one. A rope is suspended from above and is held onto by the grape treaders for support. The making or doing of anything. Protection of the home by keeping of a close eye on it. The eye reveals the heart of the person. It was a common practice to strip the clothes off of those taken into exile. Milk is a product from the female oxen. The furrow may also be formed by concentration or depression. One taken into exile is placed in the yoke.Watch: The nomadic agriculturalist carefully watches over his livestock and crops by keeping a close eye on them. A furrow depression is formed between the eyes when watching intensely. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 163 .Tread: Grapes are placed in a vat.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary oxen for performing work. The home is a place closely watched. A bird that intently watches. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 345 xo GhS watch and hold on -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 344 no GhN continue the eye -. A spring or fountain is the eye of the ground. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 343 mo GhM experience the masses -. A coat lifted up onto the shoulders. It was common to construct a shelter consisting of a roof on four posts. as a shelter from the glare of the sun.

Naked: When the enemy is captured.Tree: The upright and firmness of the tree.Moth ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 352 to GhT ? -. he is stripped of his clothes to the skin and carefully watched. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 164 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 351 so GhSh ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 347 po GhPh eyes open -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 349 qo GhQ ? -.Unfit: Unable to fulfill the role intended for. The elders of the tribe were the upright and firm ones making decisions and giving advice.Time ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 355 cp PG ? -. Exhaustion from a long flight. The spine makes man stand upright and firm. An unripe fig.Bird: A branch as the resting place for the birds.Press ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 350 ro GhR watch a man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 348 yo GhTs ? -.

Flask: The flask stored such materials as cosmetics.Mouth: The mouth is place of speaking and blowing.Refine: The plow point was the only implement requiring a strong metal refined by fire because of its constant work in the soil and the grazing over rocks. The flask is overturned to pour out the contents. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 363 kp PK ? -. A place. thing or event that goes beyond the normal such as a miracle. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 357 ep PH mouth of breath -.Spread: The spreading out dust by blowing on it.Redeem: To bring back to an original state. sign. a region (when the Hebrews speak of the border of something they are referring to all that is within the borders) or sword. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 165 .Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 356 dp PD open the door -. wonder or beauty. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 360 hp PHh blow to separate -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 359 zp PZ edge of the plow -. The ruler of a spread out area. A mouth is the edge of anything such as the place of the beard.

A great sight deserving respect.Stagger ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 166 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 368 op PGh ? -.Face: The part of the body that turns. it is smashed and the pieces scatter. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 371 qp PQ ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 367 xp PS ? -. A wheel or other turning object.Smash: When something is struck with a maul. The bent shape of the bean as if bowing before an authority. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 365 mp PM ? -. he bows low out of respect.Fat ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 366 np PN ? -.Viper ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 370 yp PTs open the side -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 364 lp PL speak to authority -.Wrist: The end of the extremities including the wrist and ankles. An opening by force.Intercede: When one comes before one of authority to intercede for another.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 377 cy location. allowing the door to swivel in the socket. A hole dug in the ground for capturing.Wall: The walls of the tent enclose what is inside.Socket: The hinges of a door were made by a hole placed in the door jam. As the family swells in size. an abundance of fruit is acquired.Spread ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 374 tp PT open mark -. At the conclusion of the treading. the tent walls are enlarged. The tent walls stand firm and strong. The winepress is a vat where the grapes are placed and tread on the open the grapes to reveal the juices inside. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 373 sp PSh ? -. opening them to reveal the fruit inside.Set: A placing in a specific 167 . The door was made with a rods which were set into the hole. a smooth. protecting it from the harsh elements. TsG ? -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 372 rp PR open the head -. An army as a wall of protection. An ox is lead around the floor crushing the heads. hard and level surface. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 376 by TsBh side of the tent -.Tread: The heads of grains are scattered on the threshing floor.

such as rivers. mountain ranges. It was the responsibility of the father to teach the landmarks of the terrain as well as the landmarks of a right life.Side: One lays down to sleep. valleys. wadi's. Through the journey along the road of life. hide or ambush.Desert: A hot and dry place from the glaring of the sun.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 378 dy TsD side movement -. A crying out from thirst. Like the nomad. A hiding in the shadows. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 382 hy TsHh trouble outside -. directions and remembrances. the ship follows the stars as landmarks to their destination.Landmark: The desert nomad’s existence depended on water and pasture for the flocks and would migrate from one location to another. Landmarks. are the familiar and known markers by which the nomad guides the migration. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 379 ey TsH hunt for revelation -. etc.Shade: A place of shadows. which must be observed and followed to live a right and prosperous life. rock outcroppings. there are certain requirements. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 386 ly TsL ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 168 .

Blossom: The function of the blossom is to produce the fruit of the tree. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 390 oy TsGh laying known -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 391 py TsPh lay down the mouth -.Thorn: The sharp piercing thorns that cause pain as well as protection. A spreading out of something. sides coming together -. or food. The thorns would deter any predators.Bed: The bed consisted of blankets spread out on the floor of the tent. The thorn bushes were often used by the shepherd to build a corral for the flock sheep.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 387 my TsM hunt for water -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 393 qy TsQ Used for pouring.Whisper: The guards quietly whisper to each other to prevent detection.Thirst: A fasting from water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 392 yy TsTs ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 388 ny TsN ? -.Funnel: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 169 .

Cord: The Cord is used to secure items together or for attaching to an object to make a sling. The stomach as a jar inside of man that stores food. The olives are pressed to extract the glimmering oil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 400 dq head. The flint knife is made of a glassy type rock that fractures evenly when struck or firmly pressed in the proper place and angle.Jar: A container for storing. Something that is stored by being wrapped up tightly. A belt as wrapped around the middle tightly. QD ? -.Bow: The bowing down of the ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 401 eq QH ? -. Being pressed in a narrow tight place.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 394 ry TsR hunted man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 396 ty TsT ? -. A cleft is a tight place where the man presses himself in.Pressed: A man being chased goes to a place of refuge and defense such as a rock outcropping where clefts in the rocks allow for concealment.Kindle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 398 bq QBh surround the inside -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 170 . The rocks can also be used as weapons by throwing them or fashioning them into knives.

from an enemy) or in a negative way (by not trusting or a desire to have another’s possessions).Little: Something that is little or made little by cutting off. The shepherd also carried a bag. Man can guard over the family. The Ancients 171 .Raise: A rising or standing of ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 410 nq QN gathering for the seeds -. The sheep knew the voice of their shepherd. He carried with him a long staff for directing the sheep as well as to protect them from predators. which included some food supplies. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 408 lq QL gathering to the staff -Shepherd: The Shepherd traveled light. The process of gathering branches for the nest.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 404 hq QHh ? -. and possessions in a positive way (protect. wife. The light supplies of the shepherd or a swift traveler.Take: Merchandise as taken.Nest: The gathering of materials by the parent for building a nest for the seeds (eggs). QM ? -. The parent bird will guard over and protect the nest and eggs from predators. When it came time to move he would call them and they would quickly gather to him. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 409 mq anything. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 405 uq QTh ? -. mans gathering or acquiring materials by taking or buying.

Gash: A mark by branding. The condensing of the light at the sun when at the horizons. A calling together for 172 .Cut: Making the end of something by cutting it off. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 416 rq QR gather the men -. The singing of the bird in the nest.Seasons: As the sun travels through the sky it marks (speaks. commands) the times and seasons (see Genesis 1:14). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 414 yq QTs ? -. Harvesting of the crops by cutting. The bringing forth of chicks into the nest. The striking of a musical note as a bird sings in the nest. incision.Scales: The scales of a fish. a condensing of milk into curdles.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet measured wealth by the amount of one's possessions and measured distances using a branch with marks on it. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 412 oq QGh ? -. A going around of the sun from one horizon to the other. An ending of sleep. tattoo or dislocation. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 411 xq QS ? -.Meeting: The men often came together during the cool of the day to discuss the news of the camp. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 413 pq QPh sun speaks -.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 417 sq QSh bring together and pressed -Straw: Once the straw is harvested from the field. accident or purchase. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 420 br RBh head of the family -. Something that is bad is trampled on. The meeting or bringing together of people or objects by arrangement.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary assembly. The walking over one with the intent to kill. one abundant in authority and wisdom (see Exodus 18:25). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 422 dr RD head hanging -. While the middle is firmly pressed together. it is gathered into bundles and secured with a cord in the middle. the top and bottom bend outward. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 421 cr RG man foot -. possibly accompanied by a loud noise and the breaking of something.Judge: Each tribe had judges who ruled cases. A woven rug that is laid on the floor of the tent for walking on. trials. This person was the representative for the whole tribe. conflicts and contests.Trample: The treading underfoot of something. The treaders in the winepress look at their step while trampling on the grapes. The snare is constructed of a bent branch and tied to the trap. One aimlessly walking and 173 .Wander: A walking or treading where the head is hanging or looking down.

Path: The responsibilities of the nomad outside of the tent include the feeding.Ceder: The bark of the ceder is pulled off in thin thread like fibers. From this word comes the idea of breath. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 423 er RH man beholds -. Livestock are healthier and more productive when on a routine. A smell that is carried by the wind and smelled while breathing. This top stone always followed the same path on top of the other. one watches his step carefully. called millstones. watering and caring for the livestock. Whenever climbing or walking down a steep grade. The moon follows a prescribed path each night from horizon to horizon. which also follows a prescribed path of inhaling and exhaling. therefore the man follows a routine or "a prescribed path" each day when caring for his livestock. A traveler follows a prescribed path to arrive at a specific destination. The Ancient handmill consisted of two round stones. The Hebrew nomads were very familiar with the wind patterns.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet looking at his feet. as it is the wind of man. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 174 . as they would follow a prescribed path indicating the coming season. The strength of cedar wood.See ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 425 zr RZ ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 426 hr RHh man outside -. the top was turned on top of the other to grind the grain.

Shout: Any loud noise or ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 433 xr RS top grabbed -. RM ? -. 175 . often they are his only companion. Future generations come out of the loins of the father. RN ? -.Break down: The breaking or bringing down of something by pulling it down.Trough: The digging out of something for making a basin or trough. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 431 mr lifted up. The thigh is the longest bone in the body. A trembling as a hollowing out of the insides.Companion: The shepherd closely watched over his flock.Lift: Anything that is high or ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 432 nr instrument. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 429 kr RK man covered -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 434 or RGh man watched -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 427 ur RTh top of a container -.Loins: The loins of a man is the area around the waist and upper thighs and is always covered.

from the color of spit. A cursing by spitting on another. Also green. Land is divided up into sections by tribe or nations. is drawn together with a cord.Bottle: The mouth of the bottle.Potsherd: Broken pieces of pottery were commonly used as writing tablets as they were inexpensive and durable. Spit is a liquid that comes out of the mouth of a man. He hears the requests of the tribe. the representative and ruler of the land that he governs and the one who divides up the land 176 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 435 pr RPh man open -. Runners carried messages from one to another on potsherds. stalks. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 438 rr RR ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 436 yr RTs ? -. leaves. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 439 sr RSh head of two -.Saliva: Also the white of an egg which is similar in consistency to saliva. were pulverized into a medicinal paste for applying to wounds or into a powder for internal ingestion. The liquid is poured out of the mouth. etc.Chief: The Chief (head of the tribe) is the authority of the tribe. roots. usually made of animal skins. flowers. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 437 qr RQ top drawn together -.Wound: Plant material such as seeds.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary and possessions of the tribe. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 445 es ShH ? devastation of a storm. A captive that is taken back to the land of the captors. A sitting. the work must be redone. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 443 cs ShG double burden -. -Storm: The roar and ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 448 hs ShHh sharp walls -.Pit: A pit dug into the ground for the purpose of trapping someone or something. The teats provide milk (life) and power to the kids. Hunger where the stomach is an empty pit. place. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 442 bs ShB press to the tent -. A groan one makes when making a mistake. A return or turning back to another land or place.Mistake: When a work is found to be in error.Return: The return to the tent for rest. 177 . The ravines of a mountain where water rushes down providing life to the soil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 444 ds ShD two that dangle -. The head of a person.Teats: The goat and sheep have two teats dangling below the udder. thing or time.

The wind is the breath of the sky located high in the heavens.Testes: The two parts in the palm (the curved part) of the loins.Draw out: The drawing out of ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 453 ms ShM ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 451 ks ShK two in the palm -.Lash: Two objects are lashed together by wrapping a cord around them. The lashing at or out of someone or something with a cord or branch. making a place of ruin or desert.Breath: The breath is the life or character of the person. Despise as a lashing out. ShL ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 449 us ShTh repeat around -.Teeth: The two front teeth are sharp and used for cutting foods by 178 . One in horror or in astonishment is one dried up in the inside. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 452 ls an answer. reflecting their breath. A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up. Hebrew names are words usually describing their character. An oar lashes out at the water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 454 ns ShN teeth of life -. One who is guilty is in a desolate state.

The surrounding land is soaked with water 179 . the riverbeds become full of water.Plunder: The pressing into another’s place and grabbing hold of his possessions. When the sheep are in trouble they will cry out to the shepherd who will deliver them. When a predator comes to attack. The sheep graze in safety in the wide-open pasture.Shepherd: The shepherd cares for and delights in his sheep. to draw in air or water. the Shepherd destroys the enemy. A wide-open and free place or state. Two as a repeating of the first or what was before.River: During the rain season.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary pressing down. A quiver as the pouch where the arrows (sharp teeth) are placed in the mouth. A drawing in by swallowing (as the snake swallows its prey) also. repeated each year. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 457 ps ShPh sharp teeth in the mouth -Serpent: A serpent (venomous snake) has sharp fangs in the mouth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 455 xs ShS Press and grab hold -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 459 qs ShQ repeat a cycle -. the shepherd carefully watches over the surrounding area always on the lookout for danger. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 456 os ShGh destroyer watches -. When the sheep are in the pasture.

A relative as one from the same umbilical cord of the family. A single fiber is attached to a fixed point (top). The blood relatives remain with the tent. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 461 ss ShSh teeth -. The loosening of a cord around a load. The rope is made by twisting two fibers together. and the two ends of the fiber are brought together. A traveler may have a wagon pulled by a bull where the load on the cart is secured with a cord. A cord pulled tight is straight. The rope is used to tightly secure or support something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 460 rs ShR press the beginning -. The twisting of the fibers in opposite directions causes the fibers to lock (press) onto each other making a stronger rope. The second fiber is then twisted in clockwise direction then wrapped around the first fiber in a counter clockwise direction. A righteous one is one who is straight and firmly holds up truth just as the cord is straight and firmly holds the wall of the tent upright. or a man or street. The leg of a river. such as a load to a cart or the poles of the tent. 180 . One fiber is twisted in a clockwise direction and wrapped over the other fiber in counter clockwise direction. The white hair of the older men. One who is happy is one whose life is lived straightly.Rope: Ropes and cords were usually made of bark strips such as from the cedar or from the sinew (tendon) of an animal.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet allowing for the planting of crops. A stringed musical instrument uses thin cords for making music. The process is repeated through the length of the rope.White: The whiteness of the teeth.

Two crossed sticks in the shape of cross were used to hang the family standard or flag. A banquet as a time of sitting together.Longing: The inside desire to follow after something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 467 et TH mark revealed -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 462 ts ShT ? -.Cut off ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 470 ht THh part of anything ? -.Mark: A marks identifies locations is used to mark out a location.Buttock: The place of sitting. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 469 zt TZ mark a cut -. the location of the door is determined by the father. possibly by using a tent peg as a marker for its location. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 464 bt TBh sign inside -.Under: The under or lower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 181 .Peg: When the site of the tent is determined. a foundation. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 466 dt TD mark the door -.

Bend: The lines or marks in the center of the palm are formed by the bending of the palm.Full: What is full is whole and complete.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 473 kt TK mark of the palm -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 475 mt TM ? -. To bring down to ruin or death. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 478 ot TGh ? -. by destruction or deception. A bending in the middle. Amazed as a full and overwhelmed mind. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 476 nt TN path continues -. the center of something.Constant: A patient and continuous movement.Ruin: The mounds of a ruined city.Drum: The beating of a drum. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 481 qt TQ ? -. A donkey as a patient and constant animal. Twins as a full womb.Ledge 182 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 474 lt TL ? -.Mock ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 479 pt TPh ? -. A sitting as a bending down.

An outline or border. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 483 st of the goat.Goat: The butting of the heads 183 . TSh ? -. An extension of the border. To walk to border of the property as owner or spy. or under his control.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 482 rt TR mark of man: The border of the land owned by an individual. is marked by markers.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Appendix F – Number Cross References
____________________________________

Strong's Number - Ancient Hebrew Number
0001 0003 0006 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015 0016 0017 0018 0019 0024 0034 0035 0046 0047 0055 0056 0057 0058 0060 0061 0068 0070 0076 0079 0080 0081 0082 0083 002 002 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 027 027 027 027 037 030 002 027 027 042 042 033 034 034 034 034 034 036 036 038 041 041 041 042 042 0084 0092 0093 0095 0096 0098 0099 0100 0101 0102 0103 0107 0108 0113 0117 0119 0120 0122 0124 0125 0127 0132 0134 0136 0142 0145 0155 0156 0157 0158 0159 0160 0165 0166 042 048 051 064 056 057 057 057 058 061 064 064 004 080 086 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 080 080 086 086 086 087 090 090 090 090 005 100 0167 0168 0174 0176 0178 0180 0181 0182 0183 0184 0185 0188 0190 0191 0193 0194 0196 0197 0199 0199 0200 0202 0205 0212 0213 0214 0215 0216 0217 0219 0220 0225 0226 0227 100 100 100 005 002 034 004 004 005 005 005 005 005 247 012 005 247 255 005 255 247 014 014 366 018 394 020 020 020 020 020 022 022 007 0231 0232 0233 0235 0237 0238 0239 0240 0241 0246 0247 0251 0253 0254 0255 0258 0259 0260 0262 0264 0268 0269 0270 0272 0309 0310 0312 0314 0319 0322 0328 0329 0330 0332 134 394 007 144 144 146 146 146 146 151 394 008 008 008 008 158 158 008 159 008 174 008 161 161 174 174 174 174 174 174 009 180 190 196 0334 0335 0336 0337 0338 0339 0340 0341 0342 0343 0344 0346 0349 0351 0352 0353 0354 0355 0360 0361 0365 0366 0367 0369 0370 0371 0374 0375 0376 0377 0380 0386 0389 0396 196 005 005 005 005 005 002 002 002 004 005 005 005 005 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 211 211 014 014 014 357 005 021 021 021 476 234 232

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Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
0398 0400 0402 0403 0404 0405 0406 0408 0410 0410 0411 0413 0421 0422 0423 0424 0427 0428 0430 0432 0433 0434 0436 0437 0444 0451 0457 0480 0481 0482 0483 0485 0488 0489 0490 0491 0492 0509 0517 0518 0519 0520 0523 0525 0527 0527 0528 0529 0530 0533 0534 0535 0536 0537 232 232 232 234 237 237 240 247 012 247 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 247 012 247 012 012 250 012 247 247 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 256 013 013 013 013 013 278 101 278 278 278 278 282 284 276 276 276 0539 0541 0542 0543 0544 0545 0546 0547 0548 0551 0552 0553 0554 0555 0556 0559 0561 0562 0565 0570 0571 0577 0578 0579 0580 0584 0585 0587 0589 0590 0591 0592 0594 0595 0596 0597 0602 0603 0604 0610 0611 0612 0614 0615 0616 0618 0622 0624 0625 0626 0627 0628 0631 0632 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 282 282 282 282 284 284 284 284 285 278 291 291 291 014 294 294 014 014 014 014 291 297 014 291 301 305 305 305 319 322 328 325 328 328 321 325 325 325 325 325 325 328 328 0637 0639 0640 0641 0642 0644 0645 0645 0646 0648 0650 0651 0652 0653 0655 0656 0657 0659 0660 0661 0662 0665 0668 0678 0679 0680 0681 0686 0689 0693 0695 0696 0697 0698 0699 0707 0708 0710 0713 0717 0723 0724 0727 0729 0730 0731 0732 0734 0736 0737 0738 0748 0750 0752 017 017 356 356 356 017 093 357 356 364 371 364 364 364 366 367 367 368 368 017 371 372 372 386 386 386 386 394 019 420 420 420 420 420 420 421 421 421 421 020 020 429 020 425 425 425 426 426 426 426 423 429 429 429 0753 0759 0766 0776 0779 0781 0782 0784 0786 0793 0794 0800 0801 0803 0808 0809 0810 0815 0816 0817 0818 0819 0820 0825 0827 0830 0833 0834 0835 0836 0837 0838 0839 0842 0853 0854 0855 0857 0859 0860 0862 0866 0868 0872 0874 0875 0877 0887 0889 0890 0891 0892 0897 0905 429 431 432 436 438 439 439 021 021 444 444 021 021 021 021 021 451 452 453 453 453 453 453 457 457 457 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 022 022 022 022 022 476 481 476 476 027 240 240 240 043 043 043 043 024 029 026 0906 0907 0908 0909 0910 0922 0923 0925 0926 0928 0929 0930 0931 0933 0934 0935 0936 0937 0939 0943 0944 0947 0948 0950 0952 0953 0954 0955 0957 0958 0959 0960 0961 0962 0963 0981 0994 0995 0996 0998 1000 1002 1004 1055 1057 1058 1059 1065 1068 1077 1086 1087 1089 1091 026 026 026 026 026 027 031 042 034 034 035 035 036 041 042 027 029 029 029 033 034 037 040 041 240 240 043 043 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 031 027 036 036 036 040 042 044 044 033 033 033 033 033 034 034 034 034 034

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Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet
1094 1097 1098 1101 1115 1116 1119 1121 1129 1140 1143 1146 1158 1164 1206 1207 1228 1238 1248 1249 1250 1252 1253 1254 1257 1262 1267 1274 1277 1278 1279 1285 1287 1305 1322 1323 1324 1326 1327 1341 1342 1343 1344 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1356 1357 034 034 034 034 034 035 035 036 036 036 036 036 038 038 040 040 041 041 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 043 036 044 044 044 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 056 056 056 056 046 046 046 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1406 1407 1408 1409 1413 1415 1416 1417 1418 1423 1428 1429 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1460 1461 1462 1464 1465 1466 1468 1471 1472 1473 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1484 1487 1488 1491 1492 1494 1496 1503 1512 1516 1517 1518 1523 1524 1525 1530 046 046 046 046 046 046 047 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 049 049 049 064 049 049 046 046 048 049 049 051 049 049 342 060 061 061 064 064 064 065 051 051 051 051 051 051 052 049 048 052 056 056 056 056 1531 1534 1536 1538 1540 1543 1544 1546 1549 1550 1552 1556 1557 1558 1561 1571 1572 1573 1588 1593 1594 1598 1600 1610 1615 1616 1620 1621 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1641 1659 1660 1669 1670 1671 1672 1674 1675 1676 1677 1679 1680 1681 1686 1709 1710 1711 1717 1718 1724 056 056 056 056 342 056 056 342 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 057 057 057 058 058 058 058 060 046 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 065 066 068 068 068 069 069 071 071 068 068 068 068 068 069 069 069 070 070 079 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1733 1736 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1745 1747 1748 1750 1752 1754 1755 1758 1760 1762 1767 1770 1771 1772 1773 1777 1779 1781 1785 1786 1788 1790 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1800 1802 1803 1805 1808 1809 1817 1818 1819 1820 1822 1823 086 086 068 069 069 070 070 070 070 071 071 074 071 071 077 079 079 079 084 086 086 086 077 074 074 071 069 069 071 071 080 080 080 077 087 087 077 077 077 077 077 077 078 078 078 078 078 078 078 079 079 079 079 079 1824 1825 1826 1827 1843 1844 1847 1848 1851 1852 1854 1858 1860 1863 1865 1866 1876 1877 1881 1887 1889 1890 1891 1892 1895 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1906 1911 1915 1916 1917 1918 1920 1921 1925 1926 1927 1929 1930 1931 1931 1933 1933 1935 1942 1942 1943 1943 079 079 079 079 082 082 082 083 085 085 085 086 086 086 086 086 087 087 088 093 093 090 034 034 042 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 092 092 077 079 079 081 083 086 086 086 086 093 093 093 093 093 093 092 093 093 093 093

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Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
1945 1947 1948 1949 1951 1952 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1966 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1991 1992 1992 1993 1995 1998 2000 2003 2004 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2026 2027 2028 093 100 100 101 102 102 095 093 092 092 093 093 005 232 100 102 240 240 100 100 100 249 249 249 253 253 253 253 100 255 100 101 093 101 101 101 101 101 279 093 294 103 355 363 363 363 363 363 386 388 108 421 421 421 2029 2030 2032 2034 2035 2038 2040 2041 2042 2046 2048 2049 2050 2053 2054 2056 2061 2063 2070 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2094 2096 2097 2098 2100 2101 2102 2106 2107 2108 2109 2111 2113 2114 2115 2116 2118 2121 2123 2131 2132 2134 2135 2137 2141 2149 2150 108 108 108 433 433 431 433 433 108 473 474 474 110 116 152 246 134 137 310 135 136 136 137 379 137 134 145 394 394 137 137 134 134 136 137 144 144 146 148 148 394 394 394 140 136 139 151 154 143 143 143 143 144 144 2151 2154 2161 2162 2177 2181 2183 2184 2185 2188 2189 2203 2212 2213 2214 2219 2223 2237 2239 2243 2244 2245 2247 2253 2282 2283 2287 2288 2297 2299 2300 2302 2303 2304 2325 2326 2328 2329 2330 2331 2333 2336 2337 2339 2342 2344 2345 2346 2347 2348 2351 2352 2353 2355 144 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 146 148 148 149 151 152 394 152 152 152 152 156 156 156 156 156 157 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 158 158 156 156 157 157 158 159 159 162 162 163 166 166 167 167 169 171 172 240 174 174 2356 2357 2363 2372 2373 2374 2377 2378 2380 2384 2385 2397 2398 2399 2400 2401 2403 2416 2420 2421 2422 2424 2425 2426 2427 2428 2430 2433 2434 2435 2436 2439 2440 2441 2442 2443 2455 2456 2457 2470 2471 2474 2479 2481 2483 2484 2485 2486 2490 2491 2524 2525 2527 2529 240 174 175 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162 163 163 163 163 163 159 158 159 159 159 159 166 166 166 166 168 172 172 173 175 175 165 165 165 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 167 167 2534 2535 2545 2552 2553 2573 2580 2583 2587 2588 2589 2594 2595 2600 2603 2620 2622 2643 2644 2645 2646 2653 2671 2673 2676 2677 2678 2686 2687 2706 2707 2708 2710 2711 2715 2716 2734 2740 2746 2750 2751 2787 2788 2814 2842 2844 2846 2847 2849 2851 2865 2866 2889 2890 167 167 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 171 171 171 171 171 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 173 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 175 417 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 196 196

187

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2891 2892 2893 2894 2895 2896 2898 2901 2902 2903 2904 2905 2907 2909 2910 2911 2915 2916 2918 2919 2921 2922 2924 2925 2926 2930 2931 2932 2933 2935 2937 2945 2952 2961 2968 2969 2973 2974 2975 2976 2978 2980 2981 2986 2988 2990 2992 2993 2994 3001 3002 3004 3006 3009 196 196 196 181 178 178 178 181 184 193 188 196 197 184 184 184 184 185 196 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 193 193 196 002 005 247 012 218 021 022 200 034 034 034 034 035 035 035 043 043 043 043 046 3010 3013 3014 3015 3016 3018 3019 3021 3022 3023 3024 3025 3027 3032 3033 3034 3039 3045 3049 3051 3053 3093 3095 3104 3105 3117 3119 3121 3123 3126 3127 3138 3148 3154 3161 3162 3173 3175 3176 3179 3182 3186 3187 3188 3190 3196 3197 3198 3201 3205 3206 3207 3208 3209 046 091 091 091 064 060 060 060 060 060 060 064 202 202 070 202 070 082 082 090 090 108 255 034 034 211 211 212 212 305 305 218 482 148 158 158 158 166 166 167 171 174 169 169 178 212 202 228 232 246 246 246 246 246 3211 3212 3213 3214 3215 3216 3217 3218 3220 3222 3225 3227 3231 3233 3235 3237 3238 3240 3242 3243 3245 3246 3247 3248 3249 3250 3251 3254 3256 3257 3259 3261 3264 3267 3271 3276 3277 3280 3282 3283 3284 3286 3287 3288 3289 3293 3295 3302 3303 3304 3306 3307 3308 3313 246 253 254 254 254 258 259 239 211 211 278 278 278 278 284 285 291 294 305 305 312 312 312 312 328 328 393 325 328 214 334 214 350 337 339 342 342 342 344 344 344 347 347 347 348 350 350 357 357 357 360 360 357 368 3314 3318 3320 3322 3323 3326 3329 3331 3332 3333 3334 3335 3336 3338 3341 3342 3344 3349 3350 3351 3352 3353 3357 3363 3364 3365 3366 3368 3369 3372 3373 3374 3381 3384 3387 3391 3394 3399 3401 3407 3409 3411 3415 3417 3418 3419 3420 3422 3423 3424 3425 3426 3427 3444 368 379 376 377 394 390 379 390 393 393 394 394 394 394 396 398 400 401 400 409 417 417 416 412 414 416 416 416 417 218 218 218 422 218 437 426 426 427 420 421 429 429 421 437 437 437 437 437 439 439 439 021 442 456 3445 3447 3451 3452 3453 3455 3456 3462 3463 3465 3467 3468 3471 3474 3476 3477 3483 3486 3489 3490 3491 3498 3499 3502 3504 3508 3510 3511 3512 3518 3537 3539 3541 3541 3543 3544 3545 3547 3548 3550 3554 3555 3556 3557 3559 3561 3563 3564 3581 3587 3588 3589 3590 3591 448 449 453 453 461 453 453 454 454 454 456 456 457 460 460 460 460 461 466 475 460 460 460 482 482 482 222 222 225 222 224 224 093 225 225 225 225 234 234 234 225 225 222 232 234 234 235 240 228 225 225 224 224 224 188 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 3595 3596 3599 3600 3602 3602 3605 3607 3608 3610 3615 3616 3617 3618 3623 3627 3628 3629 3631 3632 3634 3642 3644 3651 3653 3654 3655 3657 3661 3674 3676 3677 3678 3680 3681 3682 3699 3704 3709 3710 3711 3712 3721 3733 3734 3738 3739 3740 3741 3746 3753 3769 3780 3795 240 232 235 240 093 225 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 233 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 237 237 237 237 237 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 235 242 3807 3808 3811 3813 3814 3816 3820 3823 3824 3826 3827 3833 3834 3849 3851 3852 3854 3856 3859 3862 3863 3867 3868 3869 3871 3874 3875 3880 3883 3884 3885 3886 3887 3888 3891 3892 3893 3895 3897 3909 3910 3911 3914 3915 3917 3918 3924 3930 3944 3945 3952 3966 3967 3970 242 247 247 251 251 255 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 244 244 245 247 255 408 247 247 249 249 250 251 251 247 254 254 256 258 260 264 249 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 247 254 254 264 254 258 260 260 250 004 269 005 3971 3972 3973 3974 3975 3976 3978 3979 3980 3981 3982 3985 3986 3987 3988 3989 3990 3991 3992 3993 3994 3996 3997 3998 3999 4000 4001 4002 4003 4008 4011 4016 4032 4033 4034 4035 4039 4041 4042 4043 4044 4050 4055 4058 4059 4060 4062 4063 4064 4065 4066 4067 4069 4071 277 277 279 020 020 146 232 232 232 282 284 278 278 278 279 017 364 364 284 420 438 027 027 033 034 036 037 038 041 031 036 043 064 064 064 064 056 057 058 058 058 064 268 268 268 268 134 268 071 074 080 080 082 086 4072 4078 4079 4082 4085 4090 4093 4098 4100 4102 4103 4106 4107 4108 4109 4110 4112 4113 4114 4115 4116 4117 4118 4119 4120 4123 4126 4127 4128 4129 4130 4131 4132 4133 4134 4135 4136 4138 4139 4141 4142 4142 4143 4144 4145 4146 4147 4148 4150 4151 4152 4154 4155 4156 074 071 080 080 077 080 082 087 269 269 101 284 276 253 253 100 255 284 363 363 284 284 284 284 284 474 027 267 268 082 082 273 273 273 275 276 276 246 276 310 310 310 312 312 312 312 328 328 334 334 334 334 347 348 4157 4159 4160 4161 4163 4164 4165 4166 4167 4168 4169 4170 4171 4172 4173 4174 4175 4177 4178 4180 4181 4184 4185 4186 4190 4191 4192 4194 4195 4198 4200 4201 4202 4204 4205 4206 4209 4214 4215 4220 4221 4222 4224 4229 4230 4231 4234 4236 4237 4239 4241 4242 4245 4246 349 357 282 379 379 393 393 393 283 400 400 417 284 218 421 422 218 218 427 439 439 285 285 442 456 286 286 286 482 271 271 139 146 394 394 140 145 152 152 272 272 272 156 272 157 161 166 161 161 272 159 174 166 166 189 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 4247 4251 4260 4264 4268 4275 4276 4279 4280 4283 4288 4289 4291 4292 4294 4295 4296 4297 4298 4299 4300 4307 4310 4315 4323 4325 4327 4328 4329 4330 4334 4339 4340 4341 4348 4349 4350 4351 4355 4356 4357 4358 4359 4360 4361 4369 4371 4372 4374 4380 4390 4392 4393 4394 166 166 167 168 169 172 172 174 174 174 176 176 273 181 273 273 273 273 273 181 188 196 269 178 232 269 278 312 319 282 460 460 460 222 225 234 234 240 275 232 232 232 232 232 232 234 235 235 235 240 298 298 298 298 4395 4396 4397 4399 4400 4402 4405 4407 4411 4412 4425 4426 4448 4461 4463 4470 4472 4478 4480 4482 4487 4488 4489 4490 4492 4493 4494 4496 4497 4498 4499 4500 4501 4503 4507 4512 4517 4518 4521 4522 4523 4524 4527 4529 4530 4531 4533 4534 4539 4540 4546 4547 4549 4554 298 298 253 253 253 298 284 298 256 256 284 260 284 268 286 284 284 269 278 278 278 278 278 278 306 290 294 294 300 301 301 306 306 294 278 298 302 305 278 279 279 310 312 279 279 301 313 319 319 319 320 320 279 325 4561 4562 4568 4578 4579 4580 4581 4583 4585 4588 4589 4593 4594 4596 4598 4599 4605 4607 4608 4609 4611 4616 4617 4618 4624 4626 4629 4630 4631 4636 4639 4647 4650 4652 4660 4661 4671 4672 4673 4674 4675 4679 4680 4682 4683 4684 4685 4686 4687 4688 4689 4690 4691 4692 328 328 332 280 280 333 337 344 344 347 350 339 339 335 342 344 342 342 342 342 342 344 344 344 349 350 350 350 350 350 345 360 370 364 370 370 282 282 376 376 376 378 282 282 304 144 378 378 379 386 393 393 393 394 4693 4694 4698 4699 4700 4702 4707 4711 4712 4716 4721 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4731 4735 4736 4743 4744 4745 4746 4747 4748 4749 4750 4751 4752 4753 4754 4758 4759 4760 4761 4763 4766 4767 4768 4784 4786 4787 4788 4791 4793 4794 4805 4806 4808 4814 4815 4816 4820 394 394 386 386 386 390 391 282 394 283 408 401 401 409 240 404 404 408 410 410 283 416 416 416 416 417 417 417 284 284 284 284 423 423 423 439 439 420 420 420 284 284 284 422 431 436 436 284 284 420 284 284 429 431 4828 4828 4829 4830 4832 4835 4843 4844 4845 4846 4855 4857 4858 4859 4859 4860 4860 4862 4863 4864 4870 4871 4874 4875 4876 4878 4879 4880 4881 4882 4884 4885 4889 4892 4895 4897 4906 4923 4932 4933 4935 4942 4943 4944 4945 4951 4952 4959 4960 4962 4963 4970 4974 4975 421 434 434 434 435 436 284 284 284 284 307 457 301 307 307 307 307 452 460 301 443 285 307 445 445 442 443 449 319 455 328 323 448 448 304 285 319 453 454 455 456 457 459 459 459 328 460 285 462 286 036 286 475 476 190 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 4984 4994 4995 4997 4998 4999 5000 5001 5002 5006 5007 5008 5009 5010 5012 5014 5016 5030 5031 5050 5051 5054 5058 5067 5074 5076 5077 5078 5079 5091 5092 5093 5101 5102 5104 5105 5106 5107 5108 5110 5112 5115 5116 5117 5118 5120 5123 5124 5125 5127 5128 5130 5131 5132 301 291 291 290 291 291 291 299 299 304 304 305 305 306 288 288 288 288 288 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 291 305 306 306 306 291 288 288 290 290 291 291 294 294 295 299 299 300 301 302 303 303 301 5133 5134 5136 5137 5148 5168 5186 5204 5205 5206 5207 5209 5211 5214 5215 5216 5217 5218 5219 5221 5222 5223 5238 5239 5240 5251 5254 5255 5263 5264 5299 5316 5317 5323 5327 5352 5355 5356 5357 5377 5378 5379 5382 5383 5384 5385 5386 5388 5405 5406 5429 5430 5431 5432 301 305 307 293 294 014 295 291 290 290 294 300 301 306 306 306 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 298 029 301 301 301 307 301 303 303 303 301 304 305 305 305 305 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 313 322 322 313 5433 5435 5437 5438 5439 5465 5469 5470 5472 5473 5475 5478 5479 5480 5483 5484 5486 5488 5490 5492 5493 5494 5496 5497 5500 5501 5509 5518 5519 5520 5521 5522 5526 5536 5537 5541 5542 5544 5549 5550 5551 5552 5561 5572 5577 5580 5584 5584 5592 5595 5605 5620 5627 5630 310 310 310 310 310 312 328 328 311 311 312 316 317 319 323 323 325 325 325 325 328 328 330 330 316 316 311 328 319 319 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 453 322 322 323 324 445 325 325 325 328 328 328 5637 5638 5645 5646 5672 5692 5703 5704 5706 5707 5708 5710 5712 5713 5715 5716 5718 5719 5743 5746 5749 5750 5753 5754 5756 5763 5764 5765 5766 5767 5768 5770 5771 5772 5773 5774 5775 5779 5781 5782 5783 5785 5786 5787 5788 5789 5790 5791 5792 5794 5795 5797 5807 5808 328 330 332 332 332 333 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 332 333 334 334 335 335 337 342 342 342 342 342 342 344 344 344 344 347 347 348 349 350 350 350 350 350 350 175 175 352 352 337 337 337 337 337 5810 5842 5844 5856 5860 5861 5868 5869 5879 5888 5889 5890 5892 5895 5920 5921 5923 5927 5929 5930 5932 5934 5940 5942 5944 5945 5948 5949 5950 5953 5955 5971 5973 5978 5980 6004 6030 6031 6035 6037 6038 6039 6040 6041 6045 6049 6051 6053 6071 6072 6073 6079 6086 6095 337 339 339 335 339 339 343 344 344 347 347 347 350 350 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 345 345 347 347 348 348 191 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 6096 6097 6098 6125 6145 6168 6169 6172 6176 6181 6185 6199 6209 6211 6211 6213 6244 6256 6258 6261 6284 6285 6285 6286 6287 6288 6289 6291 6299 6302 6304 6306 6310 6311 6313 6314 6315 6320 6321 6323 6327 6328 6329 6330 6331 6333 6335 6337 6338 6339 6341 6346 6351 6365 348 348 348 349 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 093 351 345 351 352 352 352 357 093 357 372 372 372 372 355 356 356 356 356 357 357 355 355 360 363 364 366 370 371 371 371 372 372 373 359 359 359 360 360 360 356 6366 6368 6371 6374 6375 6378 6379 6381 6382 6383 6395 6414 6415 6416 6417 6419 6434 6435 6437 6438 6440 6443 6446 6451 6461 6463 6475 6499 6500 6501 6509 6510 6512 6517 6529 6565 6580 6581 6595 6596 6601 6612 6615 6626 6627 6629 6631 6632 6633 6635 6638 6639 6643 6646 357 360 365 357 371 363 363 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 366 366 366 366 366 366 367 367 367 368 370 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 374 374 374 374 379 379 379 376 376 376 376 376 376 376 6654 6658 6660 6668 6669 6670 6671 6672 6673 6674 6675 6677 6679 6680 6681 6682 6683 6684 6685 6687 6688 6692 6693 6694 6695 6696 6697 6699 6702 6703 6704 6705 6706 6707 6708 6710 6716 6718 6719 6720 6723 6724 6725 6728 6731 6733 6734 6735 6736 6737 6738 6740 6742 6748 378 378 378 134 134 144 394 394 379 379 379 394 378 379 382 382 386 387 387 149 149 392 393 393 393 394 394 394 396 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 379 378 378 378 382 379 379 379 392 392 392 394 394 394 386 386 386 386 6749 6750 6751 6752 6757 6767 6770 6771 6772 6773 6774 6777 6782 6791 6792 6793 6796 6803 6808 6816 6822 6823 6824 6826 6828 6830 6836 6844 6850 6851 6862 6864 6869 6872 6875 6887 6892 6893 6894 6895 6896 6897 6898 6915 6916 6936 6949 6950 6951 6952 6953 6957 6958 6960 386 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 388 390 390 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 394 394 394 394 394 394 401 401 398 398 398 398 398 400 400 400 401 408 408 408 408 401 401 401 6961 6962 6963 6965 6967 6968 6969 6971 6972 6973 6974 6975 6977 6978 6979 6980 6982 6983 6985 6990 7006 7009 7012 7013 7015 7019 7020 7021 7022 7023 7031 7033 7034 7035 7036 7039 7043 7044 7045 7052 7054 7064 7065 7067 7068 7069 7070 7072 7075 7077 7082 7083 7085 7087 401 405 408 409 409 409 410 413 414 414 414 414 414 401 240 240 240 417 405 405 401 409 409 410 410 414 414 401 408 240 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 409 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 414 235 412 413 192 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 7093 7096 7097 7098 7099 7101 7112 7117 7119 7120 7121 7122 7124 7125 7135 7136 7137 7147 7148 7150 7151 7176 7179 7180 7184 7185 7186 7190 7193 7197 7198 7199 7200 7201 7202 7203 7207 7209 7210 7212 7213 7214 7215 7217 7218 7219 7219 7221 7222 7223 7224 7225 7226 7227 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 417 417 235 417 417 417 411 417 417 417 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 431 431 431 439 439 431 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 420 7228 7230 7231 7232 7233 7235 7237 7239 7241 7286 7287 7289 7292 7293 7295 7296 7297 7298 7300 7301 7302 7304 7305 7306 7307 7309 7310 7311 7312 7315 7317 7318 7321 7322 7323 7324 7325 7326 7329 7330 7332 7333 7334 7347 7371 7374 7377 7378 7379 7381 7383 7385 7386 7387 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 422 422 420 420 420 420 423 427 422 423 423 426 426 426 426 426 423 431 431 431 431 431 421 435 436 437 438 439 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 423 420 420 426 435 437 437 437 7388 7389 7390 7391 7401 7411 7413 7415 7416 7419 7423 7426 7427 7434 7435 7436 7438 7439 7440 7442 7443 7444 7445 7447 7450 7451 7452 7453 7454 7455 7462 7463 7464 7465 7468 7469 7471 7473 7474 7475 7489 7495 7496 7497 7499 7500 7503 7504 7510 7517 7518 7519 7521 7522 438 439 429 429 429 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 437 437 437 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 433 433 421 434 434 434 421 434 434 434 421 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 436 7533 7541 7545 7550 7556 7558 7567 7568 7578 7579 7580 7581 7582 7583 7584 7585 7588 7589 7590 7591 7592 7596 7599 7600 7601 7602 7603 7604 7605 7607 7608 7611 7612 7613 7616 7617 7618 7622 7628 7632 7633 7675 7679 7683 7684 7685 7686 7689 7699 7700 7701 7702 7703 7704 436 437 426 437 437 439 439 439 427 457 443 443 445 445 445 452 445 449 449 445 452 452 454 454 455 457 460 460 460 460 460 460 445 313 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 311 443 443 311 443 311 444 444 444 312 444 312 7705 7706 7709 7716 7717 7720 7721 7722 7723 7725 7726 7728 7729 7734 7735 7736 7737 7738 7742 7743 7745 7750 7751 7752 7753 7754 7757 7758 7760 7762 7768 7769 7771 7772 7773 7775 7779 7783 7784 7785 7786 7787 7788 7789 7790 7791 7794 7795 7795 7797 7807 7811 7812 7813 444 444 312 379 312 328 313 445 445 442 442 442 442 311 311 444 445 445 448 448 448 317 449 449 319 319 452 452 321 453 456 456 456 456 456 456 457 459 459 459 328 328 460 460 460 460 460 328 460 323 448 316 448 316 193 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet
7816 7817 7822 7825 7845 7846 7847 7848 7850 7862 7863 7867 7869 7870 7871 7872 7873 7874 7875 7876 7878 7879 7880 7881 7882 7885 7890 7891 7892 7893 7896 7897 7898 7899 7900 7904 7905 7907 7918 7944 7945 7951 7952 7953 7956 7957 7958 7959 7961 7962 7987 7988 7997 7998 448 448 448 448 448 317 317 449 449 445 313 310 310 442 442 310 311 312 312 445 316 316 316 316 448 449 454 460 460 461 462 462 462 319 319 451 319 319 451 452 452 452 452 452 452 244 320 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 8033 8034 8047 8064 8074 8076 8077 8078 8079 8127 8130 8132 8135 8136 8138 8141 8142 8144 8145 8146 8147 8148 8150 8153 8154 8155 8159 8173 8191 8192 8193 8194 8205 8207 8222 8242 8248 8249 8250 8264 8268 8269 8270 8280 8281 8282 8284 8285 8293 8302 8306 8307 8323 8324 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 454 322 454 322 454 454 454 454 454 454 322 454 454 454 454 455 455 456 456 456 457 325 457 457 457 325 327 459 459 459 459 459 328 460 328 460 328 460 460 460 460 460 460 328 460 8326 8336 8337 8338 8341 8342 8345 8346 8354 8356 8357 8358 8359 8360 8371 8372 8373 8374 8375 8376 8377 8378 8379 8380 8381 8382 8383 8384 8385 8386 8388 8389 8392 8393 8394 8395 8397 8398 8399 8400 8401 8403 8409 8410 8414 8415 8416 8417 8418 8419 8420 8424 8426 8427 460 461 461 461 461 461 461 461 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 467 464 464 464 467 467 005 467 475 012 475 014 476 291 291 482 482 027 027 036 037 034 034 034 034 036 036 064 086 467 101 100 100 253 363 467 046 202 467 8428 8431 8432 8433 8435 8437 8438 8442 8443 8444 8446 8447 8448 8449 8451 8452 8453 8455 8456 8457 8462 8463 8466 8467 8469 8473 8474 8478 8481 8482 8484 8486 8492 8495 8496 8497 8499 8500 8501 8502 8503 8504 8510 8511 8513 8514 8518 8519 8522 8524 8529 8534 8535 8537 467 166 473 228 246 254 258 478 347 379 482 482 482 482 218 482 442 470 469 146 166 166 168 168 168 174 174 470 470 470 473 278 439 483 473 473 234 473 473 232 232 232 474 474 247 244 474 256 474 474 258 474 475 475 8538 8539 8541 8543 8544 8545 8546 8548 8549 8552 8557 8558 8560 8561 8563 8564 8565 8566 8567 8568 8569 8570 8571 8572 8573 8574 8577 8582 8584 8585 8586 8589 8591 8593 8595 8596 8597 8600 8601 8605 8608 8611 8615 8617 8618 8622 8635 8636 8641 8642 8643 8644 8645 8649 475 475 475 276 278 284 286 268 475 475 279 284 284 284 284 284 476 476 476 476 291 288 297 299 303 306 476 478 334 342 342 344 478 350 478 479 372 370 017 364 479 479 401 409 409 413 420 420 431 431 421 435 425 431

194

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
8650 8655 8658 8663 8666 8667 8668 8669 8670 8671 8672 8673 432 435 439 445 442 321 456 459 460 456 456 456

195

Ancient Hebrew Number - Strong's Number
002 002 002 002 002 002 002 002 004 004 004 004 004 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 007 007 008 008 008 008 008 008 008 009 012 012 012 012 0001 0003 0024 0178 0340 0341 0342 2968 0108 0181 0182 0343 3966 0165 0176 0183 0184 0185 0188 0190 0194 0199 0335 0336 0337 0338 0339 0344 0346 0349 0351 0375 1963 2969 3970 8378 0227 0233 0251 0253 0254 0255 0260 0264 0269 0328 0193 0352 0353 0354 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 013 013 013 013 013 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 017 017 017 017 017 017 018 019 020 020 020 020 0355 0360 0361 0365 0410 0411 0413 0421 0422 0423 0424 0427 0428 0430 0433 0436 0437 0451 2974 8381 0517 0518 0519 0520 0523 0202 0205 0369 0370 0371 0580 0587 0589 0590 0591 0595 5168 8383 0637 0639 0644 0661 3989 8601 0213 0689 0215 0216 0217 0219 020 020 020 020 020 020 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 022 022 022 022 022 022 022 022 024 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 0220 0717 0723 0727 3974 3975 0376 0377 0380 0784 0786 0800 0801 0803 0808 0809 2976 3426 0225 0226 0853 0854 0855 0857 0859 2978 0892 0006 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0905 0906 0907 0908 0909 0910 0014 0015 0016 0017 0034 0035 0872 0922 0935 0994 027 027 027 027 027 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 030 031 031 031 033 033 033 033 033 033 033 033 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 3996 3997 4126 8392 8393 0897 0936 0937 0939 0957 0958 0959 0960 0961 0962 0963 5240 0019 0923 0981 4008 0055 0943 1057 1058 1059 1065 1068 3998 0056 0057 0058 0060 0061 0180 0926 0928 0944 1077 1086 1087 1089 1091 1094 1097 1098 1101 1115 1891 1892 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 035 035 035 035 035 035 035 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 037 037 037 037 038 038 038 038 040 040 040 040 041 041 2981 2986 2988 2990 3104 3105 3999 8397 8398 8399 8400 0929 0930 1116 1119 2992 2993 2994 0068 0070 0931 0995 0996 0998 1121 1129 1140 1143 1146 1323 4000 4011 4963 8394 8401 8403 0018 0947 4001 8395 0076 1158 1164 4002 0948 1000 1206 1207 0079 0080

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s
041 041 041 041 041 041 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 044 044 044 044 044 046 046 046 046 046 046 0081 0933 0950 1228 1238 4003 0046 0047 0082 0083 0084 0925 0934 1002 1248 1249 1250 1252 1253 1254 1257 1262 1267 1274 1277 1278 1279 1285 1287 1305 1895 0887 0889 0890 0891 0954 0955 1322 3001 3002 3004 3006 4016 1004 1055 1324 1326 1327 1354 1356 1357 1360 1361 1362 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 047 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 051 051 051 051 051 051 051 051 052 052 056 056 1363 1364 1365 1461 1462 1610 3009 3010 8424 1406 0092 1407 1408 1409 1413 1415 1416 1417 1418 1423 1428 1429 1464 1517 1341 1342 1343 1344 1346 1347 1348 1349 1454 1455 1456 1458 1460 1465 1466 1471 1472 1516 0093 1468 1488 1491 1492 1494 1496 1503 1512 1518 0096 1350 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 057 057 057 057 057 057 057 058 058 058 058 058 058 058 058 060 060 060 060 060 060 060 060 061 061 061 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 1351 1352 1353 1523 1524 1525 1530 1531 1534 1536 1538 1543 1544 1549 1550 1552 1556 1557 1558 1561 4039 0098 0099 0100 1571 1572 1573 4041 0101 1588 1593 1594 1598 4042 4043 4044 1478 1600 3018 3019 3021 3022 3023 3024 0102 1479 1480 0095 0103 0107 1457 1481 1482 1484 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 065 065 066 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 070 070 070 070 070 070 070 070 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 1615 1616 1620 1621 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1641 3016 3025 4032 4033 4034 4035 4050 8409 1487 1659 1660 1669 1670 1671 1677 1679 1680 1681 1686 1727 1672 1674 1709 1710 1711 1728 1729 1770 1771 1717 1718 1730 1731 1733 1736 3033 3039 1675 1676 1738 1739 1741 1742 1767 071 071 071 071 074 074 074 074 074 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 078 078 078 078 078 078 078 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 080 080 080 080 080 1772 1773 4064 4078 1740 1760 1762 4065 4072 1743 1758 1785 1790 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1915 4085 1800 1802 1803 1805 1808 1809 1817 0119 0120 0122 0124 0125 0127 0132 1724 1745 1747 1748 1818 1819 1820 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1916 1917 0113 0134 0136 1777 1779

197

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 080 080 080 080 080 080 081 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 083 083 084 085 085 085 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 087 087 087 087 087 087 088 090 090 090 090 090 1781 4066 4067 4079 4082 4090 1918 1843 1844 1847 3045 3049 4069 4093 4129 4130 1848 1920 1750 1851 1852 1854 0117 0142 0145 0155 1725 1726 1752 1754 1755 1858 1860 1863 1865 1866 1921 1925 1926 1927 4071 8410 0156 1786 1788 1876 1877 4098 1881 0157 0158 0159 0160 1890 090 090 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 092 092 092 092 092 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 095 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 3051 3053 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 3013 3014 3015 1906 1911 1935 1959 1960 0645 1887 1889 1929 1930 1931 1931 1933 1933 1942 1942 1943 1943 1945 1958 1961 1962 1992 2004 3541 3602 6211 6285 1957 0166 0167 0168 0174 1947 1948 1966 1972 1973 1974 1984 1988 4110 100 100 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 103 108 108 108 108 108 108 110 116 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 135 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 139 139 140 140 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 8416 8417 0527 1949 1991 1992 1993 1995 1998 2000 4103 8415 1951 1952 1969 2013 2022 2029 2030 2032 2042 3093 2050 2053 0231 2061 2091 2100 2101 4062 6668 6669 2085 2086 2087 2102 2121 2063 2088 2090 2097 2098 2106 2123 4201 2118 4206 2134 2135 2137 2141 0235 0237 2107 144 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 148 148 148 148 148 149 149 149 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 154 156 156 156 156 156 156 156 156 157 157 2108 2149 2150 2151 4684 6670 2092 2154 2161 2162 4209 0238 0239 0240 0241 2109 2177 2181 2183 2184 2185 3976 4202 8457 2111 2113 2188 2189 3154 2203 6687 6688 0246 2131 2212 2054 2213 2219 2223 2237 2239 4214 4215 2132 2243 2244 2245 2247 2253 2325 2326 4224 2282 2283 157 157 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162 162 162 163 163 163 163 163 163 165 165 165 166 166 2287 2288 2328 2329 4230 0258 0259 2297 2299 2300 2302 2303 2304 2330 2420 3161 3162 3173 0262 2331 2333 2416 2421 2422 2424 2425 4241 0270 0272 2372 2373 2374 2377 2378 2380 2384 2385 4231 4236 4237 2336 2337 2397 2339 2398 2399 2400 2401 2403 2441 2442 2443 2342 2344 198 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 2426 2427 2428 2430 2455 2456 2457 2470 2471 2474 2479 2481 2483 2484 2485 2486 2490 2491 3175 3176 4234 4245 4246 4247 4251 8431 8462 8463 2345 2346 2524 2525 2527 2529 2534 2535 2545 2552 2553 2573 3179 4260 2433 2580 2583 2587 2588 2589 2594 2595 2600 2603 4264 8466 168 168 169 169 169 169 169 169 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 173 173 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 8467 8469 2347 2620 2622 3187 3188 4268 2348 2643 2644 2645 2646 2653 3182 2351 2434 2435 2671 2673 2676 2677 2678 2686 2687 4275 4276 2436 2706 2707 2708 2710 2711 0268 0309 0310 0312 0314 0319 0322 2353 2355 2357 2715 2716 2734 2740 2746 2750 2751 2787 2788 3186 4242 174 174 174 174 174 175 175 175 175 175 175 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 178 178 178 178 178 180 181 181 181 181 184 184 184 184 184 185 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 190 192 193 193 193 4279 4280 4283 8473 8474 2363 2439 2440 2814 5789 5790 2844 2846 2847 2849 2851 2865 2866 4288 4289 2895 2896 2898 3190 4315 0329 2894 2901 4292 4299 2902 2909 2910 2911 2915 2916 2904 2919 2921 2922 2924 2925 2926 4300 2930 2931 2932 2933 0330 2935 2937 2903 2945 2952 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 197 200 202 202 202 202 202 211 211 211 211 211 211 212 212 212 214 214 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 222 222 222 222 222 224 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 225 225 0332 0334 2889 2890 2891 2892 2893 2905 2918 2961 4307 2907 2980 3027 3032 3034 3197 8426 0366 0367 3117 3119 3220 3222 3121 3123 3196 3257 3261 2975 3138 3372 3373 3374 3384 4172 4175 4177 8451 3510 3511 3518 3556 4341 3537 3539 3589 3590 3591 3512 3541 3543 3544 3545 225 225 225 225 225 225 228 228 228 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 233 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 3554 3555 3587 3588 3602 4348 3198 3581 8433 0396 0398 0400 0402 1964 3201 3557 3596 3605 3607 3608 3610 3615 3616 3617 3618 3623 3627 3628 3629 3631 3632 3634 3978 3979 3980 4323 4356 4357 4358 4359 4360 4361 8502 8503 8504 3642 0389 0403 3547 3548 3550 3559 3561 3644 199 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 237 237 237 237 237 237 237 239 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 3651 3653 3654 3655 3657 3661 3674 4349 4350 4369 8499 3563 3599 3676 3677 3678 3680 3681 3682 3699 3704 3780 4371 4372 4374 7083 7184 0404 0405 3709 3710 3711 3712 3721 3218 0406 0874 0875 0877 0952 0953 1970 1971 2352 2356 3564 3595 3600 3733 3734 3738 3739 3740 3741 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 242 242 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 249 249 3746 3753 3769 4351 4380 4726 6979 6980 6982 7023 3795 3807 3820 3823 3824 3826 3827 3833 3834 3851 3852 7957 8514 3849 3854 2056 3205 3206 3207 3208 3209 3211 4138 8435 0191 0196 0200 0408 0410 0432 0434 0457 0480 2973 3808 3811 3856 3863 3867 3880 3914 8513 1975 1976 249 249 249 249 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 251 251 251 251 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 1977 3868 3869 3891 0444 3871 3892 3893 3895 3897 3952 3813 3814 3874 3875 3909 3910 3911 1978 1979 1980 1982 3212 4108 4109 4397 4399 4400 8418 3213 3214 3215 3883 3884 3915 3917 3924 8437 0197 0199 0481 0482 0483 0485 0488 0489 0490 0491 0492 1986 3095 3816 3859 4112 256 256 256 256 256 258 258 258 258 258 259 260 260 260 260 264 264 267 268 268 268 268 268 268 268 268 269 269 269 269 269 269 271 271 272 272 272 272 272 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 275 275 276 276 276 276 0509 3885 4411 4412 8519 3216 3886 3930 8438 8529 3217 3887 3944 3945 4426 3888 3918 4127 4055 4058 4059 4060 4063 4128 4461 8548 3967 4100 4102 4310 4325 4478 4198 4200 4220 4221 4222 4229 4239 4131 4132 4133 4291 4294 4295 4296 4297 4298 4134 4355 0535 0536 0537 4107 276 276 276 276 277 277 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 280 280 282 282 4135 4136 4139 8543 3971 3972 0525 0527 0528 0529 0530 0539 0541 0542 0543 0544 0545 0546 0547 0548 0551 0552 0571 3225 3227 3231 3233 3985 3986 3987 4327 4480 4482 4487 4488 4489 4490 4507 4521 8486 8544 2003 3973 3988 4522 4523 4529 4530 4549 8557 4578 4579 0533 0553 200 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 283 283 283 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 0554 0555 0556 3981 4160 4330 4671 4672 4680 4682 4711 4167 4716 4743 0534 0559 0561 0562 0565 3235 3982 3992 4106 4113 4116 4117 4118 4119 4120 4171 4405 4425 4448 4470 4472 4751 4752 4753 4754 4784 4786 4787 4805 4806 4814 4815 4843 4844 4845 4846 8545 8558 8560 8561 284 284 285 285 285 285 285 285 285 286 286 286 286 286 286 286 288 288 288 288 288 288 288 288 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 8563 8564 0570 3237 4184 4185 4871 4897 4959 4191 4192 4194 4463 4962 4970 8546 5012 5014 5016 5030 5031 5107 5108 8570 5050 5051 5054 5058 4493 4997 5067 5074 5076 5077 5078 5079 5110 5112 5205 5206 0577 0578 0579 0592 0596 3238 4994 4995 4998 4999 5000 5091 5092 5093 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 293 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 295 295 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 299 299 300 300 300 301 301 301 301 301 301 5106 5115 5116 5204 8385 8386 8569 5137 0584 0585 2010 3240 4494 4496 4503 5117 5118 5148 5207 5120 5186 0594 5217 5218 5219 5221 5222 5223 5238 8571 4390 4392 4393 4394 4395 4396 4402 4407 4512 5239 5001 5002 5123 5124 8572 4497 5125 5209 0597 4498 4499 4531 4858 4864 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 302 302 303 303 303 303 303 303 304 304 304 304 304 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 307 307 307 307 4984 5127 5132 5133 5211 5251 5254 5255 5264 5323 4517 5128 5130 5131 5299 5316 5317 8573 4683 4895 5006 5007 5327 0602 0603 0604 3126 3127 3242 3243 4518 5008 5009 5101 5134 5352 5355 5356 5357 4492 4500 4501 5010 5102 5104 5105 5214 5215 5216 8574 4855 4859 4859 4860 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 4860 4874 5136 5263 5377 5378 5379 5382 5383 5384 5385 5386 5388 5405 5406 2070 4141 4142 4142 4524 5433 5435 5437 5438 5439 7867 7869 7872 5472 5473 5509 7679 7685 7689 7734 7735 7873 3245 3246 3247 3248 4143 4144 4145 4146 4328 4527 5465 5475 7702 7704 7709 7717 7874 201 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 312 313 313 313 313 313 313 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 317 317 317 317 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 321 321 321 7875 4533 5429 5432 7613 7721 7863 5478 5500 5501 7811 7813 7878 7879 7880 7881 5479 7750 7846 7847 0610 4329 4534 4539 4540 4881 4906 5480 5519 5520 5521 5522 5526 7753 7754 7899 7900 7905 7907 4546 4547 5536 5537 5541 5542 5544 5549 5550 5551 5552 7958 0618 7760 8667 322 322 322 322 322 322 322 322 323 323 323 323 323 324 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 327 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 0611 5430 5431 5572 5577 8130 8135 8146 4885 5483 5484 5580 7797 5584 0614 0622 0624 0625 0626 0627 0628 3254 4554 5486 5488 5490 5492 5592 5595 5605 8193 8222 8242 0612 0615 0616 0631 0632 3249 3250 3256 4147 4148 4561 4562 4884 4951 5469 5470 5493 5494 5518 5620 5627 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 330 330 330 332 332 332 332 332 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 335 335 335 335 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 5630 5637 7720 7786 7787 7795 8269 8280 8282 8323 5496 5497 5638 4568 5645 5646 5672 5743 4580 5692 5746 3259 4150 4151 4152 4154 5703 5704 5706 5707 5708 5710 5712 5713 5715 5716 5718 5719 5749 5750 8584 4596 5753 5754 5856 3267 4581 5756 5794 5795 5797 5807 5808 5810 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 3271 4593 4594 5842 5844 5860 5861 1473 1540 1546 3276 3277 3280 4598 4605 4607 4608 4609 4611 5763 5764 5765 5766 5767 5768 5920 5921 5923 5927 5929 5930 5932 5934 5940 5942 5944 5945 5948 5949 5950 5953 5955 8585 8586 5868 5971 5973 5978 5980 6004 3282 3283 3284 4583 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 345 345 345 345 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 348 348 348 348 348 348 348 348 349 349 349 349 350 4585 4599 4616 4617 4618 5770 5771 5772 5773 5869 5879 6030 6031 6035 6037 6038 6039 6040 6041 6045 6049 6051 6053 8589 4639 6071 6072 6213 3286 3287 3288 4155 4588 5774 5775 5888 5889 5890 6073 6079 8443 3289 4156 5779 6086 6095 6096 6097 6098 4157 4624 5781 6125 3264 202 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 352 352 352 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 3293 3295 4589 4626 4629 4630 4631 4636 5782 5783 5785 5786 5787 5788 5892 5895 6145 6168 6169 6172 6176 6181 6185 6199 6209 8593 6211 6244 5791 5792 6256 6258 6261 2014 6291 6313 6314 0640 0641 0642 0646 6299 6302 6304 6306 6365 0374 0645 3302 3303 3304 3308 4159 6284 357 357 357 357 357 359 359 359 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 365 366 366 366 366 366 366 366 366 6285 6310 6311 6366 6374 6337 6338 6339 3306 3307 4647 6315 6341 6346 6351 6368 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 4114 4115 6320 6378 6379 8419 0648 0651 0652 0653 3990 3991 4652 6321 6381 6382 6383 6395 6414 6415 6416 6417 6419 8605 6371 0212 0655 6323 6434 6435 6437 6438 6440 366 367 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 368 368 370 370 370 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 373 373 373 374 374 374 374 374 374 376 376 376 376 6443 0656 0657 6446 6451 6461 0659 0660 3313 3314 6463 4650 4660 4661 6327 6475 8600 0650 0662 6328 6329 6330 6375 0665 0668 6286 6287 6288 6289 6331 6333 6499 6500 6501 6509 6510 6512 6517 6529 6565 8597 6335 6580 6581 6595 6596 6601 6612 6615 6626 3320 4673 4674 4675 376 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 6632 6633 6635 6638 6639 6643 6646 3322 4679 4685 4686 6654 6658 6660 6679 6718 6719 6720 2089 3318 3329 4161 4163 4687 6627 6629 6631 6673 6674 6675 6680 6716 6724 6725 6728 7716 8444 6681 6682 6703 6704 6705 6706 6707 6708 6710 6723 0678 0679 0680 0681 2020 4688 4698 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 388 388 390 390 390 390 390 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 393 4699 4700 6683 6738 6740 6742 6748 6749 6750 6751 6752 6757 6767 6684 6685 6770 6771 6772 6773 6774 6777 6782 2021 6791 6792 6793 6796 6803 3326 3331 4702 6808 6816 4707 6822 6823 6824 6826 6828 6830 6836 6844 6850 6851 6692 6731 6733 6734 3251 3332 3333 4164 4165 4166 203 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 393 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 396 396 398 398 398 398 398 398 400 400 400 400 4689 4690 4691 6693 6694 6695 0214 0232 0247 0686 2094 2096 2114 2115 2116 2214 3323 3334 3335 3336 3338 4204 4205 4692 4693 4694 4712 6671 6672 6677 6696 6697 6699 6735 6736 6737 6862 6864 6869 6872 6875 6887 3341 6702 3342 6894 6895 6896 6897 6898 3344 3350 4168 4169 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 404 404 405 405 405 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 410 410 410 6915 6916 6936 3349 4723 4724 6892 6893 6949 6957 6958 6960 6961 6978 7006 7021 8615 4727 4728 6962 6985 6990 3862 4721 4731 6950 6951 6952 6953 6963 7022 7031 7033 7034 7035 7036 7039 7043 7044 7045 7052 3351 4725 6965 6967 6968 7009 7012 7054 8617 8618 4735 4736 6969 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 411 412 412 413 413 413 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 7013 7015 7064 7065 7067 7068 7069 7070 7072 7075 7077 7193 3363 7085 6971 7087 8622 3364 6972 6973 6974 6975 6977 7019 7020 7082 7093 7096 7097 7098 7099 7101 7112 7117 3357 3365 3366 3368 4744 4745 4746 4747 7119 7120 7121 7122 7124 7125 7135 7136 7137 7147 7148 7150 416 416 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 421 421 421 421 421 7151 7176 2842 3352 3353 3369 4170 4748 4749 4750 6983 7179 7180 7185 7186 7190 7197 7198 7199 0693 0695 0696 0697 0698 0699 3401 3993 4766 4767 4768 4808 7227 7228 7230 7231 7232 7233 7235 7237 7239 7241 7292 7293 7295 7296 7378 7379 8635 8636 0707 0708 0710 0713 2026 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 2027 2028 3407 3415 4173 4828 7321 7451 7455 7465 8643 3381 4174 4788 7286 7287 7289 7300 0738 4758 4759 4760 7200 7201 7202 7203 7207 7209 7210 7212 7297 7301 7302 7310 7377 0729 0730 0731 7329 7330 7332 7333 7334 8645 0732 0734 0736 0737 3391 3394 7304 7305 7306 7307 204 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 426 426 426 426 426 427 427 427 427 427 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 7309 7347 7371 7381 7545 3399 4178 7298 7374 7578 0724 0748 0750 0752 0753 3409 3411 4816 7390 7391 7401 0759 2038 4791 4820 7213 7214 7215 7219 7311 7312 7315 7317 7318 7411 7413 7415 7416 7419 7423 7426 7427 8641 8642 8649 0766 7438 7439 7440 7442 7443 7444 7445 8650 433 433 433 433 433 433 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 2034 2035 2040 2041 7447 7450 4828 4829 4830 7452 7453 7454 7462 7463 7464 7468 7469 7471 7473 7474 7475 7489 4832 7322 7383 7495 7496 7497 7499 7500 7503 7504 7510 7517 8644 8655 0776 4793 4794 4835 7323 7518 7519 7521 7522 7533 3387 3417 3418 3419 3420 3422 7324 7385 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 438 438 438 438 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 7386 7387 7434 7435 7436 7541 7550 7556 0779 3994 7325 7388 0781 0782 3423 3424 3425 4180 4181 4761 4763 7217 7218 7219 7221 7222 7223 7224 7225 7226 7326 7389 7558 7567 7568 8492 8658 3427 4186 4878 7616 7617 7618 7622 7628 7632 7633 7675 7725 7726 7728 7729 7870 7871 442 442 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 449 449 449 449 449 449 8453 8666 4870 4879 7580 7581 7683 7684 7686 0793 0794 7699 7700 7701 7703 7705 7706 7736 4875 4876 5584 7582 7583 7584 7588 7591 7612 7722 7723 7737 7738 7862 7876 8663 3445 4889 4892 7742 7743 7745 7807 7812 7816 7817 7822 7825 7845 7882 3447 4880 7589 7590 7751 7752 449 449 449 451 451 451 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 7848 7850 7885 0810 7904 7918 0815 4862 7585 7592 7596 7757 7758 7944 7945 7951 7952 7953 7956 7959 7961 7962 7987 7988 7997 7998 0816 0817 0818 0819 0820 3451 3452 3455 3456 4923 5561 7762 8033 8034 8047 8064 8074 8076 8077 8078 8079 3462 3463 3465 4932 7599 7600 7890 205 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 455 455 455 455 455 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 459 459 459 459 459 459 8127 8132 8136 8138 8141 8142 8144 8145 8147 8148 8150 8153 4882 4933 7601 8154 8155 3444 3467 3468 4190 4935 7768 7769 7771 7772 7773 7775 8159 8173 8191 8668 8671 8672 8673 0825 0827 0830 3471 4857 4942 7579 7602 7779 8192 8194 8205 8207 4943 4944 4945 7783 7784 7785 459 459 459 459 459 459 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 461 461 461 8248 8249 8250 8264 8268 8669 0833 0834 0835 0836 0837 0838 0839 0842 3474 3476 3477 3483 3491 3498 3499 4334 4339 4340 4863 4952 7603 7604 7605 7607 7608 7611 7788 7789 7790 7791 7794 7795 7891 7892 8270 8281 8284 8285 8293 8302 8306 8307 8324 8326 8670 3453 3486 7893 461 461 461 461 461 461 461 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 464 464 464 466 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 469 470 470 470 470 473 473 473 473 473 473 473 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 475 475 475 8336 8337 8338 8341 8342 8345 8346 4960 7896 7897 7898 8354 8356 8357 8358 8359 8360 8371 8373 8374 8375 3489 8372 8376 8377 8379 8414 8420 8427 8428 8456 8455 8478 8481 8482 2046 8432 8484 8496 8497 8500 8501 2048 2049 4123 8510 8511 8518 8522 8524 8534 3490 4974 8380 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 478 478 478 478 479 479 479 481 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 483 8382 8535 8537 8538 8539 8541 8549 8552 0386 0860 0866 0868 4975 8384 8565 8566 8567 8568 8577 8442 8582 8591 8595 8596 8608 8611 0862 3148 3502 3504 3508 4195 8388 8389 8446 8447 8448 8449 8452 8495 206 .

Greece in the Bronze Age (Chicago. E.: 327. N." The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible. 1973 ed. The Ten Commandments (Phoenix. Az. 1961) 35 Frank Seekins. 1989 ed.: Zondervan. Wallis Budge The Book of the Dead (Secaucus." Smith's Bible Dictionary. Jr. Voices in Stone (New York. Smith's Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids. "Writing. Ernst Doblhofer.A. Raymond Capt.: 38. Nelson's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts (Nashville: Thomas Nelson. William White. Mi. 1960) Hebrew Culture · · William Smith.I. "Archeology and the Bible. The University of Chicago Press. 1948) J. Ill. 1995) Madelene S." The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible. 1997) Emily Vermeule. Tenney. "Writing. 1985) 24. Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets (Thousand Oaks.: 632-3.Bibliography ____________________________________ Ancient Alphabets and Inscriptions · · · · · · · · · · "Writing. Viking Press. 1976 ed. 44." NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible. 1986 ed. 1964) E. Inc. Miller ..: 829.: Living Word Pictures.: Artisan Sales." The New Harper's Bible Dictionary.: 30. Merril C. "Alphabet. University Books. 1987 ed.J. Ca. Packer.

Miller and J. New Strong's Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Hebrew Bible. Unger. 1973) Merrill F. (Arlington Heights. Harper. 1991) Mary Ellen Chase. 1944) Holman Bible Dictionary. (London. 1989) The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible. (Tring England... Zondervan. 1985) Benjamin Davidson. (New York. 1955) Emmanuel Anati. 1983) Madeleine S. Harper's Bible Dictionary. William White. 1956) Word Studies · · · James Strong. Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words.1986) Fred H. Unger's Bible Dictionary. Palestine before the Hebrews (N. Lane Miller. 24th) The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (Philadelphia. (Nashville. (Nashville. (Grand Rapids. Manners and Customs of Bible Lands (Chicago: Moody. Halley. Inc.Y. Merrill F. 1995) W. Norton and Company Inc. Encyclopedia of Bible Life (New York: Harper & Brothers. Moody. Unger.. Life and Language in the Old Testament (N. Nelson. (Chicago. Nomads of the Nomads. new rev. Charles Scribners. (Nashville. 1975) E. (New York. W. Mi: Zondervan. ed. Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids. E. Samuel Bagster) 208 . Knopf. Lion. Westminster. Vine. W. 1963) Donald Powell Cole. Nelson.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet · · · · · · · · · · · · and J.Y. 1977) Henry H. Heaton. W.. Harlan Davidson. The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon. Wright. Ill. 1976) NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible. Lane Miller. Alfred A. Holman. Everyday life in Old Testament times.

1955) Thorleif Boman.. Skeat. W. Norton and Company.Y. Indiana University Press. The Word: the Dictionary that reveals the Hebrew origin of English (New York. (N. 1969) Charlton Laird The Miracle of Language (Greenwich Conn.. Charles Scribner's Sons.. Walter W. Capricorn Books. (Bloomington In. 1963) Hebrew Thought · · Mary Ellen Chase. Washington Square Press. Harper. Norton and Company Inc. Inc. Oxford Press.....Y. Crown Publishers. Fawcett. (London. The Origins and Nature of Language. 1961) Rev. 1895) Edward Horowitz.Y. Hebrew Thought Compared with Greek (N. How the Hebrew Language Grew (KTAV.Y. 1910) William R. 1960) Hebrew Language · · · Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. English-Hebrew Hebrew-English Dictionary. Elements of Hebrew.Y.Bibliography · · · Isaac Mozeson.. Life and Language in the Old Testament (N. Slapsky) Ehud Ben-Yehuda.Y. 1953) Giorgio Fano. (N. 2nd English Ed. W. (N. W.W.. A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 1992) 209 . 1960) Ancient Language and Origins · · · John Philip Cohane The Key (N.. David Weinstein.

1978.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Bibles · · · · Biblia Hebraica Stutgartensia The Holy Bible. Mesorah Publications Ltd. King James Version 210 . New International Version (Grand Rapids.. Zondervan Bible Publishers. 1973. 1984) The Stone Edition Tanach (Brooklyn. 1996) The Holy Bible.

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