The Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

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Understanding the Ancient Hebrew language of the Bible based on Ancient Hebrew Culture and Thought

Jeff A. Benner +

The Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Unless otherwise noted, the Scriptures are taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION. Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Bible Publishers. About the cover: Photo taken at the University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The inscription reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is inscribed on a piece of broken pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE. Cover and Illustrations by the author “The Anicent Hebrew Language and Alphabet,” by Jeff A. Benner. ISBN 1-58939-534-4. Published 2004 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College Station, TX , 77842, US. 2004 Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this book may be copied for non-profit educational purposes only, without prior permission. Otherwise, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Jeff A. Benner. Manufactured in the United States of America.

To my wife Denise. who has taught me more about Hebrew thought through her actions then all the books I have read. .

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......................................................30 Five .........................................................................................................................Hebrew origins of English...............9 Why study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture?....................................................................................................................................................................67 Hebrew sound.............................................................................................................Hebrew Thought ....................67 English name .66 Introduction ...................................................................................................36 Reconstructing the Parent Roots ..........Word Studies .............Table of Contents Introduction .......................................................................45 Conclusion...........................The Root System of Hebrew.....................................................35 Benefit of studying words from a common root..........Learn to Read Ancient Hebrew ....................43 Seven ............32 Parent Roots ..3 Who were the Hebrews?........................................................................................................1 One ..........24 Letter Characteristics..................................................................................................26 Four ..........................................The Hebrews .....................................................................................50 Appendix B ...............................................19 Abstract vs.........................37 Methods for reconstructing the original Parent Root .33 Adopted Roots.........3 The Origin of the Hebrew Language and Alphabet................................. Functional Description.....40 God..................................................................................................................................................................................Ancient Hebrew Alphabet Reconstruction ...........................................................41 Voice ......Reconstructing the Original Hebrew Alphabet......................................................................................66 English letter ..................................................66 Picture ...........................................................42 Ancient Hebrew Words ....20 Appearance vs............................................................ concrete thought ......................67 Hebrew name..........................................................................4 The evolution of the Hebrew alphabet .......22 Three ....................................................................................................................34 Words ...17 Two .................................................21 Passive vs.........................Hebrew Prefixes ..................................37 Six ..............................................................................................................32 Child Roots..........................68 ....24 Reconstruction of the Alphabet ..................................................................................49 Appendix A .............16 How do we study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? ......... Active Nouns .......................40 Creator...............

........196 Bibliography............................................................................Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Hebrew meaning .............................................................207 ii ........................Strong's Number ............................................................................................117 Cross reference to Strong’s numbers................184 Ancient Hebrew Number .92 Appendix D – Alphabet Charts .....................................115 Ancient Hebrew.............117 Purpose of the Lexicon............................................................................................................115 Modern Hebrew........................................................................68 Appendix C ......................Ancient Hebrew Parent Root Dictionary .................................................116 Derivatives .................Ancient Hebrew Number .184 Strong's Number .....................................116 Appendix E ...118 Appendix F – Number Cross References ......................................................History of the Hebrew Script ............117 How to use the Lexicon..........................................................................

....14 Figure 17 Sumerian Pictograph on clay tablet c.. 200 CE ... 800 BCE ......10 Figure 7 Ugarit cuneiform inscription on clay tablet c....... 1000 BCE .........................14 Figure 18 Sumerian Cuneiform on clay tablet c......................9 Figure 5 Moabite inscription on stone c.......10 Figure 8 Aramaic inscription on stone incense altar c.................8 Figure 3 Ancient Shemitic/ Hebrew pictographic inscription on stone boulder c...........................................15 Figure 19 Hebrew root word systems.......13 Figure 15 Greek writing on New Testament papyrus c................46 .......12 Figure 13 Samaritan scripts.........................11 Figure 10 Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c... 2500 BCE .........................5 Figure 2 The scattering of the descendants of Noah's three sons...................................13 Figure 16 Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Book of the Dead c................... 1000 BCE (mirror image)..............11 Figure 9 Aramaic inscription on stone plaque c....... 1350 BCE ....................................List of Illustrations Figure 1 Pre-flood pictograph found in the pre-flood city of Kish.....12 Figure 12 Pictographic Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c........32 Figure 20 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c.. 500 BCE .................. 3000 BCE ......................................... 1400 BCE .................................... 1500 BCE ........... .. 20 CE.................................................... 900 BCE.. .......................10 Figure 6 Ammonite inscription on stone c................ 200 BCE11 Figure 11 Modern Hebrew script from the Hebrew Bible............................9 Figure 4 Ancient Hebrew inscription on potsherd c..........................45 Figure 21 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c...............12 Figure 14 Greek inscription found on bowl c. 900 BCE ..... 900 BCE .............. 100 BCE ...

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just like any other language. In a work such as this.Introduction ____________________________________ This book is unique in that it will look at the Biblical Hebrew language of the Bible through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrews who wrote it. there will undoubtedly be some misinterpretation of the Ancient Hebrew culture and pictographs. At other times . The study of any Ancient culture is like putting together a puzzle. Sometimes the gaps in the puzzle are small and easy to fill in based on the pieces around it. we piece together and attempt to fill in the gaps as efficiently as possible. change and evolve over time. similar to Egyptian Hieroglyphs. By studying the culture and lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews we can better understand their language. but the pieces we do have. Each picture represented an object whose definition is closely related to the agricultural lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews. The original letters of the Hebrew alphabet was actually pictures. We will never have all the pieces to the puzzle. or pictographs. It is the goal of this work to bring out the Ancient Hebrew meanings of words to the student of the Bible as never before done. The definitions of Hebrew words. The study of the Ancient Hebrew language and alphabet begins with an understanding of the Ancient Hebrew culture as both are intimately related. Modern readers often ignore the fact that the Bible is an Ancient text and must be read as an Ancient text.

who have the same love for the Ancient Hebrew language and culture.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet these gaps are large and difficult to fill in. will take on the challenge of continuing the research needed to piece together the puzzle. There is much work to be done in this area of language and word study and I hope that others. 2 .

The letter b (beyt) is pronounced as a "b" when at the beginning of a word.The Hebrews ____________________________________ Who were the Hebrews? The first person mentioned in the Bible as a "Hebrew" is Abraham1. (Genesis 14.16 2 1 . 3 Genesis 11. "to cross over". and usually a "v" within a word. Known as Abram before God changed his name.One . A Hebrew is "one who has crossed over". One of Abraham's ancestors was Eber3 (rb[). "One who had escaped came and reported this to Abram the Hebrew".13) Is Abraham the first Hebrew? The Hebrew word for "Hebrew" is yrb[ / eevriy2 and comes from the root word rb[ / avar which means.

rwa yhy (yehiy or). sun (shemesh). "light exist". When God formed Adam he gave him this spoken language and communicated with him (Genesis 1. beginning with Adam. The Origin of the Hebrew Language and Alphabet Prior to the incident of the Tower of Babel. and of one speech.3 where God says. The first use of the Hebrew language is recorded in Genesis 1. which will be discussed later.1) From this we can conclude that God.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet The name Eber also comes from the same root rb[ / avar. A Hebrew was one who had "crossed over" into a covenant relationship with God." (Genesis 11. The man also used this same language to give names4 to 4 Genesis 2. In the creation account God gave Hebrew names to the sky (shamayim). is referring to the ancestral line from Adam to the Nation of Israel. Abraham.19 4 . "And the whole earth was of one language. Isaac. The Bible is the story of God and his covenant relationship (Hebraicly understood as "crossing over" from death to life) with an ancestral line beginning with Adam through his descendants Noah. stars (kokhaviym) and man (adam). making it possible that Eber was also a "Hebrew". meaning.28). land (erets). moon (yerey'ach). only one language existed. Jacob and Jacob's descendants. who became the "nation of Israel" also known as "the Hebrews". Adam and Eve and their descendants spoke Hebrew. Any references to the "Ancient Hebrews" in this book.

the Ancient Hebrew language (speech) and alphabet (script) are dependent upon each other. animals (behemah). The Hebrew word for "mark" is twa / owt and is also the Hebrew word for a "letter" indicating that it may have been a "letter" that God placed on him. supporting a simultaneous appearance of the language and alphabet. Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids. The first indication of writing is found in Genesis 4. Several of the letters in this tablet are identical to the original Hebrew letters7 (See Appendix D).23 Henry H. 7 Over time all alphabets evolve. Pre-flood writings have been discovered in the city of Kish6 (fig. 24th) 44-5. Genesis 2. beasts (hayah sadeh) and woman5 (iyshah). Since God is the originator of the Hebrew language. he is also the originator of the alphabet.Jeff A. 1). it is possible for the writing system of Noah's day to differ from the alephbet given to Adam. Halley. As will be demonstrated later.15 where God puts a "mark" on Cain. 6 5 5 . Benner all of the birds (oph). Figure 1 Pre-flood pictograph found in the pre-flood city of Kish. Therefore. Mi: Zondervan.

Only Noah and his family were spared. See The Genesis Flood by John C. 10 A Greek word meaning "between (meso) rivers (potamia)". that they may not understand one another's speech"11. the Hebrew name Adam means "man" and he was the first "man".7 12 Merrill F. (BCE . For instance. the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.000 BCE12. "Tower of Babel." Unger's Bible Dictionary. Ham and Japheth. Unger. Morris. we find three major languages. each See Genesis 5:29 A literal flood that covered the whole earth.Before the Common Era. Methuselah means "his death brings" and the flood came in the year that he died. Whitcomb and Henry M. 1977 ed. Shem. It is during their lives that God brought the great flood9 because of man's wickedness. God said. Here man began to build the "Tower of Babel". which occurred around 4.1) Noah's descendants remained in the area known as Mesopotamia10. Noah had three sons. equivalent to BC) 9 8 6 . God commanded Noah and his descendants to: "be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth" (Genesis 9. and there confound their language. In order to cause the descendants of Noah to scatter and fill the earth. After the incident of the Tower of Babel.: 115. 11 Genesis 11.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Genesis chapter 5 gives a genealogical record from Adam to Noah where we find that all the names are Hebrew. Noah means "comfort" as he will bring comfort to his people8. "let us go down. We know that these names are Hebrew rather than another language because all of the names have meaning only in Hebrew and are related to their character as described in the Biblical text.

Lane Miller.Jeff A. just as God planned (fig.: 710. The Sumerian pictographs evolved into the cuneiform (wedge-shaped) writing familiar to most people. The arrival of the Egyptian and Sumerian languages seems to have mysteriously appeared out of nowhere. Sumerian and Hebrew. Miller and J." 987. As a result of the Tower of Babel man began to migrate in three different directions from Mesopotamia.. Tenney. The Japhethites traveled north becoming the Sumerians16. 16 The land of the Sumerians was known as Sumer." Harper's Bible Dictionary. Akkadians. which is Shinar in the Bible (Genesis 10.10) also known as Babylonia. 2). "Sumer. 17 Unger. Packer. such as the Phonecians." 987 and Madelene S. 7 . It is interesting to note that while all three have a very similar pictographic14 form of writing." 288. probably a sub-group of the Scythians17. It is believed that the Japhethites traveled north the Black and Caspian seas and are the ancestors of the Sumerians. Canaanites. traveling west speaking Hebrew. Amonites and Arameans sprouted out of the Hebrews and are also part of the Shemitic family. Merril C. a record of the scattering of the descendants of the sons of Noah. "Scythian. Benner very different and unrelated to each other13. 13 J. the sounds for each of the letters are different. In Genesis 10 we find the "table of nations". "Egypt. speaking Sumerian. Jr. Nelson's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts (Nashville: Thomas Nelson. The Hamites traveled south into Africa and became the Egyptians speaking Egyptian. Later cultures. "Scythian. Moabites. William White. 1995) 337. possibly indicating the method which God used to confuse the language of men. 15 The Shemites (aslo called Semites) are the Hebrews. See Unger. The Shemites15 were the descendants of Shem. 14 A word of Greek origin meaning picture-writing where a picture represented a sound or combination of sounds. 1973 ed. Egyptian.I. Unger.

8). 8 . Words that do not follow these patterns are suspect of being of foreign origin. 18 19 See Strong's #5248 See Strong's #5455 20 The construction of Hebrew words. "Hebrew Language. correlating in time with the confounding of the language at the Tower of Babel. It has long been a tradition within both Judaism and Christianity that Hebrew is the mother of all languages21. follows a set of patterns. Sabteca19 (Genesis 10. such as Nimrod18 (Genesis 11. 21 Will Smith.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Figure 2 The scattering of the descendants of Noah's three sons. including names. It is not until we come to Noah's grand-children that we find names that are of a language other then Hebrew.7) and many others whose names have no meaning in Hebrew20.: 238. 1948 ed." Smith's Bible Dictionary.

each representing an object such as water (top left corner) or a shepherd staff (second from right at bottom). Figure 4 Ancient Hebrew inscription on potsherd c. Canaanites. 900 BCE The Hebrews splintered into sub-groups such as the Phoenicians. 5). protocanaanite" and "paleo-hebrew". Akkadians. the Ancient Hebrew alphabet began to evolve into a simpler script (fig. Ammonites (fig. Arameans (fig. Moabites (fig. 3) of the Ancient Hebrew alphabet22 consisted of 22 letters. Semitic" "proto-siniatic". 8). 9 . 4) similar to the original pictographic alphabet.Jeff A. 6). 1500 BCE After the Tower of Babel. all 22 Also known as "Shemitic". Benner The evolution of the Hebrew alphabet The original pictographic script (fig. Figure 3 Ancient Shemitic/ Hebrew pictographic inscription on stone boulder c. and others.

10 . alphabet scripts evolved very differently. meaning. the Ugarit cuneiform is called Hebrew cuneiform. 900 BCE Figure 6 Ammonite inscription on stone c. is written with a stylus that is pressed into a clay tablet to form the letters.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet known as Shemites. "wedge-shape". 7) sometimes called Hebrew cuneiform. Figure 7 Ugarit cuneiform inscription on clay tablet c. Figure 5 Moabite inscription on stone c. 900 BCE At other times. their alphabet script evolved similarly. 24 Because the Ugarit language is so similar to Hebrew. Due to the close proximity and interaction of these Shemitic cultures. The most unique is the Ugaritic. 1400 BCE 23 Cuneiform. consisting of 30 letters where the original pictographic script evolved into a cuneiform23 script24 (fig.

10). 500 BCE Figure 9 Aramaic inscription on stone plaque c.Jeff A. originated in the Hebrew script around 1000 BCE (fig. the Hebrew language has been written in the Aramaic script (fig. Figure 8 Aramaic inscription on stone incense altar c. When the Hebrew people were taken into Babylonian captivity. By 400 BCE it no longer resembled the original pictographic script (fig. 8) and began to evolve independently of other Shemitic groups. Benner The Aramean script (Aramaic). 20 CE. they adopted the Aramaic script abandoning the Ancient Hebrew script. 200 BCE 11 . From this point to the present. used extensively in the Babylonian region. Figure 10 Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c. 9).

While the majority of the Hebrew texts of the first century BCE and into the first century CE were written in the Aramaic script.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet The Modern Hebrew script has remained very similar to the Hebrew of the first century BCE (fig. 13) similar to the Ancient Hebrew script and is still used to this day. The coins of this era used the Ancient pictographic Hebrew script as well as some scrolls such as those found in the Dead Sea caves (fig. at the time of Israel's captivity. Figure 13 Samaritan scripts 12 . a region of Israel. As a result of their isolation they are the only culture to retain a script (fig. 100 BCE The Samaritans lived in the land of Samaria. they were not taken into Babylon with Israel. 12). Figure 11 Modern Hebrew script from the Hebrew Bible. Figure 12 Pictographic Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c. the Ancient Hebrew pictographic script was not lost and was still used on occasion. 11).

the Greeks adopted the Ancient Hebrew script (fig. they were written from left to right at times25. 15) used today. Since the hammer was held in the right hand and the chisel in the left hand. 800 BCE Figure 15 Greek writing on New Testament papyrus c. figure 14 was written from right to left. While all the Shemitic scripts shown above were usually written from right to left. For example. 13 . which is written from left to write. This Ancient Greek alphabet began to evolve over the centuries to become the Greek script (fig. The directions of the letters reveal the direction of writing. Note the "K" (first letter from the left) and the "E" (fourth letter from the left). a right to left writing was natural. 14). Benner Around 1000 BCE. Note the direction of the "E" (first letter from the right) and the "K" (fifth letter from the right). Compare these with the same letters in figure 15.Jeff A. it was preferable to right from left to right so that the hand would not smear the ink. When ink began to be used. Around 500 BCE the Greeks finalized a left to right form of writing while the Shemites finalized a right to left form of writing. 200 CE 25 Ancient inscriptions were often written on stone using a hammer and chisel. Figure 14 Greek inscription found on bowl c.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet To the south of the Shemitic peoples. these pictographs evolved into a cuneiform script (fig. Figure 16 Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Book of the Dead c. 17). the Egyptians used a complex system of pictographs called hieroglyphs (fig. 1350 BCE To the east of the Shemites were the Sumerians whose system of writing was very similar to the Egyptian with several hundred pictographs (fig. 3000 BCE 14 . Figure 17 Sumerian Pictograph on clay tablet c. In addition to the alphabet. Over time. the Egyptians were writing with an alphabet almost identical to the Ancient Hebrew script. 18) similar to the Ugaritic. 16) where each pictograph represented one. two or three syllables.

One example is the letter "lamed" that can be seen in several of the inscriptions above.Jeff A. Hebrew and other Shemitic cultures have their origins in the Ancient Hebrew script. Aramaic. The other is a flowchart showing the evolution of the letter through the centuries 15 . Arabic. Appendix "C" includes a set of two charts for each of the 22 Hebrew letters. Greek. tracing their history and evolution is beneficial to reconstructing the original Ancient Hebrew script. as well as noting its similarity to our "L". similarities of the script of different cultures can be observed. 2500 BCE Due to the common origin of all the scripts above. Ancient Semitic Moabite Aramaic Samaritan DSS Hebrew Hebrew Ammonite Hebrew/Aramaic Greek Modern Hebrew Since the Egyptian. Sumerian. One chart includes all the known scripts of 14 languages. Benner Figure 18 Sumerian Cuneiform on clay tablet c.

To the Ancient Hebrew nomads the word "rain" was usually equated with "life" since without it. it has a positive connotation. Where as today. their very existence would not be possible. dinner is the main meal eaten in the evening. If the local weather station forecasts a "rain" shower for tomorrow. while to the farmer in the middle of a drought season. different people will interpret the word "rain" in different ways. This is true even in our own culture where the word "rain" can be interpreted differently. "dinner" was the main meal of the day eaten at noon and a light "supper" was eaten in the evening. To my grandparents and their generation. A word such as "rain" has the meaning. whose culture and lifestyle were very different than our own. our culture and lifestyle often influence our interpretation of the words and phrases of the Bible. There are countless examples in our own English language of how word meanings change over time according to the culture. Many times our cultural influence will give a different definition to words that was not intended by the Biblical authors.500 and 500 BCE. For example the Bible speaks of keeping and 16 . The bride and groom who are prepared for an outdoor wedding view this news with a negative connotation. Another example of the importance of understanding the cultural setting can be seen in the word "dinner". but the interpretation of the word rain will be influenced by the context of the culture. "the coming down of water from the clouds in the sky". When we read the Bible as a 21st Century American. with a circumstantial biasness. wrote the Bible between 1.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Why study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? The Hebrew people.

000 years ago. opening the door to their manner of speech and alphabets.Jeff A. Will you cherish his commands or throw them on the ground and walk on them? A people's language is very related to their culture. providing us with a close up view of how these Ancient cultures lived. How do we study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? Archeologists who uncover Ancient artifacts study the Ancient cultures. but ones attitude towards them. protect. without an understanding of the Hebrew culture we cannot fully understand their language. lifestyle and language. The Hebrew word for word "keep" is rmX / shamar) which literally means "to guard. The words "keep" and "break" are usually interpreted as "obedience" and "disobedience". Linguists and etymologists study the ancient languages. Anthropologists interpret these artifacts to determine the Ancient culture's way of life. But this is not the Ancient Hebraic meaning of these words. Many Ancient cultures have left 17 . Benner breaking the commands of God. The Ancient Hebrew understanding of these words is not about mechanical obedience and disobedience of his commands. and cherish" while the Hebrew word for "break" is rrp / parar and literally means "to trample underfoot". To cross this cultural bridge. Throughout the world there remains primitive cultures whose lifestyles have remained the same for thousands of years. One of these groups is the desert nomad of the Middle East who still live much the way Abraham did over 3. we need to understand the Ancient Hebrew culture.

The purpose of this book is to teach the relationship between the Hebrew language and the Hebrew culture. understanding of Biblical words. more accurate. When we combine and study the material provided by these fields of study. By studying these resources we can better understand their words. 18 . The most notable text of the Ancient Hebrews is of course the Bible. which will give us a deeper. we open the door to the culture and lifestyle of Ancient cultures.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ancient texts recording their thoughts and lifestyle. which they have recorded in the Bible.

The Ancient Hebrews were Eastern thinkers. . What happened to this Ancient Hebrew thought and culture? Around 800 BCE. more closely related to today’s Orientals than Americans or even Modern day Hebrews in Israel. This was a very tumultuous time as the two vastly different cultures collided. and West (Greek). East (Hebrew). The Greek culture then in turn. there are two major types of cultures. Both of these cultures view their surroundings. lives.Hebrew Thought ____________________________________ In the world. such as today’s oriental cultures of the Far East. Over the following 400 years the battle raged until finally the Greek culture won and virtually eliminated all traces of the Ancient Hebrew culture. and purpose in ways that would seem foreign to the other. Our own American culture and even the Modern Hebrew culture in Israel today are strongly influenced by the Greek culture.Two . past and present. Around 200 BCE the Greeks began to move south causing a coming together of the Greek and Hebrew culture. influenced all following cultures including the Roman and European cultures. the Greek culture arose in the north. This new culture began to view the world very much differently than the Hebrews. such as Europe and America. which has adopted a western culture.

we must examine some of the differences between Hebrew and Greek thought. fruit and leaf. ideas that cannot be experienced by the senses. “The LORD is compassionate and gracious. hearing. smelled. anger and love are all abstract words. In this passage the author expresses his thoughts in concrete terms such as. tasted or heard. writing and reading the Hebrew language. Abstract thought is a foreign concept to the Ancient Hebrew mind. Abstract vs. An example of this can be found in Psalms 1:3. but here we will confine our focus on those differences that impact the interpretation of words. Why do we find these abstract words in a passage of 20 . grace. “He is like a tree planted by streams of water. tree. Examples of Abstract thought can be found in Psalms 103:8. concrete thought Greek thought views the world through the mind (abstract thought).Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet As 21st Century Americans with a strong Greek thought influence. touched. which yields its fruit in season. Ancient Hebrew thought views the world through the senses (concrete thought). Concrete thought is the expression of concepts and ideas in ways that can be seen. In order to understand the Ancient Hebrew culture in which the Bible was written in. Slow to anger. There are many differences between Hebrew and Greek thought. abounding in love”. we read the Hebrew Bible as if a 21st Century American had written it. touched. Abstract thought is the expression of concepts and ideas in ways that cannot be seen. streams of water. The words compassion. All five of the senses are used when speaking. tasted and/or heard. and whose leaf does not wither”. smelled.

To our Greek way of thinking a deer and an oak are two very different objects and we would never describe them in the same way. the English reader would not understand. he begins to breath hard and the nostrils begin to flare. "it is yellow and about eight inches long". The translators often translate this way because the original Hebrew makes no sense when literally translated into English. Notice that the Hebrew description uses the verb "write" while the Greek description uses the adjectives "yellow" and "long". Because of Hebrew's form of functional descriptions. these are abstract English words used to translate the original Hebrew concrete words.Jeff A. is actually the Hebrew word @a / awph which literally means “nose”. The Hebrew word for both of these objects is lya / ayil because the functional description of 21 . A Hebrew sees anger as “the flaring of the nose (nostrils)”. an abstract word. A Greek description of a common pencil would be. Hebrew thought describes objects in relation to its function. Functional Description Greek thought describes objects in relation to its appearance. Let us take one of the above abstract words to demonstrate the translation from a concrete Hebrew word to an abstract English word. a concrete word. verbs are used much more frequently then adjectives. If the translator literally translated the above passage “slow to nose”. A Hebrew description of the pencil would be related to its function such as "I write words with it". When one is very angry. Benner concrete thinking Hebrews? Actually. Appearance vs. Anger.

"The voice of the LORD makes the strong leaders turn ". Notice the two different translations of the Hebrew word lya in Psalms 29:9. The Hebrews are active people and their vocabulary reflects this lifestyle. just as in most Ancient 22 . the same Hebrew word is used for both. But. which by themselves impart no action. When translating the Hebrew into English. The literal translation of this verse in Hebrew thought would be.15. This same word "ayil” is also translated as a "ruler" (a strong leader of men) in 2 Kings 24.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet these two objects are identical to the Ancient Hebrews. place or thing. The Hebraic definition of lya is "a strong leader". Hebrew nouns refer to the action of a person place or thing. in Hebrew. the Greek thinking translator will give a Greek description to this word for the Greek thinking reader. Passive vs. therefore. The NASB and KJV translates it as "The voice of the LORD makes the deer to calve" while the NIV translates it as "The voice of the LORD twists the oaks". The Greek culture recognizes words such as knee and gift as nouns. The wood of the oak tree is very hard compared to other trees and is seen as a "strong leader" among the trees of the forest. which is why we have two different ways of translating this verse. A deer stag is one of the most powerful animals of the forest and is seen as "a strong leader" among the other animals of the forest. Active Nouns Greek nouns are words that refer to a person.

Benner languages26. to suppress our Western Greek minds. The Hebrew word for father is ba / av and literally means "the one who gives strength to the family" and mother ~a / em means "the one that binds the family together". therefore. Even the Hebrew nouns for father and mother are descriptive of action. Bloomington. The Origins and Nature of Language (Indiana University Press.Jeff A. there is no distinction between nouns and verbs. When we read the Ancient texts of the Hebrew Bible we must remember that the words used are related to the Ancient Hebrew culture and thought. The Hebrew mind sees the knee ($rb / berak) as "the knee that bends" and a gift (hkrb / berakah) as "what is brought with a bent knee". 1992) 66 23 26 . We need. leaving them for reading the Modern classics. all words are related to action. Giorgio Fano. The Greek mind designates a knee and a gift as inanimate nouns unrelated in meaning.

one digs down into the depths of time and compares the artifacts of pictographic and non-pictographic scripts to determine dates. name and meaning. sound. Letter Characteristics We usually associate two characteristics for each letter. meaning it represents a picture of . Pictographic (form) -. As artifacts are found. When studying Ancient alphabets. The Ancient Hebrew alphabet has four characteristics: form.The original letter is pictographic. they are compared to artifacts of other cultures and other time periods to determine the distinctive characteristics of the culture and civilization. a form and a sound. culture or way of life of Ancient civilizations. 1. as in the first letter of our alphabet whose form is "A" and has the sound "a".Reconstructing the Original Hebrew Alphabet ____________________________________ The Ancient Hebrew letters form the foundation to the Ancient Hebrew language and a thorough study of these letters is essential to understanding the cultural background to the words they form. which digs down to hidden depths to determine the origins. meaning and sound.Three . The process of reconstructing the original Hebrew alphabet is similar to the field of archeology.

For example. 3. it is often necessary to add vowels.The mnemonic meaning of a pictograph is the extended meanings related to the pictograph27. and has the extended mnemonic meanings of speak. 25 . The phonetic value of the pictograph p / peh is "p". the pictograph p.The first letter of the syllabic name provides a singular sound for the purpose of forming words and sentences. blow and open. Giorgio Fano. 28 27 When translating the Hebrew into English.Jeff A. 4. 2. Benner something. 1992) 20. The name of the pictograph p is "peh"28 and is also the Hebrew word for "mouth". The Origins and Nature of Language (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. These added vowels will be italicized. Phonetic (sound) -.Each pictograph is associated with a single syllable of two consonants. such as the pictograph p representing a mouth. Mnemonic (meaning) -. This syllable is also the name of the pictograph. Syllabic (name) -. These mnemonic meanings most often are related to the pictograph by their function rather than appearance. is a picture of a mouth.

the picture p is the form of a letter representing a mouth. the original Hebrew alphabet can be reconstructed with a fair amount of accuracy. Names of the pictographs . so do their names. Comparison of Semitic scripts . The Arabic 29 This Hebrew word means camel and has caused some confusion where this pictograph has been interpreted as a picture of a camel. 2. Form The original form of the letter is pictographic. For example. Over time the fields of archeology. Modern Hebrew names will no longer reflect the actual picture. Occasionally. and their discoveries in linguistics and culture. the name of the pictograph "d" is "tld" (dalet) which means "door" revealing the identity of the picture as that of a door. may contribute additional information about the Ancient Hebrews to bring us even closer to the original. meaning it represents a picture. but other languages do. For example. For example. the word gimel (meaning a camel)29 is now assigned to c with no apparent connection. This historical chart can then be used to follow the progression of script evolution from one culture to the next throughout their written history. 1.Each Hebrew pictograph have a name directly related to the picture. These charts can be seen in appendix "C". 26 .Each letter of the Semitic cultures are carefully compared and arranged according to time and sub group. and anthropology. and their discoveries of artifacts and Ancient inscriptions.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Reconstruction of the Alphabet By applying the below methods. Just as scripts evolve.

4. For example. 1. 2. Many times the Hebrew culture will reveal the meaning of the picture. "gamma". the pictograph b is named "beyt". The Hebrew word for an eye is !y[ (ayin) and is the Modern name for this letter. meaning house. Pictograph . the names of the letter occasionally evolve or on rare occasion replaced. but around 1000 BCE they shifted to a vertical orientation. Progression of letter evolution . Benner language has retained the original name of "gam" as has the Greek. The name of the pictograph p is peh and is also the Hebrew word for "mouth". This can help to fill in missing evolutionary changes. the original Hebrew language consisted of Parent and Child Roots while many of the three-letter roots. the letter o is an eye.What the pictograph represents is the first clue to what the name of the letter is. For example. were formed at a later time.The Ancient Hebrew language is very closely related to their lifestyle.By following the progression of each letters evolutionary process we see some common changes in the letters. The connection between the pictograph and name is lost without knowledge of the Ancient houses made of tents. 3. called adopted roots. Name Just as the pictograph of a letter evolves over time. For example. From 27 . Original Hebrew language .Jeff A. as the pictograph is a perfect representation of the floor plan of the tent.As will be demonstrated later. most of the pictographs were oriented in a horizontal position. Ancient Hebrew culture .

3. Interestingly. two letters are silent (a and [).Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet this we can conclude that any letter. is not the original name of the letter. Names of the letters of other cultures using the Hebrew alphabet . When there is a difference. and two letters are assigned the "S" sound (s and X). the name of the pictograph p is "pey" and has the phonetic value of "p".In the Modern Hebrew alphabet. The sound other cultures apply to the Hebrew alphabet . It is more likely that the original Hebrew alphabet did not waste letters by duplicating sound or using them as silent.The first letter of the name gives the phonetic value of the pictograph. For example the p in its various forms through the different cultures all assign this letter a phonetic value of "P". A unique sound for each letter .In most cases. 1. 28 . whose Modern name is an adopted root. 2. the names are compared to determine the more original name. two letters are assigned the "T" sound (j and t). 3.The names for each letter is usually transferred from one culture to another with either a slight change or no change at all. Sound Each letter represents a singular sound that is used to form words. the same sound is carried through the different culture. all but five Modern names are a parent or Child Root word. For example. For example the p (P) and e (H) form the word PH (peh). The name of the letter .

mnemonic. which can be a consonant as in the word “yellow”. Meaning The meaning of a letter is related to the picture30 the form of the letter represents. Appendix "A" provides a detailed view of the reconstruction of the pictographic. or a vowel as in the word "fly". speak. The Origins and Nature of Language (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The name of the letter . blow or edge. which use these letters.Jeff A. 1. 29 30 . 1992) 20. For example the name of the letter p is "peh" and can mean mouth. Some of these letters doubled as vowels much like the "Y" in the Roman alphabet. Appendix "D" is a detailed chart of the Modern and Ancient Hebrew alphabet.The name of the letter is a Hebrew word with meaning and usually more than one. These meanings are then a part of the meaning of the words. Vowels . Giorgio Fano. syllabic and phonetic attributes of each Hebrew letter.All of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet are consonants. Benner 4.

rather it is implied. we have yral (to a land). l The Hebrew shepherd always carried a staff and was used to move the sheep toward the destination. When the letter l/L is placed in front of the word yra. Since the family resides inside the tent. The door is in front (top left of the picture) and a wall (middle of the picture) separates the men’s side (left side) from the women’s side (right side). b The nomadic Hebrews lived in tents. m/M. their cultural understanding and their application in the Hebrew language. we have yrab/be'arets (in a31 land). These examples will demonstrate the relationship between the pictographs of each letter.Hebrew Prefixes ____________________________________ The idea of the form of a letter as providing meaning is foreign to our understanding of the purpose of the alphabet. When the letter b/B is placed in front of a word such as yra/erets (land). this letter means "in". 31 Hebrew does not express the idea "a" or "an". This letter means "to" or "toward".Four . and this letter is a representation of the tent. l/L. . b/B. f/W and e/H. In this chapter we are going to look at five Prefixes that are commonly added to Hebrew words.

e This letter is a picture of a mans arms raised or extended toward someone or something as if saying "behold. or a nail used to attach things together. When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "the" as in identifying someone or something in particular When the letter e/H is placed in front of the word yra. Blood is seen as the passing down a line from one generation to another. we have yram/me'erets (from a land). When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "and" in the sense of adding things together. look at this.Jeff A. When the letter m/M is placed in front of the word yra. we have yrae/ha'erets (the land). When the letter f/W is placed in front of the word yra. When this letter is prefixed to a word it means "from" in the sense of coming out of someone or something. 31 . Benner m This letter is a picture of water and can also mean the flowing water in man and animals (blood). f This letter is a picture of a tent peg used to secure the tent. we have yraf/ve'erets (and land).

When the b (bet. a seed which continues the . Figure 19 Hebrew root word systems Parent Roots When two letters/pictographs are put together. a Parent Root word is formed. The Branches come from the trunk (Parent Root) and the trunk comes out of the roots (letters). The root system is like a tree where the leaves (words) come from the branches (Child Root).Five . a house) is combined with the n (nun.The Root System of Hebrew ____________________________________ The Hebrew language uses a root system for its vocabulary.

The meaning of this derivative from the Parent Root is usually identical in meaning to the original Parent Root. Child Roots Of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. also meaning "serpent". This Parent Root means "a sharp mouth" or simply "a serpent" whose sharp fangs are in the mouth. Hebrew word structure. e (e). Elements of Hebrew (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. The Biblical word for serpent is "shaphaph" a lengthened form of the parent root "shaph". William R. The s is a picture of the two front teeth meaning "sharp". 1895) 17. A Child Root is formed by adding one of the consonant/vowels as a prefix (in front). Kautzsch. 33 32 33 . As in our example above.Jeff A. 34 Ernst Ettisch. f (o and u) and i (i). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (London: Oxford. D. often requires a three consonant root. 1987) 87. Benner next generation) the Parent Root nb (pronounced ben32) is formed. 4 double as consonants and vowels34.. forming the root pps (shaphaph). as will be seen later. E. the a (a). The p is a mouth. Harper PH. the second letter p is doubled. Another example is the Parent Root ps (shaph)33. The Hebrew Vowels and Consonants (Brookline Village Ma: Branden Publishing Co. The two letters of this root have the combined meaning of "the house of seeds" or "the seeds that continue the house/family" and are usually translated simply as "son". therefore the second consonant in the Parent Root is duplicated to turn the two consonant Parent Root into a three consonant root. 1910) 35.. a suffix (at the Hebrew is written from right to left.

Adopted Roots There are two forms of adopted roots that were probably derived at a later time through the evolution of the language35 or adopted from another Shemitic language. The Child Root pna / @na / anaph also means angry.flood: a heavy flowing of water .l b. While the Parent Root represents a concrete subject with a wide range of mnemonic meanings.l .h.l h.h b. formed from the Parent Root lb / lb / bal. while the remaining 20% are derived from the combination roots. a new type of Child Root is formed.l b. 35 Approximately 80% of all the words found in the Bible are derived from the parent or child root words. the Parent Root pa / @a / aph means nose or the flaring of the nostrils as when angry.panic: a flowing of the insides .l y.aged: a flowing away of youth .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet end) or an infix (in the middle) to the Parent Root.b. the purpose of the Child Root is to separate out the various mnemonic meanings of the Parent Root. Therefore. as found in the Biblical text. This Child Root is very closely related to the parent. demonstrating the close relationship to each other and the Parent Root. lba lbe leb elb lfb lbi a. all the Child Roots formed from the Parent Root are directly related in meaning to the Parent Root. These significantly smaller numbers of combination roots indicate that these roots have a 34 . Below are the Child Roots. For example.b. which has the generic meaning of "flow".b.empty: flowing out of contents .wilt: a flowing away of life .l.stream: a flowing of water By placing the consonant letter n (nun) within the Parent Root.w.

r p. Words The most common words are those derived directly from the parent.Parent Root meaning break .ts . As a language evolves.q p.k p. For example the word krd/derek meaning "road" probably evolved out of hr/rach meaning "path". 35 .Jeff A. Adding specific letters in specific places within the root word forms other words. a m/m/m or t/t/t added to the front or back of the root word relatively late origin and are not part of the original Hebrew vocabulary. words exchange letters for similar sounding letters and additional letters are added. such as the examples below.c p.break in pieces .break apart .r. Benner The first is formed by adding a third consonant to a Parent Root forming a new root more specific in meaning than the parent. comes directly from the Child Root !hk.r.r.r.s p.break forth . rp hrp krp xrp qrp yrp p. Some of the most common additions to the original root found are: 1.r. Child Root or adopted root.break off .break open The second type of adopted root appears to be a three consonant root that evolved from the Parent Root into a new word with a similar sound. meaning "priest". For example the word !hk/kohen.

Root Parent Child Word kl kle kile ekle klem ekflem kli Meaning Walk Walk Step March Walking Walk Walk Child The original pictographs of the Parent Root are kl and are the pictures of a shepherd staff and the palm of the hand. which are derived from the Parent Root. the clearer the picture of the parent root will be. Benefit of studying words from a common root As all the roots and words. are related in meaning to the Parent Root36.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2. a e/h/h. Once the meaning of the Parent Root is determined. this will in turn help us to better define the roots and words derived from the parent. 22. 37 36 36 . tf/tw/wt or nf/!w/wn added to the back of the root word 3. we can compare their meanings37 to form a clearer picture of the original meaning of the Parent Root. The more roots and words available. Let us use the Parent Root kl/$l38/l. 38 The Kaph is written as $ when at the end of a word and a k when in a word. a f/w/w or i/y/ee added in front of the last letter of the root word.k as an example. While these pictographs can have a wide range of Horowitz. The pictographs of the Parent Root will also help us to determine the original meaning of this Parent Root.

soap and clean. grain. those that have survived have often become specific in meaning. the words that are derived from it have the meanings of walk. soap and clean. fat and meat. fowl. While the entire Parent Root system cannot be achieved completely. First. 37 . and "hrb" (BRH) meaning. For instance. These Parent Roots were generic in meaning whereas the Child Roots derived from them become more specific in meaning. we can understand the pictographs to mean "to carry a staff in the palm for walking". meat. A working dictionary of the Parent Roots is beneficial to word studies and Biblical understanding. step and march. fat. the Parent Root "rb" (BR) means.Jeff A. not all of the Parent Roots have survived to this day and second. "rhb" (BHR) meaning.The pictographs provide the basic meaning of the root as demonstrated previously. Therefore. Benner meaning due to the various mnemonic understandings. fowl. Two problems arise when working with Parent Roots. Reconstructing the Parent Roots The meanings of the Parent Roots provide the foundation for the meaning of all the Child Root that are formed out of it. such as. losing the original generic meaning. there are techniques to reconstructing it for the purpose of Biblical studies. "rba" (ABR) meaning. Pictographs . "arb" (BRA) meaning. grain. Methods for reconstructing the original Parent Root 1. The Child Roots carry the more specific meaning such as. but can also mean any product of the grain.

the generic meaning of the Parent Root can be found. "rbrb" (BRBR) means.Semitic languages such as Ugarit. Translating Hebrew words. etc. The more words available. This can be very beneficial when attempting to translate obscure or frequently used words.By comparing all of the words that are derived from the Parent Root. grain. clean or pure. the Parent Root will in turn assist with defining the Child Roots and Words. fowl. All of the Child Root definitions will then help to reconstruct the generic meaning of the Parent Root. While the pictographs.All of the words derived from a child root help to reconstruct the original meaning of the Child Root in the same manner as mentioned above for the Parent Root. "rb" (BR) means. words and Child Roots contribute to reconstructing the Parent Root. The words from these languages can assist with the reconstruction of the Child and Parent Roots. which are only used once or twice in the Biblical texts. The use of this Root System of the Hebrew language is beneficial to finding the correct Hebraic meaning to words by looking at the bigger picture of related words and roots. For instance. Phoenician. 4. we can use the many related words derived from the same Parent Root to assist with defining the word. 3. are closely related to Hebrew and many times the words are identical. Words . and "rrb" (BRR) means. Moabite. 38 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2. the clearer the definition of the Parent Root will be. when using the root system of Hebrew. Sister Languages . are very difficult to define due to a lack of context. Aramaic. Child Roots . But.

This dictionary gives the cultural background and its relationship to the Child Roots.Jeff A. or other related language. Appendix "F" cross-references the Strong's Dictionary numbering system to the Ancient Hebrew Dictionary numbering system. it can still be reconstructed by using the above methods and still be useful for defining the other words and roots formed out of it. Appendix "E" is a dictionary of the Ancient Hebrew Parent Roots. which are derived from them. 39 . Benner Even if a Parent Root is not found in the Biblical text.

also made of wood.22) We will examine two words within this sentence." (Genesis 14.Six . was . The wooden staff used by the shepherd to guide the sheep toward a location.4. describes the yoke as a "staff on the shoulders". Both of these words are abstract words from Greek thought. Our goal is to find the tangible concrete Hebraic context of these words that will reveal the heart of God the Creator The Hebrew word translated as "God" is la / al and is a Parent Root word. Creator of heaven and earth. God and Creator. The yoke. The Ancient pictographs for this root are la. The first picture (remember Hebrew is read from right to left) is an ox head representative of power because of his great strength. The second is a shepherd's staff and is representative of authority as well as a yoke39. 39 Isaiah 9. through Hebrew parallelism. God "God Most High. Let us now put all this "technical" information to work by looking at a passage through Hebraic eyes.Word Studies ____________________________________ The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with the tools and resources to read the Bible with a Hebraic understanding and see the text through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrew who wrote it.

40 See Deuteronomy 32. is the Hebrew word hnq qaneh derived from the Parent Root !q / qen meaning a nest. To train the younger oxen. The Ancient Hebrews saw themselves yoked to God who taught them how to walk a proper life. an older more experienced ox as the leader was yoked to the younger. The mnemonic meaning of this letter is a gathering together. also used to guide the oxen toward a location. Both the shepherd's staff and the yoke perform the same function. Creator The second word. The second picture is a seed.9-12 41 . Creator. Before the bird lays her eggs she gathers material together to build a nest. The first pictograph is the sun at the horizon where light is gathered. the heavens and the land. The Child Root enq / hnq has the meaning of acquiring the materials for the nest. The Ancient Hebrews saw God as a bird40 that builds a nest.Jeff A. The pictographs for this word are nq. Benner A team of oxen yoked together pulled a cart or plow. The combining these letters mean a "gathering together for the seeds". The Hebraic meaning of la / al is a "powerful leader". for his children. The Hebraic understanding of this verse is that God brought together the heavens and the earth as the nest for his children he could nurture and care for them as a mother and teach and guide them into truth by yoking them to himself.

The Ancient Hebraic understanding of this verse is that God is the shepherd who will teach and protect his sheep and when he calls them they come to him as his flock. to gather. The Hebrew word lfq / lwq / qol (translated as "voice" in our passage above) is "the voice of the shepherd". The Hebrew word leq / lhq / qahal (translated as "assembly" above) is "the gathering of the sheep to the voice of the shepherd". come from the same Parent Root lq / lq / qal.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Voice Let us look at Deuteronomy 5. assembly and voice. We have previously looked at these two pictographs in this chapter. The second is the shepherd's staff. "These are the commandments the LORD proclaimed in a loud voice to your whole assembly there on the mountain from out of the fire. The first letter is the sun at the horizon meaning." Two words in this passage.22 as another example of how the Hebraic understanding of words reveals the heart of God. When the shepherd calls the flock. they recognize his voice and gather to him. 42 . The shepherd carried a staff as a tool to lead and guide the sheep as well as to discipline and protect them. Combined they have the meaning of "to gather to the staff of the shepherd". The staff is a sign of his authority over the sheep.

the letter also has the meaning of strong.Jeff A. meaning "strong". Benner Ancient Hebrew Words By examining the titles of family members through the pictographic letters that form the words. These 43 . a picture of a wall. b/bet. meaning "strong". ba: One who gives strength to the house Mother This word also begins with the letter a/al. As the ox is strong. is the picture of the tent or house where the family resides. The second letter is the m/mah. meaning water. a picture of an ox. This thick liquid was removed and used as a binding agent . ma: One who glues/binds the family together Brother This word also begins with a/al. The second letter. The two letters give us the meaning of "strong water". The Hebrews made glue by boiling animal skins in water. The second letter is the h/hhets. Father The first letter is the a/al. As the skin broke down a sticky thick liquid formed at the surface of the water. we can better understand the Hebraic definition of these words."strong water".

meaning "tent" or the "family" which resides in it. nb: One who continues the family line 44 . The second letter is the n/nun. the picture of a seed. The seed is a new generation of life that will grow and produce a new generation. The Hebrew concept of a wall is any barrier. ha: family One who acts as a strong barrier to protect the Son This word begins with the b/bet. The English concept of a wall is descriptive of anything with a tall vertical appearance.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet letters give us the meaning "strong wall" or "strong barrier". no matter the construction.

21). 20). for the Latin alphabet.Seven . also derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs. When ink came into use. Most Ancient inscriptions were written on stone using a hammer and chisel. Indirectly. the Modern Hebrew alphabet is derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs. causing a right to left direction of inscribing. we can see a very close resemblance to our English alphabet (fig. Below is the Ancient Hebrew alphabet. The hammer was held with the left hand. 1000 BCE When the above alphabet is reversed42. who adopted the Ancient Hebrew alphabet. as the Greeks. as it appeared around 1000 BCE41 (fig. Figure 20 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. 41 42 The alephbet is read from right to left.Hebrew origins of English ____________________________________ As we have discussed. . The Romans in turn adopted the Greek alphabet. from which our English alphabet comes. the direction of writing often shifted to a left to right direction to prevent the hand from smearing the ink. our own alphabet is derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographs. wrote from left to right.

bread and beer (products of grains). The English fruit words berry and fruit. is a derivative of the Parent Root rp / par. sh" sounds which are given sound by blowing air through the mouth. meaning fruit. it is common for similar sounds to replace the original sound. boar. Another common sound change is made with the lips such as the "b". From this root several English words are derived and related to "grain". persimmon and apricot. As an example. 1000 BCE (mirror image) A surprising number of our English words are derived from Hebrew. all fruits. the Hebrew word yrp / periy. Another example is the Parent Root rb / bar. meaning grain. are derived from the rp / par root. "p". letters will some times change position such as the fruit word grape and ripe. bird and bear 43 As opposed to the frictives like the "s. The English words pear. are also derived from the rp / par root with the "r" exchanged for an "l" sound. 46 . "v" and "f". such as: barley (a grain). The English fruit words apple and plum. In addition. prune. The "r" and "l" sounds are often interchanged as both are vocal43 consonants and can be pronounced for a prolonged time.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Figure 21 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. Through the evolution of language. are also derived from the rp / par root with the "p" exchanged for a "b" and "f" sound.

Below is a very small list of Hebrew words practically identical in pronunciation and meaning to English. Benner (animals fattened on grains).Jeff A. 47 . and barn (a storage place for grains).

Hebrew Pronunciation Meaning English Xya dwn lmg lpn rb[ @la lj Xa rpk lwq ryps qX rwt @t #ra dc rs $s hdX qwm ql bl hsk eesh nod gamel naphal over eleph tal eysh caphar qol saphiyr saq tur taph erets tsad sar sak sadeh moq laq lev kasah each nod camel fall over bull tall fire cover voice sapphire sack travel beat land side prince shack field mock lick heart cover each nod camel fall over elephant tall ash cover call sapphire sack tour tap earth side sir shack sod mock lick love case .

For further information or questions on the Ancient Hebrew language and alphabet. Other resource materials. It is the hope of the author that others will discover the value and joy of studying the Ancient Hebrew language. Bible Encyclopedias are another valuable resource for learning about the culture and lifestyle of the Ancient Hebrews. but hopefully this will change in the future. please visit our web site at: The Ancient Hebrew Research Center http://www. alphabet and Biblical Text. The Seminaries and Universities emphasize the Greek language.org . practically ignoring the language and culture of the Ancient Hebrews.Conclusion ____________________________________ Contained within this book are the tools you will need to begin searching the pictographic meanings of Hebrew words.ancient-hebrew. are dictionaries such as "Vines Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words" or "Strong's Hebrew Dictionary". which you will find beneficial in your word studies. There is very little research and study being done in this area of linguistic study at this time.

Appendix A .the ox is placed in a yoke for pulling a load or plowing.the strong members which support a building.Ancient Hebrew Alphabet Reconstruction ____________________________________ Below is the process of reconstructing the original characteristics of each Hebrew letter using the methods previously outlined. Ram -. an ox head. Mnemonic (meaning): Muscle -. Fat tail -. Pillar.an older experienced ox. Stag -. Greek and Arabic name for this letter is aleph. Yoke -.the strong leader of the flock.the strong part of the sheep. a Al Pictographic (form): All sources agree that the original form for this letter is a. arch -. Chief -. was often yoked to a younger ox to teach him.the strongest of the woods.the strong leader of the forest. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew.the ox is the strongest of the livestock animals. as the leader. Oak tree -. The original two-letter name must have evolved to its present three-letter name long ago. This is the only pictograph for which the original two-letter name cannot be found. We then turn to the .

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction culture of the Ancient Hebrews and sister cultures to find the original name. a men's and women's. 51 . with the entrance at the front of the tent in the men's section and an entrance from the men's to the women's section. Many Near Eastern cultures worshipped the god "la / el or al". Greek (beta) and Arabic (beyt) agree with the original name of tb / bet. Inside -. There are various suggestions to the original form of this letter including . meaning. Mnemonic (meaning): Family -. This letter was originally a vowel and most likely an "ah" sound. house or tent. When Israel formed an image of God at Mount Sinai they chose a calf (young bull).the residents of the tent. depicted as a bull in their carvings of the god. not the structure itself. . Phonetic (sound): In Modern Hebrew as well as Arabic. and b. this letter is silent but did have an "a" sound when the Greek language adopted it. This evidence shows that the word "la / el" was understood to be a bull.the family that is inside the tent is of importance. The picture b is a perfect representation of the nomadic tent which was divided into two sections. b Beyt Pictographic (form): The Hebrew word beyt means "house" or "tent". Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew (beyt).

provide us with the original two letter name of ~g / gam meaning to gather. a derivative of the sound "g".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Phonetic (sound): The Modern sounds for this letter are "b" and "bh"44 and are probably original. In this case the bh is pronounced as a "v".a gathering of people or things. c Gam Pictographic (form): The earliest known pictograph for this letter is c and is probably a picture of a foot similar to the Egyptian Hieroglyph . Group -. 52 . The Greek (gamma) and Arabic (jeem) names for this letter. such as p-ph. s-sh. Phonetic (sound): The Modern Hebrew and Greek agree that the letter is pronounced "g" while Arabic has the sound "j". 44 It is a common practice among Latin languages to add an "h" to a consonant to show a different sound. Carry -.the function of the foot. Mnemonic (meaning): Walk. Gather. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is gimel. t-th. c-ch.

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction

d

Dal

Pictographic (form): Ancient alphabet charts include two possibilities for the Ancient pictographic form for this letter, (a fish -- "dahg" in Hebrew) and d (a picture of a tent door -- "dahl" or "delet" in Hebrew). The Modern name for this letter is dalet meaning a door indicating that the original form of the letter is the d. Mnemonic (meaning): Dangle -- the tent door hangs down from the horizontal pole as seen in the picture of the letter; Movement -- the door is used to move in and out or back and forth through the tent; Weak, Poor -- one who hangs his head down, as in poverty. Syllabic (name): While the Modern Hebrew name for this letter is dalet (3 consonants), the Arabic name of ld / dal (the original 2 consonant root), meaning door, gives us the original two letter name. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew (dalet), Greek (delta) and Arabic (dal) agree that the sound for this letter is "d".

e

Hey

Pictographic (form): Most all sources agree that the original picture is e, a man with his arms raised out as if pointing toward something. Mnemonic (meaning): Look -- when one sees a great sight he throws his arms toward it and sighs saying "look at that"; Reveal -- a pointing to a sight to show to another; Breath -- as when sighing.

53

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew (hey) and Arabic (hey) have retained the original two letter name of ah / hey meaning look. Phonetic (sound): This letter originally had a consonant "h" sound, as retained in Modern Hebrew, as well as a vowel "e" sound as retained in the Greek.

f

Waw

Pictographic (form): Ancient alphabet charts include two possibilities for the Ancient pictographic form for this letter, f and . The Hebrew word vav / waw means a peg. The tent pegs were made of wood and may have been Y-shaped as in the first picture to prevent the rope from slipping off. Mnemonic (meaning): Add, Secure -- the peg is used for securing or tying the tent or other items together. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is ww / vav, meaning peg, retaining the original two letter name. Phonetic (sound): While the Modern pronunciation for this letter is "vav", the original sound for this letter was "w" and is retained in the Modern Arabic as "waw". This letter also doubled as a vowel with a "ow" and "uw" sound which Modern Hebrew has retained.

z

Zan

Pictographic (form): The most Ancient picture for this is z, a picture of an unknown agricultural tool, probably a
54

Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction

type of plow, hoe or sickle. The Egyptian hieroglyph is very similar and is a hoe and may be the original form for this letter. Mnemonic (meaning): Harvest, food -- from the cutting of the crops with the tool; Fed, Fattened -- from eating the crops; Jar -- for storing the harvested foods; Broad -from the broad blade of the tool; Paddle, Ear, Spade -from their broadness. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name is !yz / zayin, a derivative of the two letter word !z / zan, meaning crops, which is the original Greek name for this letter. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew, Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "z".

h

Hhets

Pictographic (form): There are three possible Ancient pictographs for this letter, , e and h. The first is apparently a string or cord. The second is a man with his arms extended and belongs to the fifth letter hey. The third is a nomadic tent wall, which is "hhets" in Hebrew. The two horizontal lines are the top and bottom and the four vertical lines being the poles. All the letters from 3,000 BCE to the present day in the Hebrew, Arabic Greek and their sister cultures have used a derivative of the third pictograph, the tent wall. Mnemonic (meaning): Outside, Inside -- the function of the wall is to separate these two; Half -- a dividing into two parts; Secular -- what is outside; Arrow, Slingstone -from their dividing of flesh
55

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name is tx / chet, meaning a string. A very similar word is #x / hhets, meaning a wall, most likely the original name for this letter. Phonetic (sound): The original sound for this letter is probably a guttural "hh" (as in the name Bach and the German word ich), as in Modern Hebrew and Arabic.

u

Thet

Picture: The oldest form of the original pictograph is u, apparently a type of basket or container. Mnemonic (meaning): Store, Contain -- baskets were used for storing foods, supplies and other necessities of the nomadic life; Mud, Clay -- a material for making baskets and other containers. Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew has retained the original two letter word jj / tet, meaning mud or clay, for the name of this letter. Phonetic (sound): The 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet is a tav with a "t" sound. It is unlikely that the original Hebrew had two letters with the same sound. When the Greeks adopted the Hebrew alphabet the Hebrew tet became the Greek theta. Most likely the original sound for this letter is "th".

56

the palm of the foot. the open palm of a hand. or "ee" sound. as an open hand signifies submission. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name dwy / yud is a derivative of the two letter word dy / yad meaning "hand".from the curved palm shape. Worship. Bowl. meaning. Syllabic (name): Modern Hebrew. Thanks -a giving of the hand as a gesture.from the placing of the hands at the mouth for amplification. 57 .Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction i Yad Pictograph: The most Ancient form of the letter is i.the shape of the open palm. Greek and Arabic.from the function of the hand. Bend. Palm Branch . k Kaph Pictographic (form): The Ancient form of this letter is k. This letter also doubled as a vowel that can be seen from the Greek form of this letter. Make. which is an iota with an “i”. Tame.from the bending of the will. Subdue -. agree that the original name for this letter is @k / kaph. Mnemonic (meaning): Sole -. Mnemonic (meaning): Work. Phonetic (sound): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic sound for this letter is a "y". Throw -. palm. Curve -. Shout -. an arm and hand.

meaning staff. Where. Chaos -. Mnemonic (meaning): Sea -. m Mah Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is m. Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is dml / lamed. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "k" and a guttural "kh" (as in the name Bach or the German word ich). Mighty. 58 . Tie .the sea is the place of the unknown representing any unknown thing.as liquids. l Lam Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is l. The Arabic name is ~l / lam retaining the original two letter word. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "l". Toward -. Bind. How -. Mnemonic (meaning): To.a large body of water.the staff was used to push. Massive -from the size of the sea.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Phonetic (sound): Modern Hebrew.a staff on the shoulders of the oxen for directing. Yoke -. a shepherd's staff. waves of water. Authority -the staff as a sign of the shepherd's authority. Blood. When. Why. Grape Juice -.from the storms of the sea. What. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. and is similar to the Greek name of lamda. Who. or pull one of the flock in a direction.from the fastening of the yoke.

Offspring. (possibly a window) or x (a thorn).000 BCE to the present day in the Hebrew. x Sin Pictographic (form): The four possibilities for the original form for this letter are (a fish). Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is !n / nun meaning to continue or perpetuate. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "m". (possibly a thorn). Phonetic (sound): Hebrew.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction Syllabic (name): The Hebrew letter ~m / mem is from the word ~ym / mayim meaning waters and is the plural form of the two letter word hm / mah.The seed perpetuates or continues the plant generation after generation. 59 . Mnemonic (meaning): Continue. Heir -. Perpetuate -. Arabic Greek and their sister cultures have used a derivative of x suggesting that this is the original letter. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "n". a seed sprout.the perpetuation of the father through his children. n Nun Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is n. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. All the letters from 3.

with no apparent connection to a two letter word or to the original picture of this letter.thorn bushes were used by the shepherd to build a wall (shield) made to enclose his flock during the night to protect them from predators. The Arabic alphabet does not have this letter and the Greek name for the letter is ksi. !v / Shin (sh) and !f / Sin (s).as a wall of sharp weapons for protection.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Mnemonic (meaning): Shield -.as protection from thorns.as protected in the wall of thorns. an eye. Hate -.as keeping a close eye on something. Sharp . It is possible that the original name for the samech was !s / sin. meaning thorn. All the words using the sin are related in meaning to the words using a samech in the same place as the sin. The 21st letter of the Hebrew alphabet (X) has two names and sounds. Furrow -60 . Boot -. Cover -. Warrior -. Flock -. Pierce. o Ghan Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is o. The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is xms / samech. Mnemonic (meaning): Watch.from the sharpness of the thorn. similar to the "s". Heed -. The Greek sound for the letter is "ks". and later was divided into the samech and !f / sin (which then became associated with the !v / shin). Phonetic (sound): The original sound for this letter must be an "s" to which the samech and sin both agree.as a piercing of the heart) Syllabic (name): Of all the letters this is the most difficult to reconstruct due to the limited archeological and textual support. Pay attention.as a shading of the eyes to remove the glare of the sun.

Humble -. When the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) transliterated place names such as r[p to Pegor and hrm[ to Gemorah. none of which 45 Pronounced as an "ng" as in "ring". and the ghayin with a "gh"45 sound. The Egyptian hieratic alphabet also has a "ghayin" with a "gh" sound. Ostrich. where the "tt" is only slightly pronounced and in the Hebrew name l[b / ba'al where the ayin is used as a glottal stop. Poor.l) and ll[ (gh.one with a furrow between the eyes. Owl -. the ayin. as in our English word bottle. Worry. a "g" would be the closest). The "gh" also served as a glottal stop. Abode -.l. Spring. Arabic has two forms. which is silent. ayin and ghayin.as a place carefully watched. Phonetic (sound): This letter is silent in Modern Hebrew. Both words llg (g.one paying attention to the task.a bird that watches Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is ayin. 61 .Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction formed between the eyes from squinting. Source -the eye of the landscape.l) mean "around" showing that the two letters were phonetically common. they attributed a "g" sound to the ayin indicating a sound similar to a "g" (since Greek does not have a "gh". The gimel (g / g) has been mistaken for the ghayin ([ / gh) in Hebrew. The Greek name is "Omicron" (a definite name change by the Greeks). Occupation -. Affliction. Arabic has two names for this letter. p Pey Pictographic (form): There are several Canaanite pictographs believed to be this letter.l.

Greek and their sister cultures use a pictograph similar to the p. Stronghold. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew.the function of the mouth.the lips as the edge of the mouth. and does look like a mouth. Tower -. This letter also has a "ph" sound in the Modern Hebrew and is probably an original sound as well. Arabic.Tools of the hunter. Sword. Chase -. meaning mouth. as the original two letter name. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "p". The Hebrew. Blow -. Most of the Hebrew. Greek and their sister cultures use pictographs which closely resemble the last picture indicating that this was the original form of the letter. Arabic.Things with edges. Fortress. y Tsad Pictographic (form): The three Ancient pictograph possibilities for this letter are . Snare -. Edge -.the meat of the hunt 62 . Mnemonic (meaning): Speak. and y. Beard -. Mnemonic (meaning): Hunt. Here.a place with an edge Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew. The South Arabian and Egyptian pictograph is p. Arabic and Greek names agree with hp / peh.a place to lay in wait.by blowing.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet resemble a mouth (the meaning of the name of the letter). Word. Net. Region -. Game -. Scatter -.as one laying on his side or crouched in concealment. The word "tsad" means "side" as a man lying on his side and may be the meaning of the last two pictographs.

from the condensing of the light when the sun rises or sets. The original form of this letter was probably q.from the rising and setting of the sun. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "ts". a common shift in Ancient letters). reflecting the meaning of the Hebrew words derived from quph. possibly depicting the sun at the horizon (when rotated 90°. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "q". circle or go around. q Quph Pictographic (form): Most of the pictographs used for this letter are or something very similar.from the arching of the sun in the sky. 63 . Condense -. The South Arabian pictograph has a similar pictograph of . Horizon -. Time -. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. Mnemonic (meaning): Sun -.from its circles through the sky marking the times and seasons.Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is tsade or tsad meaning side. meaning.as a revolution of the sun Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is the parent root @q / quph meaning. Circle . "go around" and "revolution of the sun".

decided by the chief Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is Xr / resh. Ivory -. Modern Hebrew also assigns an "s" to this letter but it was originally the sound for the 15th letter "sin". Mnemonic (meaning): Top. Chief -. again -as the two front teeth Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew and Arabic name for this letter is !X / Shin. Beginning.as the top of the body. repeat. Phonetic (sound): Hebrew and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "sh". Poor -. Needy. Two.the role of the chief. 64 . Possession. meaning head. second. First -. Press -.the head of the tribe. double. the head of a man.the tusks of the elephant as teeth. s Shin Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture s is the two front teeth.the function of the teeth. Mnemonic (meaning): Sharp. Inheritance -. Cliff -.as a tooth.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r Resh Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture is r. meaning teeth. duplicate.one in need of a ruling from the chief. Rule -. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "r". Phonetic (sound): Hebrew.

Phonetic (sound): Hebrew. This letter retains the original two-letter word. Sign. places or things. Dwelling -. probably of two sticks crossed to mark a place similar to the Egyptian hieroglyph of crossed sticks. Arabic and Greek names for this letter is wt / tav (or taw). Identification -. meaning. Room. Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is "t".as a marker to identify people. Desert.as marked Syllabic (name): The Modern Hebrew. that is two Mnemonic (meaning): Mark. mark. Signature. .Appendix A – Alphabet Reconstruction t Tav Pictographic (form): The Ancient picture t is a type of "mark". 65 .

The similarities to the ancient Hebrew alphabet and ours will also assist in learning the letters. which is used to play games46. 46 47 The word "game" comes from the Latin "gamb". For instance. o = bone. The picture is a foot.Appendix B . u = tune. the picture. Picture The original pictographic script of "early Hebrew". 48 The letter "G" was formed out of the letter "C". The vowels in the names will be pronounced as follows.Learn to Read Ancient Hebrew ____________________________________ Introduction Learning to read the ancient Hebrew language is a fairly simple matter since our English alphabet and language are derived from the ancient Hebrew alphabet and language. It is now an easy step to learning the original name of the letter. the pictograph of each letter is the origin for our own English alphabet. a = father. name and sound of the Hebrew letter "c". e = grey. i = feet. The sound for the letter is therefore "g". meaning "leg". can easily be associated with the word "game". The letter "G"48 originated in the Hebrew letter "c". . which is gam47. In addition.

which in Hebrew means.a. the English word is very close to the Hebrew. k. the sound of the letter will more easily be remembered. English name The name of the letter will be learned with an English word. the Hebrew name for this letter is "dal". f. the letter "d" is a picture of a door.g. Many times a word from one culture will be slightly changed when adopted by another culture.s. i. x. t Liquids . z Gutturals . ch.b. sh. "door". v. ts. In most cases.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew English letter Each Hebrew letter will be associated with the English letter that derived from it. 67 . h.l. u Hebrew name The original Hebrew name of the letter will then be revealed. p.d. For example. The name of each letter is also the Hebrew word for what the picture is.m. The English letter will be oriented to a form closer resemblance of the Hebrew letter. n Vowels . There are certain letters that are commonly exchanged for another as listed below. o. By being able to see the English letter within the Hebrew. e. w Tooth letters . Aspirates . c. q Lip letters . r Nasals .

Hebrew meaning The meaning of the letters will be explained. which are formed by combining letters together.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Hebrew sound The sound of the letter will be defined and is always the sound of the first letter of the Hebrew name. we will look at a few Hebrew words. The pronunciation of the word will also be seen through the letters of the word. The meanings of these letters will then supply the definition to the Hebrew word. These meanings will be related to the picture and name. Once the letters are understood in their original Hebrew context. 68 .

In Modern Hebrew this letter is silent. Meaning: Strong Because of the great strength of the ox. This is the only Hebrew letter used as a vowel only. Hebrew name: al The original name is the same as the English equivalent. it provided meat and leather and it was one of the animals used in sacrifices. The ox was used to pull carts or a plow. 69 . The Hebrew word "al" means "ox" and is the original name of this letter.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew a Picture: Head of an ox The ox was the strongest and most versatile animal among the Hebrews livestock. English Letter: (A) English Name: All This animal was the "all" powerful and "all" versatile animal of the Hebrews.

the sound can continue and is used when the letter is not at the beginning of the word. A common sound shift over time is a "t" sound to a "d" as they are both similar in sound and are formed by the tongue and teeth. male and female sections. Hebrew sound: b. English Letter: (B) English Name: Bed The tent was the place where the family laid their "bed". The "bh" is a spirant meaning. bh (v) The "b" sound is a stop meaning. Meaning: Family The function of the tent is to provide a covering for the family. This letter can also mean "in" or "inside" as the family resides "in" the tent. The entrance is seen at the top left. The above picture is a representation of the floor plan to the tent.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet b Picture: Tent The Hebrews lived in goat hair tents that were divided into two halves. 70 . Hebrew name: Bet The original name for this letter is bet meaning. tent or family in Hebrew. and divided by a wall. the sound is made and abruptly stops and is used at the beginning of a word.

working as well as playing "games". on foot. 71 .Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew c Picture: Foot English Letter: G English Name: Game The Hebrews were always on their feet for traveling. Hebrew sound: g Meaning: Gather Men and animals would walk. Hebrew name: gam Our word "Game" comes from the Latin word "gam" meaning "leg" coming from the Hebrew word "gam" meaning "foot". This letter can also mean walk or carry. gathering at the nearest watering hole.

The picture of this letter represents the "door" of the tent. English Letter: English Name: Door Hebrew name: dal Another common shift in sounds is the "l" to an "r". Hebrew sound: d Meaning: Hang The door hangs down over the opening of the tent.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet d Picture: Door A curtain suspended from a horizontal pole covered the entrance of the Hebrew’s tent. This letter can also meant movement as one moves in and out of the tent through the door. The Hebrew word "dal" meaning "door" became our word "door". (D) 72 .

"look". English Letter: (E) English Name: Hey A man waves to another and says "hey". The Hebrew word "hey" means "behold". e This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel. This letter can also mean sigh or breath. This is a picture of a man pointing at a wonderful sight and saying. 73 . Hebrew sound: h. "look".Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew e Picture: Man with arms raised The picture is of a man with his arms outstretched at seeing a great sight. or "look". Hebrew name: hey There is no change from the English equivalent to the original Hebrew. Meaning: Look The man pointing out a wonderful sight says.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet f Picture: Peg Ropes attached to pegs driven into the ground supported the tent. Meaning: Secure A peg is used to secure the tent in place. Hebrew name: waw The Hebrew word for a peg is "waw". 74 . u This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel. These pegs were made of a branched piece of hardwood preventing the ropes from slipping off the peg. This letter can also mean add as a peg or nail can be used to add something to something else. Hebrew sound: w. o. English Letter: F English Name: Wave No English word is derived from this letter but the picture is similar to the hand of a man "waving".

75 . an agricultural tool for working the fields of crops. Hebrew sound: z Meaning: Cut The mattock is representative of tools used for cutting.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew z Picture: Mattock The picture is of a mattock. It can also mean food. Hebrew name: zayin The Hebrew word for Mattock is "zayin". English Letter: Z English Name: Z There is no English word derived from this Hebrew letter but it is similar to the letter "Z" which did evolve out of this letter. which comes from the harvest. As the mattock can be used as a weapon. this letter can mean a weapon.

with a wall separating the tent in "half". 76 . This letter can also mean outside as the walls of the tent separate the people inside from what is outside. is not used in English. Hebrew name: chets The Hebrew word "chets" means a "wall" as well as "half" as the wall divides the tent in half. written as "ch". It is a hard guttural sound made in the back of the throat as in the German name "Bach" or the word "ich".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet h Picture: Wall English Letter: (H) English Name: Half The tent was divided into two sections. Hebrew sound: ch The Hebrew sound. Meaning: Separate The purpose of the wall is to separate the two halves of the tent.

Hebrew sound: t Meaning: Contain A basket contains the foods and possessions of the family. English Letter: No English letter is derived from this Hebrew letter. English Name: Tote A "tote" is a type of basket. This letter can also mean mud or clay as this material was often used to make baskets. Hebrew name: Tet The Hebrew word "tet" means "basket" and is the original name for this letter.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew u Picture: Basket Baskets were common and used to store foods and supplies. 77 .

78 . English Letter: (I) English Name: Yard The length of the arm. as a measurement. from fingertip to elbow is called a cubit. Our word "yard". This letter can also mean throw or worship. is the length of the arm. Hebrew sound: y. Meaning: Work The hand is the part of the body that does the work. "hand". Hebrew name: Yad The Hebrew word "yad" means. i This letter was used as both a consonant and a vowel.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet i Picture: Hand The picture is the hand and arm of a man. both is actions of the hand.

written as "kh". The "k" is a stop consonant. Hebrew sound: k. Meaning: Bend The palm is representative of anything that is bent. 79 .Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew k Picture: Palm The picture is the open palm of the hand. kh The Hebrew sound. is similar to the "ch" and is a hard guttural sound made in the back of the throat as in the German name "Bach" or the word "ich". Hebrew name: Kaph The Hebrew word for the palm of the hand is "Kaph". while the "kh" is a spirant. This letter can also mean open or allow. English Letter: (K) English Name: Cup The palm facing up and bent forms a "cup" shape. as opening an opportunity.

80 . leather and milk. English Letter: (L) English Name: Lamb The staff also had a curved end that could be used to pull a "lamb". Hebrew name: lam The Hebrew word for the shepherd staff is "lam". The kings' scepter comes from this imagery. The Hebrew shepherd always carried a staff that could be used as a weapon to protect the flock from predators as well as to discipline the sheep.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet l Picture: Shepherd staff The Hebrews raised sheep for wool. food. This letter can also mean to or toward as the staff s used to guide the flock to a particular direction. Hebrew sound: l Meaning: Authority The staff is seen as the authority and protection of the shepherd over his flock. which was a staff on the shoulders and also used to guide the ox in a particular direction. It can also mean a yoke.

This letter can also mean the red juice (water) of the grape or the red blood (water) of man. 81 .Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew m Picture: Water The picture is of the waves of water on the sea. Hebrew name: mah The Hebrew word for water is "mayim". English Letter: M English Name: M There is no English word derived from this letter. from the singular word "mah". but our letter "M" was derived from this letter. Hebrew sound: m Meaning: Mighty The Hebrews saw the sea as a mighty and chaotic place because of the storms and turbulent waters. a plural word.

This letter can also mean a son or heir as the next generation.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet n Picture: Seed The picture is a seed with the root coming out of it. English Letter: (N) English Name: New The seed is the beginning of "new" life. 82 . Hebrew name: nun The Hebrew word for a continuation of new life is "nun". Hebrew sound: n Meaning: Continue The seed is the continuation of a new generation.

When a shepherd was in the wilderness overnight with the flock.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew x Picture: Thorn The desert of the Hebrews has many species of thorns and thistles. Hebrew name: sin The Hebrew word for a thorn is "sin". This letter can also mean to protect. Hebrew sound: s Meaning: Hold A thorn holds onto the skin or fur of animals. 83 . English Letter: X English Name: Sin Our word "sin" comes from this letter as it also causes pain in our flesh like a thorn. The picture is a thorn that attaches itself to the flesh causing pain. he would construct a corral of thorn bushes to protect the flock from predators.

the origin of our word "eye".Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet o Picture: Eye English Letter: O When the Greeks adopted the Hebrew alephbet. 84 . The sound is soft and often silent. a vowel becoming the "O" in our alphabet. Meaning: See The eye is for seeing. English Name: Eye Hebrew name: ghayin The Hebrew word for "eye" is "ghayin" often pronounced as "ayin". This letter can also mean know as we know our surroundings through the eye. this letter became the omicron. Hebrew sound: gh The "gh" sound is like the "ng" in "ring".

Meaning: Open The mouth is the opening into the body. English Letter: (P) English Name: Pit There is no English word from this letter but can represent a "pit" as it is an open hole. as the mouth is the edge of the opening. This letter can also mean edge. ph The "P" is a stop consonant while the "ph" is a spirant.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew p Picture: Mouth The picture is the mouth and represents something that is open. Hebrew sound: p. 85 . Hebrew name: pey The Hebrew word for "mouth" is "pey".

English Name: Side Hebrew name: tsad The Hebrew word "tsad" is the origin of our word "side". 86 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet y Picture: Man lying on his side English Letter: No English letter is derived from this Hebrew letter. This letter can also mean to lie in wait or to hunt by lying in wait for the prey. Meaning: Side One lies down on his side. Hebrew sound: ts The original sound for this letter is a "ts" as in our word "pots".

English Letter: (Q) English Name: Come The "coming" together of the light. This letter can also mean to circle. while the rest of the sky is dark. 87 . Hebrew sound: q Meaning: Condense When the sun is at the horizon the light is condensed at the horizon.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew q Picture: Sun at the horizon This is a picture of the sun at the horizon where the light is concentrated at this point. Hebrew name: quph The Hebrew name for this letter is "quph" meaning the circling of the sun around the earth.

as the top of the body is representative of anything that is at the top. 88 . This letter can also mean first as the top in rank or beginning as the top of a time. Hebrew sound: r Meaning: Top The head. head or beginning of something.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r Picture: Head of a man English Letter: (R) English Name: Raise The picture is the head of a man that is "raised" up to look. Hebrew name: resh The Hebrew word for the head is "resh". the origin of our word "raise".

89 . Hebrew sound: sh Meaning: Sharp The front teeth are sharp for cutting meat. this letter can also mean press. eat or devour. English Letter: (S) English Name: Shine The whiteness of the teeth "shine". Hebrew name: Shin The Hebrew word for "tooth" is "shin".Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew s Picture: Teeth The picture is of the two front teeth. As the teeth are used to press down on the food.

English Letter: T English Name: Target A mark such as a "target" one aims at when shooting. 90 . Hebrew sound: t Meaning: Sign A mark is used as a sign to identify someone or something.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet t Picture: Mark The picture is of two crossed sticks as a mark to identify a location. Hebrew name: taw The Hebrew word for a mark is "taw".

e w. a b c d e f z h u i k l m n x o p y q r s t Ox Tent Foot Door Arms Peg Mattock Wall Basket Hand Palm Staff Water Seed Thorn Eye Mouth Side Horizon Head Teeth Mark Al Bet Gam Dal Hey Waw Zan Hhets Thet Yad Kaph Lam Mah Nun Sin Ghan Pey Tsad Quph Resh Shin Taw a b g d h.Appendix B – Learn Ancient Hebrew Letter Picture Name Sound English Derivitives .i k l m n s gh p ts q r sh t All Bed Game Door Hi Half Tote Yard Cup Lamb New Sin Eye Pit Side Raise Shine - A B C D E F Z H I K L M N X O P Q R S T 91 .o.u z hh th y.

000 year evolution of each letter through its journeys from one culture to the next. Greek.History of the Hebrew Script ____________________________________ The following are twenty-four tables (two for each letter) documenting the history of each letter. the second table is the evolution of each letter from its original pictograph to five modern alphabets. Since one of the primary purposes of this book is to assist the student of Hebrew with learning the ancient Hebrew language and alphabet. . The evolution of each letter will enable the student to more easily recognize the ancient letters by their association with English as well as modern Hebrew. Arabic and Samaritan (for those familiar with these alphabets). The first table for each letter lists all the various forms of the letter as found in ancient documents and inscriptions portraying the 2.Appendix C .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script a .Al 93 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet b / Bet 94 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script c / Gam 95 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet d / Dal 96 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script e / Hey 97 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet f / Waw 98 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script z / Zan 99 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet h / Hhets 100 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script u / Thet 101 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet i / Yad 102 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script k / Kaph 103 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet l / Lam 104 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script m / Mem 105 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet n / Nun 106 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script x / Sin 107 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet o / Ghan 108 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script p / Pey 109 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet y / Tsad 110 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script q / Quph 111 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet r / Resh 112 .

Appendix C – History of the Hebrew Script s / Shin 113 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet t / Taw 114 .

son nun n grab. shade ghan gh blow. weapon zan z outside.o. walk. in bet b. hunt tsad ts condense. top resh r sharp. time quph q first. house. beginning. two shin sh mark.bh gather. edge pey p. circle. mighty.u food. hook waw w. eat. to.kh teach. know. power. yoke. heir. allow. press.e add. signature taw t . bind lam l chaos. secure. protect sin s watch.ph wait. worship yad y. hang. scatter. throw. tame kaph k. carry gam g move. blood mah m continue. mud thet th work. chase. divide. reveal. sign. contain.i bend.Appendix D – Alphabet Charts ____________________________________ Ancient Hebrew Script Picture a Head of an ox b Tent floorplan c Foot d Tent door e Arms raised f Tent peg z Mattock h Tent wall u Clay basket i Closed hand k Open palm l Shepherd staff m Water n Sprouting seed x Thorn o Eye p Open mouth y Man on his side q Horizon r Head of a man s Two front teeth t Crossed sticks Meaning Name/Sound strong. leader al a family. half hhets hh surround. sigh hey h. enter dal d look. cut. hate.

p #.bh g d h v.k l ~.kh l m n s silent ph ts q r sh.u z hh t y k. 116 .o.G D E F Z H I.m !.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Script a b g d h w z x j y $.f t Name aleph beyt gimel dalet hey vav zayin hhet tet yud kaph lamed Mem nun samech ayin pey tsadey quph resh shin.n s [ @.s Β Γ ∆ Ε f* Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π M* Q* Ρ Σ B C.J K L M N X O P Q R S tav t Τ T * Ancient letter not carried over into Modern Greek.c q r v.sin Modern Hebrew Derivatives Sound Greek Latin silent Α A b.

Appendix E will list the Strong’s number49 followed by the Ancient Hebrew parent root number. Cross reference to Strong’s numbers To find the parent root of a given Hebrew word. ignoring the original Hebraic concrete understanding of words. find the Strong's number using any exhaustive concordance keyed to Strong's. This dictionary is written to fill this hole of Biblical understanding. and words that are derived from it.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary Appendix E . which lay the foundation for all the child roots. This dictionary will only include the parent roots. The 49 Only those words which are derived from a parent or child root will be listed 117 . The goal of the dictionary is to show the original understanding of Biblical words based on the Hebrew culture and thought so that the Modern reader can see the text through the eyes of the Ancient Hebrews who wrote it.Ancient Hebrew Parent Root Dictionary ____________________________________ Purpose of the Lexicon All Modern Hebrew dictionaries and lexicons are written from a Western/Greek perspective. A more comprehensive dictionary including the child roots and words will be completed in the future.

ba is 002. The parent root number. The meaning of the Hebrew pictographs of the parent root. This definition is based on the meanings of the two letters of the root. the word aa is 001. For example.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet definition of the parent root will then provide the concrete understanding to this word. This will allow the student to see all the words that are related to each other from the parent.6 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1. ca is 003. 3. such as "001" as there is no Hebrew word in the Bible derived from this parent root. 4. The letter a is an ox meaning 2. Some numbers will be missing. This number is derived alphabetically. 0081 ha2 AHh3 strong wall4 -5: The hearth around the fire Hearth protected the house from the heat and embers of the fire. The brothers of the house are the protectors by surrounding the house to protect it. How to use the Lexicon Below is a Sample entry from the lexicon describing the format of the parent root entry. Appendix E will also list the Ancient Hebrew parent root number followed by the Strong's numbers of all the words derived from the parent. 118 . A transliteration of the Hebrew letters into Roman letters. The pictographic Hebrew for the parent root. etc.

An English word equivalent to the Hebrew meaning of the parent root. All of the child roots and words derived from the parent will be related in meaning. The cultural background and meaning of the Hebrew parent root.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 5. By looking up the Parent Root number you can find all of the Hebrew words. and the c is a wall. By looking up the Strong's number in the Appendix you can find the Parent Root that this word is derived from. The concrete understanding of a strong wall is a "hearth". Following the Parent Root Lexicon is a cross-reference table (Appendix F) for the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon and Strong's Dictionary. 119 . strong. with a combined definition of "strong wall". by Strong's number. derived from this root. 6.

the priest and teacher. place (where). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 005 ea AH strong breath -. The times of the harvests were at specific times according to the solar calendar. The father fulfilled many functions for the family. thing (what). A desire is what one stands in support of.Sigh: The ox snorts (sighs) when desiring food. time (when) or event (how). A fire poker is used to turn. The pole is pointed at one end so that it can be thrust into the ground and can double as a weapon against an enemy. 120 . provider of offspring to continue the family line. He was the commander of the family army. support and structure of the tent. support and structure to the household.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 002 ba ABh strength of the house -.Pole: The poles provided the strength. a person (who). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 004 da AD strength at the tent door -Smoke: The cooking fires of the family were located at the tent door.Time: The farmers year revolved around the harvest. The father of the family also provides the strength. A thought is a turning over and bringing together. A large amount of smoke could accumulate at the door causing discomfort to the family. The sigh of one searching for. arrange and gather the wood in the fire to reduce the smoke. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 007 za AZ strong harvest -.

A treaty or covenant binds two parties together through an oath (yoke). The oath included blessings for abiding by the covenant and curses for breaking the covenant (see Deuteronomy 28). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 012 la AL ox in a yoke -. through the yoke. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 121 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 009 ua ATh ox contained -. An older. were placed in a yoke (see Isaiah 9:4) in order to harness their power for pulling loads such as a wagon or plow.Tame: The ox.Muscle: Oxen.Hearth: The hearth around the fire protected the house from the heat and embers of the fire. more experienced ox would be teamed up (yoked) with a younger. as the strongest of the livestock. needed to be corralled so that it may be tamed in order to be trained to do work. The pictographs of this parent root can also be interpreted as a "strong authority" where the ox represents strength and the staff of the shepherd represents his authority over the flock. The yoking together of two parties. less experienced ox. The God of the Hebrews was seen as the older ox who is yoked to his people in a covenant relationship.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 008 ha AHh strong wall -. The older ox in the yoke is the "strong authority" who. the strongest of the livestock. The brothers of the house are the protectors by surrounding the house to protect it. teaches the younger ox. Often two oxen were yoked together.

122 . a thick sticky substance formed at the surface of the water. This substance was removed and used as a binding agent.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 013 ma AM strong liquid -.Press: An ox will often lean or press on something such as a fence. The mother of the family is the one who binds the family together by holding in her arms and by the work of her arms.Glue: Glue was made by placing the hides of animals in a pot of boiling water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 017 pa APh ox mouth -. The fig tree produces fruit that is desirable and prolific. since the fig is green and blends in with the leaves. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 014 na AN ox seed -. The searching may result in success or failure. The heat of passion or cooking. the fruit must be searched out. or person causing it to move. A ship searches through the sea for a distant coastline (of an island or mainland) in search of the produce for trade. tree. As the hide boiled. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 018 ya ATs ox side -.Nose: The nostrils of the ox flare when snorting just as a man's does when he breaths heavy through the nose when in passion or anger. The arm is seen as a glue as it encircles and holds together (a cubit was the length of the arm from elbow to fingertip). The tribe is the larger family bound together by blood relation. A search for someone in order to produce something.Produce: The male searches out the female and approaches her for reproducing (see Jeremiah 2:24).

Wood dust is generated from the two woods rubbing together and is heated by the friction creating a small ember in the dust.7). Boxes are used for storing items to put them in order. Additionally. destination or person.Light: The day (light) begins with the rising of the sun in the east. A traveler arrives at his destination by following a mark. the first day of creation (as a strong beginning) was the creation of light.Wild goat ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 020 ra AR strong beginning -.Plow: The plow point is used to cut a deep furrow in the ground for planting seeds. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 022 ta AT ox to the mark -. The traveling toward a mark. The light brings order. Small tinder is then placed on the ember and is blown ignited the tinder.Fire: A fire is made by firmly pressing a wooden rod down onto a wooden board and spinning the rod with a bow drill. The arrival of one to the 123 . When plowing a field with oxen. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 021 sa ASh strong pressing -. The pressing down of the soil to form a firm and flat surface. The pressing together of soil by God to form man (Genesis 2. the plowman drives the oxen toward a distant mark in order to keep the furrow straight.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 019 qa AQ ? -.

To come or go into a space is to fill it. A liar is separated from the family or causes a separation in the family because of his false words.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet mark. A liar is separated from the family or causes a separation in the family because of his false words. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 124 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 026 db BD tent door -. watch over his household and watch the road for approaching strangers. A void within oneself that desires to be filled. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 027 eb BH inside revealed -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 024 bb BBh great inside -. A wanderer is one alone or lost.Pupil: The eye is the window into the soul. A thread is separated from the cloth. The coming toward a mark. A place separated from people is a place of ruin. Here he could receive shade from the sun. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties.Separate: The father of the tent often sat alone at the door of the tent. with the family mark hangs as a sign. A branch is separated from the tree. or flag. A standard. A box. A "you" is an individual who has arrived to a "me".Empty: A space that is empty that needs to be filled. Many things are separated from the whole.

The home is the place for safe idle talk with the family.Refuge: The home as a refuge. the surrounding lands are flooded depositing the water for growing the crops ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 035 mb high.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 029 zb BZ house harvested -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 034 lb BL ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 030 hb BHh inside outside -.Flow: A flowing or mixing of a liquid. A flowing away of life and strength. Vain as a useless flowing of work. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 033 kb BK ? -. An emptying by a flowing out or away. Disrespect and scorn are a plunder of the heart.Plunder: An enemy would plunder a household for goods to supply the troops.Tears: Tears from a lamenting or billowing smoke in the eyes. A flowing of tears. BM ? -. Panic as a flowing of the insides.High: Anything that is tall or 125 . A large flowing of water such as a flood. as the river rises and overflows its banks.Slaughter: A slaughter by the knife or sword where the inside is opened. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 031 ub BTh house surrounded -.

Corral: A pen constructed of thorn bushes to hold the livestock inside.Tent panel: The tent was constructed of woven goat hair. Over time the sun bleaches and weakens the goat hair necessitating their continual replacement. Man-made stones were made by mixing clay and straw to form bricks. approximately 3' wide and the length of the tent. sons are born to the family to continue the family line.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 036 nb BN house continues -. structure or family.3). one for the females and the other for the male. Since the tent is only replaced one small piece at a time the tent lasts forever. The thumb as the part of the body understood as the builder by the Hebrews. There are many similarities between building a tent out of goat hair panels and the building of a house out of sons (The idea of building a house with sons can be seen in Genesis 30. is made by the women. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 037 xb BS house of thorn -. 126 . The ground inside is heavily trampled by the livestock. The tent was usually divided into two parts. When building more permanent structures. The old panel is removed (being recycled into a wall or floor) and the new strip is added to the tent. Just as the tent is continually being renewed with new panels. The planning and building of a house. the hair strips are replaced with stones as the major building material. The wall makes a distinction between the two sides. Just as the tent panels are added to continue the tent. Each year a new panel. the family is continually being renewed with new sons.

An overwhelming desire. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 042 rb BR house of heads -. Livestock are fattened on grain to prepare them for the slaughter. These grains were used for food for both man and livestock. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 040 yb BTs in the side -. The white clay was desirable for making pottery.Grain: The plant family of grains such as wheat and barley have a cluster of seeds at the top of the stalk called "heads". A "covenant” involves the cutting of a fat animal prepared for slaughter. becomes strong for the long flight. What is cleaned with soap becomes white or bright.White Clay: On the sides of the swamps and marshes. The stalks of the grains were burned to make potash for making soap. a white clay is gathered. fed on grain. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 041 qb BQ ? -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 038 ob BGh ? -.Swell: A gushing over or swelling up as an eruption or a fountain. A lesion that pours out liquid. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 127 . The fowl.Bottle: A container for storing and pouring out a liquid.

pits and cisterns are dug inside the ground and the dirt is lifted out. A locust with a long back that cuts leaves ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 047 cc GG great lifting -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 044 tb BT tent mark -. Wells.House: A family takes the name of the father or ancestral father which the family is descended from. The house.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 043 sb BSh ? -. Shame is one who has failed or dried up.Slit: When one enters the tent. plant. Any cut or furrow made for making an entrance. tent or family. The animal’s tendon is used for making bowstrings and cords. making a slit for passing through.Wither: A drying up of a land. This name becomes the mark of the family such as 'the house of Israel'. The tendon is 128 . The water rushing by the riverbank undercuts a furrow inside the bank. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 046 bc GBh lift the inside -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 048 dc GD gather the door -. An attacker slices through the ranks making an opening for them to enter in.Dig: Digging is performed by the work of the bent back. stream. A troop or band of people. which support it.Roof: The wall and roof of the tent are one piece of cloth that is lifted up onto the poles. The smell of a dried up marsh. etc. the door is opened by parting the door.

A pond as a round pool of water. Redemption is the buying back of someone or something. A valley is surrounded by hills as the back of the landscape. A dancing in a circle. The cutting or sheering of grass. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 051 zc GZ lift the harvest -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 129 . other than through the front entrance.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary removed by making a slit in the flesh and entering for its removal. The back and forth sweeping action of a sickle cutting grasses. A stump as a tree sheared. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 049 ec GH lifter reveals -.Sheer: The sheering and removal of the wool fleece from the sheep.Belly: when crawling into the tent. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 052 hc GHh lift the wall -.Round: Something that is round or a second coming around of a time or event.Back: The back is used for lifting. A healing as a lifting of an illness. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 056 lc GL ? -. one much lift the wall and slide in on the belly like a snake. Pride is the lifting up of ones self.

A bowl as a container enclosed by walls.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 057 mc GM walking to water -. The throat is the place where fear is felt.Close ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 064 rc GR walking man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 061 pc GPh ? -.Gather: The watering well or other place of water is a gathering place for drinking of men. The native is responsible for providing and protecting the stranger according to Ancient custom. Any gathering of people. When a stranger meets another he lays 130 . he is often in fear. Because of the unknown territory.Garden: A garden is a place for growing crops and is surrounded by a rock wall or hedge to protect it from grazing animals.Gasp: When taking a difficult breath such as in gasping or in death. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 058 nc GN gathering of seeds -. things or ideas. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 060 oc GGh lifting the eye -. the eyes roll up. Men and animals may walk great distances for these watering holes while plants grow in abundance in them.Traveler: One traveling through his non-native land is a stranger to the people and culture. bandits and wild animals. The reeds of the watering holes were made into ropes. animals and plants.

A net full of fish is an abundance or increase. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 068 bd DBh door of the tent -. A net as a tool for catching fish. Anger is the result of fear.Grope ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 066 tc GT foot marked -.Breasts: The part of the female body invoking heat of passion and love.Rest: The door of the tent was the place of relaxation for the father.Fish: The tail of a fish moves back and forth to propel itself through the water.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary prostrate in homage to the other. treaders walk in the vat to crush the grapes freeing up the juices. A 131 . livestock and the road for approaching visitors (see Genesis 18:1). A relaxing in a quiet place. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 069 cd DG moving foot -. The treaders feet and lower parts of their clothing are stained red. Here he would watch his family. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 065 sc GSh ? -.Winepress: After the grapes are placed in the wine vat. a sign of their occupation (see Is 63:1-3). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 070 dd DD two danglers -. The back and forth movement of the fish's tail. A slow walk due to a sorrow or loss.

Push: The door is pushed to the side to enter. Any object that dangles such as a bucket that is hung from a rope down a well to retrieve water.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet loved one. A trampling to crush. A pot used for boiling liquids. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 077 kd DK movement in a cup -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 074 hd DHh door of the wall -. A thrusting of something. The door was then moved to the side for going in and out of the tent.Door: The tent door was hung down as a curtain.Mortar: Seeds are placed in a stone bowl called a mortar. such as a bucket. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 078 ld DL door on a staff -. The gentle walk of a woman. The hair hangs from the head. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 071 ed DH back and forth movement -Dart: The back and forth rapid flight of a bird. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 132 . from a horizontal pole (staff). branch from a tree or a door. A poor or weak person hangs the head in poverty. covering the entrance to the tent. Anything that dangles down and swings back and forth. the stone pestle is used to crush the seeds into a powder.

A deliverer as one who brings life to his people. When the blood is shed. The blood of man is also water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 083 pd DPh door opened -. man and the earth.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 079 md DM movement of water -.Myrtle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 082 od DGh door of the eye -.Blood: The grape plant takes water from the ground and moves it to the fruit where the water becomes the blood of the grape. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 133 . the man or animal becomes silent. the color of blood.See: Through the eyes one experiences his world and learns from it. An quarrel requiring the need of a ruler or judge to mediate the incident. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 080 nd DN door of life -. One who has knowledge is one who has experience.Push: The door is opened by pushing it aside.Rule: The goal of one who rules or judges is to bring a pleasant and righteous life to the people. which moves through the body. The color red. A son from the blood of his father resembles his father. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 081 xd DS ? -.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 084 yd DTs leap to the side. What comes from the grains. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 087 sd DSh back and forth pressing -. A circling around as the flight of a bird or a dance. including tribe. marries and gives birth to sons. children and wife (as marriages 134 .Tread: The treading out of the grain for removing the hulls from the grain. movement to the side -.Roof: The roof of the tent provides protection from the heat of the sun. a mark is given as a sign of continued allegiance. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 086 rd DR movement of man -.Covenant: When two parties agree to follow the terms of a covenant. comes to maturity. The repetitious rhythmic running of a horse.Leap: A ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 085 qd DQ way out of the sun -.Gift: One does not choose the household which one is born into. Each generation expands the size of the family. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 090 be HBh behold the house -.Circle: A man is born. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 088 td DT enter a mark -. parents. repeating the cycle of life.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 092 de HD ? -. A looking toward a breath taking sight or action. for the removal of a burden. A sigh of desire.Dream ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 100 le HL looking toward -.Look: When one sees a great site close by or in the distance. look at that" or "behold". ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 091 ce HG great burden -. The stars have always been used to guide the traveler or shepherd to find his home or destination. These gifts are seen as a privilege and are to be cherished and protected. When the shepherd has been out 135 .Star: The looking toward a light in the distance. A splendor as something that shouts out ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 093 ee HH arms extended out -. it is a gift from God. A sigh of pain. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 095 ze HZ ? -. The expressions and actions toward the family that one was privileged with.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary were often arranged by the father). he extends his arms out and sighs as if saying. "ah.Shout: When shouting the hands are put up to the mouth. He or she as one who is pointed at.Meditate: a murmuring or soft speech.

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet in the wilderness with his flock all day and is returning home in the dark. An abundance of something.Hill: A mountain or hill as the head rising up above the landscape. To cause a shining of one by praising or giving thanks to another or to ones self. he can see his tent from a great distance because of the glow of the fires. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 110 te HT ? -. and love of the family as well as food and water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 101 me HM the water -. safety.Heavy: Heavy or abundant in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 103 xe HS ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 102 ne wealth.Break in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 136 . turbulent surf and the commotion of the waves. HN ? -.Still ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 108 re HR the head -. he knows that here is the comfort. An uproar.Sea: A large body of water seen as a place of chaos because of its storms.

Pegs: The tent peg is a "y" shaped wooden peg.Yellow: The yellow grain is the main staple of the house used for making breads. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 139 zz ZZ great harvesting -. The stalks are gathered together and 137 . The tent ropes were attached to these pegs. the "y" shape prevents the rope from slipping off the peg. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 137 ez ZH ? -. Any yellow thing such as gold or an animal.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 116 ff WW two tent pegs -. Puss as a yellow discharge. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 136 dz ZD food at the door -. a harvesting tool. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 134 bz ZBh food of the house -.Soup: The tent fire located near the door is used for boiling water and making soups. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 135 cz ZG harvest by foot -. is swung back and forth cutting the stalks of grain.Grapeskin: The juice of the grape is removed/harvested by treading on them in a vat leaving the grapeskins behind.Wealth: The sickle. which is driven into firm soil.This: Something that stands out or is pointed out.

Shake: A staff is made by cutting a branch from the tree. (see Isaiah 18. A good supply of food from the harvest will keep the family nourished.5) A shaking out for removal. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 145 mz ZM harvest chaos -thoughts and plans that bring about chaos. which were stored in jars. A moving back and forth from a fixed location.Harvest: One of the many agricultural tools was a hoe or mattock. Any implement or object that is broad. The broad ear for picking up sounds. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 144 lz ZL cut the staff -. This implement had a wide blade for cutting a plant stalks at the roots.Glass: A glass without impurities is transparent and pure. 138 Plan: The . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 146 nz ZN mattock of the seed -.Loose ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 143 kz ZK ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet stored for future use. The crops were harvested for a supply of foods. this green branch shakes and bends easily until it has hardened. The neighing of a horse usually accompanied with the shaking of the head. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 140 hz ZHh ? -.

A scattering.Tremble: The hard work of the summer harvest brings sweat and exhaustion. The oil is also used as a medicinal ointment. ? -.Winnow: after the grain has been harvested and the heads of grain have been broken open. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 152 rz ZR harvest of heads -.Bind: The arms or feet are bound with chains. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 139 . The binding of different metals to form alloys. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 149 pz ZPh boats.Tar: A pitch used for sealing ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 151 qz ZQ ? -.Olive: The oil from the olive fruit was used as an anointing oil for those to hold a kingly or priestly office. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 154 tz ZT harvested marker -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 148 oz ZGh harvest experience -. the heads are thrown into the wind where the chaff is blown away and the seed falls to the ground where they can be gathered. The span of the hand with the fingers spread out.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 157 ch HhG surround and gather -. A refuge functions a place of hiding from any undesirable person or situation. but the actual meaning is not understood causing a division between the two.Watch: The crops are enclosed by a wall which is watched and guarded against intruders. Only through the door can one enter or exit uniting the inside with the outside. 140 . A uniting together.Life: The family camp is comprised of many tents. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 161 zh HhZ wall of the harvest -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 158 dh HhD wall door -. The family carefully watches and guards the property. One approaching this wall knows that there is an abundance of life within. which are laid out in a circle forming a wall of tents.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 156 bh HhBh wall of the house -.Festival: The participants of a festival would gather together and dance in a circle. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 159 eh HhH wall reveals -. livestock and crops.Unite: A wall seperates the inside from the outside.Refuge: The walls of the house enclose the home as refuge for the family. A parable is a story that brings unity between the hearer and the listener.

By moving the bow back and forth. The spinning around in joy.Cord: Cords are used for binding as well as measuring. the drill spins around drilling the hole. A cord is also used as measuring device by placing knots incrementally. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 163 uh HhTh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 166 lh HhL ? -.Bore: A hole is drilled with a tool called a bow drill. When the mouth is dry the tongue sticks to the roof of the mouth causing the speaker to wait to speak. The cord is stretched between the two points to measure and the knots are counted.Thistle: The wall around crops or livestock was constructed on thistles or rocks with thistles laid on top. A hook as a sharp point. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 165 kh HhK wall of the cup -. and firmly pressing down. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 141 . The string of the bow is wrapped around the drill. The thorns prevented intruders from entering. Sick as a spinning of the insides. An army bores through the enemy by strongly pressing in. The drilling takes patience as the process takes time.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 162 hh HhHh great wall -.Pallette: The curved roof of the mouth is divided by a ridge or wall. Rust bores through metal.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 168 nh HhN tent wall continues -. The tent poles were sharpened at one end (and could be used as a weapon) and were driven into the ground. One is supported by his family line. churning and the natural enzymes in the leather of the bag caused the fat (curds) and water (whey) to separate. The first step to setting up the tent is to arrange the poles.Support: The fabric of the tent walls are supported by the ropes and poles.Camp: A nomads camp consists of many family tents which make up the clan camp. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 171 ph HhPh wall opened -.Cheese: Cheese was made by placing milk in a bag made out of the skin of an animal. The bag was hung out in the sun and pushed back and forth. forming one continuous wall surrounding the camp. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 169 xh HhS wall for holding -.Cover: The tent is opened to allow one into its covering for protection. The tents are placed in a circular configuration. trusts) another who is strong. The whey could be drunk and the curds eaten or stored for future consumption. Within this wall is the family clan. a place of freedom. An encampment of tents. just as one person who is weak is supported by (leans on. compassion and beauty. The combination of the heat.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 167 mh HhM separate water -. A 142 . The camp can have as many as fifty tents or more in it.

A stillness in the midst of turmoil.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary secret is something that is covered and hidden.Tent Wall: The tent wall divides or separates the inside from the outside. An arrow divides the flesh. rain and sun.Appointment: The time between the present and an appointment is a wall of time. 143 . the closer one gets to the appointment the smaller the wall gets.Heat: A man outside in the desert sun becomes pale and hot. advances for destruction.Hurry: The wall. The appointment is inscribed so that both parties have a reminder of the coming event. The wages earned for the work. A bleaching by the sun. Anger as a hot emotion. one waits until the breeze of the day. The writing is fixed to the tablet as the event is fixed in time. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 174 rh HhR outside man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 173 qh HhQ separation and coming together . an army or other attacker. Here the family resides in privacy and protection from the elements of wind. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 172 yh HhTs separation of sides -. A haven as a place covered over for protection. Rather than work in the heat of the sun. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 175 sh HhSh wall presses -.

The fibers were also woven and spun into other products such as baskets.Broom: The fibers of the broom plant were course and strong and used to make brooms. made of clay or wicker.Thorn ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 181 eu ThH basket seen -. beauty. Limestone was ingested to calm an upset stomach. love. Clay as a common material for constructing baskets. 144 .Terror ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 178 bu ThBh surround the house -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 185 uu ThTh contain -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 180 du ThD ? -.Basket: The basket or bowl. was used for storing foods and other supplies in the nomadic tent.Good: The house is surrounded by grace. health and prosperity.Grind: Limestone was ground into a powder. pots and bowls is clay.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 176 th HhT ? -. The powder was mixed with water to and used as a strong and durable plaster for coating walls and floors. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 184 hu ThHh contain the wall -.

Trip: A tripping around like ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 196 ru ThR surround man -.Unclean: A bowl of water is used to wash dirt off. ThPh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 145 .Weave: A tapestry or basket as woven items. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 189 mu ThM container of water -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 188 lu ThL ? -.Wall: A wall that surrounds one for protection or as a jail. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 190 nu ThN basket continues -. an overlay. The hammering of a metal into a sheet to cover wood.Wander ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 193 pu children.Dew: A covering over of an area. The spots that cover a lamb’s fleece. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 192 ou ThGh ? -. The closing of the doors to the wall.

The day ends and the new day begins when the sun sets in the west.Work: The hand is the part of the body that enables man to perform many works. With it he can throw away or grab hold. The throwing out of the hand for throwing. over the Mediterranean sea. Considered a place of chaos and terror. praising or thanking. A flowing of water in a 146 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 212 ni YN ? -.Pounce ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 200 bi ? -. A shout is done by throwing the hands up to the mouth for amplifying.Cry ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 202 di YD hand moves -.Sea: The sea or other large body of water is the place of storms and heavy surf.Throw: The hand of man is used for the throwing. kill or heal.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 197 su ThSh ? -.Shovel ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 218 ri YR hand of man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 211 mi YM working water -. make or destroy.Wine ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 214 oi YGh ? -.

The throwing down of water in rain. One eats once the harvest is complete. 147 . Taming include. milk or meat. construction of holding pens.Dark ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 228 hk KHh tame the outside -. Awe or fear where one throws himself at the foot of one in authority. The ability to do the work.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary river. harvesting of crops. The throwing of an arrow. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 232 lk KL tame for the yoke -. A throwing of the finger to show a direction to walk or live. putting the soil to the plow. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 222 bk KBh bend the inside -.Complete: An animal or land that is tamed has been worked and is complete and ready for use.Strength: Through strong word the land and animals are tamed to produce crops and livestock. An animal is tamed through chastisement.Jar ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 225 ek KH ? -. The stars appear as fires in the sky.Pain: A pain as a fire that causes the insides to bend. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 224 dk KD ? -.

A bag or pocket. The bending of the will of an animal. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 239 qk KQ ? -. A tall tree can only stand tall and firm because of the strong root system which supports it.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 233 mk KM ? -. A priest as one who stands firm between God and the nation. The plant rises out of the ground forming the stalk of the plant. A firm or sure position.Palm: The curved shape of the open hand. A seat that is covered by the sitter. holds and hides the contents inside it. Words or names that are given in support of another.Desire ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 234 nk KN opening of a seed -.Root: When the seed opens the roots begin to form the base of the plant by going down into the soil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 237 pk KPh palm open -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 235 xk KS palm that grabs hold -. The placing of the palm on something and pressing down or pushing. Any curved or hollowed out object.Cup: The curved palm covers. To cover a group by counting. Any type of covering.Caterpillar ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 148 .

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 240 rk KR bent man -.Weary: An young oxen unaccustomed to the weight and operation of the yoke becomes tired.Study ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 246 dl LD ? -.Child: The bearing of children. Thirst as an Inside desire for water. the heart.Crush: The crushing of the olives produce olive oil. used as a covering for ceremonial purposes. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 247 el LH great yoke -.Heart: The consciousness of man is seen as coming from deep inside the chest. A farm as a place where one digs the ground for growing crops. 149 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 242 tk KT cover the covenant -. An ornamentation placed on the neck as a yoke. The wall of a trench that is dug out. A bowl as an hollowed out object. A work that comes to nothing.Leap: One bends down before leaping. Also for digging. A joining to the yoke. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 245 cl LG ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 244 bl LBh authority inside -.

the tongue licks the lips to moisten them.Moist: When the lips are dry. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 250 hl LHh tongue outside -. A stairway that rolls around itself.Night: When the night comes. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 251 ul LTh authority contained -. 150 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 249 zl LZ authority cut -. A common writing material is wet clay. A messenger as one who walks for another ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 254 ll LL ? -. Anything that is moist or fresh.Walk: A nomad traveled on foot with a staff in his hand to provide support in walking as well as a weapon to defend against predators or thief’s. a night predator. The letters can be easily inscribed and the clay hardens to preserve the record. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 253 kl LK staff in the palm -.Veil: A covering to hide the face. the night sky is rolled out like a scroll.Turn aside: A turning away from truth. the night sky is rolled up like a scroll. When daylight comes. The sound of the wolf. The camouflaging capability of the lizard to hide.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 255 ml LM staff of might -- Staff: The shepherd always carried his staff for guiding, leading and protecting the flock. The flock was bound to the shepherd, as the staff was a sign of his authority over the sheep. The yoke was a staff laid across the shoulders of two oxen. The oxen were then tied to the yokes at the neck, binding the two together for plowing or pulling a cart. A people bound together. A wound bound with bandages. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 256 nl LN bound continually -- Remain: To remain in a place or position for a long duration. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 258 ol LGh tongue seen -- Throat: When looking down the throat you see the tongue. A swallowing. The blurting out of words coming from the throat rather than the heart. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 259 pl LPh ? -- Stick

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 260 yl LTs tongue of trouble -- Mock

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 264 sl LSh ? -- Knead

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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 267 cm MG water carries -- Disolve: The washing away by water. A fainting or melting. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 268 dm MD water at the door -- Carpet: A carpet was stretched out to cover the dirt floor of the tent. A bowl of water was located at the door so that one could wash his feet before stepping on the carpet. Just as the carpet is stretched out to cover the floor, the garments worn by the nomad is stretched out to cover the body. Also, a string is stretched out for measuring. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 269 em MH water behold -- Sea: The sea (Mediterranean) is a place of the unknown (what is beyond or what is below). It is feared by the Ancient Hebrews because of its size, storms and fierceness. Anything that is unknown or a question to find the unknown (who, what, when, where, why, how). A hundred as an unknowable amount. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 271 zm MZ mighty harvest -- Barn: A storage facility for the harvest. The stomach as a storage place for food. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 272 hm MHh liquid inside -- Marrow: The marrow is a buttery liquid inside the bones and is used as
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Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary

a choice food. To obtain the marrow, the bone must be struck to break it open. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 273 um MTh liquid contained -- Branch: A green branch still contains water allowing the branch to be flexible. The yoke is cut green then shaped to the desired shape and left to dry. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 275 km MK might subdued -- Low: Something brought low in submission, humility or wealth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 276 lm ML ? -- Reduce: The reduction of quantity or quality. Sickness as a reduction in health. A reduction by being cut off. Yesterday and what is before as a time cut off. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 277 mm MM great chaos -- nothing: Anything that is considered useless or without value. A blemish that causes something to be valueless. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 278 nm MN blood continues -- Kind: Each species (kind) continues by passing its blood to the following generation which comes from the parent. A large group of the same kind are stronger than one. Refusal as a strength of the will. An assigning of a group
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Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

together who are of the same kind. Those of the same kind, look alike. The right hand as the strong hand. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 279 xm MS water grabs hold -- Disolve: The dissolving or melting away of something. Fainting is a dissolving of the inside. A spurning as dissolving away of another. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 280 om MGh ? -- Bowels

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 282 ym MTs ? -- Chaff: The seed is thrown on the threshing floor, the oxen trample over the seeds, putting them under pressure forcing the seed out of the hull (chaff). A sucking as a pressing with the lips. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 283 qm MQ water expands -- Dissipate: When water is poured out on the ground it dissipates. A mocking, as a dissipating of another. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 284 rm MR water head -- Bitter: The headwaters of a river are only a trickle and have stagnant pools causing the water to be bitter. Rebellion is one with a bitter attitude. The headwaters may also be a life-giving source of water in the desert. The headwaters of a river have very low flow where water collects in holes or pools.
154

An exchange as a going oneway to another.Death ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 288 bn NBh seed inside -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 289 cn NG ? -.Draw out ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 286 tm MT chaos mark -. 155 .Sit: The continual sitting or dwelling in one place for any reason. A driving out of another people to sit in their place.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary Because of the lack of flow it is bitter tasting. A prophecy is a germinating of words that will bring about fruit. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 291 en continue the breath -.Germinate: A seed opens and the plant bores through the soil to the surface. Words may be spoken as bitter or sweet. A removal or fleeing for a time such as during menstruation.Shake: A back and forth movement such as the shaking of the head or the quivering of the lips. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 285 sm MSh ? -. The plant rises and produces fruit.Bright ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 290 dn ND continue back and forth -.

they are free to rest after the long journey. A guided journey to a place of rest. When the basket is shaken.Sprinkle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 294 hn NHh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 156 of . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 298 ln NL ? -. A sigh of rest.Drowsy: The state unconsciousness that allows speech from the heart.Settle: Seeds from the harvest were placed in baskets for storage. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 297 kn NK continue the palm -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 295 un NTh seed in a basket -. Once the flock arrives. Here is water for drinking as well as green grass for pasturing.Rest: The shepherd would guide his flock to a place of water.Complete ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 299 mn NM ? -.Beat: A continued beating with the palm plays the drum.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 293 zn NZ ? -. the seeds spread out flat allowing for more room for the seeds.

This cycle continues generation after generation.Region: The border that encircles an area. or standard. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 302 on NGh ? -. The flag as the place of refuge that one flees to.Flag: The tribal flag or standard that is hung from a horizontal pole. Something that is lifted up or exalted.Rattle: A shaking. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 157 . which is attached to a vertical pole such as a sail. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 305 qn NQ life drawn in -.Despise: A quarrel. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 304 yn NTs ? -. is lifted up to be seen from a distance. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 301 xn NS continue to grab hold -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 300 nn NN seed of seed -. The flag.Suckle: The innocent cry of a baby when hungry.Continue: The seed is the continuation of life from the parent plant. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 303 pn NPh continual edge -.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 311 cx SG ? -. While the surface is dry. After the flood season.Debt: A debt or loan that causes pressure or sickness.Plow: Rains in the mountainous areas cause a flooding of the rivers.Increase ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 312 dx SD ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 306 rn NR seed beginning -.Dizzy: One drunk from strong drink. The old. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 310 bx SBh turning of the inside -. turns from dizziness. A witness brings an account to the elders who meet on the floor of the tent for 158 . The floor of permanent homes were sometimes covered with a lime plaster for a smooth floor. The elders are the foundation of the community who make decrees. This is the only water that the land will see and is necessary for crop production. gray haired ones. the turned up soil glistens in the sun from the water remaining in the soil. This water is necessary for the seed to begin germination. easily become dizzy. A lampstand also brings forth light.Foundation: A level piece of ground is found for setting up the tent. The rivers swell causing the water to flood the land next to the river. the land is plowed by the use of a plow attached to the yoke of the oxen. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 307 sn NSh continual pressing -. A deception that brings one indebted to another.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 317 ux STh turn around -. The pond provides a quiet and serene place for meditation. flock or herd. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 316 hx SHh thorn wall -. thorns and small trees. A place for swimming and bathing. The growth around a pond.Turn aside ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 319 kx SK protective covering -. A wound was covered with olive oil as a medicine.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary rulings.Veil: The veil is lifted to reveal the face that is hidden. A level field of ground.Pond: The edge of the pond is a wall of plants. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 159 . and from materials readily available such as bushes. A limestone plaster is made for the floor of buildings to form a smooth and level surface. wind or rain. would construct a covering (booth) as a shelter from the sun. These coverings were often constructed on an elevated position. The lifting of oneself in pride. One who sits by the pond to ponder as a plant sits by the water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 313 ex SH protector reveals -.Booth: The watcher over the crops. The floating on the water or one floating in meditation.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 323 xx SS great turning -. The same thorns are used by the shepherd to build a wall (shield) made of these thorn bushes to enclose his flock during the night which will help keep predators out. Hate as a thorn in the heart.Thorn: A thorn bush can be a blessing or a curse. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 321 mx SM ? -.Store: A storehouse where stores are put.Balance: A balance scale consisted of a small wooden beam (staff) held in place at the center. This was a convenient means of gathering meat for the table. The desert traveler often comes in contact with these thorns and brushing the leg against them causing pain. To set anything in a place. The object to be weighed would lower. Measured weights were added to the other tray until the tray being weighed raised and became level with the other tray. Boots were designed to protect the legs from thorns. A rising up of something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 160 . After quail land after crossing a large sea they are unable to lift themselves up any longer due to exhaustion. A wall of thorns for protecting the sheep from wolves. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 322 nx SN protective seed -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 320 lx SL turn of the staff -. At both ends of the beam was attached a tray for placing objects.Turn: The twisting and turning of a bird in flight or a horse playing.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 324 ox SGh ? -. One who rules turns the people to his direction. is used by the driver to turn the head of the ox.Sack ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 328 rx SR turn the head -.Rush ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 325 px SPh protection of the mouth -. The turning the head of the child or student into a particular direction.Dark cover: The tent is made of a covering of thick and heavy black or dark brown goat hair. A fishhook that turns the head of the fish. 161 .Direct: The turning of the head to another direction. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 330 tx ST turn from the covenant -Provoke: To lead or provoke another in a different direction. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 327 qx SQ ? -. The lips gather the food into the mouth. attached to the neck. A turning around. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 332 bo GhBh experience the tent -. The yoke.Lips: The edge of the mouth.

Yoke: The yoke. ? -. A testimony is a repeating of an account.Stylus: When a bird of prey drops down on its prey.Cake ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 334 do GhD experienced back and forth -Witness: A place.Bold: A refuge as a place for making a firm and fierce stand. time or event that is repeated. a staff is lifted over the shoulder. A tight wrapping around. An appointed place.Ruin: To bring down in a heap ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 337 zo GhZ know a weapon -. time or event that is repeated again and again. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 342 lo GhL experience the staff -. A writing stylus is a small pointed stick that is pressed into the clay for inscribing.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 333 co GhG ? -. and firmly presses around it causing the talons to be buried into the prey. the talons grab hold of the prey. A goat stands firm in its strength. is attached to the 162 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 335 eo GhH by twisting. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 339 uo GhTh depress around -.

The eye reveals the heart of the person. A furrow depression is formed between the eyes when watching intensely. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 343 mo GhM experience the masses -. as a shelter from the glare of the sun. It was a common practice to strip the clothes off of those taken into exile. One taken into exile is placed in the yoke. Protection of the home by keeping of a close eye on it.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary oxen for performing work. A spring or fountain is the eye of the ground. The making or doing of anything. The home is a place closely watched. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 345 xo GhS watch and hold on -. A rope is suspended from above and is held onto by the grape treaders for support. A coat lifted up onto the shoulders.Tread: Grapes are placed in a vat. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 163 . The furrow may also be formed by concentration or depression. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 344 no GhN continue the eye -. Milk is a product from the female oxen.People: A group who reside with each other where the masses become as one.Watch: The nomadic agriculturalist carefully watches over his livestock and crops by keeping a close eye on them. It was common to construct a shelter consisting of a roof on four posts. A bird that intently watches.

Tree: The upright and firmness of the tree. The spine makes man stand upright and firm. he is stripped of his clothes to the skin and carefully watched.Bird: A branch as the resting place for the birds. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 351 so GhSh ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 164 .Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 347 po GhPh eyes open -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 348 yo GhTs ? -. Exhaustion from a long flight.Press ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 350 ro GhR watch a man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 349 qo GhQ ? -. The elders of the tribe were the upright and firm ones making decisions and giving advice.Unfit: Unable to fulfill the role intended for. An unripe fig.Naked: When the enemy is captured.Moth ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 352 to GhT ? -.Time ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 355 cp PG ? -.

The ruler of a spread out area.Refine: The plow point was the only implement requiring a strong metal refined by fire because of its constant work in the soil and the grazing over rocks.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 356 dp PD open the door -. sign. thing or event that goes beyond the normal such as a miracle. A place. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 363 kp PK ? -.Redeem: To bring back to an original state. The flask is overturned to pour out the contents. A mouth is the edge of anything such as the place of the beard. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 360 hp PHh blow to separate -.Flask: The flask stored such materials as cosmetics. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 165 . wonder or beauty.Mouth: The mouth is place of speaking and blowing. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 359 zp PZ edge of the plow -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 357 ep PH mouth of breath -. a region (when the Hebrews speak of the border of something they are referring to all that is within the borders) or sword.Spread: The spreading out dust by blowing on it.

Smash: When something is struck with a maul. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 368 op PGh ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 364 lp PL speak to authority -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 365 mp PM ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 367 xp PS ? -.Fat ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 366 np PN ? -. The bent shape of the bean as if bowing before an authority.Stagger ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 166 .Wrist: The end of the extremities including the wrist and ankles. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 371 qp PQ ? -. A great sight deserving respect.Viper ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 370 yp PTs open the side -. A wheel or other turning object. he bows low out of respect. it is smashed and the pieces scatter.Face: The part of the body that turns. An opening by force.Intercede: When one comes before one of authority to intercede for another.

Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 372 rp PR open the head -.Spread ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 374 tp PT open mark -. the tent walls are enlarged. An army as a wall of protection. The tent walls stand firm and strong. hard and level surface. The winepress is a vat where the grapes are placed and tread on the open the grapes to reveal the juices inside.Socket: The hinges of a door were made by a hole placed in the door jam. A hole dug in the ground for capturing. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 376 by TsBh side of the tent -.Set: A placing in a specific 167 . protecting it from the harsh elements. TsG ? -. The door was made with a rods which were set into the hole. At the conclusion of the treading. an abundance of fruit is acquired. a smooth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 377 cy location. opening them to reveal the fruit inside. allowing the door to swivel in the socket.Tread: The heads of grains are scattered on the threshing floor. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 373 sp PSh ? -. As the family swells in size. An ox is lead around the floor crushing the heads.Wall: The walls of the tent enclose what is inside.

wadi's. hide or ambush. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 386 ly TsL ? -. Through the journey along the road of life. valleys. such as rivers. etc. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 382 hy TsHh trouble outside -. which must be observed and followed to live a right and prosperous life. there are certain requirements. are the familiar and known markers by which the nomad guides the migration. A crying out from thirst.Shade: A place of shadows. Like the nomad. Landmarks. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 379 ey TsH hunt for revelation -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 378 dy TsD side movement -. mountain ranges. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 168 . directions and remembrances. A hiding in the shadows. It was the responsibility of the father to teach the landmarks of the terrain as well as the landmarks of a right life.Side: One lays down to sleep.Landmark: The desert nomad’s existence depended on water and pasture for the flocks and would migrate from one location to another. rock outcroppings.Desert: A hot and dry place from the glaring of the sun. the ship follows the stars as landmarks to their destination.

A spreading out of something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 388 ny TsN ? -. sides coming together -.Bed: The bed consisted of blankets spread out on the floor of the tent. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 393 qy TsQ Used for pouring. The thorns would deter any predators. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 391 py TsPh lay down the mouth -.Thirst: A fasting from water.Blossom: The function of the blossom is to produce the fruit of the tree. or food. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 390 oy TsGh laying known -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 387 my TsM hunt for water -.Thorn: The sharp piercing thorns that cause pain as well as protection.Funnel: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 169 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 392 yy TsTs ? -. The thorn bushes were often used by the shepherd to build a corral for the flock sheep.Whisper: The guards quietly whisper to each other to prevent detection.

QD ? -. A belt as wrapped around the middle tightly. Being pressed in a narrow tight place.Cord: The Cord is used to secure items together or for attaching to an object to make a sling. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 396 ty TsT ? -. The olives are pressed to extract the glimmering oil.Kindle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 398 bq QBh surround the inside -. The rocks can also be used as weapons by throwing them or fashioning them into knives. The stomach as a jar inside of man that stores food.Pressed: A man being chased goes to a place of refuge and defense such as a rock outcropping where clefts in the rocks allow for concealment. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 170 . A cleft is a tight place where the man presses himself in. The flint knife is made of a glassy type rock that fractures evenly when struck or firmly pressed in the proper place and angle. Something that is stored by being wrapped up tightly.Bow: The bowing down of the ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 401 eq QH ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 394 ry TsR hunted man -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 400 dq head.Jar: A container for storing.

The shepherd also carried a bag. The light supplies of the shepherd or a swift traveler. wife. He carried with him a long staff for directing the sheep as well as to protect them from predators.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 404 hq QHh ? -. which included some food supplies. Man can guard over the family. from an enemy) or in a negative way (by not trusting or a desire to have another’s possessions). and possessions in a positive way (protect. The Ancients 171 . When it came time to move he would call them and they would quickly gather to him. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 405 uq QTh ? -. QM ? -. The sheep knew the voice of their shepherd. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 409 mq anything.Raise: A rising or standing of ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 410 nq QN gathering for the seeds -. The process of gathering branches for the nest. The parent bird will guard over and protect the nest and eggs from predators.Little: Something that is little or made little by cutting off.Take: Merchandise as taken. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 408 lq QL gathering to the staff -Shepherd: The Shepherd traveled light.Nest: The gathering of materials by the parent for building a nest for the seeds (eggs). mans gathering or acquiring materials by taking or buying.

Scales: The scales of a fish. The condensing of the light at the sun when at the horizons. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 413 pq QPh sun speaks -.Cut: Making the end of something by cutting it off. a condensing of milk into curdles.Seasons: As the sun travels through the sky it marks (speaks. The striking of a musical note as a bird sings in the nest. incision. An ending of sleep.Gash: A mark by branding. The singing of the bird in the nest. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 416 rq QR gather the men -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet measured wealth by the amount of one's possessions and measured distances using a branch with marks on it. The bringing forth of chicks into the nest. commands) the times and seasons (see Genesis 1:14).Meeting: The men often came together during the cool of the day to discuss the news of the camp. A going around of the sun from one horizon to the other. Harvesting of the crops by cutting. tattoo or dislocation. A calling together for 172 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 411 xq QS ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 414 yq QTs ? -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 412 oq QGh ? -.

While the middle is firmly pressed together. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 417 sq QSh bring together and pressed -Straw: Once the straw is harvested from the field.Judge: Each tribe had judges who ruled cases. it is gathered into bundles and secured with a cord in the middle.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary assembly. The treaders in the winepress look at their step while trampling on the grapes. The snare is constructed of a bent branch and tied to the trap. the top and bottom bend outward. One aimlessly walking and 173 .Trample: The treading underfoot of something. one abundant in authority and wisdom (see Exodus 18:25). A woven rug that is laid on the floor of the tent for walking on. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 421 cr RG man foot -. Something that is bad is trampled on. accident or purchase. The meeting or bringing together of people or objects by arrangement. This person was the representative for the whole tribe. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 420 br RBh head of the family -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 422 dr RD head hanging -. The walking over one with the intent to kill. possibly accompanied by a loud noise and the breaking of something.Wander: A walking or treading where the head is hanging or looking down. conflicts and contests. trials.

The Ancient handmill consisted of two round stones. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 423 er RH man beholds -. the top was turned on top of the other to grind the grain.Path: The responsibilities of the nomad outside of the tent include the feeding. The Hebrew nomads were very familiar with the wind patterns. one watches his step carefully.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet looking at his feet. as it is the wind of man. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 426 hr RHh man outside -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 174 .See ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 425 zr RZ ? -. therefore the man follows a routine or "a prescribed path" each day when caring for his livestock. A traveler follows a prescribed path to arrive at a specific destination. called millstones. The strength of cedar wood.Ceder: The bark of the ceder is pulled off in thin thread like fibers. Livestock are healthier and more productive when on a routine. watering and caring for the livestock. This top stone always followed the same path on top of the other. The moon follows a prescribed path each night from horizon to horizon. as they would follow a prescribed path indicating the coming season. which also follows a prescribed path of inhaling and exhaling. Whenever climbing or walking down a steep grade. From this word comes the idea of breath. A smell that is carried by the wind and smelled while breathing.

The thigh is the longest bone in the body. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 434 or RGh man watched -. 175 . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 429 kr RK man covered -.Companion: The shepherd closely watched over his flock.Loins: The loins of a man is the area around the waist and upper thighs and is always covered. Future generations come out of the loins of the father.Lift: Anything that is high or ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 432 nr instrument. often they are his only companion.Break down: The breaking or bringing down of something by pulling it down. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 431 mr lifted up.Shout: Any loud noise or ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 433 xr RS top grabbed -. RN ? -.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary 427 ur RTh top of a container -. RM ? -. A trembling as a hollowing out of the insides.Trough: The digging out of something for making a basin or trough.

Saliva: Also the white of an egg which is similar in consistency to saliva. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 438 rr RR ? -.Chief: The Chief (head of the tribe) is the authority of the tribe. flowers.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 435 pr RPh man open -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 436 yr RTs ? -.Potsherd: Broken pieces of pottery were commonly used as writing tablets as they were inexpensive and durable. A cursing by spitting on another. Land is divided up into sections by tribe or nations. leaves. stalks.Wound: Plant material such as seeds. Also green.Bottle: The mouth of the bottle. Runners carried messages from one to another on potsherds. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 437 qr RQ top drawn together -. He hears the requests of the tribe. etc. Spit is a liquid that comes out of the mouth of a man. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 439 sr RSh head of two -. were pulverized into a medicinal paste for applying to wounds or into a powder for internal ingestion. usually made of animal skins. The liquid is poured out of the mouth. from the color of spit. is drawn together with a cord. roots. the representative and ruler of the land that he governs and the one who divides up the land 176 .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 442 bs ShB press to the tent -.Pit: A pit dug into the ground for the purpose of trapping someone or something.Teats: The goat and sheep have two teats dangling below the udder.Mistake: When a work is found to be in error. Hunger where the stomach is an empty pit. A groan one makes when making a mistake. -Storm: The roar and ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 448 hs ShHh sharp walls -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 444 ds ShD two that dangle -. A captive that is taken back to the land of the captors. place.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary and possessions of the tribe. The ravines of a mountain where water rushes down providing life to the soil. The teats provide milk (life) and power to the kids. A sitting. thing or time. 177 . The head of a person. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 445 es ShH ? devastation of a storm.Return: The return to the tent for rest. the work must be redone. A return or turning back to another land or place. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 443 cs ShG double burden -.

Hebrew names are words usually describing their character. The wind is the breath of the sky located high in the heavens.Draw out: The drawing out of ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 453 ms ShM ? -. One who is guilty is in a desolate state. ShL ? -. One in horror or in astonishment is one dried up in the inside. reflecting their breath. making a place of ruin or desert. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 452 ls an answer. The lashing at or out of someone or something with a cord or branch.Breath: The breath is the life or character of the person. A wind blowing over the land pulls the moisture out of the ground drying it up.Testes: The two parts in the palm (the curved part) of the loins. Despise as a lashing out. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 451 ks ShK two in the palm -.Teeth: The two front teeth are sharp and used for cutting foods by 178 . An oar lashes out at the water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 454 ns ShN teeth of life -.Lash: Two objects are lashed together by wrapping a cord around them.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 449 us ShTh repeat around -.

Plunder: The pressing into another’s place and grabbing hold of his possessions.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary pressing down. The surrounding land is soaked with water 179 . A drawing in by swallowing (as the snake swallows its prey) also.Shepherd: The shepherd cares for and delights in his sheep. The sheep graze in safety in the wide-open pasture. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 459 qs ShQ repeat a cycle -. A wide-open and free place or state. A quiver as the pouch where the arrows (sharp teeth) are placed in the mouth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 456 os ShGh destroyer watches -.River: During the rain season. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 455 xs ShS Press and grab hold -. repeated each year. the Shepherd destroys the enemy. When the sheep are in the pasture. When a predator comes to attack. Two as a repeating of the first or what was before. the shepherd carefully watches over the surrounding area always on the lookout for danger. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 457 ps ShPh sharp teeth in the mouth -Serpent: A serpent (venomous snake) has sharp fangs in the mouth. When the sheep are in trouble they will cry out to the shepherd who will deliver them. to draw in air or water. the riverbeds become full of water.

or a man or street. The twisting of the fibers in opposite directions causes the fibers to lock (press) onto each other making a stronger rope. The rope is used to tightly secure or support something.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet allowing for the planting of crops. A righteous one is one who is straight and firmly holds up truth just as the cord is straight and firmly holds the wall of the tent upright. A cord pulled tight is straight. The white hair of the older men. The loosening of a cord around a load. The process is repeated through the length of the rope. 180 . The leg of a river. The rope is made by twisting two fibers together. A single fiber is attached to a fixed point (top). The blood relatives remain with the tent. A traveler may have a wagon pulled by a bull where the load on the cart is secured with a cord. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 460 rs ShR press the beginning -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 461 ss ShSh teeth -. such as a load to a cart or the poles of the tent. A relative as one from the same umbilical cord of the family. The second fiber is then twisted in clockwise direction then wrapped around the first fiber in a counter clockwise direction.Rope: Ropes and cords were usually made of bark strips such as from the cedar or from the sinew (tendon) of an animal.White: The whiteness of the teeth. One fiber is twisted in a clockwise direction and wrapped over the other fiber in counter clockwise direction. A stringed musical instrument uses thin cords for making music. One who is happy is one whose life is lived straightly. and the two ends of the fiber are brought together.

a foundation. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 464 bt TBh sign inside -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 467 et TH mark revealed -.Mark: A marks identifies locations is used to mark out a location.Buttock: The place of sitting. Two crossed sticks in the shape of cross were used to hang the family standard or flag.Under: The under or lower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 181 . A banquet as a time of sitting together.Peg: When the site of the tent is determined. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 466 dt TD mark the door -.Longing: The inside desire to follow after something. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 469 zt TZ mark a cut -. possibly by using a tent peg as a marker for its location.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 462 ts ShT ? -. the location of the door is determined by the father.Cut off ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 470 ht THh part of anything ? -.

Full: What is full is whole and complete.Ruin: The mounds of a ruined city.Drum: The beating of a drum.Constant: A patient and continuous movement. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 474 lt TL ? -. Twins as a full womb.Mock ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 479 pt TPh ? -. by destruction or deception. the center of something. A bending in the middle.Bend: The lines or marks in the center of the palm are formed by the bending of the palm. Amazed as a full and overwhelmed mind. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 475 mt TM ? -.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 473 kt TK mark of the palm -. A donkey as a patient and constant animal. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 481 qt TQ ? -.Ledge 182 . To bring down to ruin or death. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 476 nt TN path continues -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 478 ot TGh ? -. A sitting as a bending down.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 483 st of the goat. An outline or border. is marked by markers. or under his control. TSh ? -. To walk to border of the property as owner or spy. An extension of the border.Appendix E – Parent Root Dictionary ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 482 rt TR mark of man: The border of the land owned by an individual.Goat: The butting of the heads 183 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

Appendix F – Number Cross References
____________________________________

Strong's Number - Ancient Hebrew Number
0001 0003 0006 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015 0016 0017 0018 0019 0024 0034 0035 0046 0047 0055 0056 0057 0058 0060 0061 0068 0070 0076 0079 0080 0081 0082 0083 002 002 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 027 027 027 027 037 030 002 027 027 042 042 033 034 034 034 034 034 036 036 038 041 041 041 042 042 0084 0092 0093 0095 0096 0098 0099 0100 0101 0102 0103 0107 0108 0113 0117 0119 0120 0122 0124 0125 0127 0132 0134 0136 0142 0145 0155 0156 0157 0158 0159 0160 0165 0166 042 048 051 064 056 057 057 057 058 061 064 064 004 080 086 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 080 080 086 086 086 087 090 090 090 090 005 100 0167 0168 0174 0176 0178 0180 0181 0182 0183 0184 0185 0188 0190 0191 0193 0194 0196 0197 0199 0199 0200 0202 0205 0212 0213 0214 0215 0216 0217 0219 0220 0225 0226 0227 100 100 100 005 002 034 004 004 005 005 005 005 005 247 012 005 247 255 005 255 247 014 014 366 018 394 020 020 020 020 020 022 022 007 0231 0232 0233 0235 0237 0238 0239 0240 0241 0246 0247 0251 0253 0254 0255 0258 0259 0260 0262 0264 0268 0269 0270 0272 0309 0310 0312 0314 0319 0322 0328 0329 0330 0332 134 394 007 144 144 146 146 146 146 151 394 008 008 008 008 158 158 008 159 008 174 008 161 161 174 174 174 174 174 174 009 180 190 196 0334 0335 0336 0337 0338 0339 0340 0341 0342 0343 0344 0346 0349 0351 0352 0353 0354 0355 0360 0361 0365 0366 0367 0369 0370 0371 0374 0375 0376 0377 0380 0386 0389 0396 196 005 005 005 005 005 002 002 002 004 005 005 005 005 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 211 211 014 014 014 357 005 021 021 021 476 234 232

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Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
0398 0400 0402 0403 0404 0405 0406 0408 0410 0410 0411 0413 0421 0422 0423 0424 0427 0428 0430 0432 0433 0434 0436 0437 0444 0451 0457 0480 0481 0482 0483 0485 0488 0489 0490 0491 0492 0509 0517 0518 0519 0520 0523 0525 0527 0527 0528 0529 0530 0533 0534 0535 0536 0537 232 232 232 234 237 237 240 247 012 247 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 247 012 247 012 012 250 012 247 247 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 256 013 013 013 013 013 278 101 278 278 278 278 282 284 276 276 276 0539 0541 0542 0543 0544 0545 0546 0547 0548 0551 0552 0553 0554 0555 0556 0559 0561 0562 0565 0570 0571 0577 0578 0579 0580 0584 0585 0587 0589 0590 0591 0592 0594 0595 0596 0597 0602 0603 0604 0610 0611 0612 0614 0615 0616 0618 0622 0624 0625 0626 0627 0628 0631 0632 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 282 282 282 282 284 284 284 284 285 278 291 291 291 014 294 294 014 014 014 014 291 297 014 291 301 305 305 305 319 322 328 325 328 328 321 325 325 325 325 325 325 328 328 0637 0639 0640 0641 0642 0644 0645 0645 0646 0648 0650 0651 0652 0653 0655 0656 0657 0659 0660 0661 0662 0665 0668 0678 0679 0680 0681 0686 0689 0693 0695 0696 0697 0698 0699 0707 0708 0710 0713 0717 0723 0724 0727 0729 0730 0731 0732 0734 0736 0737 0738 0748 0750 0752 017 017 356 356 356 017 093 357 356 364 371 364 364 364 366 367 367 368 368 017 371 372 372 386 386 386 386 394 019 420 420 420 420 420 420 421 421 421 421 020 020 429 020 425 425 425 426 426 426 426 423 429 429 429 0753 0759 0766 0776 0779 0781 0782 0784 0786 0793 0794 0800 0801 0803 0808 0809 0810 0815 0816 0817 0818 0819 0820 0825 0827 0830 0833 0834 0835 0836 0837 0838 0839 0842 0853 0854 0855 0857 0859 0860 0862 0866 0868 0872 0874 0875 0877 0887 0889 0890 0891 0892 0897 0905 429 431 432 436 438 439 439 021 021 444 444 021 021 021 021 021 451 452 453 453 453 453 453 457 457 457 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 022 022 022 022 022 476 481 476 476 027 240 240 240 043 043 043 043 024 029 026 0906 0907 0908 0909 0910 0922 0923 0925 0926 0928 0929 0930 0931 0933 0934 0935 0936 0937 0939 0943 0944 0947 0948 0950 0952 0953 0954 0955 0957 0958 0959 0960 0961 0962 0963 0981 0994 0995 0996 0998 1000 1002 1004 1055 1057 1058 1059 1065 1068 1077 1086 1087 1089 1091 026 026 026 026 026 027 031 042 034 034 035 035 036 041 042 027 029 029 029 033 034 037 040 041 240 240 043 043 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 031 027 036 036 036 040 042 044 044 033 033 033 033 033 034 034 034 034 034

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Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet
1094 1097 1098 1101 1115 1116 1119 1121 1129 1140 1143 1146 1158 1164 1206 1207 1228 1238 1248 1249 1250 1252 1253 1254 1257 1262 1267 1274 1277 1278 1279 1285 1287 1305 1322 1323 1324 1326 1327 1341 1342 1343 1344 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1356 1357 034 034 034 034 034 035 035 036 036 036 036 036 038 038 040 040 041 041 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 043 036 044 044 044 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 056 056 056 056 046 046 046 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1406 1407 1408 1409 1413 1415 1416 1417 1418 1423 1428 1429 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1460 1461 1462 1464 1465 1466 1468 1471 1472 1473 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1484 1487 1488 1491 1492 1494 1496 1503 1512 1516 1517 1518 1523 1524 1525 1530 046 046 046 046 046 046 047 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 049 049 049 064 049 049 046 046 048 049 049 051 049 049 342 060 061 061 064 064 064 065 051 051 051 051 051 051 052 049 048 052 056 056 056 056 1531 1534 1536 1538 1540 1543 1544 1546 1549 1550 1552 1556 1557 1558 1561 1571 1572 1573 1588 1593 1594 1598 1600 1610 1615 1616 1620 1621 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1641 1659 1660 1669 1670 1671 1672 1674 1675 1676 1677 1679 1680 1681 1686 1709 1710 1711 1717 1718 1724 056 056 056 056 342 056 056 342 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 057 057 057 058 058 058 058 060 046 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 065 066 068 068 068 069 069 071 071 068 068 068 068 068 069 069 069 070 070 079 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1733 1736 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1745 1747 1748 1750 1752 1754 1755 1758 1760 1762 1767 1770 1771 1772 1773 1777 1779 1781 1785 1786 1788 1790 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1800 1802 1803 1805 1808 1809 1817 1818 1819 1820 1822 1823 086 086 068 069 069 070 070 070 070 071 071 074 071 071 077 079 079 079 084 086 086 086 077 074 074 071 069 069 071 071 080 080 080 077 087 087 077 077 077 077 077 077 078 078 078 078 078 078 078 079 079 079 079 079 1824 1825 1826 1827 1843 1844 1847 1848 1851 1852 1854 1858 1860 1863 1865 1866 1876 1877 1881 1887 1889 1890 1891 1892 1895 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1906 1911 1915 1916 1917 1918 1920 1921 1925 1926 1927 1929 1930 1931 1931 1933 1933 1935 1942 1942 1943 1943 079 079 079 079 082 082 082 083 085 085 085 086 086 086 086 086 087 087 088 093 093 090 034 034 042 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 092 092 077 079 079 081 083 086 086 086 086 093 093 093 093 093 093 092 093 093 093 093

186

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
1945 1947 1948 1949 1951 1952 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1966 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1991 1992 1992 1993 1995 1998 2000 2003 2004 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2026 2027 2028 093 100 100 101 102 102 095 093 092 092 093 093 005 232 100 102 240 240 100 100 100 249 249 249 253 253 253 253 100 255 100 101 093 101 101 101 101 101 279 093 294 103 355 363 363 363 363 363 386 388 108 421 421 421 2029 2030 2032 2034 2035 2038 2040 2041 2042 2046 2048 2049 2050 2053 2054 2056 2061 2063 2070 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2094 2096 2097 2098 2100 2101 2102 2106 2107 2108 2109 2111 2113 2114 2115 2116 2118 2121 2123 2131 2132 2134 2135 2137 2141 2149 2150 108 108 108 433 433 431 433 433 108 473 474 474 110 116 152 246 134 137 310 135 136 136 137 379 137 134 145 394 394 137 137 134 134 136 137 144 144 146 148 148 394 394 394 140 136 139 151 154 143 143 143 143 144 144 2151 2154 2161 2162 2177 2181 2183 2184 2185 2188 2189 2203 2212 2213 2214 2219 2223 2237 2239 2243 2244 2245 2247 2253 2282 2283 2287 2288 2297 2299 2300 2302 2303 2304 2325 2326 2328 2329 2330 2331 2333 2336 2337 2339 2342 2344 2345 2346 2347 2348 2351 2352 2353 2355 144 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 146 148 148 149 151 152 394 152 152 152 152 156 156 156 156 156 157 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 158 158 156 156 157 157 158 159 159 162 162 163 166 166 167 167 169 171 172 240 174 174 2356 2357 2363 2372 2373 2374 2377 2378 2380 2384 2385 2397 2398 2399 2400 2401 2403 2416 2420 2421 2422 2424 2425 2426 2427 2428 2430 2433 2434 2435 2436 2439 2440 2441 2442 2443 2455 2456 2457 2470 2471 2474 2479 2481 2483 2484 2485 2486 2490 2491 2524 2525 2527 2529 240 174 175 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162 163 163 163 163 163 159 158 159 159 159 159 166 166 166 166 168 172 172 173 175 175 165 165 165 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 167 167 2534 2535 2545 2552 2553 2573 2580 2583 2587 2588 2589 2594 2595 2600 2603 2620 2622 2643 2644 2645 2646 2653 2671 2673 2676 2677 2678 2686 2687 2706 2707 2708 2710 2711 2715 2716 2734 2740 2746 2750 2751 2787 2788 2814 2842 2844 2846 2847 2849 2851 2865 2866 2889 2890 167 167 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 171 171 171 171 171 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 173 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 175 417 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 196 196

187

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 2891 2892 2893 2894 2895 2896 2898 2901 2902 2903 2904 2905 2907 2909 2910 2911 2915 2916 2918 2919 2921 2922 2924 2925 2926 2930 2931 2932 2933 2935 2937 2945 2952 2961 2968 2969 2973 2974 2975 2976 2978 2980 2981 2986 2988 2990 2992 2993 2994 3001 3002 3004 3006 3009 196 196 196 181 178 178 178 181 184 193 188 196 197 184 184 184 184 185 196 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 193 193 196 002 005 247 012 218 021 022 200 034 034 034 034 035 035 035 043 043 043 043 046 3010 3013 3014 3015 3016 3018 3019 3021 3022 3023 3024 3025 3027 3032 3033 3034 3039 3045 3049 3051 3053 3093 3095 3104 3105 3117 3119 3121 3123 3126 3127 3138 3148 3154 3161 3162 3173 3175 3176 3179 3182 3186 3187 3188 3190 3196 3197 3198 3201 3205 3206 3207 3208 3209 046 091 091 091 064 060 060 060 060 060 060 064 202 202 070 202 070 082 082 090 090 108 255 034 034 211 211 212 212 305 305 218 482 148 158 158 158 166 166 167 171 174 169 169 178 212 202 228 232 246 246 246 246 246 3211 3212 3213 3214 3215 3216 3217 3218 3220 3222 3225 3227 3231 3233 3235 3237 3238 3240 3242 3243 3245 3246 3247 3248 3249 3250 3251 3254 3256 3257 3259 3261 3264 3267 3271 3276 3277 3280 3282 3283 3284 3286 3287 3288 3289 3293 3295 3302 3303 3304 3306 3307 3308 3313 246 253 254 254 254 258 259 239 211 211 278 278 278 278 284 285 291 294 305 305 312 312 312 312 328 328 393 325 328 214 334 214 350 337 339 342 342 342 344 344 344 347 347 347 348 350 350 357 357 357 360 360 357 368 3314 3318 3320 3322 3323 3326 3329 3331 3332 3333 3334 3335 3336 3338 3341 3342 3344 3349 3350 3351 3352 3353 3357 3363 3364 3365 3366 3368 3369 3372 3373 3374 3381 3384 3387 3391 3394 3399 3401 3407 3409 3411 3415 3417 3418 3419 3420 3422 3423 3424 3425 3426 3427 3444 368 379 376 377 394 390 379 390 393 393 394 394 394 394 396 398 400 401 400 409 417 417 416 412 414 416 416 416 417 218 218 218 422 218 437 426 426 427 420 421 429 429 421 437 437 437 437 437 439 439 439 021 442 456 3445 3447 3451 3452 3453 3455 3456 3462 3463 3465 3467 3468 3471 3474 3476 3477 3483 3486 3489 3490 3491 3498 3499 3502 3504 3508 3510 3511 3512 3518 3537 3539 3541 3541 3543 3544 3545 3547 3548 3550 3554 3555 3556 3557 3559 3561 3563 3564 3581 3587 3588 3589 3590 3591 448 449 453 453 461 453 453 454 454 454 456 456 457 460 460 460 460 461 466 475 460 460 460 482 482 482 222 222 225 222 224 224 093 225 225 225 225 234 234 234 225 225 222 232 234 234 235 240 228 225 225 224 224 224 188 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 3595 3596 3599 3600 3602 3602 3605 3607 3608 3610 3615 3616 3617 3618 3623 3627 3628 3629 3631 3632 3634 3642 3644 3651 3653 3654 3655 3657 3661 3674 3676 3677 3678 3680 3681 3682 3699 3704 3709 3710 3711 3712 3721 3733 3734 3738 3739 3740 3741 3746 3753 3769 3780 3795 240 232 235 240 093 225 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 233 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 237 237 237 237 237 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 235 242 3807 3808 3811 3813 3814 3816 3820 3823 3824 3826 3827 3833 3834 3849 3851 3852 3854 3856 3859 3862 3863 3867 3868 3869 3871 3874 3875 3880 3883 3884 3885 3886 3887 3888 3891 3892 3893 3895 3897 3909 3910 3911 3914 3915 3917 3918 3924 3930 3944 3945 3952 3966 3967 3970 242 247 247 251 251 255 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 244 244 245 247 255 408 247 247 249 249 250 251 251 247 254 254 256 258 260 264 249 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 247 254 254 264 254 258 260 260 250 004 269 005 3971 3972 3973 3974 3975 3976 3978 3979 3980 3981 3982 3985 3986 3987 3988 3989 3990 3991 3992 3993 3994 3996 3997 3998 3999 4000 4001 4002 4003 4008 4011 4016 4032 4033 4034 4035 4039 4041 4042 4043 4044 4050 4055 4058 4059 4060 4062 4063 4064 4065 4066 4067 4069 4071 277 277 279 020 020 146 232 232 232 282 284 278 278 278 279 017 364 364 284 420 438 027 027 033 034 036 037 038 041 031 036 043 064 064 064 064 056 057 058 058 058 064 268 268 268 268 134 268 071 074 080 080 082 086 4072 4078 4079 4082 4085 4090 4093 4098 4100 4102 4103 4106 4107 4108 4109 4110 4112 4113 4114 4115 4116 4117 4118 4119 4120 4123 4126 4127 4128 4129 4130 4131 4132 4133 4134 4135 4136 4138 4139 4141 4142 4142 4143 4144 4145 4146 4147 4148 4150 4151 4152 4154 4155 4156 074 071 080 080 077 080 082 087 269 269 101 284 276 253 253 100 255 284 363 363 284 284 284 284 284 474 027 267 268 082 082 273 273 273 275 276 276 246 276 310 310 310 312 312 312 312 328 328 334 334 334 334 347 348 4157 4159 4160 4161 4163 4164 4165 4166 4167 4168 4169 4170 4171 4172 4173 4174 4175 4177 4178 4180 4181 4184 4185 4186 4190 4191 4192 4194 4195 4198 4200 4201 4202 4204 4205 4206 4209 4214 4215 4220 4221 4222 4224 4229 4230 4231 4234 4236 4237 4239 4241 4242 4245 4246 349 357 282 379 379 393 393 393 283 400 400 417 284 218 421 422 218 218 427 439 439 285 285 442 456 286 286 286 482 271 271 139 146 394 394 140 145 152 152 272 272 272 156 272 157 161 166 161 161 272 159 174 166 166 189 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 4247 4251 4260 4264 4268 4275 4276 4279 4280 4283 4288 4289 4291 4292 4294 4295 4296 4297 4298 4299 4300 4307 4310 4315 4323 4325 4327 4328 4329 4330 4334 4339 4340 4341 4348 4349 4350 4351 4355 4356 4357 4358 4359 4360 4361 4369 4371 4372 4374 4380 4390 4392 4393 4394 166 166 167 168 169 172 172 174 174 174 176 176 273 181 273 273 273 273 273 181 188 196 269 178 232 269 278 312 319 282 460 460 460 222 225 234 234 240 275 232 232 232 232 232 232 234 235 235 235 240 298 298 298 298 4395 4396 4397 4399 4400 4402 4405 4407 4411 4412 4425 4426 4448 4461 4463 4470 4472 4478 4480 4482 4487 4488 4489 4490 4492 4493 4494 4496 4497 4498 4499 4500 4501 4503 4507 4512 4517 4518 4521 4522 4523 4524 4527 4529 4530 4531 4533 4534 4539 4540 4546 4547 4549 4554 298 298 253 253 253 298 284 298 256 256 284 260 284 268 286 284 284 269 278 278 278 278 278 278 306 290 294 294 300 301 301 306 306 294 278 298 302 305 278 279 279 310 312 279 279 301 313 319 319 319 320 320 279 325 4561 4562 4568 4578 4579 4580 4581 4583 4585 4588 4589 4593 4594 4596 4598 4599 4605 4607 4608 4609 4611 4616 4617 4618 4624 4626 4629 4630 4631 4636 4639 4647 4650 4652 4660 4661 4671 4672 4673 4674 4675 4679 4680 4682 4683 4684 4685 4686 4687 4688 4689 4690 4691 4692 328 328 332 280 280 333 337 344 344 347 350 339 339 335 342 344 342 342 342 342 342 344 344 344 349 350 350 350 350 350 345 360 370 364 370 370 282 282 376 376 376 378 282 282 304 144 378 378 379 386 393 393 393 394 4693 4694 4698 4699 4700 4702 4707 4711 4712 4716 4721 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4731 4735 4736 4743 4744 4745 4746 4747 4748 4749 4750 4751 4752 4753 4754 4758 4759 4760 4761 4763 4766 4767 4768 4784 4786 4787 4788 4791 4793 4794 4805 4806 4808 4814 4815 4816 4820 394 394 386 386 386 390 391 282 394 283 408 401 401 409 240 404 404 408 410 410 283 416 416 416 416 417 417 417 284 284 284 284 423 423 423 439 439 420 420 420 284 284 284 422 431 436 436 284 284 420 284 284 429 431 4828 4828 4829 4830 4832 4835 4843 4844 4845 4846 4855 4857 4858 4859 4859 4860 4860 4862 4863 4864 4870 4871 4874 4875 4876 4878 4879 4880 4881 4882 4884 4885 4889 4892 4895 4897 4906 4923 4932 4933 4935 4942 4943 4944 4945 4951 4952 4959 4960 4962 4963 4970 4974 4975 421 434 434 434 435 436 284 284 284 284 307 457 301 307 307 307 307 452 460 301 443 285 307 445 445 442 443 449 319 455 328 323 448 448 304 285 319 453 454 455 456 457 459 459 459 328 460 285 462 286 036 286 475 476 190 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 4984 4994 4995 4997 4998 4999 5000 5001 5002 5006 5007 5008 5009 5010 5012 5014 5016 5030 5031 5050 5051 5054 5058 5067 5074 5076 5077 5078 5079 5091 5092 5093 5101 5102 5104 5105 5106 5107 5108 5110 5112 5115 5116 5117 5118 5120 5123 5124 5125 5127 5128 5130 5131 5132 301 291 291 290 291 291 291 299 299 304 304 305 305 306 288 288 288 288 288 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 291 305 306 306 306 291 288 288 290 290 291 291 294 294 295 299 299 300 301 302 303 303 301 5133 5134 5136 5137 5148 5168 5186 5204 5205 5206 5207 5209 5211 5214 5215 5216 5217 5218 5219 5221 5222 5223 5238 5239 5240 5251 5254 5255 5263 5264 5299 5316 5317 5323 5327 5352 5355 5356 5357 5377 5378 5379 5382 5383 5384 5385 5386 5388 5405 5406 5429 5430 5431 5432 301 305 307 293 294 014 295 291 290 290 294 300 301 306 306 306 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 298 029 301 301 301 307 301 303 303 303 301 304 305 305 305 305 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 313 322 322 313 5433 5435 5437 5438 5439 5465 5469 5470 5472 5473 5475 5478 5479 5480 5483 5484 5486 5488 5490 5492 5493 5494 5496 5497 5500 5501 5509 5518 5519 5520 5521 5522 5526 5536 5537 5541 5542 5544 5549 5550 5551 5552 5561 5572 5577 5580 5584 5584 5592 5595 5605 5620 5627 5630 310 310 310 310 310 312 328 328 311 311 312 316 317 319 323 323 325 325 325 325 328 328 330 330 316 316 311 328 319 319 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 453 322 322 323 324 445 325 325 325 328 328 328 5637 5638 5645 5646 5672 5692 5703 5704 5706 5707 5708 5710 5712 5713 5715 5716 5718 5719 5743 5746 5749 5750 5753 5754 5756 5763 5764 5765 5766 5767 5768 5770 5771 5772 5773 5774 5775 5779 5781 5782 5783 5785 5786 5787 5788 5789 5790 5791 5792 5794 5795 5797 5807 5808 328 330 332 332 332 333 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 332 333 334 334 335 335 337 342 342 342 342 342 342 344 344 344 344 347 347 348 349 350 350 350 350 350 350 175 175 352 352 337 337 337 337 337 5810 5842 5844 5856 5860 5861 5868 5869 5879 5888 5889 5890 5892 5895 5920 5921 5923 5927 5929 5930 5932 5934 5940 5942 5944 5945 5948 5949 5950 5953 5955 5971 5973 5978 5980 6004 6030 6031 6035 6037 6038 6039 6040 6041 6045 6049 6051 6053 6071 6072 6073 6079 6086 6095 337 339 339 335 339 339 343 344 344 347 347 347 350 350 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 345 345 347 347 348 348 191 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 6096 6097 6098 6125 6145 6168 6169 6172 6176 6181 6185 6199 6209 6211 6211 6213 6244 6256 6258 6261 6284 6285 6285 6286 6287 6288 6289 6291 6299 6302 6304 6306 6310 6311 6313 6314 6315 6320 6321 6323 6327 6328 6329 6330 6331 6333 6335 6337 6338 6339 6341 6346 6351 6365 348 348 348 349 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 093 351 345 351 352 352 352 357 093 357 372 372 372 372 355 356 356 356 356 357 357 355 355 360 363 364 366 370 371 371 371 372 372 373 359 359 359 360 360 360 356 6366 6368 6371 6374 6375 6378 6379 6381 6382 6383 6395 6414 6415 6416 6417 6419 6434 6435 6437 6438 6440 6443 6446 6451 6461 6463 6475 6499 6500 6501 6509 6510 6512 6517 6529 6565 6580 6581 6595 6596 6601 6612 6615 6626 6627 6629 6631 6632 6633 6635 6638 6639 6643 6646 357 360 365 357 371 363 363 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 366 366 366 366 366 366 367 367 367 368 370 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 374 374 374 374 379 379 379 376 376 376 376 376 376 376 6654 6658 6660 6668 6669 6670 6671 6672 6673 6674 6675 6677 6679 6680 6681 6682 6683 6684 6685 6687 6688 6692 6693 6694 6695 6696 6697 6699 6702 6703 6704 6705 6706 6707 6708 6710 6716 6718 6719 6720 6723 6724 6725 6728 6731 6733 6734 6735 6736 6737 6738 6740 6742 6748 378 378 378 134 134 144 394 394 379 379 379 394 378 379 382 382 386 387 387 149 149 392 393 393 393 394 394 394 396 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 379 378 378 378 382 379 379 379 392 392 392 394 394 394 386 386 386 386 6749 6750 6751 6752 6757 6767 6770 6771 6772 6773 6774 6777 6782 6791 6792 6793 6796 6803 6808 6816 6822 6823 6824 6826 6828 6830 6836 6844 6850 6851 6862 6864 6869 6872 6875 6887 6892 6893 6894 6895 6896 6897 6898 6915 6916 6936 6949 6950 6951 6952 6953 6957 6958 6960 386 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 388 390 390 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 394 394 394 394 394 394 401 401 398 398 398 398 398 400 400 400 401 408 408 408 408 401 401 401 6961 6962 6963 6965 6967 6968 6969 6971 6972 6973 6974 6975 6977 6978 6979 6980 6982 6983 6985 6990 7006 7009 7012 7013 7015 7019 7020 7021 7022 7023 7031 7033 7034 7035 7036 7039 7043 7044 7045 7052 7054 7064 7065 7067 7068 7069 7070 7072 7075 7077 7082 7083 7085 7087 401 405 408 409 409 409 410 413 414 414 414 414 414 401 240 240 240 417 405 405 401 409 409 410 410 414 414 401 408 240 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 409 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 414 235 412 413 192 .

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew 7093 7096 7097 7098 7099 7101 7112 7117 7119 7120 7121 7122 7124 7125 7135 7136 7137 7147 7148 7150 7151 7176 7179 7180 7184 7185 7186 7190 7193 7197 7198 7199 7200 7201 7202 7203 7207 7209 7210 7212 7213 7214 7215 7217 7218 7219 7219 7221 7222 7223 7224 7225 7226 7227 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 417 417 235 417 417 417 411 417 417 417 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 431 431 431 439 439 431 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 420 7228 7230 7231 7232 7233 7235 7237 7239 7241 7286 7287 7289 7292 7293 7295 7296 7297 7298 7300 7301 7302 7304 7305 7306 7307 7309 7310 7311 7312 7315 7317 7318 7321 7322 7323 7324 7325 7326 7329 7330 7332 7333 7334 7347 7371 7374 7377 7378 7379 7381 7383 7385 7386 7387 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 422 422 422 420 420 420 420 423 427 422 423 423 426 426 426 426 426 423 431 431 431 431 431 421 435 436 437 438 439 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 423 420 420 426 435 437 437 437 7388 7389 7390 7391 7401 7411 7413 7415 7416 7419 7423 7426 7427 7434 7435 7436 7438 7439 7440 7442 7443 7444 7445 7447 7450 7451 7452 7453 7454 7455 7462 7463 7464 7465 7468 7469 7471 7473 7474 7475 7489 7495 7496 7497 7499 7500 7503 7504 7510 7517 7518 7519 7521 7522 438 439 429 429 429 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 437 437 437 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 433 433 421 434 434 434 421 434 434 434 421 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 436 7533 7541 7545 7550 7556 7558 7567 7568 7578 7579 7580 7581 7582 7583 7584 7585 7588 7589 7590 7591 7592 7596 7599 7600 7601 7602 7603 7604 7605 7607 7608 7611 7612 7613 7616 7617 7618 7622 7628 7632 7633 7675 7679 7683 7684 7685 7686 7689 7699 7700 7701 7702 7703 7704 436 437 426 437 437 439 439 439 427 457 443 443 445 445 445 452 445 449 449 445 452 452 454 454 455 457 460 460 460 460 460 460 445 313 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 311 443 443 311 443 311 444 444 444 312 444 312 7705 7706 7709 7716 7717 7720 7721 7722 7723 7725 7726 7728 7729 7734 7735 7736 7737 7738 7742 7743 7745 7750 7751 7752 7753 7754 7757 7758 7760 7762 7768 7769 7771 7772 7773 7775 7779 7783 7784 7785 7786 7787 7788 7789 7790 7791 7794 7795 7795 7797 7807 7811 7812 7813 444 444 312 379 312 328 313 445 445 442 442 442 442 311 311 444 445 445 448 448 448 317 449 449 319 319 452 452 321 453 456 456 456 456 456 456 457 459 459 459 328 328 460 460 460 460 460 328 460 323 448 316 448 316 193 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet
7816 7817 7822 7825 7845 7846 7847 7848 7850 7862 7863 7867 7869 7870 7871 7872 7873 7874 7875 7876 7878 7879 7880 7881 7882 7885 7890 7891 7892 7893 7896 7897 7898 7899 7900 7904 7905 7907 7918 7944 7945 7951 7952 7953 7956 7957 7958 7959 7961 7962 7987 7988 7997 7998 448 448 448 448 448 317 317 449 449 445 313 310 310 442 442 310 311 312 312 445 316 316 316 316 448 449 454 460 460 461 462 462 462 319 319 451 319 319 451 452 452 452 452 452 452 244 320 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 8033 8034 8047 8064 8074 8076 8077 8078 8079 8127 8130 8132 8135 8136 8138 8141 8142 8144 8145 8146 8147 8148 8150 8153 8154 8155 8159 8173 8191 8192 8193 8194 8205 8207 8222 8242 8248 8249 8250 8264 8268 8269 8270 8280 8281 8282 8284 8285 8293 8302 8306 8307 8323 8324 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 454 322 454 322 454 454 454 454 454 454 322 454 454 454 454 455 455 456 456 456 457 325 457 457 457 325 327 459 459 459 459 459 328 460 328 460 328 460 460 460 460 460 460 328 460 8326 8336 8337 8338 8341 8342 8345 8346 8354 8356 8357 8358 8359 8360 8371 8372 8373 8374 8375 8376 8377 8378 8379 8380 8381 8382 8383 8384 8385 8386 8388 8389 8392 8393 8394 8395 8397 8398 8399 8400 8401 8403 8409 8410 8414 8415 8416 8417 8418 8419 8420 8424 8426 8427 460 461 461 461 461 461 461 461 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 467 464 464 464 467 467 005 467 475 012 475 014 476 291 291 482 482 027 027 036 037 034 034 034 034 036 036 064 086 467 101 100 100 253 363 467 046 202 467 8428 8431 8432 8433 8435 8437 8438 8442 8443 8444 8446 8447 8448 8449 8451 8452 8453 8455 8456 8457 8462 8463 8466 8467 8469 8473 8474 8478 8481 8482 8484 8486 8492 8495 8496 8497 8499 8500 8501 8502 8503 8504 8510 8511 8513 8514 8518 8519 8522 8524 8529 8534 8535 8537 467 166 473 228 246 254 258 478 347 379 482 482 482 482 218 482 442 470 469 146 166 166 168 168 168 174 174 470 470 470 473 278 439 483 473 473 234 473 473 232 232 232 474 474 247 244 474 256 474 474 258 474 475 475 8538 8539 8541 8543 8544 8545 8546 8548 8549 8552 8557 8558 8560 8561 8563 8564 8565 8566 8567 8568 8569 8570 8571 8572 8573 8574 8577 8582 8584 8585 8586 8589 8591 8593 8595 8596 8597 8600 8601 8605 8608 8611 8615 8617 8618 8622 8635 8636 8641 8642 8643 8644 8645 8649 475 475 475 276 278 284 286 268 475 475 279 284 284 284 284 284 476 476 476 476 291 288 297 299 303 306 476 478 334 342 342 344 478 350 478 479 372 370 017 364 479 479 401 409 409 413 420 420 431 431 421 435 425 431

194

Appendix F – Strong's to Ancient Hebrew
8650 8655 8658 8663 8666 8667 8668 8669 8670 8671 8672 8673 432 435 439 445 442 321 456 459 460 456 456 456

195

Ancient Hebrew Number - Strong's Number
002 002 002 002 002 002 002 002 004 004 004 004 004 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 005 007 007 008 008 008 008 008 008 008 009 012 012 012 012 0001 0003 0024 0178 0340 0341 0342 2968 0108 0181 0182 0343 3966 0165 0176 0183 0184 0185 0188 0190 0194 0199 0335 0336 0337 0338 0339 0344 0346 0349 0351 0375 1963 2969 3970 8378 0227 0233 0251 0253 0254 0255 0260 0264 0269 0328 0193 0352 0353 0354 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 012 013 013 013 013 013 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 014 017 017 017 017 017 017 018 019 020 020 020 020 0355 0360 0361 0365 0410 0411 0413 0421 0422 0423 0424 0427 0428 0430 0433 0436 0437 0451 2974 8381 0517 0518 0519 0520 0523 0202 0205 0369 0370 0371 0580 0587 0589 0590 0591 0595 5168 8383 0637 0639 0644 0661 3989 8601 0213 0689 0215 0216 0217 0219 020 020 020 020 020 020 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 021 022 022 022 022 022 022 022 022 024 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 026 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 027 0220 0717 0723 0727 3974 3975 0376 0377 0380 0784 0786 0800 0801 0803 0808 0809 2976 3426 0225 0226 0853 0854 0855 0857 0859 2978 0892 0006 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0905 0906 0907 0908 0909 0910 0014 0015 0016 0017 0034 0035 0872 0922 0935 0994 027 027 027 027 027 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 029 030 031 031 031 033 033 033 033 033 033 033 033 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 3996 3997 4126 8392 8393 0897 0936 0937 0939 0957 0958 0959 0960 0961 0962 0963 5240 0019 0923 0981 4008 0055 0943 1057 1058 1059 1065 1068 3998 0056 0057 0058 0060 0061 0180 0926 0928 0944 1077 1086 1087 1089 1091 1094 1097 1098 1101 1115 1891 1892 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 034 035 035 035 035 035 035 035 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 036 037 037 037 037 038 038 038 038 040 040 040 040 041 041 2981 2986 2988 2990 3104 3105 3999 8397 8398 8399 8400 0929 0930 1116 1119 2992 2993 2994 0068 0070 0931 0995 0996 0998 1121 1129 1140 1143 1146 1323 4000 4011 4963 8394 8401 8403 0018 0947 4001 8395 0076 1158 1164 4002 0948 1000 1206 1207 0079 0080

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s
041 041 041 041 041 041 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 042 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 043 044 044 044 044 044 046 046 046 046 046 046 0081 0933 0950 1228 1238 4003 0046 0047 0082 0083 0084 0925 0934 1002 1248 1249 1250 1252 1253 1254 1257 1262 1267 1274 1277 1278 1279 1285 1287 1305 1895 0887 0889 0890 0891 0954 0955 1322 3001 3002 3004 3006 4016 1004 1055 1324 1326 1327 1354 1356 1357 1360 1361 1362 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 046 047 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 048 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 049 051 051 051 051 051 051 051 051 052 052 056 056 1363 1364 1365 1461 1462 1610 3009 3010 8424 1406 0092 1407 1408 1409 1413 1415 1416 1417 1418 1423 1428 1429 1464 1517 1341 1342 1343 1344 1346 1347 1348 1349 1454 1455 1456 1458 1460 1465 1466 1471 1472 1516 0093 1468 1488 1491 1492 1494 1496 1503 1512 1518 0096 1350 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 056 057 057 057 057 057 057 057 058 058 058 058 058 058 058 058 060 060 060 060 060 060 060 060 061 061 061 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 1351 1352 1353 1523 1524 1525 1530 1531 1534 1536 1538 1543 1544 1549 1550 1552 1556 1557 1558 1561 4039 0098 0099 0100 1571 1572 1573 4041 0101 1588 1593 1594 1598 4042 4043 4044 1478 1600 3018 3019 3021 3022 3023 3024 0102 1479 1480 0095 0103 0107 1457 1481 1482 1484 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 064 065 065 066 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 068 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 069 070 070 070 070 070 070 070 070 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 1615 1616 1620 1621 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1641 3016 3025 4032 4033 4034 4035 4050 8409 1487 1659 1660 1669 1670 1671 1677 1679 1680 1681 1686 1727 1672 1674 1709 1710 1711 1728 1729 1770 1771 1717 1718 1730 1731 1733 1736 3033 3039 1675 1676 1738 1739 1741 1742 1767 071 071 071 071 074 074 074 074 074 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 077 078 078 078 078 078 078 078 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 079 080 080 080 080 080 1772 1773 4064 4078 1740 1760 1762 4065 4072 1743 1758 1785 1790 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1915 4085 1800 1802 1803 1805 1808 1809 1817 0119 0120 0122 0124 0125 0127 0132 1724 1745 1747 1748 1818 1819 1820 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1916 1917 0113 0134 0136 1777 1779

197

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 080 080 080 080 080 080 081 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 082 083 083 084 085 085 085 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 086 087 087 087 087 087 087 088 090 090 090 090 090 1781 4066 4067 4079 4082 4090 1918 1843 1844 1847 3045 3049 4069 4093 4129 4130 1848 1920 1750 1851 1852 1854 0117 0142 0145 0155 1725 1726 1752 1754 1755 1858 1860 1863 1865 1866 1921 1925 1926 1927 4071 8410 0156 1786 1788 1876 1877 4098 1881 0157 0158 0159 0160 1890 090 090 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 091 092 092 092 092 092 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 093 095 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 3051 3053 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 3013 3014 3015 1906 1911 1935 1959 1960 0645 1887 1889 1929 1930 1931 1931 1933 1933 1942 1942 1943 1943 1945 1958 1961 1962 1992 2004 3541 3602 6211 6285 1957 0166 0167 0168 0174 1947 1948 1966 1972 1973 1974 1984 1988 4110 100 100 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 103 108 108 108 108 108 108 110 116 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 135 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 139 139 140 140 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 8416 8417 0527 1949 1991 1992 1993 1995 1998 2000 4103 8415 1951 1952 1969 2013 2022 2029 2030 2032 2042 3093 2050 2053 0231 2061 2091 2100 2101 4062 6668 6669 2085 2086 2087 2102 2121 2063 2088 2090 2097 2098 2106 2123 4201 2118 4206 2134 2135 2137 2141 0235 0237 2107 144 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 148 148 148 148 148 149 149 149 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 154 156 156 156 156 156 156 156 156 157 157 2108 2149 2150 2151 4684 6670 2092 2154 2161 2162 4209 0238 0239 0240 0241 2109 2177 2181 2183 2184 2185 3976 4202 8457 2111 2113 2188 2189 3154 2203 6687 6688 0246 2131 2212 2054 2213 2219 2223 2237 2239 4214 4215 2132 2243 2244 2245 2247 2253 2325 2326 4224 2282 2283 157 157 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 159 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 162 162 162 163 163 163 163 163 163 165 165 165 166 166 2287 2288 2328 2329 4230 0258 0259 2297 2299 2300 2302 2303 2304 2330 2420 3161 3162 3173 0262 2331 2333 2416 2421 2422 2424 2425 4241 0270 0272 2372 2373 2374 2377 2378 2380 2384 2385 4231 4236 4237 2336 2337 2397 2339 2398 2399 2400 2401 2403 2441 2442 2443 2342 2344 198 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 2426 2427 2428 2430 2455 2456 2457 2470 2471 2474 2479 2481 2483 2484 2485 2486 2490 2491 3175 3176 4234 4245 4246 4247 4251 8431 8462 8463 2345 2346 2524 2525 2527 2529 2534 2535 2545 2552 2553 2573 3179 4260 2433 2580 2583 2587 2588 2589 2594 2595 2600 2603 4264 8466 168 168 169 169 169 169 169 169 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 173 173 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 8467 8469 2347 2620 2622 3187 3188 4268 2348 2643 2644 2645 2646 2653 3182 2351 2434 2435 2671 2673 2676 2677 2678 2686 2687 4275 4276 2436 2706 2707 2708 2710 2711 0268 0309 0310 0312 0314 0319 0322 2353 2355 2357 2715 2716 2734 2740 2746 2750 2751 2787 2788 3186 4242 174 174 174 174 174 175 175 175 175 175 175 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 178 178 178 178 178 180 181 181 181 181 184 184 184 184 184 185 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 190 192 193 193 193 4279 4280 4283 8473 8474 2363 2439 2440 2814 5789 5790 2844 2846 2847 2849 2851 2865 2866 4288 4289 2895 2896 2898 3190 4315 0329 2894 2901 4292 4299 2902 2909 2910 2911 2915 2916 2904 2919 2921 2922 2924 2925 2926 4300 2930 2931 2932 2933 0330 2935 2937 2903 2945 2952 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 197 200 202 202 202 202 202 211 211 211 211 211 211 212 212 212 214 214 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 218 222 222 222 222 222 224 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 225 225 0332 0334 2889 2890 2891 2892 2893 2905 2918 2961 4307 2907 2980 3027 3032 3034 3197 8426 0366 0367 3117 3119 3220 3222 3121 3123 3196 3257 3261 2975 3138 3372 3373 3374 3384 4172 4175 4177 8451 3510 3511 3518 3556 4341 3537 3539 3589 3590 3591 3512 3541 3543 3544 3545 225 225 225 225 225 225 228 228 228 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 233 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 3554 3555 3587 3588 3602 4348 3198 3581 8433 0396 0398 0400 0402 1964 3201 3557 3596 3605 3607 3608 3610 3615 3616 3617 3618 3623 3627 3628 3629 3631 3632 3634 3978 3979 3980 4323 4356 4357 4358 4359 4360 4361 8502 8503 8504 3642 0389 0403 3547 3548 3550 3559 3561 3644 199 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 237 237 237 237 237 237 237 239 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 3651 3653 3654 3655 3657 3661 3674 4349 4350 4369 8499 3563 3599 3676 3677 3678 3680 3681 3682 3699 3704 3780 4371 4372 4374 7083 7184 0404 0405 3709 3710 3711 3712 3721 3218 0406 0874 0875 0877 0952 0953 1970 1971 2352 2356 3564 3595 3600 3733 3734 3738 3739 3740 3741 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 242 242 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 247 249 249 3746 3753 3769 4351 4380 4726 6979 6980 6982 7023 3795 3807 3820 3823 3824 3826 3827 3833 3834 3851 3852 7957 8514 3849 3854 2056 3205 3206 3207 3208 3209 3211 4138 8435 0191 0196 0200 0408 0410 0432 0434 0457 0480 2973 3808 3811 3856 3863 3867 3880 3914 8513 1975 1976 249 249 249 249 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 251 251 251 251 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 253 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 1977 3868 3869 3891 0444 3871 3892 3893 3895 3897 3952 3813 3814 3874 3875 3909 3910 3911 1978 1979 1980 1982 3212 4108 4109 4397 4399 4400 8418 3213 3214 3215 3883 3884 3915 3917 3924 8437 0197 0199 0481 0482 0483 0485 0488 0489 0490 0491 0492 1986 3095 3816 3859 4112 256 256 256 256 256 258 258 258 258 258 259 260 260 260 260 264 264 267 268 268 268 268 268 268 268 268 269 269 269 269 269 269 271 271 272 272 272 272 272 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 273 275 275 276 276 276 276 0509 3885 4411 4412 8519 3216 3886 3930 8438 8529 3217 3887 3944 3945 4426 3888 3918 4127 4055 4058 4059 4060 4063 4128 4461 8548 3967 4100 4102 4310 4325 4478 4198 4200 4220 4221 4222 4229 4239 4131 4132 4133 4291 4294 4295 4296 4297 4298 4134 4355 0535 0536 0537 4107 276 276 276 276 277 277 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 278 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 279 280 280 282 282 4135 4136 4139 8543 3971 3972 0525 0527 0528 0529 0530 0539 0541 0542 0543 0544 0545 0546 0547 0548 0551 0552 0571 3225 3227 3231 3233 3985 3986 3987 4327 4480 4482 4487 4488 4489 4490 4507 4521 8486 8544 2003 3973 3988 4522 4523 4529 4530 4549 8557 4578 4579 0533 0553 200 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 282 283 283 283 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 284 0554 0555 0556 3981 4160 4330 4671 4672 4680 4682 4711 4167 4716 4743 0534 0559 0561 0562 0565 3235 3982 3992 4106 4113 4116 4117 4118 4119 4120 4171 4405 4425 4448 4470 4472 4751 4752 4753 4754 4784 4786 4787 4805 4806 4814 4815 4843 4844 4845 4846 8545 8558 8560 8561 284 284 285 285 285 285 285 285 285 286 286 286 286 286 286 286 288 288 288 288 288 288 288 288 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 8563 8564 0570 3237 4184 4185 4871 4897 4959 4191 4192 4194 4463 4962 4970 8546 5012 5014 5016 5030 5031 5107 5108 8570 5050 5051 5054 5058 4493 4997 5067 5074 5076 5077 5078 5079 5110 5112 5205 5206 0577 0578 0579 0592 0596 3238 4994 4995 4998 4999 5000 5091 5092 5093 291 291 291 291 291 291 291 293 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 294 295 295 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 299 299 300 300 300 301 301 301 301 301 301 5106 5115 5116 5204 8385 8386 8569 5137 0584 0585 2010 3240 4494 4496 4503 5117 5118 5148 5207 5120 5186 0594 5217 5218 5219 5221 5222 5223 5238 8571 4390 4392 4393 4394 4395 4396 4402 4407 4512 5239 5001 5002 5123 5124 8572 4497 5125 5209 0597 4498 4499 4531 4858 4864 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 301 302 302 303 303 303 303 303 303 304 304 304 304 304 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 305 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 307 307 307 307 4984 5127 5132 5133 5211 5251 5254 5255 5264 5323 4517 5128 5130 5131 5299 5316 5317 8573 4683 4895 5006 5007 5327 0602 0603 0604 3126 3127 3242 3243 4518 5008 5009 5101 5134 5352 5355 5356 5357 4492 4500 4501 5010 5102 5104 5105 5214 5215 5216 8574 4855 4859 4859 4860 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 311 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 312 4860 4874 5136 5263 5377 5378 5379 5382 5383 5384 5385 5386 5388 5405 5406 2070 4141 4142 4142 4524 5433 5435 5437 5438 5439 7867 7869 7872 5472 5473 5509 7679 7685 7689 7734 7735 7873 3245 3246 3247 3248 4143 4144 4145 4146 4328 4527 5465 5475 7702 7704 7709 7717 7874 201 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 312 313 313 313 313 313 313 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 317 317 317 317 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 321 321 321 7875 4533 5429 5432 7613 7721 7863 5478 5500 5501 7811 7813 7878 7879 7880 7881 5479 7750 7846 7847 0610 4329 4534 4539 4540 4881 4906 5480 5519 5520 5521 5522 5526 7753 7754 7899 7900 7905 7907 4546 4547 5536 5537 5541 5542 5544 5549 5550 5551 5552 7958 0618 7760 8667 322 322 322 322 322 322 322 322 323 323 323 323 323 324 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 325 327 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 0611 5430 5431 5572 5577 8130 8135 8146 4885 5483 5484 5580 7797 5584 0614 0622 0624 0625 0626 0627 0628 3254 4554 5486 5488 5490 5492 5592 5595 5605 8193 8222 8242 0612 0615 0616 0631 0632 3249 3250 3256 4147 4148 4561 4562 4884 4951 5469 5470 5493 5494 5518 5620 5627 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 328 330 330 330 332 332 332 332 332 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 334 335 335 335 335 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 337 5630 5637 7720 7786 7787 7795 8269 8280 8282 8323 5496 5497 5638 4568 5645 5646 5672 5743 4580 5692 5746 3259 4150 4151 4152 4154 5703 5704 5706 5707 5708 5710 5712 5713 5715 5716 5718 5719 5749 5750 8584 4596 5753 5754 5856 3267 4581 5756 5794 5795 5797 5807 5808 5810 339 339 339 339 339 339 339 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 343 343 344 344 344 344 3271 4593 4594 5842 5844 5860 5861 1473 1540 1546 3276 3277 3280 4598 4605 4607 4608 4609 4611 5763 5764 5765 5766 5767 5768 5920 5921 5923 5927 5929 5930 5932 5934 5940 5942 5944 5945 5948 5949 5950 5953 5955 8585 8586 5868 5971 5973 5978 5980 6004 3282 3283 3284 4583 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 345 345 345 345 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 347 348 348 348 348 348 348 348 348 349 349 349 349 350 4585 4599 4616 4617 4618 5770 5771 5772 5773 5869 5879 6030 6031 6035 6037 6038 6039 6040 6041 6045 6049 6051 6053 8589 4639 6071 6072 6213 3286 3287 3288 4155 4588 5774 5775 5888 5889 5890 6073 6079 8443 3289 4156 5779 6086 6095 6096 6097 6098 4157 4624 5781 6125 3264 202 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 352 352 352 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 356 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 3293 3295 4589 4626 4629 4630 4631 4636 5782 5783 5785 5786 5787 5788 5892 5895 6145 6168 6169 6172 6176 6181 6185 6199 6209 8593 6211 6244 5791 5792 6256 6258 6261 2014 6291 6313 6314 0640 0641 0642 0646 6299 6302 6304 6306 6365 0374 0645 3302 3303 3304 3308 4159 6284 357 357 357 357 357 359 359 359 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 363 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 364 365 366 366 366 366 366 366 366 366 6285 6310 6311 6366 6374 6337 6338 6339 3306 3307 4647 6315 6341 6346 6351 6368 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 4114 4115 6320 6378 6379 8419 0648 0651 0652 0653 3990 3991 4652 6321 6381 6382 6383 6395 6414 6415 6416 6417 6419 8605 6371 0212 0655 6323 6434 6435 6437 6438 6440 366 367 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 368 368 370 370 370 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 372 373 373 373 374 374 374 374 374 374 376 376 376 376 6443 0656 0657 6446 6451 6461 0659 0660 3313 3314 6463 4650 4660 4661 6327 6475 8600 0650 0662 6328 6329 6330 6375 0665 0668 6286 6287 6288 6289 6331 6333 6499 6500 6501 6509 6510 6512 6517 6529 6565 8597 6335 6580 6581 6595 6596 6601 6612 6615 6626 3320 4673 4674 4675 376 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 379 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 6632 6633 6635 6638 6639 6643 6646 3322 4679 4685 4686 6654 6658 6660 6679 6718 6719 6720 2089 3318 3329 4161 4163 4687 6627 6629 6631 6673 6674 6675 6680 6716 6724 6725 6728 7716 8444 6681 6682 6703 6704 6705 6706 6707 6708 6710 6723 0678 0679 0680 0681 2020 4688 4698 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 388 388 390 390 390 390 390 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 393 4699 4700 6683 6738 6740 6742 6748 6749 6750 6751 6752 6757 6767 6684 6685 6770 6771 6772 6773 6774 6777 6782 2021 6791 6792 6793 6796 6803 3326 3331 4702 6808 6816 4707 6822 6823 6824 6826 6828 6830 6836 6844 6850 6851 6692 6731 6733 6734 3251 3332 3333 4164 4165 4166 203 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 393 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 394 396 396 398 398 398 398 398 398 400 400 400 400 4689 4690 4691 6693 6694 6695 0214 0232 0247 0686 2094 2096 2114 2115 2116 2214 3323 3334 3335 3336 3338 4204 4205 4692 4693 4694 4712 6671 6672 6677 6696 6697 6699 6735 6736 6737 6862 6864 6869 6872 6875 6887 3341 6702 3342 6894 6895 6896 6897 6898 3344 3350 4168 4169 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 401 404 404 405 405 405 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 408 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 409 410 410 410 6915 6916 6936 3349 4723 4724 6892 6893 6949 6957 6958 6960 6961 6978 7006 7021 8615 4727 4728 6962 6985 6990 3862 4721 4731 6950 6951 6952 6953 6963 7022 7031 7033 7034 7035 7036 7039 7043 7044 7045 7052 3351 4725 6965 6967 6968 7009 7012 7054 8617 8618 4735 4736 6969 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 411 412 412 413 413 413 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 416 7013 7015 7064 7065 7067 7068 7069 7070 7072 7075 7077 7193 3363 7085 6971 7087 8622 3364 6972 6973 6974 6975 6977 7019 7020 7082 7093 7096 7097 7098 7099 7101 7112 7117 3357 3365 3366 3368 4744 4745 4746 4747 7119 7120 7121 7122 7124 7125 7135 7136 7137 7147 7148 7150 416 416 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 417 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 421 421 421 421 421 7151 7176 2842 3352 3353 3369 4170 4748 4749 4750 6983 7179 7180 7185 7186 7190 7197 7198 7199 0693 0695 0696 0697 0698 0699 3401 3993 4766 4767 4768 4808 7227 7228 7230 7231 7232 7233 7235 7237 7239 7241 7292 7293 7295 7296 7378 7379 8635 8636 0707 0708 0710 0713 2026 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 421 422 422 422 422 422 422 422 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 426 2027 2028 3407 3415 4173 4828 7321 7451 7455 7465 8643 3381 4174 4788 7286 7287 7289 7300 0738 4758 4759 4760 7200 7201 7202 7203 7207 7209 7210 7212 7297 7301 7302 7310 7377 0729 0730 0731 7329 7330 7332 7333 7334 8645 0732 0734 0736 0737 3391 3394 7304 7305 7306 7307 204 .

Appendix F – Ancient Hebrew to Strong’s 426 426 426 426 426 427 427 427 427 427 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 429 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 431 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 432 7309 7347 7371 7381 7545 3399 4178 7298 7374 7578 0724 0748 0750 0752 0753 3409 3411 4816 7390 7391 7401 0759 2038 4791 4820 7213 7214 7215 7219 7311 7312 7315 7317 7318 7411 7413 7415 7416 7419 7423 7426 7427 8641 8642 8649 0766 7438 7439 7440 7442 7443 7444 7445 8650 433 433 433 433 433 433 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 434 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 436 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 2034 2035 2040 2041 7447 7450 4828 4829 4830 7452 7453 7454 7462 7463 7464 7468 7469 7471 7473 7474 7475 7489 4832 7322 7383 7495 7496 7497 7499 7500 7503 7504 7510 7517 8644 8655 0776 4793 4794 4835 7323 7518 7519 7521 7522 7533 3387 3417 3418 3419 3420 3422 7324 7385 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 437 438 438 438 438 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 439 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 442 7386 7387 7434 7435 7436 7541 7550 7556 0779 3994 7325 7388 0781 0782 3423 3424 3425 4180 4181 4761 4763 7217 7218 7219 7221 7222 7223 7224 7225 7226 7326 7389 7558 7567 7568 8492 8658 3427 4186 4878 7616 7617 7618 7622 7628 7632 7633 7675 7725 7726 7728 7729 7870 7871 442 442 443 443 443 443 443 443 443 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 445 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 448 449 449 449 449 449 449 8453 8666 4870 4879 7580 7581 7683 7684 7686 0793 0794 7699 7700 7701 7703 7705 7706 7736 4875 4876 5584 7582 7583 7584 7588 7591 7612 7722 7723 7737 7738 7862 7876 8663 3445 4889 4892 7742 7743 7745 7807 7812 7816 7817 7822 7825 7845 7882 3447 4880 7589 7590 7751 7752 449 449 449 451 451 451 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 452 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 7848 7850 7885 0810 7904 7918 0815 4862 7585 7592 7596 7757 7758 7944 7945 7951 7952 7953 7956 7959 7961 7962 7987 7988 7997 7998 0816 0817 0818 0819 0820 3451 3452 3455 3456 4923 5561 7762 8033 8034 8047 8064 8074 8076 8077 8078 8079 3462 3463 3465 4932 7599 7600 7890 205 .

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 454 455 455 455 455 455 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 456 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 457 459 459 459 459 459 459 8127 8132 8136 8138 8141 8142 8144 8145 8147 8148 8150 8153 4882 4933 7601 8154 8155 3444 3467 3468 4190 4935 7768 7769 7771 7772 7773 7775 8159 8173 8191 8668 8671 8672 8673 0825 0827 0830 3471 4857 4942 7579 7602 7779 8192 8194 8205 8207 4943 4944 4945 7783 7784 7785 459 459 459 459 459 459 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 460 461 461 461 8248 8249 8250 8264 8268 8669 0833 0834 0835 0836 0837 0838 0839 0842 3474 3476 3477 3483 3491 3498 3499 4334 4339 4340 4863 4952 7603 7604 7605 7607 7608 7611 7788 7789 7790 7791 7794 7795 7891 7892 8270 8281 8284 8285 8293 8302 8306 8307 8324 8326 8670 3453 3486 7893 461 461 461 461 461 461 461 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 462 464 464 464 466 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 467 469 470 470 470 470 473 473 473 473 473 473 473 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 474 475 475 475 8336 8337 8338 8341 8342 8345 8346 4960 7896 7897 7898 8354 8356 8357 8358 8359 8360 8371 8373 8374 8375 3489 8372 8376 8377 8379 8414 8420 8427 8428 8456 8455 8478 8481 8482 2046 8432 8484 8496 8497 8500 8501 2048 2049 4123 8510 8511 8518 8522 8524 8534 3490 4974 8380 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 476 478 478 478 478 479 479 479 481 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 483 8382 8535 8537 8538 8539 8541 8549 8552 0386 0860 0866 0868 4975 8384 8565 8566 8567 8568 8577 8442 8582 8591 8595 8596 8608 8611 0862 3148 3502 3504 3508 4195 8388 8389 8446 8447 8448 8449 8452 8495 206 .

: 38. 1948) J.A." NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible. 1961) 35 Frank Seekins.: 327." Smith's Bible Dictionary." The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible.: Artisan Sales. Nelson's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts (Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets (Thousand Oaks. University Books. "Archeology and the Bible. Tenney.: Zondervan.J. 1986 ed." The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible. 1997) Emily Vermeule. Viking Press.: Living Word Pictures.. 1985) 24. Mi.: 829. Jr. 44. Greece in the Bronze Age (Chicago. Raymond Capt. 1995) Madelene S. Ernst Doblhofer.: 632-3. Az.I. Ill. The University of Chicago Press. Merril C. 1987 ed. Miller . Smith's Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids. William White. Ca. N. The Ten Commandments (Phoenix. Wallis Budge The Book of the Dead (Secaucus. "Writing. "Writing. 1976 ed. "Alphabet. 1973 ed. E." The New Harper's Bible Dictionary.Bibliography ____________________________________ Ancient Alphabets and Inscriptions · · · · · · · · · · "Writing.: 30. 1989 ed. 1960) Hebrew Culture · · William Smith. Packer. 1964) E. Inc. Voices in Stone (New York.

Westminster. Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids. Merrill F. 1985) Benjamin Davidson. (Nashville. 1956) Word Studies · · · James Strong. (Nashville. Life and Language in the Old Testament (N. (Tring England. 1975) E. Zondervan. Halley. Unger. The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon. Moody.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet · · · · · · · · · · · · and J. Harlan Davidson. ed. 1973) Merrill F. 1976) NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible. (Chicago. Nelson. Manners and Customs of Bible Lands (Chicago: Moody. Miller and J. (Grand Rapids. 1995) W. (London. Harper. Lion. New Strong's Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Hebrew Bible. 1955) Emmanuel Anati. 1989) The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible. Samuel Bagster) 208 . (Nashville. W. Nelson. Knopf. (Arlington Heights. (New York. Wright.. W. (New York.. Unger's Bible Dictionary. Inc. 1991) Mary Ellen Chase. Vine. Encyclopedia of Bible Life (New York: Harper & Brothers. Alfred A. Everyday life in Old Testament times. W.Y. Lane Miller. Heaton. Nomads of the Nomads. Holman. 24th) The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (Philadelphia. Charles Scribners.1986) Fred H. Lane Miller.. 1944) Holman Bible Dictionary. Unger. 1963) Donald Powell Cole. Harper's Bible Dictionary. Palestine before the Hebrews (N. Norton and Company Inc.Y.. 1983) Madeleine S. E. new rev. Ill. Mi: Zondervan. Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words. William White. 1977) Henry H.

Inc. 1961) Rev. David Weinstein. 1969) Charlton Laird The Miracle of Language (Greenwich Conn. English-Hebrew Hebrew-English Dictionary. 1910) William R...Y. Walter W.Y. Life and Language in the Old Testament (N. Harper. 1895) Edward Horowitz.. Charles Scribner's Sons. (N. (Bloomington In. 1992) 209 . Norton and Company. Crown Publishers.. Fawcett. 1955) Thorleif Boman. How the Hebrew Language Grew (KTAV. W.Y.Y.... (London. Skeat. Hebrew Thought Compared with Greek (N.. Norton and Company Inc. Capricorn Books. Washington Square Press. Indiana University Press.W. Slapsky) Ehud Ben-Yehuda.Bibliography · · · Isaac Mozeson. Elements of Hebrew. W. (N. 1960) Ancient Language and Origins · · · John Philip Cohane The Key (N. 1963) Hebrew Thought · · Mary Ellen Chase.. 2nd English Ed.Y. W. (N.Y. A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 1953) Giorgio Fano. The Origins and Nature of Language.. Oxford Press. The Word: the Dictionary that reveals the Hebrew origin of English (New York. 1960) Hebrew Language · · · Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar.

New International Version (Grand Rapids. King James Version 210 . 1973.. 1996) The Holy Bible. Mesorah Publications Ltd. 1984) The Stone Edition Tanach (Brooklyn. 1978.Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet Bibles · · · · Biblia Hebraica Stutgartensia The Holy Bible. Zondervan Bible Publishers.

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