Table of Contents

Introduction...............................................................................2 AC.Motors.................................................................................4 Force.and.Motion......................................................................6 AC.Motor.Construction............................................................ 2 Magnetism.............................................................................. 7 Electromagnetism................................................................... 9 Developing.a.Rotating.Magnetic.Field.....................................24 . Rotor.Rotation.........................................................................29 . Motor.Specifications. ..............................................................34 . NEMA.Motor.Characteristics. .................................................37 Derating.Factors......................................................................43 . AC.Motors.and.AC.Drives. ......................................................45 Motor.Enclosures....................................................................53 Mounting.................................................................................56 . Siemens.AC.Induction.Motors. ...............................................6 Review.Answers......................................................................72 Final.Exam...............................................................................73 quickSTEP.Online.Courses...................................................... 76 

Introduction,.Siemens. Technical.Education.Program, more.effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of AC Motors.and. related.products.. Upon.completion.of.Basics of AC to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Explain.the.concepts.of.force,.inertia,.speed,.and.torque Describe.the.operation.of.a.rotating.magnetic.field Calculate.synchronous.speed,.slip,.and.rotor.speed Plot.starting.torque,.accelerating.torque,.breakdown. torque,.and.full-load.torque.on.a.NEMA.torque.curve Describe.the.relationship.between.V/Hz,.torque,.and. horsepower Identify.NEMA.enclosures.and.mounting.configurations Describe.Siemens.NEMA,.IEC,.and.above.NEMA.motors

2 applications..In.addition, between.products..You.should.complete.Basics of Electricity before.attempting.Basics of AC Motors..An.understanding.of. for.Basic.of.AC.Motors.. authorized.distributor, you.score.a.passing.grade..Good.luck.with.your.efforts. notice. NEMA®.is.a.registered.trademark.and.service.mark.of.the. National.Electrical.Manufacturers.Association,.Rosslyn,.VA. 22209. Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.®.and.UL®.are.registered. trademarks.of.Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.,.Northbrook,.IL. 60062-2096.

3 AC induction as.a.winder.conveyor. transform. used.motors.AC.are.the.applications.Siemens.motors.AC.information.general..focuses. An. overview.mechanical.In.form.manufactures.AC Motors AC motors.of.includes. Winder Pump Conveyor 4 .applications.this. variety..some.

..National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) perform.NEMA. Siemens..are.These..motors.States. that.In.are.electrical.S.Siemens..many. MG.range.In.but.IEC.larger. IEC Motors.motors. 5 .made.used.standards..commonly. countries. NEMA.manufactures. including. above NEMA motors.covers.IEC.another.example. Above NEMA In.Publication.NEMA Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

example.of.pound.vector.two. 10 LB 10 LB = 20 LB 10 LB 5 LB = 5 LB 6 20.they..some.force.forces.a. Net greater.a.applied.force. Later.move.we.the.of.apply.Force and Motion Before.are.motor.. Net force... be..of. In.are.force.gravity. including.terms.terms.of.will.act.0.on.force.if.sum. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 20 lb-ft 2 feet 7 .is.a.Force.object.system.a.results.Radiusτ) Torque.two.the. pound-feet. net.object.twisting.force.effect.applied.=.lbs.of. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 10 lb-ft 1 foot 10 LB 10 LB = 0 Torque.that.torque.the.of.force..(lb-ft) τ in.can..Speed.determines. revolutions. Linear Motion Angular (Rotational) Speed. Direction of Rotation Rotional Motion Axis of Rotation the.traveled.object.lower.the. 10 RPM Acceleration 20 RPM 20 RPM Deceleration 10 RPM  .occurs.there.a. Linear Speed.Speed.a. (RPM).deceleration.rotating. (negative.RPM.expressed. the.speed.or.example..change.when. An. Linear speed.speed.distance.distance.distance.RPM.from. second.Linear.ratio.ten.speed.per.0. added...stop..the. of. ). Friction.object. machine. 2 of. 9 of can.a. This. Friction.system.all. newton.Distance useful.550. used.unit.century.. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 0 .concept. often..both.He.the.horsepower. When.or. asked.equal.expressed.per.(HP).but.

___.x. ________.rated.________.generally.its.HP For.state.rated.between. to.power. motor. the.. ________.of.but. If.force.long..  .kW Kilowatts.the.with.. ________. and’ If.HP. 2.can.HP.units.=. easy. An. pounds. Review 1 7 power.___.

is... Stator Lamination 2 .type. circuit.thin.rotor.the.has.This.a. Enclosure Stator Rotor Stator Core The.result.sheets.stationary.metal.motor’ and..up.the.and.the.electromagnetic.were.are..applications.many..stator. loses.core. Motor Construction Three-phase AC induction

it.applied.power.the. Stator.windings.with..hollow.connected.becomes.Stator Stator Windings Partially Completed When. electromagnet. cylinder.are.inserted.assembled.motor.current.core..operation.stacked.insulated.are.when.the.operation.together.. are. Stator Windings Completed 3 .the.motor.

.using.shaft.most.thin.The..the.reminiscent.discussed.The.cage.cast.the.of.of.aluminum.into. rotor..rotor.because.The.rotor.assembly.rotor. laminations.a.coils..die cast copper rotor cage rotor.then.motor. rotating..steel.makes.casting.cage. Steel Laminations Shaft Conductor Bar End Ring Cutaway View of Rotor 4 Premium efficiency standards.rings.course..casting.cylinder.rotor. are. After.around.part.common.squirrel. Rotor Lamination’s. circuit.form.conductor Rotor A.bars.the. electrically.die.with.are. construction.Rotor form..a.wire.rotating.made.the.connected.of.slots.Siemens.squirrel.found.


The.enclosure.consists.of.a.frame.(or.yoke).and.two.end. brackets.(or.bearing.housings) the.frame..The.rotor.fits.inside.the.stator.with.a.slight.air. connection.between.the.rotor.and.the.stator..
Air Gap Rotor Frame


Partially Assembled Motor protection.depends.upon.the.type.of.enclosure..Enclosure. Bearings,.mounted.on.the.shaft,.support.the.rotor.and.allow., illustration,,.also.mounted.on.the.rotor.shaft,
End Bracket (Bearing Housing)


Cooling Fan

Bearing Rotor End Bracket (Bearing Housing)


Frame (Yoke)

Cutaway View of Motor 


Review 2 .. . . . . Identify.the.following.components.from.the.illustration: A..________ B..________ C..________

2..’s. electromagnetic.circuit. 3.. motor. 4.. 5.. from.water.and.other.environmental.elements. 


Magnetism, motors,.you.must.understand.magnets.. To.begin.with,.all.magnets.have.two.characteristics..They.attract. iron.and.steel.objects,.and.they.interact.with.other.magnets.. itself.with.the.Earth’s.magnetic.field.


Magnetic Lines of Flux. magnetic.field.lines,.called.lines of flux, magnet,.exit.the.north.pole,.and.return.through.the.south. pole..Although.these.lines.of.flux.are.invisible,.the.effects.of.,.when.a. scattered.over.the.paper,.the.filings.arrange.themselves.along. the.invisible.lines.of.flux.
Iron Filings on Paper


Magnetic Lines of Flux 

7 magnets.the. magnets.unlike poles attract.two.of.fields.other.repelling.together.magnets.lines. flux.the.opposite.fields.their..interaction.motors.magnetic.For.when..poles.of.operation..brought.combine.the.summary.  .between.each.example. apart.other. However.. electromagnetism.of. Like Poles Repel.of. The..Unlike Poles poles repel.push.of.each.polarities.use.of.magnets.motors.of. The.and.flux.magnets.of.of..the.and..AC.lines.poles.the. range.and.pull.attracting. Current produces a magnetic field An increased current produces a stronger magnetic field Left-Hand Rule for Conductors..of.of..the relationship.the.of.flows.the.current.The. magnetic.through. 9 .current.produces.conductor.direction.and.with. of.fingers.magnetic.electron.the.left.flow.the.lines.magnetic. The.electrons.this.thumb.proportional.a. pointing. magnetic.flux.the.the.demonstrates.field.with.the...grasped.Electromagnetism rule for electromagnet. magnetic.increasing. flow.lines.around.a. Air Core DC Voltage Adding an Iron Core.core.viewer.voltage.the. the.of.of.the..DC.flux. current.shows.easily.has.electron..winding..coil.field..the.that.away.of.core. core. 20 .( lines. Electron Flow Away From You Causes Counterclockwise Magnetic Flux Electron Flow Towards You Causes Clockwise Magnetic Flux Electromagnet.the. Iron Core DC Voltage Number of insulated. and.The.electromagnet.a.flow.field.The.the.conductor.strength.electromagnet. The. pole.the.Note.4..field.of.around.changes. collapse.DC Voltage DC Voltage 5 Turns 10 Turns Changing 2 and.a.the.on.magnetic.value. characteristics.of. time.builds. that. S S N 3 N 1 10 2 4 N 5 S N 6 7 N 8 N S S S source.field. the..including.electromagnet.the.At. AC.and.field.flux.times.induced.during.3.of. 22 Induced ammeter.magnetic. the.builds.electrical.south.merely.connected.The..time.bottom.the.the.the.. Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 has.and.times.up.flow.cycle. pole.negative.effect.cycle. In. cut. second.of. conductor.circuit.and.increasing.negative.field. In.other.polarity.Because.lines.and. attract.. Magnetic.the.following.illustration.core. Original Position New Position Review 3 . Add.conductor.pole.attract.magnetic.with.other? .however.current.and.produced.attract.the.two.number. 2. All..will.move.electromagnet? .increase.pulled.magnets.the.electromagnet.for. field.strong.the. A.flowing. each.which.the.bottom.above .of.turns. 23 .of._______.strength.Electromagnetic magnet.. magnetic.the.coil .whenever.each.the.the.of..flux.a.following.the. 3.were.. Note.. top. Increase.induced.when.. B. 4.a.coil .poles. .magnets.enter..along. the.of.

.is.magnet. way.shaft.windings.two.of.which. an.example.the.of.The.a.wound.pole. and.each.wire. The. each.the.also.coils.three.direction.material.configuration.electromagnet.south.core.each.for.such.Developing a Rotating Magnetic Field The.phase. Iron Core A1 B2 Motor Windings N C2 C1 S A2 B1 24 ..other. Stator Coil

between.When. 20°.source..three-phase.B2.of.A.A2.two. A1 B2 C2 C1 A2 B1 2-Pole Stator Winding 25 electrical.following.will...B.apart.windings. following.and.power.are.C.will. Power Source.illustration.20°..phase.power..poles. apart.C. and..Because.20° to. The.The.a. To Phase A Phase A Phase B Phase C A1 B2 N C2 + 0 C1 S A2 B1 To Phase A

in.chart.C.enter.positive.leave. poles. negative.positive.selected.flow.the.magnetic.Phase.results.enter.°.or.pole.flow.has.phase.of.depends.following.phase.advanced.current.the. in.on. indicated.vector.direction.each. coils.of.field.C. of.pole.the.the.has. leave.the. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 Resultant Magnetic Field C1 S B1 Magnetic Lines of Flux Current Flow in the Positive Direction C A Current Flow at Zero B Start Current Flow in the Negative Direction Time Magnetic.field.fields.south.applied.of.B2.current.and.north. 26 vector..the..field. Start...Refer.south.start. In.flow..chart.A.of.and.sum.following.time.

the.have..current.windings.flowing.. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 S B1 C1 B2 N C1 A1 N S S A2 C2 B1 60o C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B Start 1 Current Flow in the Negative Direction Current Flow at Zero Time rotated.phase.field.negative.windings.field..and.B.but.positive.time.are.phase.60° A1 B2 N A2 B2 N C1 S C2 S B1 A1 N S S A2 B2 S A1 N N C2 B1 C1 C1 S A2 o C2 60 B1 C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B 120 Start 1 o Current Flow at Zero Current Flow in the Negative Direction 2 27 .resultant.the.B2.B.60°.chart.shows. B2.and. poles.and.another.phase.south.C.poles.and.

end.of.source.RPM.the.rotating.the.such.Hz...a. At.times.referred.Hz.operated.repeats..different.60. equal.360° times.the.or.number.a.full.the. 2 The.of.speed. synchronous speed (NS).following.360°.3600.The.two-pole.motor.will..the.the.frequency (F).second. for.shows.of. increases.. 60.time.several.number of motor poles (P) Synchronous Speed.field.a.the.speed.rotated. Induced Voltage.north.has.motor’s.illustration.magnet.squirrel.field.rotor.winding. Electromagnet.field.are.speed.rotating.with.synchronous. a...south.. windings.stator.attracts.synchronized. rotating. The.cage.magnetic.stator.its. To.the.shaft. Instead.the.are.when.creating. for.magnet.same.shows.attracts.stator.magnetic.As.the. motors.pole.a.referred.of.see.When.a..with. Magnetic Field of Coil A1 A1 Stator B2 C2 Rotor Rotor Conductor Bar C1 B1 A2 29 Rotation Permanent Magnet.interacts.that...bars.a.rotates.magnet.current.rotor.speed.rotors.across.field.. be.that.induction motor.electromagnetic.the.rotor’ the.a.pole.substituted. the.rotating.of. is. north.field.current.motors.synchronous.mounted.a.for.the. and.south...the.pulls.energized.magnet.of.field.field.of.magnetic.

its. a.such.stator.’s.A.the. the. and.increasing.current.magnetic.connected. alternating.rotor..south.time.forces.the.each.across.induced.flow. the. exactly.through. magnetic.bars.rotor.fields. field.pole. A1 B2 C2 C1 B1 A2 30 .current. windings. The.the...rotor.point.end.a.following.

Another.speed. For.the.the.been.flow.motor.field. necessary.also. field.rotor. speed.current.RPM.rotor. amount.motor..increasing.An.decreasing.the.has.. field. common.wound.centered. Wound Rotor Brush Slip Ring External Variable Resistors 3 .the.Decreasing.rotating.produce.rotor..speed.the..of.between. that.consist. stopped.rotate.rotating.load.calculated. induction..full.This.the. synchronous speed (NS) Wound Rotor Motor.and.on.has.called.rotor speed (NR) is.connected.this..external.Slip.large.and.up.windings.type..four-pole.through.voltage.on..its.and.load.the.windings.rotor.rotor.of.the.with..much.rotor.variable.speed.A.If. instead.a.power.Hz.coils.slow.the.the.RPM..wound rotor motor. NS x 100 After.of.the.windings. % Slip = NS

external. DC. also.rotor.some.addition.of.used.Synchronous magnetic..rotor.motor. which.The.motor.of.This. DC.One..field.power.squirrel.use.not.rotor.stator.somewhat. Rotor Bar Brush Coil External DC Power Supply Slip Ring As.started.the.windings.The.why.windings.type.rotor.which.produces. Another.are.magnetize. in.induction.connected.bars.are..constant.type.motor.DC.the.the. 32 .not. and.a.rings.turns.In.synchronous.power..coil..

a. .3450.RPM..motor.illustration.’s.rotor._______.following. The.speed.difference.A2.four-pole.pole. 4..Slip. 33 A.synchronous._______. 4 . _______.turning.rotor.speed.._______.rotating. The... The..A.motor._______%.When.called.2-pole.Hz. The..applies.between.RPM. supply. Voltage Source (VOLTS) and AC.Motor Specifications . Frequency (HERTZ).The.are.when. illustration..( Base slightly.35.rated.0 50VC03JPP3 Made in Mexico by SIEMENS R US The.nameplate..shaft.designed.three-phase. 1LA02864SE41 RGZESD 30.operated.frequency.) 460 60 The.0.30.RPM.a.provides.the.full-load current.speed. Because.of.will..of.speed.for.rated.and. motor.of.motor.shows. CONT F B G 50BC03JPP3 HIGH EFFICIENT 286T 1765 40oC has.output.output.For. 34 necessary.the.will.a.P .This Full-load Current (AMPS)..RPM.frequency. Base Speed (R.Hz.. Factor. the.compensate. Service motor.insulation.For. factor.0°.motor.the.the.of.a. NEMA.5%. starting.shows.allowable temperature Insulation Class.insulation.long..equals.. (04°.its.insulation.temperature.. horsepower.motor.service. Ambient temperature.higher.than.If. above.motor’ enough..ft.horsepower.winding. 35 to.windings.rating. to.have.below. which.B.are.heat.5.higher.service.0.operated.a..defines.of.any. service.altitudes.service.motor’°.of.5.for.the.describe.stopped.are.margin.classes.°.factor.Classes.horsepower.of.F .motor insulation Some.rises..the. so.for.the...maximum.the.operated..multiplied.HP .Keep.that.the..has. higher.will.motor’ temperature..A.allowed.the.where.. nominal efficiency. Motor.facilities. efficiency.of.the.efficiency.°.motors.C..the.are. example.our.In.the.efficiencies.temperature.This. with.letters.common.motor.motors...motor.a.NEMA. type.this.type.. the.that.motor..number.D.continuously.manufactured.for.The.type.NEMA Premium Efficient especially.C.motor EPAct. vary.5.into.operating.motor. efficiency.a.percentage.nominal.requirements.efficiency.after.the.efficiency.the. of.and. motors.a.0%.The.NEMA Efficient Motor with. Motor significant.discussed.997 . allowance.nameplate.converted.process.Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct).is. designs.rotor.also.D).this.most.and. Both.motor’s.class. NEMA Motor Design. motor.a.service..used.supplied.a..for.the. 36 specifies.widely. NEMA.same.even.winding.EPAct.characteristics.°.rise.section.exceed..the.class.industrial.higher.its.C.can.average.percentage.93.efficiency.

NEMA Motor Characteristics Standard Motor HP = Torque (in lb-ft) x Speed (in RPM) 5252 HP x 5252 = 30 x 5252 = 89.with.shown. characteristics.the.torque. match..sample..NEMA B motor.a. Motors. NEMA B’ speed-torque. NEMA.transposing. Speed-Torque Curve for. The. Using.for. suited.shown.designed.induction. most.motors.a.. machine.torque..full.horsepower.speed. standard.each..3 lb-ft 1765 Speed (in RPM) Torque (in lb-ft) = 37 .is.motors..characteristics. previously... these.the.’

the.has. this..a.765.available.Starting breakdown rated...continues.starting.and.torque.speed.motor’ ..up.reached.this.34.locked rotor equal..0 lb-ft Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque lb-ft point. Starting torque. As.increase.maximum.30.torque.0. 134.50%.slightly.3 lb-ft Pull-up Torque.maximum.equal.called.on..point.torque. As. torque.that’ Starting Torque 178.. lb-ft 89.voltage.applied.of.full-load.used.6..until breakdown.the.started. Breakdown Torque Breakdown the.3 lb-ft 3 .HP.than.approximately.torque.

load.The.6 lb-ft 134.operating. for.With..these.and.have.two. speed. to.Fullload.load. Constant Torque Load 2 Constant Torque Load 1 a Lo d 2 d1 e Loa qu que or T Tor able ble Vari ria Va 39 . case.torque.following.decreases...appropriately..sufficient.This.not..overheat.four.. shows..RPM..of.than.its.torque.the. performance.speed.synchronous...curves.accelerate.slip..speed.are.9% Speed-torque.has.rated.3 lb-ft Slip 1.of.cannot.starting.torque.00.sized.9%.2.variable.RPM. breakdown.speed.overload.motor.rated.its.torque.examples.a.curve.load.turn. torque.motor. Torque.full-load reach.torque...speed.load.the.constant.speed.will.The..motor.With.speed-torque.the.and.for.speed.motor.load. Breakdown Torque Starting Torque lb-ft Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque voltage.rotor.increases.understanding. rotor Full-Load 40 NEMA C motors. Current and. motors.speed.HP.are. NEMA A Motor NEMA A motors.the.handle.start. current..rotor.NEMA.. Starting overcurrent.NEMA..relatively.C.B.a.breakdown.motors.current.the.typically.frequency. 9. NEMA C Motor.rated.this.torque. NEMA.for.HP the.typically. motors.240%.also.the.speed..high.motor.starting.have.the.Full-load current..30.a.about.3.for. starting.the. B.curve.As.devices. with.motor.overcurrent. The.single.size..have.starting. 95..of.decreases.reached.load.a.very.torque.makes. breakdown.of.motors.of.1 lb-ft Slip 8% 4 .motor’ presses.a.HP.torque.D.torque.30..starting.NEMA. with.pumps.20%.torque.full.fullload.speed.NEMA.D..for.a.and. The..punch.of.until.5. approximately.motor. it.oil.motor.well.This. to.from.starting.3 lb-ft design D starting.3.3 lb-ft 174 lb-ft 266.After.3 lb-ft NEMA D Motor The.RPM.Breakdown Torque

be.a.torque.B._______.service.F.with.NEMA.of.service.torque.NEMA.Class.maximum.and.motor. o _______ C.allowance. 4.speedtorque. operated. A.curve._______.HP o 3.insulation.called..5.full-load.factor.B.Review 5..motor.of.motor.factor.a._______ C. 2.temperature.on. The.a. 42 . .plus..0. The.. rated.motor.the.variation. forward..hand.motor’ 43 A.0%. damage. the...starting.reduced. the.when.variation.most.20%.motor.can. rated...may.the.torque. As..affect.following.more.rated.Derating Factors temperature.A.a.. frequency..increase.running.load.lurch.startup.factors.voltage.other.must.ratings.dramatic.motor. These.the.conveyor.and.discussed.previously..voltage.when.the.cause..started.a.a.causes. motor.voltage. Voltage Variation.0%.Some.can.

required.A. to.40° with.typical.must. but. Most.are.feet.torque. Ambient°C.feet.motors..torque..the.ambient.providing. changes.a.A. Altitude.motor.for.derating.should.above.thinner. 40° HP.designed.reduced.3300.decrease. 44 .6600.class.derating.would.frequency.However.a.variation.5%.not.Frequency .as.from.rating.fullload.speed.motor..

operated. 45 .of.per.the. to.and.operate.volts per hertz (V/Hz) torque.A.constant.a.V/Hz. motor.the. As. frequency..frequency.applied.This.of.every.torque.motor.maintained.60. because.constant.ratio.AC.constant torque .60.of.said.with.These.V/Hz.for. Volts per Hertz (V/Hz).8 V/Hz 60 Hz Constant Torque Operation.AC Motors and AC Drives to.Hz) 460 V = 7 V/HZ .460.with.AC.common. 60 Hz 230 V = 3..a.upon.current.the.long.. .the.the. An.of.frequency..motor.require. AC.a.AC.affect.(typically.both.V/Hz.the.motor’s.AC.. 60Hz..has. motor.constant.Not.voltage. The.flux.AC. horsepower range.this.volts.illustrate.applications.. voltage.proportionally. 46 .increases. change.the.the.would.increases. Some... hertz.decrease.operated.a.reactance.decreases.horsepower.the.230.the.with.. Constant nameplate.operated.and. compensate.This.the. speed.voltage.torque. over.order.not.460.are. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 If.rated.graphs.base. speed.hertz..compensated.60.

sophisticated.and.started.drives.full. for.motor.motor.the.torque.the.than. develops. Some.the.frequency.for.motor.motor. Frequency Starting.more.too. A. starting.AC.Each..shifting.higher. the.speedtorque.speeds.approximately. smoothly. used.with. starting.develop.than.50%.. the.effect.use.minimize.motor.AC.rise. Recall..voltage. AC.curve.Reduced Voltage and.starting. can.motor’s.. Selecting a sized.curve. but.of.voltage.may.motor.50%..AC.started.approximately.and.the.are.brought..components.are.selfcooled.that. considered.and.may.start.before.of.low. 47 .can.

voltage. cables.potentially.types.Some.caused.service.the. Service Factor on AC Drive and the Motor.Distance Between life.the. 4 factor.charging.harmonics. A.(460.current.long.of.occur. on.AC.

torque.of.speed-torque.find.of. the.load.source.load.a.torque.evaluate.below.capabilities.MG.the.used. Load Characteristics 49 .the.publication. typical.’ A.whether.speed-torque.torque.Matching Motors to the Load One. Load Motor 600 lb-ft Centrifugal Pump 120 lb-ft 50 .0.will.scale.pulley..slightly.if.centrifugal.that. of.the. devices. required. torque.shows.probably. torque.shaft. variable torque radius.pulley.Keep.pulley. a... Force Scale Torque = Force x Radius us di Ra For..the..load.the.cause. Centrifugal Pump. overloaded.the.the..requirement.the.torque. NEMA. NEMA.load.of.use. with.full-load.the.torque.NEMA. Screw Down Actuator. 5 In.Note. provide.the. matched.example.

matched. 3. 4. Which..motor. . 2. _______. _______.operated.a.the.hertz.following.derated.3 .to.volts.range..Load. HP.derating.table.pulley.. An.460. and.’ ... The..radius.above.provided.ratio.motor.attached.of.start. B. C.the.required. If.V/ 6 .4 Motor Load 4 Load 3 ad Lo 2 d1 Loa 52 properly.Load. A. .per.

When.motor’s.motors.from.cooling.or. Vent 53 moisture.enclosures:.enclosure.for.motor.the.environments..In.flow.type.vertical. One.. Open Drip Proof (ODP) on..components.the. the.liquids. enter.internal.are.and.the.motor.components.motor’s.when.air.vents.on.panel..the.enclosures.vents..from.attached.motor.horizontal.such..may.air.that. Open.the.the.5° drip proof (ODP) enclosure.air.Motor Enclosures A.not.from.the.of.enclosure. the.falling.enclosures. blades.cannot.rotor.the.should.of.Fan..a.the.enclosed.a.type.enclosure. contaminates.turning.up.The. ODP.allow.angles.categories.flow.type.above.

at.motors..These.cooling.the.the.of.mildly.more.into.totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV).horsepower.but.conduction.motor.TENV.entering.air.flow. dirty.shaft..but.opposite.or.blows.dissipate. (TEFC) enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motor.elements.contains corrosive.and.shroud.shaft.the.. from.foreign.openings.touching.air.the.point. In.the.other.means. The.the.TENV..A.However.Totally Enclosed .help. A.inside.surrounding.. Enclosure.not..through.air.motor’ enclosure.a..dissipate.housing.The.the. Totally Enclosed Fan quickly.ribbed.the. prevent.can..external. Non-Ventilated (TENV) airtight.internal motor.enclosure. Cooling Fan 54 .from.are.that.or.the.heavily.indoors.motors.the.the...used.must..horsepower. drive.has.can.along.dust.of.of.a...motors.which.that.limits.the.some.of.TENV..

duty.motor.hazardous.defined. Groups Groups A through D.atmosphere.with.Underwriters. National Electrical Code®.vapors. Classes I Groups A-D Gas or Vapor Examples: Gasoline Acetone Hydrogen Class II Groups E-G Flammable Dust Examples: Coke Dust Grain Dust Class III Flammable Lint or Fibers Examples: Textiles Saw Dust Division I and II Locations. This. application.regulatory.Explosion Proof (XP) Hazardous.such. Locations.appearance. Classes and Groups.and. Hazardous (Classified).in.foundry. Division I locations. safety.TEFC. divided.with.Class III.standards..the.similar.subject.strictest. 55 .example.present.or. have. comply... and G..class.involves. Locations.Division II locations..may.hazardous.the.regulatory.500..hazardous. F.however.never specify or suggest the type of hazardous location in.the user’s II. applications.hazardous.. most.a.explosion proof (XP) Electrical Code®Article.the.applicable.

dimension.distance.indicates.standardized motor arrangement.a...and.standards.56.found.The.two.base.of...horsepower.are. represents.the.the.motor.. by. center. 42.. the.Motors.referencing.and.motor.dimensions.table.sizes.and. designation.frame.mounting.. mounting.Integral horsepower motors. NEMA Dimensions.size.frame.overall.easier.desired..into.sizes.the.and.For.dimensions. because.without.frame. NEMA..for. motors.Standardized.the.frame.fractional horsepower motors. 56 C.the.standardized.holes.designation.indicate.shaft. that.shaft. dimension’ feet.determine.inches..inches.a. 57 shaft.calculate.a.4.frame.The. matching..code.frame.the.lines.surface.lines.integral.distance..table.height.digits.4.NEMA.½.of.shaft.the.size.distance.To. dimensions.designation.÷.motor.of. For.the.(4. code.

Conduit Box Shaft F-1 Position (Standard) F-2 Position 5 sides. match.dimensions.and.standardized.side.F-.the.The.any.standard.90° location.on.IEC.of.This. when.are.and.end.dimensions.the. mounting.has.the.these.arrangement.illustrated.. The.can.An.IEC Dimensions..located.four.the. Mounting Positions floor mounting positions.mountings.conduit.left-hand.and.but.

of.shown.the.have.bolt.face. the.connect.the. Gear Box Motor C-face.and.threaded.example.modification... It.mounted.the.and.wall.C-face motor.Bolts.holes..ceiling the. prefix W.and.face.a. Assembly W-1 Assembly W-2 Assembly W-3 Assembly W-4 Assembly W-5 Assembly W-6 Assembly W-7 Assembly W-8 Assembly C-1 Assembly C-2 Mounting Faces.motor.Typical.motor.the.wall.mount.gear box. Threaded Bolt Hole 59 in.sometimes.

D-flange’’s. The.the.horsepower. _______.enclosure.of.the.the.mating..that. 4. A.____.the.from.motor. Review 7 A. 60 .the.5° 3.size.motor.the. mounted.enclosure.flange.determined.for.above.frame._______.shaft.

and.General Purpose NEMA and.. frames.Premium.frames.range.for.of.Energy.manufactured.IEC.handling.applications.these. enclosed.(ODP). applications.AC.well.light.with.manufactures.a.efficiency. These. 6 .compressor.are. standards.Siemens AC Induction Motors Siemens.efficiency. General Purpose NEMA Motors Siemens.other.or.efficiency. light-weight. Our.duty.feature.products.above.levels.NEMA Premium Efficient. High Efficient.on.for..This. or.Premium.motors.

These.. x $0..efficiency... Hazardous Duty Motors.and.91 GP100 Calculation C = $1072 + 0.strictest.In.High. ) of.motor..$ paper.&$675.motors.standards.Cost Savings with NEMA Premium Efficiency Motors of.with.hazardous.Class.RGZEESDX.chemical.TEFC.mining.08 = $79. x 20 HP x 60.efficiency.08 = $77 .Division.82 0.a. Groups.F.levels.applications.following..EPAct.. purchase.efficiency.D.environments.purchase.NEMA..IEEE 841-2001 standards.foundry.Siemens.duty.the..two.Severe Duty motors.workhorses..modifications.GP00.applicationmatched. processing.746 x HP x T x R E Motor 1 Calculation C = $675 + 0. comply.II.foundry.746 x 20 HP x Hrs.pulp.available. in..93. a.motor..severe..with..08 Severe Duty Motors. In.and.hazardous.applications.are.the.of.commonly.a.of.746 = HP to kilowatt conversion factor HP = motor full-load horsepower T = estimated motor lifetime in hours R = utility kilowatt-hour rate E = efficiency expressed as a decimal value C=P+ 0.efficient.have.).processing. C = motor lifecycle cost P = initial purchase price 0.designed.and.of. x $0.example.toughest.High. management. and..with.with.and.UL. chemical.I.90 0.9%.. NEMA.found.waste.for..( 62 .936 Total Savings = $1789.for.a.IEEE4. These.C.373. motors.the.and.motors.

.fans.Efficiency. towers.pumps. applications.and.blowers.shaft..with.such..variable. applications.centrifugal.duty.requirements.irrigation.such.Part.high.for..severe.and.and.TEFC Vertical P-Base motors.feet.pumps.mixers.and. 63 .a.manufactured. exceed.Siemens. (explosion-proof).fans.thrust.are..EPAct.NEMA.waste. Vertical. that.designed.for.with.motors..continuous. for.Severe.and. paper.the. Siemens. 3300.40ºC. agriculture. machine..with.the..altitudes.Pump.standards.motors.Efficiency.above.treatment.solid.EPAct.foundry. Duty Motors.cooling.mining..totally enclosed inverter duty TEFC Vertical P-Base Motors.locations.petrochemical.system.Duty.. cast.rated that.for.. torque.V.such.their.applications.are..or.output. motors.IEC low voltage motors in..slip.characterized.and.or.range.available..the.and.speed. mining. summarize. Siemens..IEC motor series N automobile.from.have.These.exceed.outputs (Frame Size 315 and Above).Automotive Duty TEFC motors..requirements.operation..windings.technical. flexibility.also. Purpose NEMA motors. the.of.more.motors.0.approved. Siemens.of.fulfill.extremely.output.complete..designed.stopping.and. ruggedness.with.starting.250.current.applications.provide.converter-fed.are.motor.a.Design C motors.06.normal.suitable.size. IEC Non-Standard Frame Size 315L) are.with.. up.are..IEC Standard motors.applications.European. Siemens.2.series.and.optimized. have.types.or. motors.major. 64 Purpose Motors.industrial..Hz).500.0.starting. IEC Standard Motors (Up to.low..compact. IEC Low Voltage voltages..service.

conjunction. IEC Extraction Motors.operating.insulation.graphite. motors.Voltage.also escape.type-test.asynchronous..brackets.converters. with.constructed. IEC Customer-specific Motors Above NEMA Motors 65 .as.. requirements..environment.bearing.extraction.feature. enamel.contain.motors.customer.the.IEC Explosion Protected developed motors.keep.high Marine and.for. Our.allows.smoke extraction motors.and.These. requirements.certified. resin.Our.developed..the..enclosed.and.does.that. .that.DNV.+5%.ribs.operation.accident.exceed.and.demands.they Motors reduce.satisfy.the.or.of. are.our.control.been.for. In.and.LRS).addition. insulation. IGBT.NEMA.In.for.have.IEC. machines.such.These. Specially..certificates.withstand.designed.range.spheroid.the. conditions.and.oil.have.the.even.the.IR.Durgnit IR 2000. Roller Table. IEC Inverter Duty Motors.. Motors.referred.speed.( Siemens. to.event.the. Siemens. The.specific.heat.on. space. insulation.are.inverter-fed.Durgnit.smoke.strengthened.hazardous.industry. ambient.system.rugged.voltages.dv/ table requirements.power.marine 500V.comply. the..application..standard IEC LV above NEMA motors..than.larger.use.operated..690V.high. construction.reduce. motors.manufactured. NEMA. 50°.Torque Pull-Up.Torque.insulation.shows.3300.either.has.The.induction.easily..NEMA.motors.AC.Above.this. speed-torque.all.of.the.and.on. the.≥ torque. Siemens.the.certified.squirrelcage.line.are. manufacturer.manufactures. Yoke Width C N XD AB AC W N-W Keyway Length XW HT XL X AF D AA Pipetap E 2E 2F B The. motor.of..Full-Load.ambient.motors.above.dimensions..plant.≥. 66 .. foot-mounted flange-mounted°.an..derated.50°..B.operation.NEMA.typical.When.altitude.large..class.motors.motor. specified. the.our.can..breakdown. Locked.starting.curves.These.motor. manufactures.ambient..≥ 75%.must.each. Above. that.large.a.complete.typically.

200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1..charts.000 H P for 8 pole U p to air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10.0 (1. product.enclosures.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G II D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.0 (1.offerings.000 to 13.200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1. 800.0 (1. 580.a. IC 01 . IC 01 .such.protected against solid objects greater than 12.summarize.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 580.manufactures.protected against solid objects greater than 12.200 V V oltage 1.horizontal.protected against solid objects greater than drip proof (ODP). 680. Foot-Mounted.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures. 712. and 716 F ram e S izes 6.totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).open air ventilation T ype of C ooling U p to 18. weather protected II (WPII).motors with.foot-mounted. Above NEMA Motors Siemens.following.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.Siemens. IP 23 .5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical. IP W 24 .5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction. totally enclosed water-to-air cooled (TEWAC). totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC). IC 01 .foot-mounted. 680.The.large.Horizontal.horizontal.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.. 714.. and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13.large. W extends the rating to w eather air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10.for.of. O pen D rip P roof/W eather P rotected I CG E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype D escription B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e am bient conditions.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500. 800. IP 24 .15 optional) S ervice F actor 67 . and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13.variety..and. weather protected I (WPI).

800. H as the added benefits of low noise and efficient w ater cooling. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. IP 54 .lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed W ater-to-A ir C ooled H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions. H as the added benefits of low noise and efficient w ater cooling.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 712.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 580. 680.000 H P 2 to 16 580. IC W 81 .200 V V oltage 1. and 716 F ram e S izes 6. IP 54 .E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed W ater-to-A ir C ooled CGG D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan 900 to 7.0 (1.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole P ow er R ange U p to 12.200 V V oltage 1. T ype of C ooling P ow er R ange P oles F ram e S izes V oltage S ervice F actor IC 611 .000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7. 714. and 1120 2.300 to 13.0 (1.200 V 1.15 optional) 6 .lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. IC W 81 .15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled CAZ D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.0 (1.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. 680.w ater-to-air cooled T ype of C ooling U p to 18.000 H P for 6 pole U p to 10. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers.300 to 13.000 to 13. IP 54 .w ater-to-air cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 10. 800.

0 (1. these.such..with.000 to 13.0 (1.for. and 880 F ram e S izes 460 to 11. product...000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 714.offerings.200 V V oltage 1.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4.totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).15 optional) S ervice F actor Vertical.250 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.Siemens.protected against solid objects greater than 12.15 optional) S ervice F actor 69 . 680. Flange-Mounted Above NEMA Motors Siemens. IC 411 .totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC). and 716 F ram e S izes 6.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles protected II (WPII).a. IP 54 ..large.manufactures. protected I (WPI).300 to 13. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. IP 54 .flange-mounted.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected I C G V and C G G S B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e D escription am bient conditions. 800.000 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1.variety.. IC 611 . IC 01 .totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling U p to drip proof weather.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.motors with. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings. 788.5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical. 712.of.200 V V oltage 1. IP 23 .The.motors.vertical. 580...000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7. 708. 580.and.following.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C Z and C G Z D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.summarize.enclosure.0 (1.E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.types..

process.motors.large. and.API 541-4th edition.200 V V oltage 1.. 580.547.300 to 13.two.0 (1. 70 .most. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2.chemical.for. 800.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.generation.highly.In. and.0 (1. have.protected against solid objects greater than 12. IC 411 .set.for.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled CAZV D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient to (1.. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. Petroleum. IC 611 .general.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.American.reliability.and.E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G IIV and C G IIH S D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.NEMA.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling 800 to 3.motor. IC 01 .000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 680.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 900 H P P ow er R ange 2 (4 or 6 optional) P oles 500 and 580 F ram e S izes 2.above.forth. addition..oil.severe-duty.manufactures.demanding.motors. U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings. also.adopted.rigorous. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers. 680. IP 54 .performance..processing.200 V V oltage 1.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C G Z V and C G Z H S D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions. IP 24 The.and..900 V V oltage 1. edition.refining.15 optional) S ervice F actor Large Specialty m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction.and.API air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4. 800.listed.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 500.the..previously. IP 54 .API.300 to

and.range. 7 .line.fulfill.º 8.sea.HP ..our.________. up.are. Siemens. Siemens. requirements.. squirrel-cage.altitudes.motors.totally.and.motors.________.available. for.European.from. .of. 6.feet. ranges. Siemens.efficiency.and. 2. two.

. 4).3).5..repel.High.2..or.totally.Norwood.06....A..34...B.2) )..magnetic..attract.2)..rotor.C.squirrel.3) )..proof.attract.Review Answers Review 1.3).4).Efficient. Review 5.T.5).3).breakdown ).7).5). minute.50.6)..2)...horsepower. 0..rotor.0.5).A ).2).3).4 )...RPM.field...repel.totally...synchronous..slip.D.cage. Review 8.5).enclosed...D ).4).cooled. Review 2. 3).4)...Torque.3).0.4. ).4).4).7 ..B..acceleration )..inertia..40.north.4). Review 4.2).2).north.5. Review 6....5).enclosure..C...A.south..000 72 Review 3..3).open.drip.4).cooled.stator..2). NEMA.67.2). Ohio.. Review 7..3300.proof...per.00.

box c. .50. .7. c.2 d..rotor..or.of. b. ..answer. a. a.. b... 4.exam.. .65.lever.of.47 d. 60. .53.three. ... provided.turning. .. to.the..The.a.Torque.a. may.inertia. torque.and. b.shaft. completion.. . . a.20 The.bearings. .6. .work.of.4. .mail. . .completing.A.HP ._____..are. 2.causes.better.connection.Inertia d.tool.rotate.A.applied.________..and.Final Exam 73 .is...cooling.or.of.during..that. .doing.50 The.exam. 3. .passing..the.for. c.44.power .will.0. . .end.test.. . . . b.a.Acceleration If.enclosure b. c. . .housing..long.answer.

60.electrical. d.slip. . .400. .V/Hz.above .motor. A.factor.D d. .has.. c. ...voltage.._______. ..with. a.. A. The. a.frequency.. energy. b. .efficiency..the.None. c.motor. . .6. . power.300.5.25 2.. a. .locked.temperature.60.and. . The. .C.NEMA.the..mechanical._____%. ____.. b.0°.900.of..that. b.rated.motor.460. _____. .of. . a.of.7 .a. . rotor..current.the...breakdown d.5.F. .is. .600..9.____° . The.4..and. . .of.. .0 Motor... . .rotor .current.of.NEMA.load.the.also. .speed.the.that.a. c.3. 7 . a. . c.synchronous. .to.0 . c...motor.motor. b.torque.ratio.VAC. Class. supplied.for.B. .B. a. b.05. 0.3.insulation.NEMA.rise . d.2 74 . .250.50.converted. .67.temperature. d. . hazardous. . b. meet..IV . .efficiency.. .the. . .HP . .of..positioned. A. c. .four-pole.or.motor.the.per.designation.. A. to.EPAct d.letter.ratio. d.vapor.said. .falling. prevent.enclosure.from.00 d.Class.IEC..ODP 7 An. .vertical.solids.are. A/An. d. a.a..volts...000 75 . atmosphere.from.Premium. . c.HP.motors.. c.motor.sizes._______. .would.. b.up..within. . .normally.. .NEMA.25. . .constant.hertz.... b. . c. .000 d. . . . constant.operated. Siemens.NEMA..kW..operating.acceleration 4. .at.III d. ranges.Standard.above.range.torque..constant.. . ..N 9. .frame.exceed.motors. . a.High.above 5.vents.All.U.power. c..000. .in.3.Hz.available....has...000.I. b.has.available. .to.variable. .. .a.Efficient._______.. a. 0. .5°.of..synchronous. .the.. a.__.that.30.the.NEMA.50.has. b.built.200.Purpose. b. current.RPM.standards. b. . .torque d.C.a.classified.entering. c. speed.have.the..Division.. . .a. . .T d. a.II. a. Siemens. .standards.50.General.TENV. The. . .size.

at. 76 From.opportunity.register.STEP.and.sections:.a.user.text.. downloaded..of. http://www.quickSTEP Online Courses quickSTEP. A.siemens. reviews.your. quickSTEP..pictorial. Courses.

Amps × read .5npA read . Amps − 0.5np.BHP ExsistingEstimatedBHP Ohm's Law: V = A× R R= A= Single Phase: P = V × A × PF V= P A × PF A= P V × PF BHP = V × A × Effiency × PowerFactor 746 Estimated BHP from Amps and Volts: BHP = nameplate(np) HP × read . A 0.Volts . Amps ) × read .7 read .Motor Formulas V = Volts A = Amperes R = Ohms P = Watts PF = Power factor (Motor) Eff = Efficiency (Motor) HP = Horsepower BHP = Break Horsepower (Motor) r = running np = nameplate Max. X 3 V A V R Max. Amps or BHP = Name plate BHP x Volts × Amps BHP = nameplate(np) HP × (read .V × np.Volts × read .Volts Estimated BHP = 745.Volts np.Volts × readAmps np. Motor sheave = Existing Motor sheave Dia.

All rights reserved.Volts × Effiency × PowerFactor 745. National Energy Management Institute Committee. . Power Factor.732 × Amps × Volts × Effiency × PowerFactor × %ofLoad 745.Estimated BHP from Amps.7 Single phase BHP = Three phase BHP = © 2005.7 1. and % of load: read . Volts. Amps × read . Efficiency.

com 1 .Motor Basics AGSM 325 Motors vs Engines • Motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. www.PAControl. • Engines convert chemical energy to mechanical energy.

PAControl.000 to 50.$/Hp Simple & Efficient Operation Compact Size – cubic inches/Hp Long Life – 30.000 hours Low Noise No Exhaust Emissions Withstand high temporary overloads Automatic/Remote Start & Control • Disadvantages – Portability – Speed Control – No Demand Charge Magnetic Induction • Simple Electromagnet • Like Poles Repel • Opposite Poles Attract 2 .Motors • Advantages – – – – – – – – Low Initial Cost .

PAControl.Operating Principle Motor Parts • • • • • • Enclosure Stator Rotor Bearings Conduit Box Eye Bolt 3 .

www.PAControl. protects internal components from the environment. Stator (Windings) • “Stationary” part of the motor sometimes referred to as “the windings”. • Slotted cores made of thin sections of soft iron are wound with insulated copper wire to form one or more pairs of magnetic 4 .Enclosure • Holds parts together • Helps with heat dissipation • In some cases.

• Magnetic field from the stator induces an opposing magnetic field onto the rotor causing the rotor to “push” away from the stator field. High Starting Torque. High 5 . Low Starting Current • Disadvantages – Expensive.PAControl. Low Efficiency www. Wound Rotor Motors • Older motor designed to operate at “variable speed” • Advantages – Speed Control.Rotor • “Rotating” part of the motor.

Bearings • Sleeve Bearings – – – – Standard on most motors Quiet Horizontal shafts only Oil lubricated • Ball (Roller) Bearings – Support shaft in any position – Grease lubricated – Many come sealed requiring no maintenance Other Parts • Conduit Box – Point of connection of electrical power to the motor’s stator 6 .PAControl. • Eye Bolt – Used to lift heavy motors with a hoist or crane to prevent motor damage. www.

Motor Speed
• Synchronous Speed
– Speed the motor’s magnetic field rotates. – Theoretical speed with not torque or friction.

• Rated Speed
– Speed the motor operates when fully loaded. – Actual speed at full load when supplied rated voltage.

Synchronous Speed
• Theoretical Speed • A well built motor may approach synchronous speed when it has no load. • Factors
– Electrical Frequency (cycles/second) – # of poles in motor


Rated Speed
• Speed the motor runs at when fully loaded and supplied rated nameplate voltage.

Motor Slip
• Percent difference between a motor’s synchronous speed and rated speed. • The rotor in an induction motor lags slightly behind the synchronous speed of the changing polarity of the magnetic field.
– Low Slip Motors
• “Stiff”….High Efficiency motors

– High Slip Motors
• Used for applications where load varies significantly…oil pump jacks.


• Measure of force producing a rotation
– Turning Effort – Measured in pound-feet (foot-pounds)

Torque-Speed Curve
• Amount of Torque produced by motors varies with Speed. • Torque Speed Curves
– Starting Torque – Pull Up Torque – Breakdown Torque


PAControl.Motor Power • Output Power – Horsepower – Amount of power motor can produce at shaft and not reduce life of motor. • Input Power – Kilowatts – Amount of power the motor consumes to produce the output 10 . Calculating Horsepower • Need Speed and Torque • Speed is easy – Tachometer • Torque is difficult – Dynamometer – Prony Brake www.

5 Watts 864 Watts / 746 Watts/Hp = 1.f. • Three Phase – Watts = Avg Volts X Avg Amps X p.16 Hp • Is the motor overloaded? www.f. Watts = 123 volts X 9 amps X 0. = 78% • Watts = Volts X Amps X 11 .f. X 1.PAControl.Watt’s Law • Input Power • Single Phase – Watts = Volts X Amps X p.74 Example • Is a 1 Hp 1-phase motor driving a fan overloaded? – Voltage = 123 volts – Current = 9 amps – p.78 = 863.

com 12 .16 Hp = 0.6 Watts 9148.75 X 1.82 X 1.87 Hp 1.1.6 Watts / 746 Watts/Hp = 12.74 Watts = 458v X 14a X 0.f. X 1. 3-phase motor overloaded? – Voltages = 455.Electrical = Input • We measured Input • Motors are rated as Output • Difference? – Efficiency • If the motor is 75% efficient.16 Hp Input • The motor is NOT overloaded HP Output? Example #2 • Is this 10 Hp.PAControl.26 Hp • Is the motor overloaded? www.f.0 and 13. 14. 458. = 82% • Watts = Voltsavg X Ampsavg X p. and 461 volts – Currents = 14.9 amps – P. is it overloaded? • Eff = Output / Input • Output = Eff X Input 0.74 = 9148.

Example #2 • We measured Input • Motor is rated as Output • Difference? – Efficiency 12.PAControl.26 Hp Input • If the motor is 90% efficient.90 X 12.0 Hp • The motor IS overloaded! • How bad is the overload? Hp Output ? Motor Types CLASSIFICATION OF MOTORS AC MOTORS Polyphase Synchronous Universal Single-Phase Synchronous Induction Induction Hysteresis Reluctance Squirrel Cage Hysteresis Reluctance Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Permanent Magnet Wound Rotor Wound Rotor Synchronous Design Design Design Design A B C D Repulsion Repulsion Start Split Phase Capacitor Run Capacitor Start Capacitor Start/Run 13 .26 Hp = 11. is it overloaded? • Eff = Output / Input • Output = Eff X Input 0.

– 3450 rpm.PAControl.C. 1740 rpm. etc. • Induction Motors – Turn at less than synchronous speed under load.D. NEMA 3 Phase Motors • 3 Phase Induction Motors • NEMA TorqueSpeed Design Types – A.Synchronous vs Induction Motors • Synchronous Motors – Turn at exactly the same speed as the rotating magnetic field.E www. – 3600 rpm. 14 . 1800 rpm.B.

com 15 . • Higher in-rush current (5-8 times full load amps) • Good breakdown torque www.Design Type B • Today’s “Standard” 3Phase Motor • Good Starting Torque – In-rush amps 4-6 times full load amps – Good breakdowntorque – Medium Slip Design Type A • The “old” Standard • Higher starting torque than “B”.PAControl.

PAControl. Metal Shears. – Pump Jacks www. compressors and other “hard starting” loads.Design Type C • Common OEM equipment on reciprocating pumps. • Impact Loads – Punch Presses. 16 . • High starting torque • Moderate starting current (5-8 times FLA) • Moderate breakdown torque Design Type D • Common on applications with significant loading changes as a machine operates.

Design Type E • Newest NEMA Category • Newer ultra-high efficiency motors – Higher Starting Torque – Higher Starting Current (8-12 times Running) – Ultra Low Slip (Higher Rated Speed) Single Phase Induction Motors • Are not “self starting” – Require a starting 17 .PAControl. – – – – – – – Split Phase Capacitor Run Capacitor Start Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run Shaded Pole Synchronous Universal www. • The name generally describes its “starting mechanism”.

com 18 .Split Phase Motor • Common small single phase motor – Good Starting Torque – Moderate Efficiency – Moderate Cost • Small conveyors. and some compressors • 1/20th to ¾ Hp. • Centrifugal Switch – Sticks Open – Sticks Shut www.5 Hp Split Phase Motor • Starting winding in parallel with Running winding • Switch operates at 70-80% of full speed. augers. pumps. available to 1.PAControl.

PAControl. – Optimizes running characteristics. • No centrifugal switch www. Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) • Capacitor in “Capacitor Winding” – Provides a “phase shift” for starting.Capacitor Run Motor (Permanent Split Capacitor or PSC) • Primarily a fan and blower 19 . • Poor starting torque • Very low cost motor.

• Common on compressors and other hard starting equipment. • Capacitor sized for high starting torque.Capacitor Start Motor • Larger single phase motors up to about 10 Hp. • A split phase motor with the addition of a capacitor in the starting winding. • Very high starting current. Capacitor Start Motor • Very high starting 20 .PAControl. www.

• Higher cost than cap start.PAControl.Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run • Both starting and running characteristics are optimized. 21 . – High starting torque – Low starting current – Highest cost • For hard starting loads like compressors and pumps. Capacitor Start-Run Motor • Larger single phase motors up to 10 Hp. • Good starting torque (less than cap start) with lower starting current. • Up to 10 Hp or higher is some situations. 22 . • Lower Hp sizes www.Synchronous Motor • Special design for “constant speed” at rated horsepower and below. Universal Motor • Runs on AC or DC • Commutator and brushes • Generally found in portable power tools. • Used where maintaining speed is critical when the load changes.

• Higher torque on DC than AC (battery operated tools) • The higher the 23 .PAControl. the lower the torque.Universal Motor • Very high starting torque. www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful