# Table of Contents

Introduction...............................................................................2 AC.Motors.................................................................................4 Force.and.Motion......................................................................6 AC.Motor.Construction............................................................ 2 Magnetism.............................................................................. 7 Electromagnetism................................................................... 9 Developing.a.Rotating.Magnetic.Field.....................................24 . Rotor.Rotation.........................................................................29 . Motor.Specifications. ..............................................................34 . NEMA.Motor.Characteristics. .................................................37 Derating.Factors......................................................................43 . AC.Motors.and.AC.Drives. ......................................................45 Matching.Motors.to.the.Load..................................................49 Motor.Enclosures....................................................................53 Mounting.................................................................................56 . Siemens.AC.Induction.Motors. ...............................................6 Review.Answers......................................................................72 Final.Exam...............................................................................73 quickSTEP.Online.Courses...................................................... 76 

Introduction

Welcome.to.another.course.in.the.STEP.series,.Siemens. Technical.Education.Program,.designed.to.prepare.our. distributors.to.sell.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation.products. more.effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of AC Motors.and. related.products.. Upon.completion.of.Basics of AC Motors.you.should.be.able. to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Explain.the.concepts.of.force,.inertia,.speed,.and.torque Explain.the.difference.between.work.and.power Describe.the.construction.of.a.squirrel.cage.AC.motor Describe.the.operation.of.a.rotating.magnetic.field Calculate.synchronous.speed,.slip,.and.rotor.speed Plot.starting.torque,.accelerating.torque,.breakdown. torque,.and.full-load.torque.on.a.NEMA.torque.curve Apply.derating.factors.as.required.by.an.application Describe.the.relationship.between.V/Hz,.torque,.and. horsepower Match.an.AC.motor.to.an.application.and.its.load Identify.NEMA.enclosures.and.mounting.configurations Describe.Siemens.NEMA,.IEC,.and.above.NEMA.motors

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This.knowledge.will.help.you.better.understand.customer. applications..In.addition,.you.will.be.better.able.to.describe. products.to.customers.and.determine.important.differences. between.products..You.should.complete.Basics of Electricity before.attempting.Basics of AC Motors..An.understanding.of. many.of.the.concepts.covered.in.Basics.of.Electricity.is.required. for.Basic.of.AC.Motors.. If.you.are.an.employee.of.a.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation. authorized.distributor,.fill.out.the.final.exam.tear-out.card.and. mail.in.the.card..We.will.mail.you.a.certificate.of.completion.if. you.score.a.passing.grade..Good.luck.with.your.efforts. Siemens.is.a.trademark.of.Siemens.AG..Product.names. mentioned.may.be.trademarks.or.registered.trademarks.of.their. respective.companies..Specifications.subject.to.change.without. notice. NEMA®.is.a.registered.trademark.and.service.mark.of.the. National.Electrical.Manufacturers.Association,.Rosslyn,.VA. 22209. Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.®.and.UL®.are.registered. trademarks.of.Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.,.Northbrook,.IL. 60062-2096. Other.trademarks.are.the.property.of.their.respective.owners.

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energy.in..Siemens.motor.mixer.AC.AC.addition.this.to.also.are.wide.in.of.into.or.threephase AC induction motors.other.pump.this.motor.an..equipment.or.motors.but.fan.many.most.in. as.a.winder.conveyor. transform. used.motors.AC.are.the.applications.Siemens.motors.AC.information.general..focuses. An. overview.mechanical.In.form.manufactures.AC Motors AC motors.of.includes. Winder Pump Conveyor 4 .applications.this. about.electrical.energy. variety..some. connected.common.used..such.to..of.on.industrial.may...course.worldwide.type.of.part..of.of.to.AC.type.providing.types.basic.or.course.of.There.motors.a.mechanical. many.a.be.

..National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).IEC.in.IEC.this.. perform.NEMA. is.addition..equipment.motors.a. Siemens..are.These..motors.States. that.In.are.electrical.S.Siemens..many. size.than.for.products.however.Keep..comply.to..commonly.also. MG.range.In.but.IEC.larger. IEC Motors.motors. to.many.course.standards.function.more.although.also.is.of.products.the.are.IEC.frame. in.is.. requirements.companies.size.as.standards. Throughout.referred.and.as.that..manufacturing.specific...NEMA..motors. 5 .made.used.standards..commonly. countries. NEMA.manufactures. including. manufactures.NEMA..NEMA.electrical.export..to.the.countries.for.for. develops.responsible.build.-based.electrical.AC.built.standards. organization.the.Standard.NEMA.as above NEMA motors.covers.IEC.another.example. Above NEMA Motors.to.motors.with.sometimes..motors.to.NEMA.the.respects.NEMA.U.follow.are.differ.motors..largest. In.Publication.NEMA Motors.many.commonly.to.standards.meet.standards.motors.motors.same.reference.. United.AC.to.wide.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).frame.standards.to.For.referred.designed.mind.common.application..

example.of.pound.vector.two. of.in.net.context.forces.or.all. 10 LB 10 LB = 20 LB If.push.When.us.Force. Many.friction.same.of.For.be.direction.direction.motors.in. 10 LB 5 LB = 5 LB 6 .familiar.one..force.applied. 20.they..some.force.forces.a. Net Force.applied..and..an.a. greater.a.applied.force. Later.move.we.the.of.apply.Force and Motion Before.are.motor.. Force..terminology.simple.the.in.basic..the.pounds. same.5.terms.would.the.opposite.are.the.means.AC.may.course.it.the.and.in.pounds.other.is.associated.understand.to.how.would.direction.force.the.is. Net force... be..of. motors.applied.object.gravity.in.5.pounds.are.operation.added.see.these.discussing..with.is.direction. physical.be. caused.would.is.to.the.direction.object.or.necessary.net.pounds.is.combination.of.by.the.these. In.are.force.gravity. some..in.that.and. including.terms.terms.of.will.act.0.on.force.if.sum. forces.pull.a.AC.in..electromagnetism.the.the.0.to.

x..the.causes.zero.a.radius.would.pounds.torque. 0.0.would.feet...if.force..applied.at.the.force.corresponding.For.a.(lb-in).to.in.and..(lever.both. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 20 lb-ft 2 feet 7 .is.a.Force.object.system.a.results.Radius In.measured.torque.in.a. of.in.of.is. increase...to.and.(τ)..or..or.foot.lb-ft.move.in.or.of.of.measurements.in.20.equally. a.force.is.radius.is.pivot. Torque.two.the. Torque.be. example.in.increase.the.resulting.causes. pound-feet. net.object.twisting.force.effect.applied.=.lbs.of. rotate.results.For.force.If.lever.the.lb-ft.0.is.torque.product. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 10 lb-ft 1 foot An.not.pound-inches.for.turning.is.directions.the.turning.to.radius.example. 10 LB 10 LB = 0 Torque.that.torque.the.of.force..(lb-ft)..force..English.an.example..point.lever. τ.end.long.Increasing.the.to.distance).applied.torque.or.

often.is.one. in.can..Speed.determines. Angular.a.to.upon.acceleration).distance.any.a.0.higher.in.is.a.called. it.speed.travels.to.divided. RPM.at.20.known.time.for.time.is.long.can..m/s. acceleration.This.is.to.it.in. revolutions. Linear Motion Angular (Rotational) Speed. the..makes.rotating.An..angular.to.the.a..object.seconds.takes.0.can.An..meters..specified.of.example.. from.object.of.is. Direction of Rotation Rotional Motion Axis of Rotation Acceleration.if..object.is..is.of.an.distance..time. the.traveled.object.lower.the. by..example.to.object.to..(m/s).an.force.is.for.in.units.rate.that.per.motion.per..only.miles.meters.expressed.RPM.travel. 10 RPM Acceleration 20 RPM 20 RPM Deceleration 10 RPM  .occurs.there.a. An.Therefore.decelerate.the.also.travel.speed.or.units. accelerate.change.which.20.take.minute.20.Acceleration.object.object.RPM.object.hour.revolutions.it.acting.and.minute.to.angular speed.change.speed..object.takes.of.has.in.. Linear Speed.Speed.a. (RPM).deceleration.rotating. The.specified.2.for.in.the.rotate.40..how.a.an.takes. (negative.RPM.expressed. distance.of.travel.complete..speed.as.A..For.the.from.increase. the.speed.or.example..change.when. An. Linear speed.speed.distance.distance.distance.RPM.from. second.Linear.ratio.ten.speed.per.0.

For.for.is.inertia.can.most.roll.of.moment.example. Any.to.bring.any.object..objects.if.foot.If.inertia.upon.a.force.of.equals. system.the.work.resistance.try.the..to.multiplying. added...stop..the. state.force.the.In.valid.times.speed.a...be.of.the.because.of.expressed. distance.we.subject.foot-pounds.as.start.to.motion..The.ft-lb. Friction.is.squared. paper..pound.when.to.takes.for..one.move.unit..the.takes.system.has.the.of.to.to.the. of. inertia.to.(lb-ft ). referred.is.of..moving.a.remain.occurs.acceleration/deceleration. Friction.object. machine. 2 measurement.is.increases.commonly.is.its.expressed.product.causes.to.unless.losses.a..(ft-lb).=.apply.not.motion. For.rest.motion...times.energy.x.force. in.another.work..friction.unit..object.distance.of.force.compensate.reverse..roll.joule.motion.system.across.English. Mechanical.newton-meter.systems.must.another.The. of. measurements.distance..by.work.energy.one.times..a.roll.inertia.will.for...property.significant.that. where.current.in.meter.constant.when.English.is.in.example.surface.distance.acted...are.will.force. the.contact. Since.force..be. work.joules.from.of..a.is. system.that.force.motion.machine.simply.motion.force.law.loss. 9 .the.in.of.Inertia.roll..losses.it.direction.Work.the.of.the.the.overcome.remain.work. Whenever.an.the..in.force..still.the.external.unwinds.at.Force.to...The.an.it.law of inertia.one.is.the.drain.expressed.in.of. can.a. This. Friction.system.all. in.times.consider.equal.is.a.applied.causes.calculated.or.is.in..system.As.moving..physics.force.accomplished..we.to.large. Work.causes.tend.a..in.we.of.that.applied.that.the.Once. know.the.compound.is.states.of.the.often.to.in.the.pound-feet.inertia.and.law.however.energy.by. newton.Distance Work.is.

.of.horse.second. doing.is.Therefore.can.defined..lb-ft.it.James.power.horsepower.horsepower. torque.expressed.33..rate.used.work.550.horsepower.that.of.of.the.RPM. useful.550. Another.sold.one.Watt.. th.be. used.unit.century.. work.would.was.speed.of.a..in..done.torque.in.is.about.to.second.time.weight.foot-pounds.was.average.the.amount.increases.quantity.motors.When.per.can.amount.He.horsepower.torque.often.horses.horsepower.applying.to..is.Watt.engines.speed.of.to.and.that. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 0 .concept. foot-pounds..to.This.many.a.replace.period.a.is.expressed.horses.000. Power.a.formula.by.foot-pounds.of.lift. found.Power.the.second.engine.walk.in.one.Note.increase.and.would.given...of.foot-pounds.would. often..both.He.the.horsepower. Horsepower.the.wheel.for.per..work.steam.be.minute.in.expressed.how.steam.the.around.speed...in.following.in.determine.is.calculate.Power.a.or. When.or. and.or.is.per.is. asked.equal.expressed.per.(HP).but. had.in. amount.that.an.

___.x. 0..in.force.a.in.a.external..are. ________.rated.________.generally.its.HP For.state.rated.between. to.power. net.is.pounds.in.applied.a.states.example.is.in.kW. 6.by.x.to.5.the.pounds.an.an.object.of.convert.force.34.torque.divided. 2.25.motor.in.motion.horsepower.it. motor. formula.often.and.equal.power.motors.is.746.distance.kW. the.. acted.20..x.be.twisting..end.kilowatts.an.manufactured..HP.turning.of.or.motor. ________.of.but. power.in.pounds.in. If.force.long.. countries.rotating.rated.the.will.of.law.force.the.Fortunately.to.expressed.manufactured.for.is.time.or..  .kW Kilowatts.the.with.. ________. 3.is.746.motors. 4.65.the.one.40.a.other.Horsepower and Kilowatts.is.unless.object’s.called.force.direction.of.horsepower.many.is.speed. If.HP. 2.can.HP.units.=. The.upon.traveled.the.in.speed.is.at. easy. An. 5.States.these.=.25.increase.of.generally.rest.is.is. pounds. The.in.kW Review 1 .in.to. AC.in.object..direction.in..current.lever.tend.are.the.applied.of..remain. 7 .equivalent.=.by.________.0.(kW)..in. power.___. rated.to.applied.that.a.converted.a.elapsed.United..feet.for.force.is.lb-ft.65..following.opposite.

is... rotor.if.the.work.commonly.stator.the.The.energy.stator.main.and.Laminations. Stator Lamination 2 .type. industrial.part.enclosure.motor.protects.to. circuit.thin.rotor.the.has.This.a. Enclosure Stator Rotor Stator Core The.result.sheets.stationary.metal.motor’s...laminations.enclosure.of..parts.stator. and..up.the.and.the.electromagnetic.were.are..applications.many..stator. loses.core. called.is..used.The.used.stator.core.three.reduce.of.that.AC Motor Construction Three-phase AC induction motors.do.are.used.solid.made.of.in.rotor.would.and.

it.applied.power.the. Stator.windings.with..hollow.connected.becomes.Stator Windings..the.Electromagnetism.in.core.together..surrounds.wire.a.of. Stator Windings Partially Completed When. the.is.to.grouping.source.the.behind.laminations. coils.slots.steel..an.of..is.stator. electromagnet. stator.directly.of.is.forming.Each.principle.basic..Coils.into. cylinder.are.inserted.assembled.motor.current.core..operation.stacked.insulated.are.when.the.operation.together.. are. Stator Windings Completed 3 .the.motor.

.using.shaft.most.thin.The..the.reminiscent.discussed.The.cage.cast.the.of.of.aluminum.into. induction.in.wheels.cage.. The.is.is.cylinder.also.evenly.exceed.type. rotor..rotor.because.The.rotor.assembly.rotor. laminations.a.coils..die cast copper rotor conductors.conductor.rotor.to.called.die.and.in.cages.than.squirrel cage rotor.then.motor. rotating..steel.makes.casting.cage. Steel Laminations Shaft Conductor Bar End Ring Cutaway View of Rotor 4 .the.is.exercise.stacking.NEMA Premium efficiency standards.rings.course..casting.cylinder.rotor. are. onto.of.in.its.is.rotor.by.used.later.some. After.around.part.common.squirrel. Rotor Lamination Rather.squirrel.the..is.the.is.types..steel.rotors.motor’s. circuit.form.conductor bars.end.pressed.rotor.construction.by.core. Rotor A.bars.the. electrically.die.with.are. Most.to.motors.so.mechanically. construction.Rotor Construction.as.a.These.a.to.motor.made.electromagnetic.with.three-phase.a.form.conductor.spaced..conductors..pet.bars.of.are.die.Other.is. form..a.wire.rotating.made.the.connected.of.slots.Siemens.squirrel.found.

Enclosure.

The.enclosure.consists.of.a.frame.(or.yoke).and.two.end. brackets.(or.bearing.housings)..The.stator.is.mounted.inside. the.frame..The.rotor.fits.inside.the.stator.with.a.slight.air. gap.separating.it.from.the.stator..There.is.no.direct.physical. connection.between.the.rotor.and.the.stator..
Air Gap Rotor Frame

Stator

Partially Assembled Motor

The.enclosure.protects.the.internal.parts.of.the.motor.from. water.and.other.environmental.elements..The.degree.of. protection.depends.upon.the.type.of.enclosure..Enclosure. types.are.discussed.later.in.this.course.. Bearings,.mounted.on.the.shaft,.support.the.rotor.and.allow. it.to.turn..Some.motors,.like.the.one.shown.in.the.following. illustration,.use.a.fan,.also.mounted.on.the.rotor.shaft,.to.cool. the.motor.when.the.shaft.is.rotating..
End Bracket (Bearing Housing)

Stator

Cooling Fan

Bearing Rotor End Bracket (Bearing Housing)

Bearing

Frame (Yoke)

Cutaway View of Motor 

5

Review 2 .. . . . . Identify.the.following.components.from.the.illustration: A..________ B..________ C..________

2.. The.________.is.the.stationary.part.of.an.AC.motor’s. electromagnetic.circuit. 3.. The.________.is.the.rotating.electrical.part.of.an.AC. motor. 4.. The.________.rotor.is.the.most.common.type.of.rotor. used.in.three-phase.AC.motors. 5.. The.________.protects.the.internal.parts.of.the.motor. from.water.and.other.environmental.elements. 

6

Magnetism

The.principles.of.magnetism.play.an.important.role.in.the. operation.of.an.AC.motor..Therefore,.in.order.to.understand. motors,.you.must.understand.magnets.. To.begin.with,.all.magnets.have.two.characteristics..They.attract. iron.and.steel.objects,.and.they.interact.with.other.magnets.. This.later.fact.is.illustrated.by.the.way.a.compass.needle.aligns. itself.with.the.Earth’s.magnetic.field.

S
N

Magnetic Lines of Flux.

The.force.that.attracts.an.iron.or.steel.object.has.continuous. magnetic.field.lines,.called.lines of flux,.that.run.through.the. magnet,.exit.the.north.pole,.and.return.through.the.south. pole..Although.these.lines.of.flux.are.invisible,.the.effects.of. magnetic.fields.can.be.made.visible..For.example,.when.a. sheet.of.paper.is.placed.on.a.magnet.and.iron.filings.are.loosely. scattered.over.the.paper,.the.filings.arrange.themselves.along. the.invisible.lines.of.flux.
Iron Filings on Paper

Magnet

Magnetic Lines of Flux 

7

is.are.range.to..action.but.the.AC. magnets.the. magnets.unlike poles attract.two.of.fields.other.repelling.together.magnets.lines. flux.the.opposite.fields.their..interaction.motors.magnetic.For.when..poles.of.operation..brought.combine.the.summary.  .between.each.example. apart.other. However.. electromagnetism.of. essential..brought.the.are.within.In.magnetic.when.within.two.like.affect. Like Poles Repel.of. The..Unlike Poles Attract.like poles repel.push.of.each.polarities.use.of.magnets.motors.of. The.and.flux.magnets.of.of..the.and..AC.lines.poles.the. range.and.pull.attracting.

point.created.is.a.of.in. Current produces a magnetic field An increased current produces a stronger magnetic field Left-Hand Rule for Conductors..of.of..the relationship.the.of.flows.the.current.The. magnetic.through. 9 .current.produces.conductor.direction.and.with. of.fingers.magnetic.electron.the.left.flow.the.lines.magnetic. direction.it.the..hand.flow.amount.If.the.field.of.in. The.electrons.this.thumb.proportional.a. pointing. magnetic.flux.the.the.demonstrates.field.with.the...grasped.Electromagnetism When.of.around.currentcarrying.is.left-hand rule for conductors.the.the.current.between.strength.by.direction.to.conductor.the.field.a.conductor.

magnetic.clockwise.known.viewer.stronger.current.be..simple.an.direction.conducts.The..to. is.the.is.can.field.from.flux.same.When..the.the.following.a..greater.by.by.than.the.a.counterclockwise.This.for. electromagnet. magnetic.increasing. flow.lines.around.a. Air Core DC Voltage Adding an Iron Core.core.viewer.voltage.the. conductor.as..When.plus.further.the.the.of. is.number..indicated.in.flow.of.field.(as.a.through.turns.indicated.illustration. number.in.direction.wound..The.turns.by.the.the.the.reverses.conductor.around.. the.of.of.the..DC.flux. current.shows.easily.has.electron..winding..coil.field..the.that.away.of.core. An.towards.by.of. a.coil.and.dot).flow.and.made.conductor.iron core. 20 .(as.magnetic.increased.of.is.stronger.flux.electron.be.more.a.sign).the.created.lines.the.of.produce.magnetic. lines. Electron Flow Away From You Causes Counterclockwise Magnetic Flux Electron Flow Towards You Causes Clockwise Magnetic Flux Electromagnet.the. stronger.into.when.center.an.flow.by.formed.current.combine.is.can.for.air.larger.coil. Iron Core DC Voltage Number of Turns..the.the.level.same.flux.applying.flow.in.air.the.of.an.current. Iron.magnetic.level.the.by.produced. insulated. and.The.electromagnet.a.flow.field.The.the.conductor.strength.electromagnet. The.

time.as.an.connected.the.on.through.direction.current.flow.the.. pole.the.Note.4..field.of.around.changes. collapse.DC Voltage DC Voltage 5 Turns 10 Turns Changing Polarity..a.positive.time.current.flow.peak.south..the.at.north.flow.polarity.no.magnetic.electromagnet.the.same.At..the...south.in.has.also.the.its.changes.source..to.is. changes.magnet.of.an.time.is.begins.is.field. The.electromagnet.a.positive.of.at.field.. 2 ..flowing.magnetic.magnetic.pole...polarity.and..when.current..an.up.. and.a.the.on.magnetic.value. bottom..field.However.a..the.peaked.the.is.2..to.frequency.current.decreases.illustration.3.and.the.flow.has. The.top.AC.natural.current.This. the.is. characteristics.of. time.builds. demonstrated.in.there. produced.of.AC..At.electromagnetic.no.of.and.following. that. S S N 3 N 1 10 2 4 N 5 S N 6 7 N 8 N S S S At.the.is.and.electromagnet.north.direction.pole.and.electromagnet.is.the.strength. source.field. the..including.electromagnet.the.At.

this.a.and.principle.a.2.previous.returning.is..and.can.At. polarity.no.power.circuit.At.voltage. circuits.to.from.shows. AC.and.field.flux.times.induced.during.3.of. increasing.supply.field.time..there..lines.continues.current.it..field. 22 .top.expands.to.coil.on.circuits.directly.a..For. are.of.Hz.bottom..in.causes.changed.is.is.half.two.This. physical.be.polarity.current.is.magnetic.magnetic.above.field..is.is. the.second.voltage.current.previous.following..a..5.both.in.through.operation.field.60.each.its.induction.power.flow.electromagnet.are.9.in.illustration. the.between..to.through.encounters.placed.bottom..across.both. a.field.current.flowing.current.is.As.of..the.has.a.the. Induced Voltage.the.At.magnetic.stationary.now.by..collapses.the...half.the.the.connected.connection.that.60.example.pole.AC.time..voltage.conductor..current.separate.it..in.zero.the.electromagnetic.an.a.north.when.another.The..process..Another.critical..is. ammeter.magnetic. the.builds.electrical.south.merely.connected.The..time.bottom.the.the.the.. first..peak.an. Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 This.changing..time.supply.coil.power..build.around.of.However..is.illustration. has.and.times.up.flow.cycle. direction.magnetic.in.circuits.moving.to.the.induce.repeats. same.electromagnet.no.in.the. pole.negative.effect.cycle. each.The..to.At.is.examples.reverses..This.voltage.and.At.in.Note.waveform.electromagnet.source.As. a.the.AC.in.from. In. cut. through.at.reached. produced.magnetic.up.on.the.electromagnet.time.a..a.to.and.was.flux.the.. second.of. In.one.motors.7.This.half.the.is.the.of.across.the.cycle.caused. conductor.circuit.and.increasing.negative.field. AC.and.and.electromagnet.electromagnet..top.zero.quarter.6.its.the.across..no..time.magnetic.

through.be.electromagnet.the.leave._______.up.possible.the. In.other.polarity.Because.lines.and. Which.bottom.will.the.magnetic._______.has.field..will.an.iron.is. attract.. D.in.would.field.the.other..the. .the.polarity...the.it.built. Magnetic.the.following.illustration.core. Original Position New Position Review 3 . Add.conductor.pole.attract.magnetic.with.other? .however.current.and.produced.attract.the.two.number. 2. All..will.move.electromagnet? .increase.pulled.magnets.the.electromagnet.for. field.strong.the. A.flowing. flux.the..of.opposite.was.repel.opposite.top.to.around. each.which.the.bottom.above .it.the.in. .of.turns. 23 .of._______.strength.Electromagnetic Attraction.pole..that.an.electromagnet.which.field. magnet.. magnetic.the.coil .whenever.each.the.the.of..flux.a.following.the. 3.were.. electromagnet.Increase.a.electromagnets.each.it. Note.. top. current.the.of.of.is.magnetic.and. Increase.induced.when.. B. 4.a.coil C.If....enough..to.is.flow .poles. .magnets.enter..along. the.of. A.in.

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between.When. 20°.source..three-phase.B2.of.A.A2.two. A1 B2 C2 C1 A2 B1 2-Pole Stator Winding 25 .C2.the.connected.connected.is.illustration.a.coils.and.C2.the. electrical.following.will...B.apart.windings. following.and.power.are.C.will. completed.B2.each.A.the.C.separation.each.corresponds..shows.phase.also.to.is.Note.and...and.Stator Power Source.illustration.20°..phase.power..poles. apart.C. and..Because.20°.winding.connections.are.are.be.B.called.This.AC.be.stator.phase.two-pole stator.phase.that.to..to.connected.B.and. to. this..connected.phase...shows.supply..A2. The.The.a. To Phase A Phase A Phase B Phase C A1 B2 N C2 + 0 C1 S A2 B1 To Phase A As.to.has.windings.A.the.

in.chart.C.enter.positive.leave. poles. explanation.is. negative.positive.selected.flow.the.magnetic.Phase.results.enter. chart.no.the.AC. nearest.A.to.pole.positive.the.by..flow....phase.B.you.magnetic.and.and.of.magnetic.and.no.60°.or.pole.flow.has.phase.of.depends.following.phase.advanced.current.the. in.on. indicated.vector.direction.each. coils.of.field.C. of.pole.the.the.has. leave.the. developed.phase.the.the.set.lines.the.direction.are..has.This.the.B.its.and.B.A.time.flow.current.The.rotating.no.phase.also.poles.to.current.shows.that.north.C.lines.in.flux. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 Resultant Magnetic Field C1 S B1 Magnetic Lines of Flux Current Flow in the Positive Direction C A Current Flow at Zero B Start Current Flow in the Negative Direction Time 1.progress.When.have.C.direction.a.C.C2.no.the.a..assumes.a.in.the.been.nearest.flow.has.. Magnetic.field.fields.south.applied.of.B2.current.and.north. during.B.of.are.on.C2..north.a.voltage.current.current.how.and. 26 .a.in.negative.C2.north..flux. windings.as.field.the.the.Magnetic.previous.. phase.the.B.pole.magnetic.Based.flow.at.is.read.and.flow.direction.coils.magnetic.developed.B2.Note.is..as. The.has.the.has..which.following.and.has.developed.current.south..illustration.is.chart.magnetic.the. vector..the..field. and.the.arrow.Phase.in.has.in. Start...Refer.south.start. direction.stator.current.that.pole.field.C.associated.in. In.flow..chart.A.of.and.sum.following.time.

the.have..current.windings.flowing.. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 S B1 C1 B2 N C1 A1 N S S A2 C2 B1 60o C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B Start 1 Current Flow in the Negative Direction Current Flow at Zero Time 2.flowing.A2.and.A.are.field.current.has.resultant.has.The.in. rotated.phase.field.negative.windings.field..and.B.but.positive.time.are.phase.60°.no.in.rotated.vector.A.clockwise.Current.The.direction.magnetic. A1 B2 N A2 B2 N C1 S C2 S B1 A1 N S S A2 B2 S A1 N N C2 B1 C1 C1 S A2 o C2 60 B1 C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B 120 Start 1 o Current Flow at Zero Current Flow in the Negative Direction 2 27 .resultant.the.B2.B.60°.chart.shows. B2.and. poles.and.another.phase.south.C.poles.and. magnetic.has.in.is.direction.magnetic.north.B. At.vector..direction.now.previous.in.As. the.flow..the..2.no.is.windings.

end.of.source.RPM.the.rotating.the.such.Hz...a. At.times.referred.Hz.operated.repeats..different.60. equal.360° Rotation.numbers.is.poles.table. times.the.or.number.a.full.the. 2 .speed..magnetic.one.motor.as.Hz. The.of.speed. synchronous speed (NS).following.360°.3600.The.two-pole.motor.will..the.the.frequency (F).second. for.shows.of. The.20.intervals.speed..is..speed.for.the.at.of.60.This.as. increases.. 60.time.several.number of motor poles (P).for.field..is.divided.Synchronous.synchronous.60.pole.for.decreases.the.revolution.example. Synchronous.to.synchronous.to.at.magnetic.power. Synchronous Speed.field.a.the.speed.rotated. have.process.six.by.

permanent.field.rotor.an. Induced Voltage.north.has.motor’s.illustration.magnet.squirrel.field.rotor.winding. Electromagnet.field.are.speed.rotating.with.synchronous. the.and.squirrel..magnet.as..The.permanent.is.the.rotor.the.. a...south.. windings.stator.attracts.synchronized. rotating. the.term.own.magnet.magnetic.that.magnet..cage.field.pole.magnet.rotor.a.the.is.rotor.in.as.pole.a.can.rotation.on.nearest.of.magnetic.induces.a.cuts.the.the.following.. The.cage.magnetic.stator.its. As.along.AC.its.the.magnetic..created.the.to.electromagnet.permanent.works.magnetic.. To.the.shaft. Instead.the.are.when.creating. for.magnet.same.shows.attracts.stator.magnetic.As.the. motors.pole.a.referred.of.see.When.a..with. Magnetic Field of Coil A1 A1 Stator B2 C2 Rotor Rotor Conductor Bar C1 B1 A2 29 ..use.the.in.is.the.established.of.the.rotating.Rotor Rotation Permanent Magnet.interacts.that...bars.a.rotates.magnet.current.rotor.speed.rotors.across.field.. be.that.induction motor.electromagnetic.the.rotor’s.flowing.means.how.synchronous.The.it.the.a. the.a.pole.substituted. the.rotating.of. is. north.field.current.motors.synchronous.mounted.a.for.the. and.south...the.pulls.energized.magnet.of.field.field.of.magnetic.

its. a.such.stator. rotor.to.at.and.causes.rotor.When. resultant.and.squirrel.any.stator.The.in..south.rotor.in.ring.around..repulsion.changes.motor’s.A.the. the. This.the.a.bars.a..bar.voltage.with.current.rotate.to.bar.source.voltage.rotor.produces.causes.north.voltage.(emf).is.the.bar. and.increasing.current.magnetic.connected. Because.conductor..synchronous.winding.an.The.motor.magnetic.in..speed..expanding.produces..of.the.winding.squirrel. around.cuts.cage.is.as.rotor.attraction.strength..an.field.for.A.through..bars.cage.shows.This. alternating.rotor..south.time.forces.the.each.across.induced.flow. the. exactly.through. magnetic.bars.rotor.fields. field.pole. A1 B2 C2 C1 B1 A2 30 .current. windings. The.the...rotor.point.end.a.following. a.a.the.not.bar.towards.conductor.are.causes.windings.and..continuously. The.induced.becomes.and.a.the.inducing.rotor.one.the.against.exerting.the..the.AC.and.conductor.to.in.passes.instant.a.illustration. At.an.the.various.but.north.the.when.pole.field.flow..a.in.field.current..rotor.rotate.are.adjacent.given.electromagnet.In.an.poles..is.flows.induced.

Another.speed. operating.at.faster.the.of..maximum..speed.motor.the.of.current. For.the.the.been.flow.motor.field. necessary.also. at.rotor.then.in.induces.has. between.up.to.in.conductors..magnetic.at.in.Increasing. field.rotor. slip.magnetic.rotor.is.its. speed.current.RPM.rotor. amount.motor..increasing.An.decreasing.the.has.. field. common.wound.centered. Wound Rotor Brush Slip Ring External Variable Resistors 3 .the.Decreasing.rotating.produce.rotor..speed.the..of.between. The.a.is.magnetic. and.smaller.rotor..difference.to.first.induction.rings.motor.is.point.torque.causes. that.consist. in.load.causes.to.wound. stopped.rotate.rotating.load.calculated. resistance.the.is.decreasing.get.three-phase.squirrel.. induction..full.This.the. synchronous speed (NS).to.this.Slip.than.discussion.the.synchronous.rotor.00..is.rotor.motor.to.the.rotor.When..Slip.a.to.decrease.as.running.the.induce.the.the.more..load. Wound Rotor Motor.and.on.has.called.rotor speed (NR).brushes.long..rotor.slip..its.slip.coils.the.of.be.causes.difference.speed.to.operated.The. is.connected.this..external.Slip.large.and.up.windings.type..four-pole.through.voltage.on..its.and.load.the.windings.rotor.rotor.of.the.with..much.rotor.variable.speed.A.If. instead.a.power.Hz.coils.slow.the.the.RPM..wound rotor motor. increase.the.current.in. A.flow.wound.speed.These.and.is.major.resistors.is.dependent.of.expressed.the.been. using.60.to. rotor.of.9%.can.induced.slip.a.in.are.to..more.following.rotating.bars..is.is.cage.full.NR NS x 100 For..formula.is.must.example.the.the.enough. After.of.the.windings. resistance.AC..difference.a.causes.in.rotor.motor..speed..rotor.applied.to.current.three-phase.down. % Slip = NS .a.765.to.difference.less.load.the.squirrel.is.increasing.cage.Slip.percentage.slip..

external. DC. also.rotor.some.addition.of.used.Synchronous Motor.This.with.is.step.a.need.and. accelerated.AC.synchronous..rotor.to. magnetic..rotor.motor. which.The.motor.of.This. power.rotor..slip.source.a.of.strong.at.motor.constructed.a.a. When.synchronous.applied.motor.the.mentioned.to.rotating.motor.rotor.is.the.is.motor.is.like.the.is.cage.the.does.an.speed.previously.a.synchronous.the.in.has.to.coils.AC.the.....is. squirrel.rotor.magnet.three-phase.rotor.cage.supply.coil.motor. DC.One..field.power.squirrel.use.not.rotor.stator.somewhat. Rotor Bar Brush Coil External DC Power Supply Slip Ring As.started.the.windings.The.why.windings.type.rotor.which.produces. Another.are.magnetize. permanent.motor.field.this..synchronous.brushes.motors.after.is.synchronous...therefore.power.locks.magnetic.an..like. type.The.by.synchronous motor.to.applied.the.to.starts.is. in.induction.connected.bars.are..constant.type.motor.DC.the.the. 32 .not. and.a.rings.turns.In.synchronous.power..coil..

a. and.is.on. pole.at..is. .3450.RPM..motor.illustration. The.60.referred.is.motor’s.rotor._______.following. three-phase.is.power.operating. The.speed.difference.A2.four-pole.pole. 4..Slip. 33 ..speed.is.speed.is.a.supply. 2.a.AC.the.is. A.synchronous._______. as.of.to.synchronous.motor..field.the.a.is.speed.south..a.winding.60._______.Review 4 . _______.turning.rotor.speed.._______.rotating. 3.to. The... The..A.motor._______%.When.called.2-pole.Hz. The..applies.between.RPM. 5.magnetic.of.pole.Hz.speed.in.winding.

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NEMA Motor Characteristics Standard Motor Designs.for.design.descriptions.curve.the.conveyors.curve. torque.the.This.of..RPM.torque.speed.common.varies.be.a.often.motor.speed-torque. HP = Torque (in lb-ft) x Speed (in RPM) 5252 HP x 5252 = 30 x 5252 = 89.with.shown. characteristics.the.torque. match..sample..NEMA B motor.a. formula.fans.shows.applications.with.NEMA.NEMA.765.the.speed.starting. Motors. NEMA B Motor..by. Because.to.discussed.its.motor’s.as.B.C..for.of.can.such.applications.full-load.following.full-load.normal..requirements. speed-torque. NEMA.transposing. Speed-Torque Curve for. The. Using.for. suited.shown.designed.induction. a..as.designs. most.motors.a.. machine.torque..full.horsepower.speed. standard.each..3 lb-ft 1765 Speed (in RPM) Torque (in lb-ft) = 37 .are.graph.with.that.speed.general.have..30.torque.in.D.of.designs.This...AC.the.relationship between.section.and.pumps.curve.speed-torque.B.motor.percentage.and...calculated.is.emphasis.as.three-phase.the.purpose.HP .is.motors..characteristics. previously... these.the. range.B.percentage.on..called.running.four.torque.synchronous.lightly-loaded.different..and..motor.NEMA..require..tools.a.provides.The..are.motor.and.common.of.single.B.over.for.motor’s.A.design.motor.speed.

the.has. this..a.765.available.Starting Torque.torque.At.of.this.When...B.decreases.30.graph.200%.NEMA.referred.to.is.motor.as.each.before.up.to.referred.but. breakdown torque.that.at.This.instant. rated...continues.starting.and.torque.speed.motor’s.voltage.full-load.initially.the.is.to..HP ..up.reached.this.34.locked rotor torque..a.motor..a.at. equal..0 lb-ft Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque 89.is.6 lb-ft 134.as.B.The. point. Starting torque. full-load.to.this.at..value.torque.stator..it.instant.NEMA.7.time. As.increase.maximum.30.torque.0. 134.50%.slightly.3 lb-ft Pull-up Torque.maximum.equal.called.on..point.torque. slightly.For.rotor.RPM.the.turns.torque.B.motor.of.For..torque.develops.The.is.example.to.C.the.to.of.approximately.picks. increases.a.frequency...lb-ft.to.example.B. the.approximately.an. As. torque.that’s.in..pull-up torque.than.from.in. Starting Torque 178.. motor.motor.is.a.develops.of.0 lb-ft 89.voltage.applied.of.full-load.used.6..until point.lower.motor.speed.torque.this.point.torque.is.torque.value.there.is. breakdown.the.started. Breakdown Torque Breakdown Torque.is.lb-ft. the.3 lb-ft 3 .HP.than.approximately.torque. also.to.greater.

load.The.6 lb-ft 134.operating. for.With..these.and.have.two. speed. to.Fullload.load. Constant Torque Load 2 Constant Torque Load 1 a Lo d 2 d1 e Loa qu que or T Tor able ble Vari ria Va 39 . case.torque.following.decreases...appropriately..sufficient.This.not..overheat.four.. shows..RPM..of.than.its.torque.the. performance.speed.synchronous...curves.accelerate.slip..speed.are.9% Speed-torque.has.rated.3 lb-ft Slip 1.of.cannot.starting.torque.00.sized.9%.2.variable.RPM. 765.as.. breakdown.speed.overload.motor.rated.its.torque.examples.a.curve.load.turn. torque.motor. Torque.full-load torque.it.a.under.this..motor.the. reach.torque...speed.load.the.constant.speed.will.The..motor.With.speed-torque.the.and.for.speed.motor.load. most.and.frequency.trips.examples.each.Therefore.will..until.at. Breakdown Torque Starting Torque 178.full-load.variable.at.less.until.likely.In..rapidly.reaches.does.with.developed.the.0 lb-ft Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque 89.synchronous.example.is..motor.rated.torque.useful.Full-Load Torque.constant.In.load.00%.to. voltage.rotor.increases.understanding. a.relay.is.its.in.beyond.motor.the.load.2.motor.of.last.is.slightly.

are.when.types.up.lb-ft.that.approximately.locked rotor current.is.for. Full-Load Current.in. and.with.a..the.the.NEMA..to. 40 .RPM.to.application..speed-torque.a.high.protection. NEMA C motors. 74.designed.torque.is.to. current.motor.require.critical.loads.but.to.Starting Current and. motor.voltage.that.such.of.For.current.torque.motor.in.of.torque.the.and.current.higher.devices.which.full-load.a..supplied..applied.torque.full-load.as. motors.speed.HP.are. NEMA A Motor NEMA A motors.the.handle.start. current..rotor.NEMA.. increased..of.curve.current.applications.current.of.is. Starting current.lb-ft..be. overcurrent.NEMA..relatively.C.B.a.breakdown.motors.current.the.typically.frequency. 9. the.heavilyloaded.NEMA.as. initially.NEMA.motor.for.a.the.of.load.least.full-load.and.a.lb-ft. NEMA C Motor.rated.this.torque. NEMA.for.HP .as.NEMA.600-650%.have.protection..the.are.typically..as..motors.to.has.applied. same.the.is.A.common.starting.NEMA.from.range..5.is the.typically. a.of.In.full-load.rotor..full-load.hard.motors.a.rated.requirements.applications.at.the.motor.voltage.torque.a.a. 24.for.are.are.is.supplied.used.A..200.similar. Knowledge..B..motor.starting.same.low.starting.to.to..these.of.and.765.and.of.example.conveyors.for.a.speed-torque.referred.proper.of.Despite.Slip.the.and..3.speed.mixers.crushers.following.with.rest.the.motors.of.C.design.current.typically.torque.to.sized.B.result.must. motors.240%.also.the.speed..high.motor.starting.have.the.Full-load current..30.a.about.3.for. starting.the. B.curve.As.devices. with.motor.overcurrent. The.single.size..have.starting.

266.curve.following.lb-ft.torque.and.start..full-load.hard.have.develops. 95..of.decreases.reached.load.a.very.torque.makes. breakdown.of.motors.of.1 lb-ft Slip 8% 4 .motor’s.This.the.lb-ft. presses.a.HP.torque.D.torque.30..starting.NEMA. with.pumps.20%.torque.full.fullload.speed.NEMA.D..for.a.and. The..punch.of.until.5. approximately.motor. it.oil.motor.well.This. to.from.starting.3 lb-ft 95.is.appropriate.approximately.torque.true.a.no.for.motors.full-load.is.NEMA design D motor.of.as.NEMA.torque.D.for.Slip. starting.3.3 lb-ft 174 lb-ft 89..is.ranges.speed.such. 266.After.3 lb-ft NEMA D Motor The.RPM.Breakdown Torque 214.applications.656.3%.torque.to..

be.a.torque.B._______.service.F.with.NEMA.of.service.torque.NEMA.Class.maximum.and.motor. o _______ C.allowance. 4.speedtorque. operated. A.curve._______.HP .torque.value._______%.motor.is. o has.HP.with.a.a.hot.of.at.. 3.insulation.called..5.full-load.factor.B.Review 5..motor.of.motor.factor.a._______ C. 2.temperature.on. The.a. 42 . A.rise.is. approximately.a.spot.30.starting.maximum..torque.can. .plus..0. The..

on.have.it.supply.voltage.chart.small.20%. rated.motor.the.variation. forward..hand.motor’s.voltage.on.voltage...an. 43 .This.supply.considered.during.AC.for.and.below.its.increased.The.motor. A.0%. damage. the...starting.reduced. A.motors.and.currents.speed.at.prevent.example.that.table.torque.rise.rated.one.the.affect.may.common.applying.less..have.performance.be.increases.voltage.the. the.when.variation.most.20%.motor.can. rated...may.the.torque. changes.torque..is.motors.motor.startup.starting.from. As..affect.following.more.rated.Derating Factors Several.for.have.in.for.similar.of.for..motors.A.the.connections.example.in.AC. temperature.A.a.. voltage.In.shows.getting.in. frequency..increase.running.load.lurch.startup.factors.voltage.other.must.ratings.dramatic.motor. These.the.conveyor.and.discussed.previously..voltage.when.the.cause..started.a.a.causes. has.also.may.This.following.full-load..NEMA.at.performance..starting.of.the. motor.voltage. Voltage Variation.0%.Some.can. voltage.by.keeping.or.

required.A. is.derated.be.example.on.50.for...insulation.motors.ambient.may.above.which.feet.derated.temperature.a.be.in..checked.chart.not.motor.to.47.the.many. The.higher.in.to.the.3300. to.40°C...be.each.and.in..below.requirement.and. with.typical.must. The.at.frequency. but. conditions.be..operates. Most.are.feet.torque. Ambient Temperature.horsepower.the.is.have.at.30°C.feet.motors..torque..the.ambient.providing. increase.example.require.motor.heat..at.feet. changes.a.A. Standard.is.0%.operated.primarily.derating.dissipated..these. Altitude.motor.for.derating.should.above.thinner. 40°C.in. The.feet.operate..shows.temperature.ambient.a.5%.in..causes.in.following.factors. HP.designed.reduced.3300.decrease. 44 .6600.class.derating.would.frequency.However.a.variation.5%.not.Frequency A.also.considered.Air.for.altitudes.may.6000.motors.and.factor.for.be.characteristics.speed.causes.increase.3300.still..quickly.may.to.HP .as.from.rating.fullload.speed.motor..

operated. 45 .of.per.the. to.and.operate.volts per hertz (V/Hz) ratio.United..to. torque.A.constant.a.V/Hz. motor.the. As. frequency..frequency.applied.This.of.every.torque.motor.maintained.60. with.manufactured.ratio.for.as.flux because.constant.ratio.AC.constant torque range.is.motors.7 .60.of.said.with.These.V/Hz.for. flux.speed.drive.applied.vary.use.produced.have..constant.is.for.the.induction.the..a. Volts per Hertz (V/Hz).8 V/Hz 60 Hz Constant Torque Operation.AC Motors and AC Drives Many.67.motor..is.and.States.load.Hz.AC.frequency...motor.applied.230.drive.rating.an.vary.from.have.. to.Hz).motor.Hz.is.other.the.rated.of.voltage.torque.is.characteristics..frequency..VAC.are.hertz..motor.Actual.on.however.easiest.and.an. 460 V = 7 V/HZ .460.with.AC.common. 3.most.for.vary.speed.an.Operating.will.running.approximately.frequency.67 60 Hz 230 V = 3..a.upon.current.the.long.. motor.industrial.at.use.have.a. .the.the. in.to.a.capable.voltage.dependent.applications.ratio.constant.are.motors.0.rating.operating.example.is. An.of.frequency..motor.require. voltage.of..ratio.an.provides.7 .torque.constant.way.the.This.to.nameplate..Volt.volts. AC.a.AC.affect.(typically.both.V/Hz.the.motor’s.AC.. The.an..Motors.than.the.has.a.to.constant.line.rated.a.motor.67 a..ratio.is.to. 60Hz..has. motor.constant.Not.voltage. The.flux.AC.

decrease.and.torque.constant.ratio.torque.exceed..motor.in.60.for.60.a.volts.the.the.Otherwise.simultaneously.applied.as.constant.constant horsepower range.this.volts.illustrate.applications.. voltage.proportionally. 46 .increases. constant.and.as.up.to..motor.operated.Hz...per.a.stator...the..maintained.applied. is.if.referred.Above.constant.require.motor.is.to.mind.increase.because.corresponding.drive..The.in.the.voltage.torque..In.per. change.the.the.would.increases. Some... frequency.Because.above.per.volts.in.flux.Keep. hertz.decrease.operated.a.reactance.decreases.horsepower.the.230.the.with.. torque.hertz.to.torque.ranges.any. Constant Horsepower.ratio..constant.in.opposite.that.stator.change.motor.the..speed..be. nameplate.operated.and. compensate.This.the. of.in.the.must.Hz.volt..increases.Hz.current.volt.must.to.both.range. speed.voltage.torque. torque.60.following.Hz.decreases.by.and.is. over.order.not.460.are. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 If.rated.graphs.base. speed.hertz..compensated.60.

sophisticated.and.started.drives.full. for.motor.motor.the.torque.the.than. be.represent.and..the.and.a..drive.it.have.and.be.selecting.capability.times.600%.current.speed.run.drives.B. speed-torque.full.Some.and.AC.starts.drive.In.desired.have.This.insulation.frequency.capability.reduced.gradually.the.example.When.it develops. Some.the.frequency.for.motor.motor. Frequency Starting.more.too. example..spikes.is.require.own.must.is.undesirable.200%.other..to.of.motor.are.accelerates.the.is.at.than...drive..50%.selecting.torque.by.torque.by.for.voltage.this.torque.when..dotted.according.only.the.controlled.has. filters.higher.of.motor.require.voltage.frequency.Drives.the..motor.motor.rated.if.to.following.conveyor.drive.on. application.more.an.air.the.curve.voltage.voltage. A. starting.AC.Each..shifting.higher. the.speedtorque.speeds.approximately. smoothly. used.with. starting.develop.than.50%.. heating.evaluated.For.not.sufficient.lines.The..at.to.and. Harmonics.NEMA..This.combination.to.at.and.50%.for.suitable.to..and.speed.its.not.addition.on.The.drives.is..the.portion.at.load..damage.current.increased.an.must.up. As.for.run. the.effect.use.minimize.motor.AC.rise. Recall..voltage. AC.curve.Reduced Voltage and.starting. can.motor’s.. Selecting a Motor.an.right.may. increased.when.starting.drive.to.the. sized.curve. but.of.voltage.may.motor.50%..AC.started.approximately.and.the.are.brought..components.are.selfcooled.that. are.the.flow.frequencies.to.is.designed.an.drives.possible..drive/motor..often..identical..as.appropriately.be.applications.motors.AC.the. considered.and.may.start.before.of.low. 47 .can.

voltage. cables.potentially.types.Some.caused.service.the. Service Factor on AC Drives.to..such..the. associated..Due.AC.motor.capacitance.greater..because.taken.capacitance.the.the.by.an.The. capacitance.drive.AC.factor.when.with.cable.must.(long.Spikes. in.have.drive. capacitance.5.be.metal.higher.cable.with..to. Drive and the Motor.Distance Between the.reduced.5.longer.is. life.the. 4 .cables.0..of.from.an.into consideration.the..conduit.is.line-to-line. factor.charging.harmonics. Distance.in.used.the.cable.or.VAC).have..cable..in.and.with.drive.service.the.drives.drive.also.. spikes.shielded.shorten.as.the.the.All.current..higher. recommended.of.high.motor.of..Higher..output..can.motor.efficiency.to.cables.and.result.cables).capacitance.line-toground.a.and.lengths.AC..of.heat.spikes.motor..Voltage.the.greater. A.(460.current.long.of.occur. on.AC.

torque.of.speed-torque.find.of. torque.to.compare.table.NEMA...requirements.be.the.load.with.to. the.load.source.load.a.torque.evaluate.below.capabilities.MG.the.used. requirements.the.can.characteristics..one.way.is.curve.meet.shown..to.of. Load Characteristics Tables.of.the.is. 49 .the.publication. typical. motor.one.the.motor’s.characteristics.like. A.whether.speed-torque.torque.Matching Motors to the Load One.

up.and.force.from.the.the.The.to..by.must.any.required.as.Calculating Load Torque.torque.lb-ft.to.radius.curve.accurate.from. In.the.is.a..cord. torque.the.If.measured.procedure.radius.to.lb-ft.can. Motor 600 lb-ft Centrifugal Pump 120 lb-ft 50 .0.will.scale.pulley..slightly.if.centrifugal.that. of.the. devices. At.of.center. required. is.with.to.obtain. The.on.speed-torque.an.a.. torque.shows.probably. the.to..This.turn.A.comes. produced..on.However.cannot.value..pump.point.begins.a.be. torque.shaft. the.scale.starting.the.600.is.amount. variable torque load.0.wrapped.and.to.of.the.note.pump..required.motor.calculate. radius.pulley.Keep.pulley. the.of..run. to.is.the.example.the.illustration.force.torque.motor.turn.always.power.foot. with.pounds.torque.just.the...an. a... Force Scale Torque = Force x Radius us di Ra For..the..load.the.cause. one.how.The.This.as.dips. torque.then.is. Centrifugal Pump. determined.condition..the.torque.produce.stall.example.The.in.the.mind.shaft.spring.a.load.to..equal.torque.to.given.scale.accelerate.a.the.by.This....shaft.at.of.the.load.the.the.is.following.the.example.of.following.protective.trip.that.remove.its.turn.approximately.least.to.reading.. multiply.and.it.torque.this.pulley. overloaded.the.the..requirement.the.torque. required.of.either.force.end.in.amount.requires.turns.can.a.20%.of.on.only..characteristics.of.needs.the. the.speed.load.following.pump.full-load.source.will.load.illustrates.of.most.fail.start.connected.fastened..full-load.the.torque.shaft.Then.the.required.the.speed..a.start.is.sufficient.around.load.required.to..load.equipment.way.manufacturer.by..is.to.vary.or.Remember.Pull.and.increases.shaft.the.the.until.torque.motor.the.to.from.full-load.

a.has..to.has.rating.same.higher.NEMA.problem.to.the.the.down.less. NEMA. NEMA.load.of.use. with.full-load.the.torque.NEMA. Screw Down Actuator. 5 .a.following.to.motor.torque.rated.B.for.accelerate.motor.the.load.which.in.screw.In.words.a.sufficient.example..speed.higher. to.is.horsepower.solution.A.D..to.B.a.this.200%.not.this.torque.motor.selected.solution.. In.Note. provide.the. that.actuator.the.load..to. horsepower.is.expensive. One.the.sufficient.to.motor.use.torque.chosen.to.start.motor.a.be.equal.The.might.for.this.is.starting.that.torque.starting.does.is.B..motor.example.load.other. matched.example.

matched. base.60.shaft.of.to.operating.speed..the.the.load..amount.to. the.the.of.constant.a.to.illustration.the.earlier.turn.20.is.is.to. 3. 4. _______.when.load.200.is.2 .in.feet.mode.to..force. Which..motor. . 2. _______.loads.is.AC.5500.a.the..Load.feet. _______. _______.operated.a.the.hertz.following.derated.3 .to.volts.range..Load. According.Hz.at. HP.derating.table.pulley.. An.460. and. 5.required.be.of.motor.motor’s.pounds.is.drive.is.HP ... The..radius.above.provided.ratio.motor.attached.of.start. B. C.the.required. If.V/Hz.the.Volt.lb-ft.it.Review 6 .4 Motor Load 4 Load 3 ad Lo 2 d1 Loa 52 .the.shaft..2..in.a.torque. properly.Load. D.is.volts-per-hertz..in.the.would..Load. A. .per.

When.motor’s.motors.from.cooling.or. Vent 53 .is.mounted.wall.degree.depends.motor.that.addition. moisture.enclosures:.enclosure.for.motor.the.environments..In.flow.type.vertical. One.. Open Drip Proof (ODP).and.totally.holds.also.so. on..components.the. a.as.is.be..protects.only.of.a. the.liquids. enter.internal.are.and.the.motor.components.motor’s.when.air.vents.on.panel..the.enclosures.vents..from.attached.motor.horizontal.such..may.air.that. solids.protection..move.to.motor.through.is.positioned.This.at.has.two. open.cooling.affects.used.is.permit.special.in.enclosure.cover.the. Open.the.the.5°.rotor.it.open drip proof (ODP) enclosure.air.Motor Enclosures A.not.from.the.of.enclosure. together.through.are...the.to.the.surface.on..vertical. the.falling.enclosures. blades.cannot.rotor.the.should.of.Fan..a.the.enclosed.a.type.enclosure. contaminates.turning.up.The. surface.to.enclosure.needed..There.interior.of.The.containments.be.when.from.open. ODP.allow.angles.categories.flow.type.above. Enclosure.mounted.free.of.and.

at.motors..These.cooling.the.the.of.mildly.more.into.totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV).horsepower.but.conduction.motor.TENV.entering.air.flow. dirty.shaft..but.opposite.or.blows.dissipate. matter.anyone.water.outdoors.are.the.to.heat.in.However.environments.integral..a (TEFC) Enclosure.it.the.motor.TENV.corrosive.the.is.applications.damage.seal.all.additional.to.where.heat.the.special.motor.motor.is.motors.a.for.harmful..totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motor.elements.contains corrosive.and.shroud.shaft.the.. from.foreign.openings.touching.air.the.point. In.the.other.means. The.the.TENV..A.However.Totally Enclosed .help. A.inside.surrounding.. Enclosure.not..through.air.motor’s.have.prevents.to. TENV.fan.fan. enclosure.a..dissipate.housing.The.the. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled.similar.over.motor.by.. quickly.ribbed.the. prevent.can..external. Non-Ventilated (TENV).larger.end.an.mounted. airtight.internal parts.be.or.can.enclosure.used. horsepower.moist.used.an.fractional.passes. motor.enclosure. exterior.be..The. Cooling Fan 54 .from.are.that.or.the.heavily.indoors.motors.the.the...used.must..horsepower. by.motor.is. through.applications.motor.from..absence.motors.fan. Most..is.ventilating.TEFC.covered.for. drive.has.can.along.dust.of.of.a...motors.which.that.limits.the.some.of.TENV..

duty.motor.hazardous.defined. Groups E.as.processing.ignitable.into..commonly.is.comply.and.to.have.present.the.and.of.local.materials.defined.use..Refer. Groups A through D.atmosphere.with.Underwriters. chemical.all.grain.flammable..as.hazardous.found.States.mining.. National Electrical Code®.vapors. Classes I Groups A-D Gas or Vapor Examples: Gasoline Acetone Hydrogen Class II Groups E-G Flammable Dust Examples: Coke Dust Grain Dust Class III Flammable Lint or Fibers Examples: Textiles Saw Dust Division I and II Locations. This. application.regulatory.Explosion Proof (XP) Hazardous.such. Locations.appearance. Classes and Groups.and. Hazardous (Classified).in.foundry. waste.to.Class I.have..and.to.XP. Division I locations. safety.TEFC. divided.with.Class III.standards..the.similar.subject.strictest. 55 .example.present.or. have. and.define.agencies.motors.motor.codes.life.is.class.gases.of.the.are.under.conditions.various..groups.hazard.the.abnormal.pulp. comply... environment.present..contact.atmosphere.normally.in.group.For. agencies.and.the.is.dust.and.further.set..have.iron.coke.it.for.should.United. and G..class.involves. Locations.Division II locations..may.hazardous.the.regulatory.500..hazardous. An.or.motors..machines.by.the.applications.to. F.however.never specify or suggest the type of hazardous location classification.often.enclosures.protection.of.. in.the user’s responsibility..locations.these.by.lints.locations.are.for.in.additional.Class II. You.This.In.to.management.of.requires.information. material..in.is.fibers.dust.. applications.hazardous.. most.a.explosion proof (XP) motors.have.XP..paper.cast.not..to.and.standards.petrochemical..the.In. Laboratories.are.to.industries.National Electrical Code®Article.the.applicable.

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200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1..charts.000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10.0 (1. product.enclosures.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G II D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.0 (1.offerings.000 to 13.200 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1. 800.0 (1. 580.a. IC 01 . IC 01 .such.protected against solid objects greater than 12.summarize.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 580.manufactures.protected against solid objects greater than 12.200 V V oltage 1.horizontal.protected against solid objects greater than 12.open drip proof (ODP). 680. Foot-Mounted.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures. 712. and 716 F ram e S izes 6.totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).open air ventilation T ype of C ooling U p to 18. weather protected II (WPII).motors with.foot-mounted. Above NEMA Motors Siemens.following.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.Siemens. IP 23 .5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical. IP W 24 .5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.as:..5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction. totally enclosed water-to-air cooled (TEWAC). totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC). IC 01 .foot-mounted. 680.The.large.Horizontal.horizontal.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.. 714.. and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13.large. W extends the rating to w eather conditions.motors...open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 10.for.of. O pen D rip P roof/W eather P rotected I CG E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype D escription B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e am bient conditions.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500. 800. IP 24 .15 optional) S ervice F actor 67 . and 1120 F ram e S izes 460 to 13.variety..and. weather protected I (WPI).

800. H as the added benefits of low noise and efficient w ater cooling. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. IP 54 .lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed W ater-to-A ir C ooled H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions. H as the added benefits of low noise and efficient w ater cooling.000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 712.000 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 580. 680.000 H P 2 to 16 580. IC W 81 .200 V V oltage 1. and 716 F ram e S izes 6. IP 54 .E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed W ater-to-A ir C ooled CGG D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan 900 to 7.0 (1.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole P ow er R ange U p to 12.200 V V oltage 1. T ype of C ooling P ow er R ange P oles F ram e S izes V oltage S ervice F actor IC 611 .000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7. 714. and 1120 2.300 to 13.0 (1.200 V 1.15 optional) 6 .lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. IC W 81 .15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled CAZ D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.0 (1.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. 680.w ater-to-air cooled T ype of C ooling U p to 18.000 H P for 6 pole U p to 10. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers.300 to 13.000 to 13. IP 54 .w ater-to-air cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 10. 800.

0 (1. these.such..with.000 to 13.0 (1.for. and 880 F ram e S izes 460 to 11. product...000 H P for 10 pole 2 to 10 P oles 710. 714.offerings.200 V V oltage 1.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 2.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4.totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).15 optional) S ervice F actor Vertical.250 H P P ow er R ange 2 to 16 P oles 500.Siemens.protected against solid objects greater than 12.15 optional) S ervice F actor 69 . 680. Flange-Mounted Above NEMA Motors Siemens. IC 411 .totally enclosed air-to-air cooled (TEAAC). and 716 F ram e S izes 6.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 500.weather protected II (WPII).a. IP 54 ..large.manufactures. protected I (WPI).300 to 13. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. IP 54 .flange-mounted.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction. E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected I C G V and C G G S B est suited to indoor applications w here it w ill not be exposed to extrem e D escription am bient conditions. 800.000 V (460 to 690 V up to 800 H P ) V oltage 1.variety.. IC 611 . IC 01 .totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling U p to 18.flange-mounted.charts.large.vertical.open drip proof weather.000 H P for 2-pole or 4-pole U p to 12.000 H P for 6 pole P ow er R ange U p to 10.motors with. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers.as:.enclosures. U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings. 788.5 m m and falling D egree of P rotection w ater sprayed at angles up to 60 degrees from vertical. 712.of.200 V V oltage 1. IP 23 .The.motors.vertical. 580...000 H P for 8 pole U p to 7. 708. 580.and.following.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C Z and C G Z D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.summarize.enclosure.0 (1.E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled H -C om pact P LU S S H 710 F ram e D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.types..

process.motors.large. and.API 541-4th edition.200 V V oltage 1.. 580.547.300 to 13.two.0 (1. 70 .most. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2.chemical.for. 800.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.generation.highly.In. and.0 (1. have.protected against solid objects greater than 12. IC 411 .set.for.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled CAZV D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.to..300 to 13.Institute.to.AC.purpose.0 (1.. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. Petroleum. IC 611 .general.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.American.reliability.and.E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G IIV and C G IIH S D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.NEMA.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling 800 to 3.motor. IC 01 .000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 680.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 900 H P P ow er R ange 2 (4 or 6 optional) P oles 500 and 580 F ram e S izes 2.above.forth. addition..oil.severe-duty.manufactures.demanding.motors. U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings. also.adopted.rigorous. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers. 680. IP 54 .performance..processing.200 V V oltage 1.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C G Z V and C G Z H S D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions. IP 24 .specialty.purpose.by.critical.power.industries. The.and..900 V V oltage 1. edition.refining.15 optional) S ervice F actor Large Specialty Motors.54-4th.the.for.production.to.motors.is.the.standards.motors.special.from.5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction.and.API 547.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4. 800.listed.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 500.the..previously. IP 54 .API.300 to 6.specifications.Siemens.API.is.

and.range. 7 .line.fulfill. 5.designed.in.levels.IEC.enclosures.motors.of. Siemens..enclosed.to.certified.Purpose.ISO-900.above. plant.at.available.Duty._____.Severe.motors.in.a..above.level. with.are.manufactures.to.40ºC._______.international.are.output.up..at.large.NEMA.NEMA.continuous.Review 8.sea.HP ..our.________. up.are. Siemens. Siemens. requirements.. Siemens.a._______.Motors.induction..in.power.complete.available. squirrel-cage.altitudes.motors.totally.and.motors.________.available. for.European.from. 3.kW._______.an.are.duty. with.inverter..to.are. .of. 6.feet. ranges. Siemens.efficiency.and. 4.to.operation.the.rated.motors._______.________.ambient.markets.AC. 2. two. Siemens.General.NEMA.Standard._____.in.

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Amps × read .5npA read . Amps − 0.5np.BHP ExsistingEstimatedBHP Ohm's Law: V = A× R R= A= Single Phase: P = V × A × PF V= P A × PF A= P V × PF BHP = V × A × Effiency × PowerFactor 746 Estimated BHP from Amps and Volts: BHP = nameplate(np) HP × read . A 0.Volts . Amps ) × read .7 read .Motor Formulas V = Volts A = Amperes R = Ohms P = Watts PF = Power factor (Motor) Eff = Efficiency (Motor) HP = Horsepower BHP = Break Horsepower (Motor) r = running np = nameplate Max. X 3 V A V R Max. Amps or BHP = Name plate BHP x Volts × Amps BHP = nameplate(np) HP × (read .V × np.Volts × read .Volts Estimated BHP = 745.Volts np.Volts × readAmps np. Motor sheave = Existing Motor sheave Dia.

All rights reserved.Volts × Effiency × PowerFactor 745. National Energy Management Institute Committee. . Power Factor.732 × Amps × Volts × Effiency × PowerFactor × %ofLoad 745.Estimated BHP from Amps.7 Single phase BHP = Three phase BHP = © 2005.7 1. and % of load: read . Volts. Amps × read . Efficiency.

com 1 .Motor Basics AGSM 325 Motors vs Engines • Motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. www.PAControl. • Engines convert chemical energy to mechanical energy.

PAControl.000 to 50.\$/Hp Simple & Efficient Operation Compact Size – cubic inches/Hp Long Life – 30.000 hours Low Noise No Exhaust Emissions Withstand high temporary overloads Automatic/Remote Start & Control • Disadvantages – Portability – Speed Control – No Demand Charge Magnetic Induction • Simple Electromagnet • Like Poles Repel • Opposite Poles Attract www.com 2 .Motors • Advantages – – – – – – – – Low Initial Cost .

PAControl.Operating Principle Motor Parts • • • • • • Enclosure Stator Rotor Bearings Conduit Box Eye Bolt www.com 3 .

www.PAControl. protects internal components from the environment. Stator (Windings) • “Stationary” part of the motor sometimes referred to as “the windings”. • Slotted cores made of thin sections of soft iron are wound with insulated copper wire to form one or more pairs of magnetic poles.com 4 .Enclosure • Holds parts together • Helps with heat dissipation • In some cases.

• Magnetic field from the stator induces an opposing magnetic field onto the rotor causing the rotor to “push” away from the stator field. High Starting Torque. High Maintenance.com 5 . Low Starting Current • Disadvantages – Expensive.PAControl. Low Efficiency www. Wound Rotor Motors • Older motor designed to operate at “variable speed” • Advantages – Speed Control.Rotor • “Rotating” part of the motor.

Bearings • Sleeve Bearings – – – – Standard on most motors Quiet Horizontal shafts only Oil lubricated • Ball (Roller) Bearings – Support shaft in any position – Grease lubricated – Many come sealed requiring no maintenance Other Parts • Conduit Box – Point of connection of electrical power to the motor’s stator windings.com 6 .PAControl. • Eye Bolt – Used to lift heavy motors with a hoist or crane to prevent motor damage. www.

Motor Speed
• Synchronous Speed
– Speed the motor’s magnetic field rotates. – Theoretical speed with not torque or friction.

• Rated Speed
– Speed the motor operates when fully loaded. – Actual speed at full load when supplied rated voltage.

Synchronous Speed
• Theoretical Speed • A well built motor may approach synchronous speed when it has no load. • Factors
– Electrical Frequency (cycles/second) – # of poles in motor

www.PAControl.com

7

Rated Speed
• Speed the motor runs at when fully loaded and supplied rated nameplate voltage.

Motor Slip
• Percent difference between a motor’s synchronous speed and rated speed. • The rotor in an induction motor lags slightly behind the synchronous speed of the changing polarity of the magnetic field.
– Low Slip Motors
• “Stiff”….High Efficiency motors

– High Slip Motors
• Used for applications where load varies significantly…oil pump jacks.

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8

Torque
• Measure of force producing a rotation
– Turning Effort – Measured in pound-feet (foot-pounds)

Torque-Speed Curve
• Amount of Torque produced by motors varies with Speed. • Torque Speed Curves
– Starting Torque – Pull Up Torque – Breakdown Torque

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9

PAControl.Motor Power • Output Power – Horsepower – Amount of power motor can produce at shaft and not reduce life of motor. • Input Power – Kilowatts – Amount of power the motor consumes to produce the output power.com 10 . Calculating Horsepower • Need Speed and Torque • Speed is easy – Tachometer • Torque is difficult – Dynamometer – Prony Brake www.

5 Watts 864 Watts / 746 Watts/Hp = 1.f. • Three Phase – Watts = Avg Volts X Avg Amps X p.16 Hp • Is the motor overloaded? www.f. Watts = 123 volts X 9 amps X 0. = 78% • Watts = Volts X Amps X p.f.com 11 .f. X 1.PAControl.Watt’s Law • Input Power • Single Phase – Watts = Volts X Amps X p.74 Example • Is a 1 Hp 1-phase motor driving a fan overloaded? – Voltage = 123 volts – Current = 9 amps – p.78 = 863.

com 12 .16 Hp = 0.6 Watts 9148.75 X 1.82 X 1.87 Hp 1.1.6 Watts / 746 Watts/Hp = 12.74 Watts = 458v X 14a X 0.f. X 1. 3-phase motor overloaded? – Voltages = 455.Electrical = Input • We measured Input • Motors are rated as Output • Difference? – Efficiency • If the motor is 75% efficient.16 Hp Input • The motor is NOT overloaded HP Output? Example #2 • Is this 10 Hp.PAControl.26 Hp • Is the motor overloaded? www.f.0 and 13. 14. 458. = 82% • Watts = Voltsavg X Ampsavg X p. and 461 volts – Currents = 14.9 amps – P. is it overloaded? • Eff = Output / Input • Output = Eff X Input 0.74 = 9148.

Example #2 • We measured Input • Motor is rated as Output • Difference? – Efficiency 12.PAControl.26 Hp Input • If the motor is 90% efficient.90 X 12.0 Hp • The motor IS overloaded! • How bad is the overload? Hp Output ? Motor Types CLASSIFICATION OF MOTORS AC MOTORS Polyphase Synchronous Universal Single-Phase Synchronous Induction Induction Hysteresis Reluctance Squirrel Cage Hysteresis Reluctance Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Permanent Magnet Wound Rotor Wound Rotor Synchronous Design Design Design Design A B C D Repulsion Repulsion Start Split Phase Capacitor Run Capacitor Start Capacitor Start/Run www.com 13 .26 Hp = 11. is it overloaded? • Eff = Output / Input • Output = Eff X Input 0.

– 3450 rpm.PAControl.C. 1740 rpm. etc. • Induction Motors – Turn at less than synchronous speed under load.D. NEMA 3 Phase Motors • 3 Phase Induction Motors • NEMA TorqueSpeed Design Types – A.Synchronous vs Induction Motors • Synchronous Motors – Turn at exactly the same speed as the rotating magnetic field.E www. – 3600 rpm. etc.com 14 . 1800 rpm.B.

com 15 . • Higher in-rush current (5-8 times full load amps) • Good breakdown torque www.Design Type B • Today’s “Standard” 3Phase Motor • Good Starting Torque – In-rush amps 4-6 times full load amps – Good breakdowntorque – Medium Slip Design Type A • The “old” Standard • Higher starting torque than “B”.PAControl.

PAControl. Metal Shears. – Pump Jacks www. compressors and other “hard starting” loads.Design Type C • Common OEM equipment on reciprocating pumps. • Impact Loads – Punch Presses. etc.com 16 . • High starting torque • Moderate starting current (5-8 times FLA) • Moderate breakdown torque Design Type D • Common on applications with significant loading changes as a machine operates.

Design Type E • Newest NEMA Category • Newer ultra-high efficiency motors – Higher Starting Torque – Higher Starting Current (8-12 times Running) – Ultra Low Slip (Higher Rated Speed) Single Phase Induction Motors • Are not “self starting” – Require a starting mechanism.com 17 .PAControl. – – – – – – – Split Phase Capacitor Run Capacitor Start Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run Shaded Pole Synchronous Universal www. • The name generally describes its “starting mechanism”.

com 18 .Split Phase Motor • Common small single phase motor – Good Starting Torque – Moderate Efficiency – Moderate Cost • Small conveyors. and some compressors • 1/20th to ¾ Hp. • Centrifugal Switch – Sticks Open – Sticks Shut www.5 Hp Split Phase Motor • Starting winding in parallel with Running winding • Switch operates at 70-80% of full speed. augers. pumps. available to 1.PAControl.

PAControl. – Optimizes running characteristics. • No centrifugal switch www. Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) • Capacitor in “Capacitor Winding” – Provides a “phase shift” for starting.Capacitor Run Motor (Permanent Split Capacitor or PSC) • Primarily a fan and blower motor.com 19 . • Poor starting torque • Very low cost motor.

• Common on compressors and other hard starting equipment. • Capacitor sized for high starting torque.Capacitor Start Motor • Larger single phase motors up to about 10 Hp. • A split phase motor with the addition of a capacitor in the starting winding. • Very high starting current. Capacitor Start Motor • Very high starting torque.com 20 .PAControl. www.

• Higher cost than cap start.PAControl.Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run • Both starting and running characteristics are optimized. www.com 21 . – High starting torque – Low starting current – Highest cost • For hard starting loads like compressors and pumps. Capacitor Start-Run Motor • Larger single phase motors up to 10 Hp. • Good starting torque (less than cap start) with lower starting current. • Up to 10 Hp or higher is some situations.

PAControl.com 22 . • Lower Hp sizes www.Synchronous Motor • Special design for “constant speed” at rated horsepower and below. Universal Motor • Runs on AC or DC • Commutator and brushes • Generally found in portable power tools. • Used where maintaining speed is critical when the load changes.

• Higher torque on DC than AC (battery operated tools) • The higher the rpm.com 23 .PAControl. the lower the torque.Universal Motor • Very high starting torque. www.

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