# I

--.
622
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL.

ap-19,

NO.

5,

SEPTEMBER

1971

Theory of Characteristic Modes for Conducting Bodies

Absfracf-A theory of characteristic modes for conducting bodies is developed starting from the operatorformulationfor the current. The mode currents form a weighted orthogonal set over the conductor surface, and the mode fields form an orthogonal set over the sphereat infinity. It is shownthat the modes are the same ones introduced by Garbacz to diagonalize the scattering matrix of the body. for Formulas the use of these modes in antenna and scatterer problems given. are For electrically small interand mediate size bodies, only a few modes are needed to characterize the electromagnetic behavior of the body.

where the subscript (‘tan” denotes t,he tangent,ial components on 8. The operatorL is defined by

L(J) =jwA(J)
A(J) = p
S

+ V@(J)
V . J ( r ’ ) + ( r J r fd ~ ’ )

(2)

fi J ( r f ) + ( r J r fas’ )
#

(3)

-1

@(J)

=7 .we s

(4)

I. INTRODUCTION
HARACTERISTIC modes have long been used in the analysis of ra.diation andscatteringby conduct.ing bodies whose surfaces coincide withcoordinatesurfaces of coordinate systems in n-hich the Helmholtz equation is separable. Recently Garbacz [l] has shown that similar modes can be defined for conducting bodies of arbitrary sha.pe. He approached the problem by diagonalizing the scatt.ering matrix. This led him to the conclusion t.hat the mode currents are real and t.he tangent,ial electric mode field is of constant, phase over the surface of the body. Garbacz,Turpin,and Wickliff [l], [3], [4] used this property to find the characteristic currents in a fen- cases, but they did not, obtain convenient, formulas for computing the mode currents in general. I n t.his paper we approach the problem from the alternativeviewpoint of diagonalizing the operatorrelating the current t.o the tangential electric field on the body. By choosing a particular weighted eigenvalue equation, we obtain the same modes as defined by Garba.cz. Our approach leads t.0 a simpler derivation of the theory and to explicit formulas for det.ermining mode currents and the fields. For clarit.y, we summarize the complete theory of such modes, althoughmuch of t.he t.heorp is given explicitly or implicitly in Garbacz [l].
11. CHARACTERISTIC CURRENTS

C

Here r denotes a field point, r’ a source point, and e, p, and k t.he permittivity, permeability, andwavenumber, respectively, of free space. Physically, - L ( J ) gives the electric intensit.y E at. any point in space due to t,he current J on S. In an antenna problem, the impressed field Ei is the negative of the tangential component of E over S , assumed known. I n a scattering problem, the impressed field Ei is due to known sources external to S. We define the symmetric product of two vector functions B and C on S a s .

(B,C) =

#
S

B-Cds.

(6)

The product (B*,C),where the ast.erisk denot,es complex conjugate, defines an inner product, for complex Hilbert the spa.ce of all square-integrable vector functions on S. The operator appearing in (1) has the dimensions of impedance, and we introduce the notation

Z(J)

=

[L(J)Its,.

(7)

That 2 is a symmetric opera‘cor,i.e., ( B , Z C ) = (ZB,C), follows from the reciprocity theorem [SI. However, 2 i s not a Hermitian operator, i.e., (B*,ZC) # (Z*B*,C). Because 2 is symmetric, its Hermitian parts are real and given by

Consider t.he problem of one or more conducting bodies, defined by the surface S, in an impressed electric field Ei. An operator equation for the current J on S is [SI

R = - (2

1 2

+ Z*)

(8)

Manuscript received October 13, 1970; revised March 1, 1971. This work was supported in partby the NSF under Grant GK4227, and by the Air Cambridge Force Research Laboratories under Contract F19628-68-0180. The authors are with the Department of Eleet.rica1 Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 13210.

yon7 = R + jx,where R and X are real symmetric z Operators. Furthermore, R is posit,ive semidefite, since t,he power ra.diated by a. current J on S is (J*,RJ) 2.0. If no resonator fields exist internal X,t.hen R is posibve to

RJn) = 1 (16) i.XJn>= (Jm*JJn> = L6mn Hence. we find that (JmJRJn)= (Jm*.y ( S . Z(Jn) = vnX(Jn) (10) 111. and 1 if set. The eigenfunct.e E .nd if SI is chosen to tions of R.E * ) dr B0t.he common term R(J.eE. they arenot. Jn are eigenfunctions.ZJ) = (J*. let. are eigenvalues. Explicitly.ions for any choice of symmetric M will dia.all currentsradiate some power.. where SI is any surface enclosing S and rr is t.XJn) = 0 (Jm. form a Hilbert space of all fields throughout space produced by currentson S . Hence. We shall call these J.nd cancel t..heory.dratic (Jm.1orthogona.ZJn). CHARACTERISTIC FIELDS AND PaTTERNS where V. X .) = 0 form..terns.h X and R are real symmetric operators. of (21) is called t.honormality and we have from (19) and where m # 71. if desired.ian bilinear form is (Jm.e.s J on S is given by P = = {J*.he sphere a t infinit.he intrinsic impedance of space. and the magneticfield H.e amplitude.he characteristic pattern or eigenpatfwn corresponding to the eigencurrent. If unnormalized currents are used.s functions on 8.) must be properly introduced intothe t. and (e.lance for current. but only the choice & = R also gives ort..or on X. and 2. n is the unit radial vect..+) are the angular coordinat.) = (JmB.E.. The complex vector F.diat. The J.lity relationships enclosed by SI. = (J.H.. but. t.. (20) This eqiat.he eigencurrents are of indet. obtaining + ( R + j(X )n ) J We next.ions Jn must be real. Next consider the eigenvalue equa.. X H.he region must also sat. the characterbe t. for which the associated Hermit.RJ) +j ( J * . . intheHilbert m = n. 1 ) . we choose \$1 = R andset Z = R j X in ( l o ) .e.hogonality of the radiaI tionpat. the complex power ba. then (20) gives istic currents or eigencurrents of the conducting body deort.hose for characteristic currents by means of the complex Poynting theorem [SI. Each eigencurrent associated with an internal resonance cannot.RJn) = 6mn (Jm. Maxwell's equations.. (19) If Jm a. (11) (12) +j x .ion (18) is a Hermitian qua.he ort... a.r to the where nt # n.RJ. On S . Each eigencurrent which radiates can be normalized according to (Jm*.ion ca.*. (13) 9E S I X Heeds + j" //lr ( p H . of Fig. are real. J.hogonality relationships radiation for patterns and fined by S . Furthermore. For further theory we assume the eigencurrent. # E.) as basis functions therefirst two of (17).. a. Equat. We can also express (22) in terms of the (Jm.ZJn) = ( 1 + j X n ) 6mn (17) .i.es of position on S.nd LIT is a weight operat. the orthogonality relationships (14) and (15) can be combined with (16) to give Here 7 = ( p / e ) l I 2 is t. fields. be so normalized.erminat.cteristic fields from t.*-ds + j w (pH.).or to be chosen. the characteristic fields are of the form of So far t. The choice of { J..HARRINGTON AND M A U T Z : THEORYMODES OF CHARACTERISTIC 623 definite..XJ.ZJn> = 0 (Jn*. ort. neededfor radiationproblems.lvard traveling waves. Adding (20) to its conjugate with m and n interchanged.hen t..isfy the usua.zJn> = (Jm*.tion to be normalized.* .n be separated into real and imaginary partsto give orthogonalityrelationships simi1a.RJn) = 0 SI /[ I.a. When normalized according to (16). are eigencurrents. i.*) d~ (J. H* .*. t. The electric field E. X J ) a. is the Kronecker de1t. a. (0 if m # n.nd J. produced by an eigencurrent J.hogonality relationships are also valid for inner products. We obtain orthogonality relationshipsfor the chara. Theset of all E . Le.ZJn> = 0 (14) P(J.aracteristic Jields or eigenjklds corresponding to J.11 (18) eigenvalues X and eigenfunct.RJ. vn = 1 = vnR(Jn).e.) = 0 (15) (1 + jL)Srnn.) in ( l l ) . the factor (J. since the J. fore simultaneously leads to diagonal matrix representaIf the body S is of finite extent. out. the characteristic far fields form an orthonormal space of allsquare-integrablevector where 6. on S mil1 be called the ch. however small. obtaining X ( J n ) = hnR(Jn).he relationships (17) apply.J. it ra. Hence.gonalize 2.es unit power. or H.

[SI E/ = jXn) = (Jn. we have 6he modal solution for t. t.he j t h component of the f field E / from J . conducting body can be obtainedby using the eigencurrents as bothexpan(34) sion and testing funct. in (30) shouldbe repla. n Again. in turn is taken. Substituting (25) into t. . For example.h component. if the eigencurrents are not normalized.J) (36) The right-hand side of (28) is called the modal excitation t: Vni= {Jn.hod of moments [ G I .he operatorequation (l). ~-ne*~ m . n n-here the an are coefficients to be det.re not normalized according to (16). t..e.s J’ and ma.. of H mere desired.he total stored electricenergy. The fields are linearly related thecurrents.Ei)= j\$ Jn.. a.heorem [ 5 ] is used. and using the linearity of L. and dropped the subscript tan” on E’.he field ( E or H ) at. Here we have put Ltao= 2.’ is given by the J = anJn ( 2 5 ) sum of (33) and (34). usually an electric field on S. (24) where E and H are the fields from J everywhere i space. must be replaced by ( 1 jx. 1.erm 1 jX.he current J on a.J) (35) where m = 1. (This assumes normalization according t.X. ~ nar* ) = hn6. LINEAR MEASUREMEKTS Anyscalar p linearlyrelated tothe current. If the jt. MODAL SOLUTIONS A modal solution fort.he impressed currents. and so on. For m = 1 2 .2. a t some point on 8. we assume J to be a linear More generally.. 1+jL . Two examples of linear measurements are 1) a component of the current. i p is t.--.) ( J n . if E i is produced by both elect.ain V.Explicitly. Bemuse of the orthogonality relationship (17).he current J on S: If the eigencurrents J.Ei).. the inner product of (26) nith each J.iE. giving the set of equations an(Jm. Following this procedure. characteristic magnetic field as (“3) Finally. if the reciprocity t.these forms are + + 8.egration extends overt.RJ.) (33) where t. inspace. (26) Xext.ric dipole I1 = 1 placed at the field point. Every linear functional of J can be expressed as P = [xanLJn n - Ei]ran = 0. the t.ZJn) n - (Jm. Fig. S (29) where E j is the electric field on S produced by a j-directed elect. ( 2s) (Ej.ion coeficients are obtained.gnetic currents MI. For example.ions in the met.. (24) states -that.. Similarly. we obtain the orthogonality relationship /// ( p ~ m . (27) reduces to ~ n ( 1 coe\$&n + where Em is a given vector function. or 2) a component of t.ric currents superposition of the mode current. i. then V.0 {J.alternative expressions for the modal excitat. then a unit magnetic dipole n-ould be placed at the field point. is 2 w times the total‘stored magnetic energyminus t. a linearfunctional of the current. we have + + where t. if E i is produced by an electric current Ji. W n ) .) = 1.624 IEEE TFlANSACTlONS ON ANTENNAS A i i PROPAGATION. then reciprocal to (29). .Ei ds.he int. subtracting (20) from its conjugate with m and n intercha. SEPTEMBER 1971 Substitutingfor an from (28) into (25). we obt.ermined.he integration extends over all space. E = C .Ei) = 0 (27) (Em. Finally.ced by (1 j X n > ( J n 8 J n ) .he term 1 jX.hen (35) becomes [5]. then reciprocal to (29) we have IV. and hence to canalso be expressed in modalform..nged. if E i is produced by a magnetic current M . some point. wl be called a Einmr il measurement of the current. Surfaces and coordinates.

(37) is a symmetricbilinearfunctional of E i (the impressed field. in the vicinity of S the dipole field is [5] analogous t.s where Vnmis the modal measurement coeficient Vnm= (Jn.he wave measurement coefficients (46).Vnm of the same functional form t.. we must deal E i = ui exp ( --jki. from I2 = urn and rm i the posit.specialixa.ant.Iw VniRnm and near-field mea. as suggested by Fig.s (29) become (45) provides a convenient formula for computat. r ) (47) with one number at. S The impressed field is the ur.ering by conducting bodies.um (42) Note that thisis of the same funct>ional form as planet.# J. -4perture antenna. 'I Vnm = ///Jm E. say some component of E a t aparticularposition (e. If the source of Em is magnetic current Mm. we pla. Equat.t.. analogous t. consider a conductingbody of surface S in a V n i = .nt of the wave . or adjoin. or excitation) and of Em (the measurement. S (38) CONDUCTING BODY Note that.ation c0efficient. Consider a conducting body of surface S in which one where the Vniare given by (41) and or more apertures exist. Kext.HAREINOTON AND ?&%UT&: THEORY OF CHARACTERISTIC MODES 625 I the modal solut.+) on S.y of conduct.ionsof the general theory are Vnm= exp ( -jk. Forthis. Other Substituting this into (31) dotted into Urn. field.hen Fig.o (34). t. a. Conducting scat.ern for the aperture is then given by the modal solut.ion (30) is substitut. if the source of Em is elect.ion cit.hey are not considered explicit. coefficients.2 ) .he E-U.ion. For comput. Reciprocal forms forthe measurement coefficients.surement coefficient Vnm given is by t. the mea.risation vector and ki is the propagaunit electric dipole I2 = urna t (e.0I1 (see Fig. 2. are also special cases of t.he sum of (39) and (40). Then field Etan (assumed known) over the Ei = -Etan is the impressed field. (43) Here k is the vector propaga.t.arethe plane-wave measurement.r ) 1.ime. if Em is produced by both a Jm and an Mm. we have problems. V n i = Rni = # J n .surements. 3. (48) S This gives Vnm = # S J n * E m d s= En. but t. and evaluate tion vector.ors -.terer. The excitat. Hence. r ) ds (46) S aperhres.ed into t. Finally.ly.t.he modal measurement. s XOIV(42) becomes TWO import.ation coefficients. dT (39) Fig.' excitation).nd the mode ex.r) cs l.0 (33). a t.ion coefficients (29) are now t.henotmation . 3. analogous to (33) and (34) for excit. There are sources internal to S which produce a tangential electric Rnm= % Jn-umexp ( -jk.Em) = % Jn*Emds.it plane wave The radiation pat. Explicit formulas for these two cases are given in this section. hencet.he excit..u iexp ( -jki. APPLICATION RADIATIOK TO AND SCATTERIh'G P R O B L E M S Em --3w = exp ( -jkrm) 4arm [urn exp ( --jkm.ric current Jm. such as antennas in the vicinit.+) on S . coefficient by (38) and (39).ry of (37) is a consequence of the symmetry of the original operator 2..ce a where ui is the pola.rm) # Jn-umexp (-jkm-r) ds.ion (31).ion vector t.hen where E m is the field produced bythedistant dipole. ds. Explicitly. 2.tion consta. there resu1t.en. (41) plane-m-ave scattering problem. VI. can also be w-ritt. the syrnmet.1 + ] A n general formulas. For example..ions. = exp ( .assuggested by Fig.he genf eral measurement formula (35). 1) radiation from apertures in conducting bodies and 2) 4nrm S (44) plane-wave scatt.ais as tion coefficient Vnigiven by (29).. -Eta. Of course.j k r m ) (45) 4flm .at.

ion is over all space. and J ) a current on S. Similarly. d e h e d a s [5] u = 47rrm2 I E. we can write (53) as p = (Em. Hence. coefficients. duced bymagneticcurrents.ion of the radiation field in the antenna pressed field E'). In the modalsolutionfor the current. Similarly.Now let E } denote the electric field E everywhere in space.Explicitly. DYADIC REPRESENTATIONS Any bilinear functional can be represented in terms of a dyadic operator.. is a dyadic operator in spectral form.he excitation and measurement coefficients. fields are produced by electric currents.) or (Jn. and J i } the impressed sources everywhere in space.ial component.r product Rni for (48). (50) Substitut. t.he current on S excited by the measurement some measurement position (Om. In terms of (54). A development similar to the preceding applies for the H field if the impressed and measurement fields are prois a dyadic representation for t. letting M i ] denote an impressed magnetic current.ion is p = (Jm. we obtain where t. if ( J m denotes the source of the measurement field everywhere in space. coefficients. Yon. where we have used (29) for the excitation coefficients. Similarly. SEPTEMBER 1971 where (Jmis t. problem.he reciprocal formulas is given by (45) Kith Vni replaced by Rni.he general linear functional (37) becomes E ] = rJi) ( 62) (53) where we have used (38) for the measurement.he incident wave direction and (&. t.of the measurement field Em on S. (60) can be ait.he measurement. we int.ZJi) (57) .his purpose. To summarize. let Ei) den0t. the scatteredfield in thedirection (Om..) is the same problem field ( E m and J i > is the current on S excited by the imas the determinat.t r is a type of the Green's function. we can write (59) as . VII.as well as of the coordinates (Oi.ion Z J ) = Ei). the generallinearfunctional (37) becomes Wote that u is a function of the polarization of the incident wave zli and of the measurement wave urn.YEi).um 12. we can use t.o (59) and (62) we have The inverse to this equat.ing from (49) into (50). It is now evident that. (56. The determination of the scattered field a t A commonly used parameter in pla.&) of t. called the spectralform of Y = Z-l.roduce the bilinea.his. if ( E mdenotes the tangent. analogous t.I'Ji) (63) which is an alternative form for the general bilinear functional p .he inverseequation to ourstarting equat.we can now write the electric field (31) or as (59) where we have used (33) for the excitation coeEcients.he Dirac bra-ket notation being well suitedfor t. it gives the field E due to J on S (sometimes called the scatt.626 IEEE TRANSAWONS ON ANTENNAS m PROPAGATION.ne-wave scattering problems is the echo area. It is evident from (53) that from which it is evident tha. The characteristic currents are denoted by J.he integrat. represent the magnetic modal fields. Then (30) becomes where we have used (39) for t.ered field) when the conduct' ing body S is excit. I n terms of (61).he inverse operator to 2. Similarly. For t.ed by impressed sources J elsewhere in space.ten as p = {Jm.4m) If the impressed and measurement. or (33) and (39) for t.&. and define the we can write (52) as magnetic dyadic operator J >= YEi) (55) which is t. let H n ] or { H .dm) of the measurement direction.e the tangential component of the impressed E on S. In terms of the mode fields En} { E n .

If both electric and magnetic currents exist. (79) . is convenient to use a six-component formulation for the problem [SI. Let the p of (60) be urn.o L of ( 2 ) .e. currents are magnetic. En* 1 jhn satisfies the source-free wave equation. the outgoing waves are partly due to the impressed field Ei and part.Urn.s the basis of incoming waves. then the scatt.es En* are incoming waves. ~ = n &E n *1 ('76) v.here is a unique outgoing wave Eout.6s) ponents a. t. and will not pursue it further. [a]. to yield 9. and let the measurement sourcebe the unit dipole Iim = urn. abthe sence of a body.es En* a. and we choose them as basis functions for Ei.e. I t is evident from(75)-(78) that.. The scattering operator is defined to be that which operates on Ei.in Hence. equation. shown as follows. (70) J .E. En* is a source-free field. are chosen m the basis of out. Whenasca. To be explicit. The wave equation for the field En due to a (Urn' Fn) ( F n Ui) -jw .) to the column vector d (com. F. = -jupJn.* satisfies theconjugateequation.ering ma. t. Defining the dyadic pattern operator as The field E. 6 = d and t. It is u s evident that -f..e. not for the field. Finally. Kow if F . M ) are defined.hat. We show that if the characteristic fields E. and equations (62) and (65) combined into a single six-component.* will be an incoming wave..e.*E = -exp ( . current.ion of we can m i t e (69) as fields of the standing-wave type En En*. Ilore generally.rbitrary basis functions. . Ili = -exp ( j k r ) u i j w -4ar t67) The conjugat. (72. is a magnet.which operates on 2Ei. or consideration of L*. i. field vectors # = (E&) and source vectors K = ( J . for each incoming wave Ei.j k r ) 47rr 1 . E' = 2PEi.HARRIXGWN Ah?) MAUTZ: THEORY OF CHARACTERISTIC MODES 627 The M sign is due to that appearing in (40). defined b): (50) .he scattering matrix is the identity matrix. if the electric currents for both the impressed and measurement.for this generalization..iL V X V X E .t. Lett. giving the field H due to J on S when the conducting body is excited by impressed sources 111') elsewhere in space. in which case (60) reduces to Ei. let the unit.i.. we obtain the bilinear scattering dyadic introduced by Garbacz [l]. called the scattered field E8.*E = .e. i.5*Ui 4a 1 p. theconjugate field E.(jkr) exp jw The scattering matrix S is that which relat.going waves.k2E. sources are specialized to unit electric dipoles on the sphere at infinity. We have no use at present. and (6s) can in be terms &itten of them as -4field of the form E..ing { M m denoteameasurementmagnetic analogous to (60) and (63) we have VIII.. adjoint t. + . when no body is present.trix is diagonalized. SCATTERING PERTURBATION AND MATRICES The scattering matrix was first..from either spherical mode theory. incident) plane wave be produced by the distant. is given by c7 = . it. current Jn is u. i. This is evident. and we choose them as basis functions for Eout..ttered field due to a ui polarized incident. 6 = [Sld.he field \vi11 be a linear superposit. and their conjugat. to give E. then E .4ar . is real. (69. I n a scattering problem the far-zone field can be expressed as the sun1 of incoming and outgoing waves as a bilinear functional This is the mostgeneralformfor when both the impressed and measurement.ly due to the field from t. The characteristic fields En are outgoing waves. defined as t. The echo area. lvave. impressed dipole For a given scatterer. (77) The pattern functions Fn are defined by (21).hat. Eout = SEi. The perturbation operator P is defined to be t.ic Green's function.. ( 74) Given an outgoing wave Eout..terer is present. the incoming and outgoing waves can be expanded in terms of a..) The dyadic operator 5 is valid only for the far field.) according to . (. 1 j L + + .. it is for characteristic as currents. In this case. component of the sca.es the column [I (Um'En) (En*ui) vector 6 (components b.7=c--+ + + (71) This is the U.i. I . matrix which relates the amplitudes of incoming spherical modes to outgoing spherical modes [7].he currents J on S .