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MAY 29,1973
Purpose and have a wide and pervasive applicability to
behavior, and which are related more to

General Findings the positive aspects of personality than to

the pathological. The scales are primarily
addressed to characteristics for social liv-
ing and social interaction. Since our
Purpose sample was drawn from that part of the
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) population that is functioning in everyday
to determine if the est training seminars pro- life the CPI seemed ideally suited.
duce any measurable personality changes;
and (2) if such changes do occur, whether
they remain over time.
3. The Behaviordyne system was used on the
analysis of the CPl. This system uses the Results
480 items on the CPI as an item pool for
The growing enrollment in est attests to its 141 scales that have been developed by
popularity and its increasing impact via researchers over the past 17 years. This There is no magic point at which a statistic
reaching more and more people. Much of the approach was well suited to this study becomes statistically significant. The nature
growth of awareness groups generally has since we were seeking the anatomy of the of the data, convention and judgment deter-
been through testimonials ; est is no excep- psychological changes (if any) as well as a mine what is statistically significant. For the
tion. The intent of this effort is to assign profIle of the group. purpose of this study the 5% (.05) level has
some objec tive ' measures to the changes de- been considered statistically significant. That
4. The CPI tests were broken down by sex is, a difference between scale scores of the
scribed by. former est participants. Until
before scoring. Thus the data analyzed are size noted or greater would occur due to
such measures are obtained it is difficult to
by sex. chance only 5% of the time. All other times
make claims concerning real or long term
effects of the system. 5. Each of the 141 scales were statistically the difference can be assumed to be real
compared on the following bases : (non-chance) . Some of the scale differences
No study represents the ultimate truth. No (a) Pre test vs. post test noted were significant at beyond the .001
claim is presen ted here that this is the defini- (b) Pre test vs. three-month follow-up level of significance.
tive study on est. Rather, the study was
designed within its limits to give some clarity 6. The statistical technique used was the " t" The results listed below relate to those in-
to what occurs as a result of the est exper- test (students). This test measures the dividuals who were available for testing three
ience. difference between the means (average months after the completion of the est train-
score) of two groups. Within any given ing.
General Findings experience it is possible for individl\als to 1. The results of the study indicate that cer-
1. The overriding findings of the study are vary tremendously while the average tain personality variables as measured by
that measurable changes in personality do response remains essen tially unchanged. the CPI do change after going through the
occur as the result of the est training. If, however, the mean response alters est training.
drastically after h aving gone through an
2. These changes continue to manifest them- 2. Measurable personality changes exist
experience then a. genuine effect maybe
selves three months after the training has three months after the completion of the
assumed to have occurred.
ended. training.
7. In addition to the statistical comparisons
3. More changes were noted for the female 3. A greater number of variables change for
of each scale, a comprehensive clinical
participants in the study than the male. women than for men. Specifically, 26
picture of each group was generated. Re-
4. The psychological picture that emerges is scales changed for men and 76 scales
ports were generated for the following
that of a happier, psychologically sounder changed for women.
and more responsible person. (a) Female: pre test, post test and three- 4. In no case do any scale changes occur
month follow-up. which are different for male and female
(b) Male: pre test, post test and three- on a given scale; (i.e., an increased score
month follow-up . for one sex and a decreased score for the
other sex on the same scale).
8. The most serious methodological concern
Procedures was the expected attrition of the sample
over the 3~ months between pre testing Comparison of computer
and the three-month follow-up testing. The printout after three testings
1. All individuals enrolled in an est training
sample size was as follows:
session were asked to take the California
(a) Pre test - 227
Psychological Inventory (CPI) prior to the
(b) Post test - 144 One of the easiest ways of arriving at an
start of the training. At the completion of
(c) Three-month follow up test - 93 understanding of the changes which occur as
the training all participants were asked to
a result of participation in the est training is
take the CPI. Three months following However, a comparison was made, based on
to be found in portions of the computer
completion of the training all individuals the first testing, between those who only
who had been tested previously were participated in the first testing and those
asked to take the CPI once again. The who later went through all three testings. The In the section of the report entitled "The
population included both males and fe- purpose was to get a quick check on whether Statements That Can Be Made Most Clearly
males. All participants were over 18 years we were dealing with two distinct popula- About This Person Are As Follows: " the
of age. tions insofar as personality make-up was computer summarizes conclusions about the
concerned. composite male and female test group per-
2. The CPI was chosen because it is one of
the most researched and respected Out of 141 scales checked, the two groups
psychological instruments for assessing scored differently on only eight scales. The Following are the pre-est, post-est, and the
effective behavior. The CPI is concerned overall personality make-up of both groups three months after est computer statements
with characteristics of personality which was essentially the same. for the females and males in the test group :
Females Conclusions and
Pre-est: Implications
She expresses some aesthetic interests. The meaning of personality data from a
She sometimes sulks about things. study such as iliis does not come from ilie
statistical results but from skilled subjective
She admits her faults willingly. She describes evaluation.
herself as an unenthusiastic person who
avoids commitments, and is not overly de- The precise causes of ilie changes noted in
voted to duty. ilie previous section remain open to specula-
tion. However, the basic conclusion to be
She is something of a complainer. She thinks drawn from ilie data is iliat ilie group that
of herself as helpless, but is indirectly aggres- completes the est training and stays in some
sive. She uses sexuality as a weapon. contact wiili est shows significant positive
Post-est: changes in certain intra-psychic aspects.
She doesn' t harbor unconscious resentment. Specifically, for ilie male group, the scale
She expresses some aesthetic interests. changes noted in ilie previous section des-
cribe a person whose self-image has im-
Three months after est: proved. He is less anxious and dependent. He
She doesn't harbor unconscious resentment. shows less guilt and fewer fears; wiili a les-
She is a spontaneous person with social pres- sening of psychophysiologic reactions. In
ence and poise. She is vigorous and enthus- short, he is more willing to assume responsi-
iastic, and yet she is smooth and sophisti- bility for himself.
cated. She is decisive, and she knows what In ilie case of ilie female group one may say
she wants. She expresses herself well, and ilie same as for the males, plus some addi-
she is imaginative. She has savoir-faire. tional changes such as a greater sense of self,
more ambition coupled with an increased
demand upon self. The female group showed
Males more scale changes ilian ilie male group.
Pre-est: One can only infer as to why iliis difference
He admits his faults willingly . He describes between the groups exists. It is our conten-
hin1self as an unentl1Usiastic person who tion that ilie societal demands upon women
avoids commitments, and is not overly de- and men are sufficiently different so as to
voted to duty. cause this difference in change.
He doesn't harbor unconscious resentment. Anoilier way of looking at-ilie scale changes
is in terms of everyday coping. As stated
He tends to commit antisocial acts at times.
above, boili ilie male and female groups ap-
He thinks independently, and he uses good pear to have significantly strengiliened their
judgment in his work. coping capabilities. In looking at ilie changes
Post-est: it is important to realize iliat the groups
start out as being mentally healiliy. Thus,
He admits his faults willingly. He describes changes are less likely to be dran1atic (Le.,
himself as an unentl1Usiastic person who from non-functional to functional). Rather
avoids commitments, and is not overly de- ilie changes relate more to a shifting of cop-
voted to duty. ing mechanism which leads to a more bal-
He doesn't harbor unconscious resentment. anced intra-psychic structure. And, if one
can equate less measured anxiety and bitter-
He tends to commit antisocial acts at times. ness with happiness, ilien ilie est graduate is
He scores somewhat high on one measure of a happier person.
warmth. This doesn't mean anything unless Almost any dramatic experience can cause
it is confirmed by other measures. some in1mediate chaJ1ge in a group . What is
crucial is whether the change is positive, and
Three months after est : whether the change can be maintained.
He doesn't harbor unconscious resentment. Clea-rly the changes measured are positive .
Equally clearly they can be maintained at
He tends to commit antisocial acts at times.
least for three months, and probably for a
He scores somewhat high on one measure of longer period. Where changes do occur iliey
warmth. This doesn't mean anything unless probably are started as the result of ilie
it is confirmed by oilier measures. original training and are benefited by sup-
He is a spontaneous person wiili social pres- portive seminars.
ence and poise. He is vigorous and eniliusi- It appears to us iliat ilie sociotechnological
astic, and yet he is smooth and sophisti- forces that help create ilie need for aware-
cated. He is decisive, and he knows what he ness experiences are increasing and the need
wants. He expresses himself well, and he is for programs such as est will continue to
imaginative. He has savoir-faire. exist and grow.
THE Erhard Seminars Training


The Behaviordyne Report called attention to the attrition in the number of persons participating in the later phases of
the testing. This decrease in participation in testing should not be considered to be the same as attrition in
participation in est.
As the table below shows, nine months after the July 1972 training, 85% of those who graduated were participating in
either seminars or events. Another 7% were geographically located in areas where seminars were not offered. 8% either
desired to be only on the est mailing list or were inactive.
As the comparisons with the June and August trainings indicate, the rate of participation is similar for other trainings
as well.




Total trainees 212 (100%) 232 (100%) 218 (100%)

Participating in 182 (86%) 197 (85%) 204 (94%)

seminars or events

Geographically located
where seminars not offered 16 (7%) 16 (7%) 7 (3%)

Desire to be only 14 (7%) 19 (8%) 7 (3%)

on mailing list or inactive


While it was not part of the report, a matched control group of 200 was also tested to further validate the constancy
of the instrument (CPI) and to make sure that what caused the changes in scores of the test sample was the est
training and not some unknown intervention. The control was matched by age, sex, and vocational and economic
considerations. Over the course of the three testings, the control group showed no significant changes.

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