TRANSFORMERS

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors²the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC)voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np.

Ideal power equation

giving the ideal transformer equation

This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections.CONSTRUCTION Laminated steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Each strand is individually insulated. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimize leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response. and so reduce their magnitude. such as Form var wire. aiding manufacture. The steel has a permeability many times that of free space. or throughout the whole winding. The conducting material used for the windings depends upon the application. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small. Laminating the core greatly reduces eddy-current losses Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous (non-crystalline) metal alloy. . but are more laborious and expensive to construct. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. a principle that has remained in use. Windings Windings are usually arranged concentrically to minimize flux leakage.[64] High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of brazed to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses. The core is constructed by stacking layers of thin steel laminations. For small power and signal transformers. and confine the flux to a path which closely couples the windings. Larger power transformers operating at high voltages may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load. For signal transformers. Thinner laminations reduce losses. Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation. The universal transformer equation indicates a minimum cross-sectional area for the core to avoid saturation. The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux. the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. and the core thus serves to greatly reduce the magnetizing current. but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. since even at low power frequencies nonuniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size. The transposition equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor.

envisages capital investment of Rs. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. The power secretary directed NBPPL to strive hard to get more business with at least orders for Rs.3. . to intermediate points on the winding to allow selection of the voltage ratio. Consequently. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. called taps. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. In power distribution transformers the taps may be connected to an automatic on-load tap changer for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. ash handling plant in Phase-I to be followed by capital investment of Rs. 1200 crore for establishing EPC capabilities and manufacturing of BOP equipment like coal handling plant. 4800 crore for establishing manufacturing facilities for boiler. transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances.Both the primary and secondary windings on power transformers may have external connections. The project currently running two years behind the schedule.199 crore for the gas based project from Namrup. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward. The current status of the implementation of the business plan has been reviewed and is noted that the business plan was approved in October 2008 but the desired progress could not be achieved. 187 crore for gas based project of ONGC at Palatana. APPLICATIONS A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. he stated that currently balance of plants (BoP) order worth Rs. turbine and generator in Phase II with manufacturing capacity of 5000MW per year.000 crore over the coming two months. MANUFACTURING STATUS OF BHEL Expressing concerns over the delays in execution of the business plans of the NTPC-BHEL Power projects Pvt Ltd (NBPPL). The DHI and the power ministry asked the joint venture company to take action to finalise the partners for technical collaboration and identify the vendors for balance of plants (BoP) and other activities over the next three months.000 crore by 2020. the power ministry has asked the joint venture partners to put in extra efforts to implement the business plan so that the schedules of completion of Phase-I by 2012 and Phase-II by 2015 are achieved. NBPPL CMD C P Singh informed that a turnover of Rs. Tripura and civil work and BoP worth Rs. Explaining the present order book position. Assam have been received from BHEL and are under execution.20.10. The secretaries directed the JV partners to identify major milestones and immediately sort out any problem regarding implementation of the business plan and the schedule of operations.000 crore is expected by 2015 and Rs.

3-phase 150 MVA.1-phase 765KV CLASS. 50/60 Hz 1000 MVA .1-phase y Shunt Reactor & Associated Ngrs y Controlled Shunt Reactor 420 KV CLASS. It is a Leading Transformer Manufacturer Offering wide range of Transformers. CVT. CVD Transformer Bushings . the ministry asked BHEL and NTPC to expedite the requisite undertakings to NBPPL for qualifying the company for participating in tenders and obtaining direct orders. 1-phase 765 KV CLASS. 1 PHASE ± 500kV HVDC SMOOTHING REACTORS (OIL FILLED) 254 MVAr. 360 mH.1-phase y HVDC Transformer & Smoothing Reactor ± 500kV / ± 800kV HVDC CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS 600 MVA. 50/60 Hz 1000 MVA.Besides. 50/60 Hz 200 MVA. 1568 Amp. The product profile of BHEL Bhopal includes the following: y Power Transformer 420KV CLASS. y y Instrument Transformers: CT. 3-phase 600 MVA. 50/60 Hz 110 MVA . 3 WINDING. 1-phase 1200KV CLASS. TRANSFORMER MANUFACTURING CAPACITY UNIT IN BHOPAL BHEL Bhopal is a Leading Engineering Enterprise which Supplies wide Spectrum of Power Transmission Systems/ Solutions from a single entity. 50/60 Hz 1000 MVA.

T. ‡ This is followed by the cooling design. And to carry this much of high current. Normally.T. y Glued C. Having nearly 3 decades or over 30.C. This is accomplished by adopting more no. helical winding is used for LV side.C. LV WINDING DESIGN The LV voltage has low voltage at its terminals so the number of turns will also be less. Material used for winding y P.000 man-years of experience.C. Other considerations ‡ After designing the windings they are suitably placed over the core legs keeping in mind the electrical stresses.C.I. HV WINDING DESIGN It has very high voltage at its terminals so the number of turns is also very large and it carries very less amount of current. y C. disc type winding is used where in a single disc can have 25 number of turns.C. meters and unique Ultra High Voltage testing facility. y Bunched P. CORE ‡ Any transformer consists of core and winding. Material Used In Core . the facilities updated with investments of over US$ 20 Millions. ‡ Windings are designed for impulse withstand and short circuit forces also. of conductors per turn.I. Helical winding is a spring type winding and it suits most of the LV winding of transformers. Core is the magnetic circuit through which flux flows. So. the area of cross section of the conductors should be high. Dedicated shop area of over 80000 sq.y y Tap Changers (On-load & Off-load) Radiators and Unit OFAF Coolers The Installed manufacturing capacity of BHEL Bhopal is 14000 mva/Annum Annual Sales Turnover Range is US$ 70-75 Million It has mainly two Manufacturing Units.C. The voltage on LV side is less so the current is high as the power output is to be maintained constant.

electrical connections and insulating oil. III. Classification y Conventional Tank: A tank in which the cover is flat and tank to cover junction is at the top of the tank. Type And Construction Of Core There are following types of core available:I. IV. V. Thus the tank has got two parts. Three limb core Two limb core Five limb core Core with elliptical yoke section Core with flat yoke TRANSFORMER TANK Transformer tank is an enclosure which contains inside it the live parts such as core and winding assembly.‡ The material used for core making is low reluctance magnetic steel containing silicon. In oil filled power transformers oil is the cooling medium for windings. II.e cold rolled grain oriented steel. ‡ The grain orientation is technology which ensures that the flux flow through the laminations with minimum resistance. Type Of Cooling ‡ ‡ ‡ ONAN(Oil Natural Air Natural) cooling ONAF(Oil Natural Air Forced) cooling OFAF(Oil Forced Air Forced) cooling Radiators ‡ Radiators used in transformer cooling are of standard profile. .resulting in low core loss. y Bell Type Tank A tank in which the cover is not flat in shape and the tank and cover junction is near the bottom of the tank .This is called ³CRGO´ i. Oil is in turn cooled by means of radiators /integral coolers with water/air as cooling medium.µtop tank¶ and µbottom tank¶ TRANSFORMER COOLING When the transformer is in service the windings get heated up.

radiator Fans ‡ Cooling fans are normally classified on the basis of their size like 15. For bus duct connections bushings are brought out through cover or through independent/common turrets.24 or 36 inches. Of elements in 3000 => distance between valve centres. Of flutes in a 32 => no. ‡ Purpose is to pump oil through the transformer to create forced flow of oil. Generator transformer primary is connected to the generator through bus ducts. Bus duct ‡ ‡ ‡ .hv wall or on both lv and hv walls. TRANSFORMER TERMINALS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transformers are connected in the system by any of the these methods as demanded by our customers. Of 5 or 9 => no. Pumps ‡ Pumps are normally inline type. Similarly instead of walls they can be attached on the cover also. These bushings can be mounted on the tank cover(or topmost horizontal plane in the tank) or in some cases some bushings are mounted on vertical end walls Cable boxes ‡ ‡ ‡ In sites where customer has laid cables instead of overhead conductors the termination (connection) is through cable boxes. are 10-5 fashion radiator a :(example) 3000 radiators element. lv bushing and tertiary bushing. They are called hv bushing. They can be on the lv wall. Cable boxes are enclosures attached externally to the transformer tanks. These bushings are enclosed circumferentially by hoods which in turn receive the busduct flange. Over head bushings Cable boxes Bus duct A combination of above Over head bushings High voltage.18.‡ They normally described in the following or 9 34 10 => no. low voltage and in some cases third winding ³tertiary´ or ³stabilising´ leads are brought out through bushings.

It is housed inside the transformer tank (except ctr oltc). Silica gel beathers y y y y y Moisture is an enemy of transformer insulation system Whenever oil contracts transformer breaths in through breathers. Conservator y A conservator is a cylindrical vessel which provides space for expansion of oil inside the transformer or supplies oil to the transformer when the transformer oil cools and contracts in volume. The silica gel present in the breathers absorb moisture and only dry air goes inside. y y .When the accumulation of the gases rise above a certain level then the float in the buchholz relay rises activating a mercury switch which gives the alarm When the gas accumulation is still higher then another float activates the trip switch disconnecting the transformer from the circuit. These are the standard products and based on the variant in use their dimensions are known in advance. OLTC ( ON LOAD TAP CHANGER) y y It¶s purpose is to add or subtract turns from the main coil. With air lot of moisture which is present in the air also go inside. 2. Because of any internal fault heat is generated which decomposes oil and insulation material resulting in the formation of gases. After a certain level of absorption the color of silica gel crystals change from blue to pink when these particles should be recharged or replaced. y y y 3. A conservator is always placed above the transformer When the conservator is used for the main transformer it is called main conservator and when it is used for the oltc it is called auxiliary or oltc conservator. Buchholz relay y When oil in the transformer tank expands some room for this expansion is required.which is a cylindrical vessel placed above the transformer tank. 4.OTHER ACCESSORIES 1. This is provided by the conservator. These gases rise up and while approaching the conservator passes through the buchholz relay Buchholz relay is a protective relay .

So are the series resistance and the admittance to earth. In this way. In a 3-limbed core there is strong magnetic coupling between the three phases. When the line is loaded. the capacitance to earth draws a current through the line. bushings and insulating oil and are suitable for manufacturing in transformer factories. During normal operation of an electrical power system.95 to 1. Due to the load variations. When a capacitive current flows through the line inductance there will be a voltage rise along the line. there is a voltage drop along the line due to the series inductance and the series resistance. the transmission and distribution voltages must be maintained within a small range. 3-phase reactors can also be made. An equivalent diagram for a line is show in the figure below. Series capacitors are placed at different places along the line while shunt reactors are often installed in the stations at the ends of line. The main difference is the reactor core limbs. from 0. Both the inductance & the capacitance are distributed along the length of the line. typically. while in a 5-limbed core the phases are magnetically independent due to the enclosing magnetic frame formed by the two yokes and the two unwound side-limbs.05 pu of rated value. which have non-magnetic gaps inserted between packets of core steel. These may have 3. Shunt reactors contain the same components as power transformers.or -5-limbed cores. When the line is energized but not loaded or only loaded with a small current. Shunt reactors may also be connected to the power system at junctures where several lines meet or to tertiary windings of transformers. To stabilize the line voltage the line inductance can be compensated by means of series capacitors and the line capacitance to earth by shunt reactors. tank. The need for large shunt reactors appeared when long power transmission lines for system voltage 220 kV & higher were built. like windings. which may be capacitive.SHUNT REACTORS Shunt reactors find application in long EHV Transmission lines to overcome overvoltage problems introduced due to high capacitive charging current and control dynamic over-voltages under switching-in/switching-off conditions. . The characteristic parameters of a line are the series inductance (due to the magnetic field around the conductors) & the shunt capacitance (due to the electrostatic field to earth). shunt reactors and capacitors have been applied in power systems to compensate excess reactive power (inductive for heavy load conditions. there is a voltage rise along the line (the Ferranti-effect) In this situation. the voltage difference between the ends of the line is reduced both in amplitude and in phase angle. core. and capacitive for light load conditions). Shunt reactors are commonly used to compensate the capacitive reactive power of transmission and distribution systems and thereby to keep the operating voltages within admissible levels.

which form the cooling ducts of the coil. in order to avoid corrections to reference temperature. one or more of these cylinders are connected in parallel between the aluminium spiders.The neutral of shunt reactor may be directly earthed. the winding are normally designed with graded insulation in the earthed end. Due to the required ratings. Air-core shunt reactors are applicable to system voltages up to 72. the ACR for this application are designed in ¿berglass encapsulated technology. Sometimes a small extra winding for local electricity supply is inserted between the main winding & yoke. It is thus preferable. iron loss & additional loss) cannot be separated by measurement.5 kv and typically they are connected to tertiary winding of large power transformers. & the winding consists of two parallel-connected halves. The benefit in using air-core shunt Reactors are: > Maintenance free and environmentally friendly > Conservative temperature rise for extended service life > Customized space saving solutions for installation in Compact areas > Surface treatment for protection against UV radiation And pollution > High mechanical strength to withstand elevated Short-circuit forces > Low noise level for sensitive applications . to perform the loss measurement when the average temperature of the winding is practically equal to the reference temperature. The peak value of these forces may easily amount to 106 N/m2 (100 ton /m2). For this reason the design of the core must be very solid. The material in the gaps must also be stable to avoid escalating vibration amplitudes in the end. Depending on the reactor¶s ratings. The insulation distance to the yokes can then be made relatively small. These conductors are mechanically immobilized and encapsulated in epoxy impregnated ¿berglass ¿laments forming cylinders. & the modulus of elasticity of the non-magnetic (& non-metallic) material used in gaps must be high (small compression) in order to avoid large vibration amplitudes with high sound level consequently. In ¿berglass encapsulated technology. When energized the gaps are exposed to large pulsation compressive forced with a frequency of twice the frequency of the system voltage. the reactor¶s winding consists of numerous insulated aluminium conductors connected in parallel. The main terminal is at the middle of the limb height. The individual cylinders are separated by ¿berglass spacers. earthed through an Earthing-reactor or unearthed. When the reactor neutral is directly earthed. one below & one above the main terminal. The loss in the various parts of the reactor (12R.

Shunt reactors are a vital part of the efficient operation of long transmission high voltage power lines. Today the reactor has become a high tech product requiring special skills in both design and manufacture. High Zero Sequence Reactance.special flux plates which also act as winding press plates are provided at top and bottom of winding to collect the leakage flux. This is also done to eliminate the possibility of leakage. The fundamental mechanical resonance mode of reactor frame is kept away from twice the power frequency using computer programme. . The concept was introduced in the mid nineteen sixties. Radial Core Shunt Reactor with Minimal Loss. Eddy current loss is minimised by adopting strand wire dimensions and use of bunched wire cables 4.low loss reactors have been developed by adopting epoxy encapsulated radially laminated core packets 3. it is desirable that Shunt Reactor should have maximum Zero sequence impedence in addition to neutral reactor. Welded tank cover. Measures for Reducing Vibration and Noise Level. This property in shunt reactor depends upon the core arrangement 2.as a part of transformer winding design disc winding for low voltage reactor and interleaved disc winding for high voltage reactor is followed. Unique Winding Press Plates For Reducing Magnetic Leakage Flux. 6. The simple design and robust build-up makes the shunt reactor the most cost efficient mean to compensate the capacitive generation.when single phase reclosing is required in the system. Special Winding Design.welding is done to tighten the tank parts firmly so that they can bear the heavy vibrations during reactor operation.ceramic spacers having high modulus of elasticity are used to form gaps between core packets. SALIENT FEATURES of SHUNT REACTORS MANUFACTURED by BHEL: 1. The fundamental mechanical resonance mode of reactor frame is kept away from twice the power frequency using computer program. thereby minimising stray losses in tank and eddy current loss and consequent hot spot at the end discs of winding 5. Special tightening arrangement is given to provide dead solid support across the gap. which gives a compact design with low losses and low total mass. The shunt reactor compensates the capacitive generation on power lines to avoid non-controlled voltage rise especially on lightly loaded lines. High voltage reactor windings are generally in two parallel groups with line terminal at the centre. One of the reactor designs is based on the gapped core concept.

The laboratory is designed essentially for the comprehensive testing of power transformers and shunt reactors. BHEL UHV laboratory is one of the largest electro-magnetically screened laboratories in the world. Acoustic attenuation with reverberation time of 3-3. The impulse test plant and AC high voltage test plant are adequate for test levels appropriate up to 1100kV transmission systems. 156kV. Bhopal the premier laboratory of its kind in India. Low impedence grounding system. ALLIED AREAS A pollution test chamber is located adjacent to the main test hall for conducting wet and pollution tests. SALIENT FEATURES of UHV LABORATORY. Special floor for smooth air-cushion transport. false roofing and embedded earth copper mesh provides a complete Faraday cage (electromagnetic shielding). attached to a transformer manufacturing plant. Discharge-free halogen lamps for illumination. 200 MVA single-phase converter transformers.500 kV DC single-phase converter transformers and 800 kV bushings and CVTs have been satisfactorily established in the laboratory. Air cooling and ventilation system to control ambient variations during temperature rise tests. The AC power test plant is presently suitable for performing test on equipment up to 800kV class with provision of enhancing the capacity in future for conducting tests on 1100kV equipment. 80 MVAR shunt reactors for 400 kV AC system. The major test equipments are mobile on aircushion transport system.5 seconds in the desired frequency range. . With the above facility. A 100MVAr. which provides flexibility of placement of test objects and test equipment in the hall with no space constraint up to the highest test voltages. performance testing of 315 MVA 3-phase transformers. offers most modern and sophisticated testing facilities for a wide range of transmission equipment and products. 3-phase capacitor bank with provision for augmentation up to 120MVAr enables conducting a load loss measurement and temperaturerise test on transformers and reactors. 315 MVA. The DC test plant is adequate for test levels suitable up to +/-800 kV HVDC transmission systems. +/. MAIN HALL y y y y y y All double wall GI construction with electrical continuity.ULTRA HIGH VOLTAGE LABORATORY BHEL The Ultra High Voltage laboratory at BHEL. Voltage to the test object in the pollution chamber is applied from the main test hall through a 750kV wall bushing.

Tests on DC converter transformers and smoothing reactors y y y y y y Long duration DC voltage test DC polarity reversal test with partial discharge measurement Temperature rise test with DC voltage supply Lightning and switching impulse tests AC power frequency test Loss measurement Tests on bushings y y y y y y y Tan-delta and Capacitance measurements Partial discharge and RIV measurements Dry and wet power frequency dielectric tests Lightning and wet switching impulse tests Thermal stability test Dielectric tests with DC application Snap back test INSTRUMENTATION Measuring and recording instruments y y y y High-resolution impulse analysing system Digital power analysers Partial discharge detectors RIV meters according to CISPR .Fields of Activity Tests on AC transformers and shunt reactors y y y y y y y Impendence. loss and temperature rise tests Separate source voltage withstand test Induced over voltage withstand test Partial discharge measurements Lightning impulse full and chopped wave tests Switching impulse tests Other routine and type tests Special test on reactors Vibration and stress measurement and measurement of magnetisation characteristics.

voltmeters and low power factor wattmeters Aqua-test set for moisture content measurement in oil Liquid dielectric test set Resistivity cell and conductivity meter Specific instruments for research and development y y y y y y Signal averager and ultrasonic transducers for location of corona leak detector Recurrent surge generator and high frequency oscilloscopes for low voltage impulse studies Infra-red thermovision system for temperature scanning during electrical tests High power binoculars and photographic equipment for recording of corona discharges High frequency impedence analysers 14 channel magnetic tape recorder .y y y y y y y y y y y y y y 12 channel U-V recorder Three-phase and single-phase ratio meters Bridge for winding resistance measurement Bridge for loss tangent and capacitance measurement Bridge for inductance and loss measurement Digital insulation testers/meggers Double beam impulse oscilloscopes Digital storage oscilloscopes Inductance and high-frequency impedence analysers Precision AC and impulse digital peak voltmeters Precision ammeters.

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