International Journal of Food Engineering

Volume 7, Issue 2 2011 Article 15

Study of Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits
Vishal R. Parate, UDCT, North Maharashtra University Jalgaon Dilip K. Kawadkar, LIT, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University Shriram S. Sonawane, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur

Recommended Citation: Parate, Vishal R.; Kawadkar, Dilip K.; and Sonawane, Shriram S. (2011) "Study of Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 7: Iss. 2, Article 15. DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.1638 Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 ©2011 Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

. Sonawane Abstract Whey protein concentrate is one of the most cheaply available rich sources of quality proteins offering many health benefits. 30. Department of Food Technology. India. Dilip K. the incorporation of whey protein concentrate has proved its ideality. The objective of present study was to explore the possibility of fortifying the whey protein concentrate in the formulation of biscuits. spread factor. LIT. RTM University. Parate. spread ratio. whey protein concentrate.).S. Sonawane.) India. It was observed that the thickness of whey protein concentrate fortified biscuits increased with increasing wt% level of whey protein concentrate. Kawadkar. biscuits.Study of Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits Vishal R. 20.S. whereas diameter. Sonawane. Nagpur (M. shriramsonawane@gmail. KEYWORDS: protein. sensory evaluation Author Notes: Vishal R. UDCT. In improving the nutritional status of biscuits. Biscuits were prepared from the blend (wheat flour and whey protein concentrate) containing various wt% levels of whey protein concentrate (0. fortification. and Shriram S. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology. Nagpur-440010 (M. Department of Chemical Engineering. 35 and 40 percent) using traditional creaming method. The sensory evaluation supported incorporation of maximum 25 percent level of whey protein concentrate. North Maharashtra University Jalgaon (M. Shriram S. India. 25. spread factor and weight decreased with increasing wt% level of incorporation. Prepared biscuits were then evaluated for chemical. Dilip K. Please send correspondence to: Shriram S. spread ratio.). physical and sensory properties. and it has the ability to improve the food products due to its various functional properties. Parate. Division of Food Technology.com.S. Kawadkar.

. Whey proteins are easily and readily digested and therefore useful in post operative care of patients. emulsification and gelation (Jayprakasha & Brueckner. WPC has immune-enhancing property due to which it can be used in treating HIV patients. 2006). Morr & Ha. It is antitumour agent and giving antioxidant effect (Eric et al. Kim et al. It’s use is beneficial in diabetes. protein efficiency ratio and biological value (Europe Dairy Report. 1978. kids. 2004). 1999.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits Introduction Whey was previously considered as waste because of its potential for spoilage.. 2005. cakes. it is considered as one of the best fortificant in the protein Published by Berkeley Electronic Press. New Zealand Dairy Report. cardiac aliment. 2011 1 .. 1998). 1999). Hoffiman & Falvo. WPC is useful in the treatment of various diseases and health problems such as cancer and high cholesterol (Bounous et al. Whey protein also acts as a sport food as whey proteins helps in speedy repairing of injured and torn muscle during practice and performance (Agin et al. The bakery industry in India produces bread. arthritis.. Singh et al. 1991. Keri. As WPC is satisfying the said criteria and at the same time offering many health benefits therefore. Kester & Richardson. Now days however it is no longer considered as a waste product but treasure of nutritionally rich whey proteins (Annon. It has the ability to act as antibacterial and antiviral agent (Tanaka et al.. WPC has many health benefits and clinical importance. Whey proteins provide excellent nutritional values in nutrition foods formulated for infant. 2001. liver problem. Biscuits industries are generally facing a problem of nutritional value as biscuits are low in protein quantity (6-7 percent) and quality as deficient with essential amino acid lysine (Lauck. 1997. 2003. Miladinov et al. 1993). Smiters & McIntosh. 1984. It is effective in trauma. 2004). buns in lake of tones annually in which the share of biscuits is highest. 1996). 1999).Whey proteins are recovered from whey by ultra filtration followed by spray drying concentration so as to get whey protein concentrate (WPC) (Tratnik & Kersev. WPC generally recognized as a safe (GRAS) for food product application.Parate et al.. 1991. adults and old aged people as growth tonic for body health maintenance. whipping. 1989). biscuits. burn and renal failure (Peng et al. water binding. viscosity. The quality of whey protein is considered superior due to the best possible essential amino acid profile. St-Onge & Farnworth. 2000). The food manufacturing industry come to realize that whey proteins have potential to improve the quality of food products due to various functional properties such as solubility.. gout and antihypertensive. 1998. Therefore to improve the nutritional status of biscuits there is need to incorporate some protein rich material in biscuits which will elevate the protein level in the biscuits and at the same time improve the protein quality of biscuits by supplying lysine and other essential amino acids.

sodium metabisulphite. It had gluten content 9. Vol. It contained 0. However it can be consumed in appreciable quality if incorporated with food item having appealing taste. beverages. biscuits and WPC may prove complement to each other. 2. invert syrup. The WPC was also analysed for various chemical parameters.91 percent) of WPC was supporting its use in present work. The purpose of present study was to improve the nutritional status of cookies variety biscuits by incorporating whey protein concentrate without affecting the overall quality of the biscuits. Preparation of biscuits: Control biscuits were prepared by using traditional creaming method. Art.12 percent showing that the WPC used in the present work was rich in protein and could be considered for fortification. WPC can not be consumed directly as it is in abundant quantity as it doesn’t have much appealing sensory characteristics. and tertiary butyl hydroquinone of standard brand were procured from local market. condensed milk.06 percent indicative of its medium soft nature suitable for biscuits making. sight and smell like biscuits.2202/1556-3758. itself is an act of better utilization of some very nutritional product which use was restricted before on their sensory ground.P).96 percent fat and 0. liquid glucose.1638 2 . Recipe used in the preparation is shown in Table 1. The low moisture content (3.68 percent. Another reason for recommending WPC as fortificant is that although WPC is good source of protein but a person gets no benefit from it until he eats it.24 percent crude fiber. sugar. It had total ash content 4. In this way in the development of protein rich product. It resulted cookies variety biscuits of excellent sensory characteristics. The Maida was analysed for various chemical parameters.56 percent and protein 10.e. Fortification of WPC therefore in other food products as fortificant.86 percent) and fat content (1. lecithin. With trial and error method different parameters for the biscuits making process were set which is given in Table 2.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 DOI: 10. 7 [2011]. sodium bicarbonate. dicalcium phosohate. The protein source WPC for the fortification was obtained from Mahan Proteins Ltd. 0. Materials and Methods The raw materials and chemicals required for the preparation of biscuits i. fat. 15 fortification of biscuits. snack. ammonium bicarbonate.bepress. Maida. http://www..10 percent. The moisture.039 respectively.45 percent and 0. Iss. The whey protein concentrate had protein content 68. butter. salt. flavour.International Journal of Food Engineering. total ash and acid insoluble ash in Maida were found 12. Mathura (U.

82 4. 35 and 40 percent of Maida by replacing Maida in a quantity as whey protein concentrate incorporated. g Maida.95 64 756 0. ml Ammonium bicarbonate.27 3.7 0.13 4.6 17 0. g Lecithin.14 0. Quantity of other ingredients. g Flavour. all were kept same as that for control biscuits.08 0. batch size.027 0. 30.4 17 2. g Quantity 272 230 4 57 60. g Tertiary Butyl hydroquinone. g Water.003 In present study.6 7 1. g Liquid glucose. g Dicalcium Phosohate. 25. whey protein concentrate was incorporated in the formulation of control biscuits at levels of 20.17 1. g Salt.24 15. g Butter.42 0. g Fat.046 Percent 18. Published by Berkeley Electronic Press.47 0. 2011 3 . g Sodium metabisulphite. The prepared biscuits were then evaluated for chemical.29 50. physical and sensory parameters. g Invert Syrup.14 0.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits Table 1: Recipe of control biscuits Ingredient Sugar.4 1.05 1. The whey protein concentrate fortified dough was slightly dry therefore to make dough of workable consistency excess water was added than required in control biscuits dough.2 0. g Sodium bicarbonate.04 0. g Condensed Milk. procedure and processing conditions.Parate et al.

8.International Journal of Food Engineering. thickness. color.bepress.1638 4 .5 mm 2000C 7 min. Percent acidity of extracted fat. 10 min. 7 [2011]. 5 min. Acid insoluble ash percent. 2.5 g 50 mm 3. Sensory parameter: The sensory characteristics of biscuits were determined using a taste panel.2202/1556-3758. Protein percent. Physical parameters: Diameter. flavor and overall acceptability.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 DOI: 10. A 9 point Hedonic scale was used for the sensory evaluation http://www. texture. Art. 15 min. consist of 10 semi-trained members. spread ratio and % spread factor of biscuits were measured and calculated. Crude fiber percent of biscuits were analysed as per standard methods. Chemical parameters: Moisture percent. Fat percent. 15 Table 2: Process parameters for biscuits making Parameter Pre-mixing time Mixing time Standing time Forming dough weight Forming dough diameter Forming dough thickness Baking temperature Baking time Cooling time Value 12 min. Iss. Vol. The panelists were asked to evaluate the products for appearance.

it result proportionate increase in moisture of biscuits. Also it was observed the protein content increased proportionately with increasing level of WPC incorporated. 2011 5 . Published by Berkeley Electronic Press. The moisture of all the WPC fortified biscuits was therefore slightly greater than control the biscuits. to make it workable consistency. Biscuits fortified with whey protein concentrate had fat content slightly greater than the control biscuits. Results and Discussion The effect of different level of WPC fortification on the chemical characteristics of control biscuits is presented in Table 3. however for all level of WPC incorporation the moisture content was within Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specification limit for protein enriched biscuits. It was due to whey protein concentrate as whey protein concentrate had more fat than wheat flour. WPC fortified dough required excess water than the control dough. Table 4 is showing the BIS specifications for protein enriched biscuits. As the incorporation level of whey protein concentrate was increased in the formulation. acidity of extracted fat and crude fiber of control biscuits was not affected much due to incorporation of WPC and was within BIS specification limit. However for all level of whey protein concentrate incorporation the fat content was within BIS specification limit. This shows incorporation of WPC in the formulation of control biscuits increased the protein content. Fat part increased slightly with increasing level of whey protein concentrate. All the whey protein concentrate fortified biscuits had protein content greater than control biscuits.Parate et al.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits of biscuits and the result obtained for overall acceptability were analyzed statistically by using t-Test with the help of computer software ( Microsoft Office Excel 2003 ). It was due to proportionate increase in water content of dough with increasing level whey protein concentrate in the formulation. Acid insoluble ash.

International Journal of Food Engineering.83 12. 15 Table 3: Effect of different level of whey protein concentrate on chemical characteristics of control biscuits Level of WPC (%) Parameter 0 Moisture (% by mass) Fat (% by mass) Protein (% by mass) Acid Insoluble Ash (% by mass) Acidity of extracted fat (as % oleic acid by mass) Crude fiber (% by mass on dry basis) 1.22 0.033 0.25 0.03 17.033 0.19 http://www.21 0.75 0.18 20 1.032 0.72 6.14 22.96 15.71 21.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 DOI: 10. Iss.19 35 1.42 0.033 0.2202/1556-3758.96 22.21 0.08 19. 2.bepress.22 0.77 0. Vol.1638 6 .21 0.75 21.34 0.90 14.63 21.19 25 1.17 30 1.032 0. 7 [2011].034 0.22 0.84 21.20 40 2. Art.54 0.

e. 35 and 40 percent level WPC. The thickness of WPC fortified biscuits was greater than that of control biscuits for all the level of WPC incorporated.0 Min 12. which was the cause of increased thickness.Parate et al. Spread factor of WPC fortified Published by Berkeley Electronic Press. The reduction in diameter was greater for biscuits containing 30.08 Max.0 The change in physical characteristics of control biscuits due to incorporation of WPC is shown in Table 5.0 Max. 0. The spread ratio of all the WPC fortified biscuits was less than the control biscuits for all the level of WPC incorporated. The diameter of WPC fortified biscuits was less than that of control biscuits for all the level of incorporation i. 1. it compensated reduction in diameter by expanding in thickness. As the biscuits shrunk (diameter decreasing). Reduction in spread ratio was due to increase in thickness of biscuits as a result of incorporation of WPC. 3.5 Max. Also it was observed that the reduced diameter for incorporation level 20 percent and 25 percent was closer to controlled biscuits.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits Table 4: BIS specification for protein enrich biscuits (IS: 7487 .1986) Parameter Moisture (% by mass) Fat (% by mass) Protein (% by mass) Acid Insoluble Ash (% by mass) Acidity of extracted fat (as % oleic acid by mass) Crude fiber (% by mass on dry basis) Limit Max 6. 2011 7 .0 Min 12. from 20 to 40 percent.

94 + + + + + + a b c d d e 0.57 + + + + + + a b c d e f 0.45 + d 0. mm Spread ratio 100.01 5. Spread Factor.99 6. All the biscuits fortified with WPC had weight less than that of controlled biscuits.01 0. It was due to addition of excess water in the formulation WPC fortified dough than the control biscuits dough.50 + b 0.01 0.06 7.68 78.80 + e 0.25 0.66 83. % http://www.82 74.01 8.24 7.81 + f 0.01 7.02 20 50.01 Values are means (+ SEM) Means not sharing a common superscript letter in a row are significantly different at p<0.69 + e 0.0 85.82 + b 0. 7 [2011].01 8.00 0.00 Thickness.27 0.0 6.01 30 50.01 25 50.79 + c 0.98 + d 0.59 + a 0. Vol.0 + c 0.01 8.01 8. Reduction in spread factor was due to reduction in spread ratio of biscuits as a result of incorporation of WPC.01 as assessed by t-Test.01 40 49.71 + a 0. Art.35 + c 0.International Journal of Food Engineering.01 35 50.53 + d 0. Iss.02 7.65 + f 0.01 5.03 6. The WPC dough had more water absorption power than control biscuits dough.19 Weight. 2. biscuits was less than the control biscuits for all the level of WPC incorporated.84 + b 0.01 6.bepress.1638 8 .01 0.22 0. g 7.22 0.93 + a 0.04 + e 0. mm 50.92 74.02 6.01 5.01 0. Therefore the whey protein concentrate fortified dough was slightly dry as compared to control biscuits dough and required excess water than the control biscuits dough to achieve desirable consistency.90 + f 0.21 7. 15 Table 5: Effect of different level of whey protein concentrate on physical characteristics of control biscuits Level of WPC (%) Parameter 0 Diameter.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 DOI: 10.01 0.2202/1556-3758.

c c 0.Parate et al.22 0.7 6.2 0.b a. The texture of WPC fortified biscuits was found hard as compared to control biscuits.b a.b b 0.30 0.6 6. The sensory score for appearance was decreasing with increasing level of WPC.2 5.30 0.01 as assessed by t-Test.33 6. 2011 9 .55 5.85 + + + + + + a a.29 0.24 0.b b b b.37 0.4 Values are means (+ SEM) Means not sharing a common superscript letter in a row are significantly different at p<0.8 7. Significant difference in colour was observed for incorporation level 40 percent.22 0. It was due to very slight.c c 0.2 7.8 6.4 6.22 0. Development of roughness on the surface biscuits with increasing level of whey protein concentrate was the cause of poor appearance.48 6.b a.8 6. Significant difference in appearance was observed from WPC level 35 percent and above. The sensory score for colour was decreasing with increasing level of WPC.8 7.6 + + + + + + a a a.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits The effect of fortification of WPC on the sensory characteristics of control biscuits is presented in Table 6.05 6.0 Flavor 7. Table 6: Effect of different level of whey protein concentrate on sensory characteristics of control biscuits Level of WPC (%) Parameter 0 Appearance 20 25 30 35 40 7.29 0. b b.16 0.40 0.1 Texture 7.23 0.2 + + + + + + a a.41 Color 7.30 0.33 0.b a.9 6.5 5.6 6.9 6.6 + + + + + + a a.b a. proportionate increase in darkness of biscuits colour with increasing level of WPC.33 0.6 6.23 0.6 5.b b b c 0.41 0.29 0.b b c 0.33 0.4 5. b a.31 0.6 6.3 6.6 6.42 7.26 0.37 0.47 0.9 + + + + + + a a.35 0. Therefore the sensory score of all WPC fortified biscuits for Published by Berkeley Electronic Press.05 Overall Acceptability 7.b a .9 6.

The sensory score of all the WPC fortified biscuits for overall acceptability was less than the control biscuits and was decreasing with increasing level of WPC. Iss. 2. 8 Sensory score for overall acceptability 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 25 30 35 40 Level of WPC (%) Fig. 15 texture was less than the control biscuits.1638 10 . The effect of fortification of WPC on overall acceptability of control biscuits is expressed in Fig. Vol. the maximum level of WPC which can be incorporated in the formulation of control biscuits is 25 percent.e. WPC fortified biscuits received less sensory score for overall acceptability due to poor texture and flavour. Significant difference in flavour was observed from incorporation level 35 percent and above.bepress. Poor flavour was developed due to slight charring smell of proteins imparted by whey protein concentrate.International Journal of Food Engineering. 1 Effect of Different Level of WPC on Overall Acceptability of Control Biscuits Chemical analysis of WPC fortified biscuits is suggesting the incorporation of all the level of WPC i. from 20 to 40 percent as all the http://www.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art15 DOI: 10. 1. 7 [2011]. Significant difference in texture was observed from level 25 percent and above. All the WPC fortified biscuits had less sensory score for flavour as compared to control biscuits. Art. Therefore on the basis of sensory evaluation (overall acceptability). Significant difference in overall acceptability was observed from WPC level 30 percent and above.2202/1556-3758. Proportionate decrease in sensory score for texture was observed with increasing level of WPC.

J. Emerging health benefits of whey. Bounous. Protein. and Wang. improve the nutritional quality of control biscuits by contributing proteins. 5.J. Vol. Agin. Dairy Council Digests.01) at 1% level from control biscuits is 25 percent. D. 2. 63(8): 1819. D. Vol.Which is best? Journal of Sport Science and Medicine.. G. and James H. 15: 2431-2440. muscle strength & quality life in women with HIV AIDS. (2004). Also on the basis of sensory evaluation the maximum level of WPC which can be incorporated in the given formulation of control biscuits with no significant difference (p < 0. (2001).R. Europe Dairy Association Report (1997).. Jayprakasha. J. H.: Whey Protein Concentrate Fortification in Cookies Variety Biscuits incorporation level was satisfy the BIS specification for protein rich biscuits. Effect of whey protein and resistance exercise on body cell mass. Vol. Journal of Food Science and Technology. Dairy Industries International.. Vol. D. 7. Sensory characters of biscuits adversely get affected due to incorporation. H. and Falvo. 3. Eric. 4. 2011 11 . and Brueckner. Whey Update. (1999). As per physical analysis significant difference (p<0. Vol. 57: 91-94. G. Whey protein concentrate: A potential functional ingredient for food industry. Vol. Therefore on this basis. 36: 189-204. (2003). References 1. Protein rich biscuits of acceptable quality can be prepared by incorporating maximum 25 percent whey protein concentrate in the given formulation of biscuits without affecting the overall quality. 3: 118-130. The adverse effect increases with the increasing level of incorporation. 74: 31-36. Incorporation also brings change in the physical characteristics of biscuits however the deviation in physical characteristics will depend upon the level of whey protein concentrate incorporated. and Gold.M. Gallgher. P.Parate et al. Conclusions Incorporation of whey protein concentrate in the given formulation of control biscuits. Whey proteins in cancer prevention. Batist. W. maximum level of WPC which can be incorporated in the given formulation of control biscuits is 25 percent. Bastian. Cancer Letter.01) at 1% level from control biscuits observed in spread ratio for all the level of incorporation of WPC. Annon (1998). Hoffiman. (1991). However diameter of biscuits for incorporation level 20 and 25 percent was closer to control biscuits. Published by Berkeley Electronic Press. 6. M.

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