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Soil Investigation

for
Vietnam King-Whale Project

Method Statements

May, 2007
Contents
Figures..................................................................................................................................... II

Tables....................................................................................................................................... II

1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 1

2. Work Plan ................................................................................................................. 2

3. Work Procedure ...................................................................................................... 5


3.1 Soil Boring ........................................................................................................ 5
3.2 Standard Penetration Test and Sampling...................................................... 5
3.2.1 Sampler .................................................................................................. 5
3.2.2 N - value (Blows Count) Record ....................................................... 5
3.2.4 Sampling................................................................................................ 6
3.3 Undisturbed Sampling..................................................................................... 6
3.4 Core Drilling..................................................................................................... 7
3.5 Field Testing...................................................................................................... 7
3.5.1 Field Permeability Test.......................................................................... 7
3.5.2 Observation Well and Piezometer ....................................................... 7
3.5.3 Field Vane Shear Test .......................................................................... 10
3.6 Laboratory Testing ......................................................................................... 10

4. Quality Control...................................................................................................... 11
4.1 Drilling............................................................................................................. 11
4.2 Sampling / Storage ......................................................................................... 11

5. Safety and Environmental Protection Requirement .................................... 13

Appendix A Relative ASTM Standards ................................................................. 14

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Figures

Fig 1 Plan Location..................................................................................................1

Fig 2 Observation Well Details ..............................................................................8

Fig 3 Piezometer Stand Pipe Type Details ...........................................................9

Tables

Table 1 Boring Scheme for Phase 1 ...........................................................................3

Table 2 Boring Scheme for Phase 2 ...........................................................................4

Table 3 Laboratory Testing Standard Methods ........................................................10

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1. Introduction
The proposed site, as shown in Figure 1, is including two areas as Phase 1 and Phase 2. In order to
get the geological data for detail design, the soil investigation shall be carried out. The geotechnical
investigations shall be implemented according to the following description and the specifications in this
statement.

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

Figure 1 Plan Location

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2. Work Plan
The quantities of boring for Phase1 and Phase 2 are shown in Table 1 and Table 2
respectively. The execution of soil investigation mainly contains two parts: field exploration
and laboratory testing. The primary items are listed below and described in detail in the
following section.
(1) Field Exploration:
(a) Boring and Sampling: Drilling, Split Spoon Sample and Thin Wall Tube Sample.
(b) Field Testing and Measurement: Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Field
Permeability Test, Observation well, Piezometer and Vane Shear Test.
(2) Laboratory Testing:
(a) Soil Physical Properties: Unit Weight(?t ), Water Content(wn), Specific Gravity(Gs),
Soil Grain Size Analysis and Atterberg Test.
(b) Soil Shear Strength Test
(c) One-Dimensional Consolidation Test.

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Table 1 Boring Scheme for Phase 1
Sample Number Field Testing Soil Laboratory Testing
Propose
Bore Borehole
Split 3"f Thin Field Vane Soil Unconfined Triaxial 1-D
Hole Depth spoon SPT Observation
Wall Permeability Piezometer shear Physical Compression UUU consolidation
No. Testing Well
Sample Tube Test (set) test Properties Test test Test
(m) (set) (set)
(set) (set) (set) (set) (set) (set) (set) (set)

BH-1 250 40 2 40 1 0 0 1 42 1 0 1
BH-2 40 26 2 26 0 0 1(35m) 1 28 0 1 1
BH-3 30 20 2 20 0 1(15m) 0 1 22 1 0 1
Total 320 86 6 86 1 1 1 3 92 2 1 3

*Note: The SPT tests and samples of BH-1 are executed from surface to GL.-60m.

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Table 2 Boring Scheme for Phase 2

Sample Number Field Testing Soil Laboratory Testing


Propose
Bore Borehole
Split Vane Soil Unconfined 1-D
Hole Depth 3"f Thin SPT Observation Triaxial
spoon Piezometer shear Physical Compression consolidation
No. Wall Tube Testing well UUU test
Sample (set) test Properties Test Test
(m) (set) (set) (set) (set)
(set) (set) (set) (set) (set)

RH-1 60 40 1 40 0 0 1 41 0 0 1
RH-2 60 40 1 40 0 0 0 41 0 1 0
RH-3 40 26 1 26 0 1(35m) 1 27 0 0 1
RH-4 40 26 1 26 0 0 0 27 0 1 0
RH-5 40 26 1 26 0 0 0 27 1 0 0
RH-6 40 26 0 26 1(15m) 0 0 26 0 0 0
RH-7 30 20 1 20 0 0 0 21 0 0 1
RH-8 30 20 1 20 0 0 1 21 0 0 1
RH-9 30 20 1 20 0 0 0 21 0 1 0
RH-10 30 20 1 20 0 1(25m) 0 21 0 1 0
RH-11 30 20 1 20 0 0 1 21 1 0 0
RH-12 30 20 1 20 1(15m) 0 0 21 1 0 0
Total 460 304 11 304 2 2 4 315 3 4 4

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3. Work Procedure

3.1 Soil Boring

Soil borings are made to determine the thickness, texture and order of occurrence of the
soil strata as they exist in the ground. Every effort should be made to locate and record
the datum elevation at which any change in stratification occurs. The minimum diameter
of the boreholes will be 100 mm when undisturbed samples are scheduled to be taken.
Earth shall be removed by auger or washing and all samples shall be taken by driving an
approved 2-in. OD split-barrel sampler. Each sample as it is removed from the ground
should be packed so that it will reach the laboratory (or place of storage) in the condition
without loss of water or damage by freezing, heating, breakage of containers or other
disturbances in transit. Borings shall be the following type and sizes: uncased borings of
sufficient size to accommodate a 2-in. OD split-barrel sampler, a 3-in. thin-wall tube
sampler (Shelby tube), or a 3-in. piston-type sampler. The walls of uncased borings shall
be adequately supported by a suitable suspension of drilling mud.

3.2 Standard Penetration Test and Sampling

Standard Penetration Tests shall be conducted at every change of strata and within a
continuous stratum at intervals not exceeding 1.5 meters. A sample shall always be taken
in the first 1.5 meters of each boring.

3.2.1 Sampler
The sampler shall be a two -inch outside diameter split-barrel sampler, with an inside
diameter of one and three-eighth (1-3/8) inches. The dimensions of the sampler shall
conform to those shown in the Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of
Soils, ASTM Designation D1586, the latest revision.

3.2.2 N - value (Blows Count) Record


The sampler shall be driven with a guided hammer or ram into undisturbed soil below
the bottom of the boring after the boring has been cleaned to remove all loose and
foreign material.
The hammer or ram used to drive the two -inch outside diameter sampler shall weigh 140

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pounds and shall fall freely through a height of 30 -in. The number of blows required to
drive the sampler each six inches for a total depth of 18 in. shall be counted and recorded.
The record shall clearly show the number of blows for each six inches of penetration.
Cumulative numbers of blows will not be accepted.
In hard materials requiring more than 50 blows per six inches of penetration, the blows
for smaller amounts of penetration shall be observed and recorded with special note of
the amount of penetration actually obtained.
Once the water table has been reached, particular care must be exercised to maintain the
hole full of water or at a level higher than the ground water level preceding and during
the standard penetration test. During the removal of the drilling rods, chopping bit and
assembly, and insertion of the sampling barrel, a positive inflow of water at the top of the
casing shall be maintained.

3.2.3 Sampling

Immediately upon removal from the hole, the sampler shall be carefully disassembled
and the soil classified. The most representative and least disturbed portion of the sample,
shall be tightly sealed and kept in Engineer approved containers. The depth of the change
shall be recorded. The containers shall be securely sealed to prevent evaporation of the
soil moisture. The jar shall be properly labeled as to boring number, depth of sample,
number of sample, and number of blows for each six inches of penetration, or as
otherwise stipulated above. The project identification and date of sampling shall be
clearly shown on the label.
If a soil sample is lost or is found unsatisfactory as to size or condition, a second attempt
shall be made to obtain a satisfactory soil sample before advancing the casing to a lower
elevation.

3.3 Undisturbed Sampling

The undisturbed samples of cohesive materials shall be obtained by thin-wall tube


sampler (Shelby tube). The tube to be used shall conform to ASTM D1587, its area ratio
shall be no more than l0% and its inside clearance ratio shall be between l.0% and l.5%.
Samples shall be obtained by forcing the tube into the soil with continuous pressure.
Driving will not be permitted. The hole shall be thoroughly cleaned to its bottom prior-to
sampling and all samples shall be taken below the bottom of the casing or below the
bottom of the hole, if uncased.

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When very soft soils are encountered and a thin-wall tube sampler is not able to recover
an undisturbed smap1e, a piston sampler, with a stationary piston, shall be used; the
dimensions of the sample tube remaini ng the same as above.

3.4 Core Drilling

When bedrock is encountered, perform continuous core sampling utilizing triple tube
core barrel and diamond bits of diameter not less than 50 mm. The individual coring runs
shall be limited to a maximum length of 2.0 m. Each coring recovery shall be recorded.
All significant actions of the bit, water return and reasons for loss of core shall be
recorded in the boring log. Core recovery, RQD and rock logging shall be carried out.

3.5 Field Testing

3.5.1 Field Permeability Test


Field permeability test is performed to realize the mobility of water flow through aquifer
encountered in BH-1. Water is added to an open-ended pipe casing sunk to desired depth.
With constant head tests, constant rate of gravity flow into hole and size of casing of pipe
are measured. Pipe casing must be carefully cleaned out just to the bottom of the casing.
Clear water must be used or tests may be grossly misleading. The testing procedure
should be followed NAVFAC DM7.1. The variation of flow rate with time was monitored
and the data were used to obtain soil's permeability k value.

3.5.2 Observation Well and Piezometer


The observation wells and piezometers are installed to monitor the distribution and
variation of groundwater level and piezometric pressure. The detailed installations are
sho wn in Figure 2 and Figure 3. After installation, the groundwater and piezometric
pressure shall be measured constantly. During the period of field work, the measurement
shall be once every day. After the field work finishes, the measurement shall be twice a
week lasting one month.

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Figure 2 Observation Well Details

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Figure 3 Piezometer Stand Pipe Type Details

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3.5.3 Field Vane Shear Test
Vane Shear Test is performed in order to obtain the in-situ undraine d shear strength and
sensitivity of cohesive soil. Because the test is carried out on site, the problems of sample
disturbance and the change of stress condition from field to laboratory can be eliminated.
The testing procedure shall be followed ASTM D-2573-94 as shown in Appendix A.

3.6 Laboratory Testing

For present planning, the lab test include soil property test and shear strength parameters
test. Soil property tests include the unit weight, specific gravity, Atteberg test, water
content and soil gr ain size analysis. The test results are used for soil classification
according to Unified Soil Classification System(USCS). According to the nearby
investigation information, the soil layer is mostly cohesive soil layer. The undrained
shear strength parameters are very important to design. The shear strength parameters
can be obtained from Unconfined Compression Test and Tri-axial UUU Test. The
consolidation test is planned to obtain the consolidation coefficient and coefficient of
volumetric compression.
Laboratory test work items and method are listed as Table 3. The laboratory testing shall
follow the standard methods of testing given below.

Table 3 Laboratory Testing Standard Methods


Test Approved Standard

Soil Moisture Content and Density ASTM D22l6-98


Soil Specific Gravity ASTM D854-92
Particle Size Analysis of Soil ASTM D422-63
Classification of Soils ASTM D2487-98
Soil Atterberg Limits ASTM D4318-95
Soil Unconfined Compressive ASTM D2166-91
Strength
Soil Unconsolidated Undrained ASTM D2850-95
Triaxial Compressive Strength
Soil Consolidation Test ASTM D2435-96

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4. Quality Control

4.1 Drilling
The written record referred to as boring logs or field logs form the basis for
determining the soil profile and contributed to an estimate of the quality of
the samples and the in-situ conditions. Written records should be accurate,
clear, concise, and account for the full depth of the boring. The field logs
should contain information and the materials encountered, the number and
type of samples obtained, the depth and length of the samples, the percentage
of core recovery or recovery ratio, etc. Conditions to be recorded include the
following.
Ÿ Difficulties in drilling, such as squeezing or caving formations.
Ÿ The date, depth, and any condition change of drilling fluid during boring
operations.
Ÿ The name of project and its location.
Ÿ The name and positions of members of the field party.
Ÿ Describe the methods of advancing the borehole and the methods for
stabilizing the boreholes.
Ÿ Record all major changes of soil strata.
Ÿ Record the number of the sample and its depth.
Ÿ Record of groundwater table before commencing every day.

4.2 Sampling / Storage

(1) Removal of sample from sampling device


After the sampling device has been withdrawn from the borehole, the
sampling tube was disconnected from the sampler without shocks or blows.
For open-tube samplers, sludge which has accumulated on top of the sample
will be removed before the length of the sample is determined.

(2) Labeling samples


As samples are removed from the respective borings, they should be
numbered by boring and consecutive order, such as S-1 ~ S-n, for split spoon
samples and T-1 ~ T-n for thin-walled shelby tube samples, and by the depth
of the respective samples. At the same time, the samples will be identified

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with labels and glue d to the outside of the container with waterproof plastic
tape. The field engineer must ensure that each sample is labeled consistency
with the data in the field log.
(3) Preservation of samples
Undisturbed samples shall be preserved in sample tubes, and coated with wax
and sealed in sturdy containers to protect from changes of water content,
shock and vibration. The plastic or rubber caps will be placed over the end of
the thin-walled tube and sealed with waterproof plastic tape. After the sample
has been placed in a suitable container, such as a wooden box, the annulus
shall be between the sample and the cont ainer packing material for additional
protection for the sample. All the samples shall be stored in certain space
away from sunlight, vibration. After collection of certain amount, the
samples shall be transported to the laboratory.
(4) Transporting samples

The distributed samples can be transported in almost any type of container


and by any available mode of transportation. The undistributed samples, as a
minimum requirement, should be transported in wood container that provides
cushioning and insulation for each sample. Samples should fit snugly in each
container to prevent rolling, bumping etc., and should be protected against
vibration, shock, and temperature extremes.

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5. Safety and Environmental Protection Requirement
The local laws of safety and environment protection shall be followed. All
persons on site and in works areas shall wear appropriate personal protective
equipment. The personal protective equipment includes at least the safety
helmet with chin strap. The site shall be kept in a clean, clear and
uncluttered condition, free of obstructions and hazards, at all times. All
material and equipment shall be set up properly, particularly on access routes.
There will be warning signals around the drilling rigs where necessary.

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Appendix A Relative ASTM Standards

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