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CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES (
First Revision )
Sevcmh Reprint OCTOBER
Q CopvrrsAl 1972
BHAVAN, 9 NEW
CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES
( First Revision)
Chaimtan PROPS. R. MLHRA
Manak, Msntbrrr Stmt B. B. L. BrshTNAaAa
University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur Land Reclamation, Irrigation & Power Research Institute, Amritsar In personal ca acity ( P-820, .N8w Ali#wc, Cakutta 53 ) & Ltd, Bombay Cementation Concrete Association of India, Bombay
Du ALAY SmaH
Stmx K. N. DADXNA Sam A. G. DA~T~DAR Stntt J. DAI-C Snar T. M. M~NON Al&mate ) ( Bihar Institute of Hydraulic and Allied Research, SARIR. L. DEWAN ‘\ . Khaaaul. Patna Centrai &iildhg Research Institute ( CSIR ), Roorkec PIor DtNzsH HotrAts Stun D. R. NARAHAIU ( Ahrnuk hECKOR. hNTRAt SOXL MUZXA- &l tral Water 8: Power Commission, New Delhi ma R&ARCH STATTON DIR~~XOR( DAUS II ) ( Alfemafe ) Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Pxor R. N. DOOM SIR1 B. N. &PTA Irrigation Research Institute, Roorkn DR JAODISH NARAEN University of Roorkee, Roorkee Jo~~~~~croa R~EAICCH ( FL ), Railway Board ( Muustry of Railways ) Dapwrv DIRZCTOR,RC~ZAR~X~ ( SOIL MIXCHAX~U RDSO ( Altemak ) ), SmiS. S. JO~HI Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Army Headquarters SHRXS. VARADARAJA ( Allnnale ) SHRI G. K~CKXLMANN Rodio Foundation Engineering Ltd; and Hazarat Co, Bombav SHRI A. H. DIVANJI ( Al&maQ ) SHRI 0. P. MALHOTRA Public Works Department, Government of Punjab SRRI c. B. PATEL M. N. Dastur & Co ( Private ) Ltd. Calcutta SHRI RAW~DIR LAL National Buildings Organisation, New Delhi SHRI S. H. BALCHANDANX ( &mak )
( Coaiiaued ea bg# 2 )
9 BAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI llOOO2
New Delhi . Pais Cuddou to ) DR ALAM SINGH PROP DINESH MOHAN DIRECTOR RE~~ARIX OFFICER ( . Government of Punjab Engineering Research Laboratories. Hydcrabad Central Board of Irrigation and Powqr. UPPAL %IRIH.\'ERYA EXECXJTWE ENGINEER (SOIL MECZHANI~ & RIUEARCH DWWON ) ( Altcmatc ) Institution of Engineers ( India). New Delhi MCltlbCU DIRECTOR ( DAMS II ) ( Alkrnalr Dr I. SWAMINATHAN DR H. New Delhi Public Works Department. SHRI D. Army Headquarters Central Road Research Institute ( CSIR ). C. C. BISHNOI AItwnatc ) ( SUPERINTENDING E N c I N E E R ( PLANNING 6: DESIGN CIRCLE ) All India Instrumenta Manuficturcn & Dealen Association. Calcutta Central Road Research Institute ( CSIR ). PAIS CUDDOU Central Water & Power Commission. C. Government of Uttar Pradesh Director General. Public Works Department. *Jodhpur Institute ( CSIR ). Government of Tarn11 Nadu SHRI C. UPPAL Gcntral Building Research University Irrigation of Jodhpur. New Delhi Public Works ( Special Roads ) Directorate. Public Works Department. N. Bombay Indian National Society of Soil Mechania & Foundation Engineering. CHATURVEDI ( Altcw& Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ). Roorkec Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. S. SINHA SHRI A.lst1498-1970 REPRESENTATIM REPRESENTATIVE RRSEARCHOFFICER RESEARCH OFFICER SECRETARY SHRI S. BIS ( Ex-o@cio Member) Secnrary SHRI G.4lfrrnafe ) SHRI S. JOSHI DR H. Director ( Civ Engg ) Ii. DOS M.G. BIS Panel for Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering Purposes. S. G. BDC 23 : P2 Convener DR I. Government of West Bengal Building and Roads Research Laboratory. New Delhi Roads Wig ( Ministry of Transport & Shipping ) Concrete and Soil Research Laboratory. RAMAN ) SHRI AJITHA SIMHA. L. DOS M. Roorkce Research Institute. L.
the suitability of soil for the construction of dams and other kinds of hydraulic structures and the effect on the fertility of soil when it is irrigated. instead of two subdivisions of the original Unified Soil Classification System. The adoption of different methods by various agencies led to difficulties in interpreting the results of soils investigated by one agency by the other and quite often results were found to be not easily comparable. medium and high compressibility. The investigations relating to the field of irrigation have two objectives namely. The system is based on those characteristics of 3 . done to evaluate the soil as regards its bearing power to a certain extent.1970 Indian Standard CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES ( First Revision ) 0. This revision is essentially based on the Unified Soil Classification System with the mod&cation that the finegrained soils have been subdivided into three subdivisions of low. FOREWORD 0.2 Soil survey and soil classification are at present being done by sever-a! organizations in this country for different purposes. 0. investigations have been undertaken to classify them from the point of view of their suitability for construction of embankments.3 Soils seldom exist in nature separately as sand. roads. published in 1959 to provide a common basis for soil classification.1This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 19 December 1970. soil investigation and classification is surfaces.IS : la8 . Each of these agencies was adopting different systems for soil classification. With regard to roads and highways. Soil survey and soil classification are also done by agriculture departments from the point of view of the suitability of the soil for crops and its fertility. This Indian standard was. 0. gravel or any other single component but are usually found as mixture with varying proportions of particles of different sizes. The engineering departments and research laboratories have done a great deal of work in regard to soil exploration and classification in fields relating to irrigation. etc. sub-grades. after the draft finalized by the Soil Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. buildings. and wearing In the field of buildings. therefore.
observed or calculated. It does not conflict with other systems. If the pat is pressed or squeezed between the fingers. 0. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*.1 This standard covers a system for classification and indentification 4 . its surface again becomes dull.3 Sand and Gravel . the use of geologic. a part of saturated inorganic silt expels enough ‘water to make its surface appear glossy.0 For the purpose of this standard. According to this system. textural or local terms is encouraged as a supplement to.s for rounding ?Clossary off numerical values ( ret&? ). +Rulc. If shaken in the 2. palm of the hand.An aggregate of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles derived from the chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock constituents.5 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with.1 CIay . The information given in this standard should be considered as for guidance only for treating the soil for engineering purposes. the definitions. sub-rounded. the final value. gravel is a fraction of the soil material between 80 mm and the 4. 2.2 Silt-A fine-grained soil with little or no plasticity. 0.4 In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to international co-ordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in this field in this country. 1.Cohesionlebs aggrtgates of angular. 2. pedologic. SCOPE of soils for general engineering purposes. This system is not limited to a particular use or geographical location. to soil engineering (jirrf rauizion :. rounded. but not as a substitute for. of terms and sy&ols relating 1. sub-angular. terms and phrases established by this system and which are easy to associate with actual soils. TERMINOLOGY 2.the soil which indicate how it will behave as a construction material. expressing the result of a test or analysis. in fact. flaky or flat nagments of more or less unaltered rocks or minerals. It is plastic within a moderate to wide range of water content. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be*the same as that of the specified value in this standard. the definitions given in IS : 2809-1972t and the following shall apply. 2.75-mm IS Sieve size and sand is the material between the 4+75-mm IS Sieve size and the 75-micron IS Sieve size.
2 Fine-Grained Soils . Is: 1430. Soil particles finer than P-micron may. more than half of the material by weight is smaller than 75-micron IS Sieve size.Ln these soils.13 Fine-Grained Soils .1. tx. however.2.1. shells.In these soils. having a liquid limit less than Silts and ciays of medium compressibility .* 1970 AND IDENTIFICATION 3.2.In these soils. namely: and 3. The term ‘ compressibility ’ here shall imply volume change. 3. be designated as clay-size particles and the particles between 75micron and P-micron as silttie particles.2. b) Sends. cinders. more than half the total material by weight is larger than 7Smicron IS Sieve size.The fine-grained soils shall be further divided into three subdivisions on the basis of the following arbitrarily selected values of liquid limit: 4 b) 4 Silts and clays of low com&wibility 35 ( represented by symbol L ). such as peat.2 ) shall be The coarse-grained soils shall be divided into a) Gravels . first two divisions ( see 3. This subdivision includes sands and sandy soils.These &Is contain large percentages of fibrous organic matter. concretions. more than half the coarse fraction ( +75 micron ) is smaller than 4*75-mm IS Sieve size. and Silts and clays of high compressibility . 3.In these soils.B Coarse-Grained Soils two subdivisions.1 and 3.2 Subdivision -The further divided as given in 3.having a liquid limit greater than 35 and less than 50 ( represented by symbol I ). certain soils containing particles of decomposed vegetation.2.13 Highly Organic Soils and Other Miscellaneous Soil Materials .1. consolidation under load. and In addition.3. 3. more than half the coarse fraction ( +75 micron ) is larger than 4*75-mm IS Sieve size.i.1 3. and other non-soil materials in sufficient quantities are also grouped in this division. This subdivision includes gravels and gravelly soils.1.having a liquid limit greater than 50 ( represented by symbol H). shrinkage during dry periods and swelling during wet periods.1 Coarse-Grained Soils . 5 .WHFICATION in 3.2.w 3.1 Division - Soils shall be broadly divided into three divisions as given 3.1 to 3.In thb system the fine-grain4 soils UC not divided according to particle size but according to plasticity and ccmpressibiiity. NATE . Y well as. 3.
4 Field Identification and CIassification’ Procedure . Gravels are further identified as being clean ( containing little or no fines. The groups shall be designated by symbols.Is:14s-1970 3. size range smaller ‘than 75-micron IS Sieve. The sample is classified as coarse-grained or finegrained by estimating the percentage by weight of individual particles which can be seen by the unaided eye. based on basic properties of soil. it is further identified by estimating and recording the percentage of: (a) grave1 sized particle. it ” 3. If it has been determined that the soil is coarse grained. that is less than 5 per cent ) or dirty ( containing appreciable fines. therefore.3. size range from 4.3 Groups .75-mm IS Sieve size ( or apprqximately 5 mm size ) . The group name should be supplemented by detailed word descriptions. Ali particles larger than 80 mm are removed from the sample. NOTE.75 to 75-micron IS Sieve size. the soil is a gravel. and (c) silt and clay size particles.If the percentage of gravel is greater than that of sand. Soils containing more than 50 percent visible particles are coarse-grained soils. that is more than 12 per cent ) depending upon the percentage of particles not visible to the unaided eye. soils containing less than 50 percent visible particles are fine-grained soils.1 Highly organic soils and other miscellaneous soil materials shall be placed in one group.3. NOTE-The fraction of soil smaller than 7%micron IS Sieve.1 Gravelly Soils . Gravels contaibing 5 to 12 percent fines are given boundary classification. Table 2. 3.4.The field method is used primarily in the field to classify and describe soils. If the soil is obviously 6 . a process of elimination beginning on the left side of the classification chart ( Table 2 ) and working to the right until the proper group name is obtained.2 The basic soil components 3. in fact. size range from 80 mm to 4. are given in Table 1.The coarse-grained soils shall be further divided into eight basic soil groups. the clay and silt fraction is referredto as fina. Only the fraction of the sample smaller than 80 mm is classified. (b) sand size particles. groups and group symbols are given in 3. A representative sample of the soil is selected which is spread on a flat surface or in the palm of the hand.3 The various subdivisions.3. including the description of the in-place conditions for soils to be used in place as foundations. The fine-grained soils shall be further divided into nine basic soil groups ( see Table 2 ). that is. The procedure is. 3. supplcmental detailed word descriptions are reqJired to point out pccularity of a particular soil and differentiate from others in the same group. Visual observations are employed in place of precise laboratory tests to define the basic soil properties.These groups are broad.
beginning where the choice was made.3. word sand replaces gravei and the symbol S replaces G.4. or (b) poorly graded gravel ( GP ).4 criptive b) c) Descriptive Ir$rmation for Coarse-Grained Soils . if there is good representation of all particle sizes. and fraction larger than 80 mm in the total of soil Maximum material. if the fines have little or no plasticity.2 Boundary classifications within occur. of average sand and fines in the soil or fraction size of sand of gravel. as6gning the second group symbol.1 Boundary classifications can occur within the coarse-grained soil division. or (d) clayey gravel ( GC ).3. des- a. Symbols such as GW-S\V.4. If the soil obviously is dirty. or (d) clayey sand ( SC). Classifications such as SM-h4L and SC-CL are common. size. For example. and the dirty sands shall be classified as (c) silty sand ( SM ). GM-S11 and GC-SC are common. if the fines are of low to medium or high plasticity ( see 3. there is a choice.The following information shall be recorded for coarse-grained soils: name. Symbols’ such as GW-GP. then. if there is an excess or absence of intermediate particle sizes.2 ).3 Boundary classifications can occur between the gravel and sand groups. and complete the classification and assign the propet group symbol.3. whea gravelly and sandy soils.IS: Mm- 1970 olean.When a soil possesses characteristics of two groups. 3. assume a finet soil and complete the classifictition.2 &UZ” Soils .ther in particle size distribution or in plasticity.2. the classification shall be either: (a) well graded gravel ( GW ). 3.2 ). if the fines have little or no plasticity. it is designated by combinations of group symbols. gravel or sand groups can GIV-GM.4. SM-SC. A well-graded soil has a reasonably large spread between the largest and the finest particles and has no marked deficiency in any size. smaller than 80 mm. if the fines are of low to medium or high plasticity < see 3. 3. 3. between soils within the gravel or sand grouping. a well-graded coarse-grained soil with clay binder is designated by GWGC.4 Boundary classifications can also occur between ccarse and fine grained soils. 3. SW-SP. c. GW-GC.4. 3. GM-GC. The group classification for the clean sands will be either : (a) well-graded sand ( SW ) or (b) poorly-graded sand ( SP ).2. SW-SM and SW-SC are common. the The same procedure is applied as for gravels except that the soil is a sand.4.4.3 Boundary Classification for Coarse-Grained Soils . 3.4.3. Typical Percentage of gravel. GP-Sl’. and between The procedure is td assume the coarser soil. the classification will be either (c) silty gravel ( GM ). 7 d) Description .If the percentage of sand is greater than gravel.
lump the pieces together and continue the slight kneading action until the lump crumbles. Place the pat in the open palm of one hand and shake horizontally. slow. consistency of putty. if known. This reaction is called quick. and no reaction. dilatancy.If it has been determined that the soil is finegraincd. if water appears and disappears slowly. f) The surface coatings. e) Shape of the particles -angular. rounded.The following tests for identifying the fine-grained soils shall be performed on the fraction of the soil finer than the 425micron IS Sieve: a) Dilatancy ( reaction to stiiag ) . thread repeatedly to 3 mm in diameter so that its moisture content is gradually reduced until the 3 mm thread just crumbles. After the thread crumbles. subrounded. If the lump can still be moulded slightly drier than the plastic limit and if high pressure is required to role the thread between the palms of the hand.1611430-1970 subangular. if the water condition does not appear to change.4. Observe and record type of reaction as dacriptive information. the soil & described as having high toughness. The moisture content at this time is called the plastic limit and the resistance to moulding at the plastic limit is called the toughness. if water appears and disappears rapidly. Roll the pat on a smooth surface or between the palms into a thread about 3 mm in diameter. By comparing the results of these tests with the requirements gven for the nine fine-grained soil groups.Take a small re resentative sample in the form of a soil pat of the size of about 5 cuYa centimetres and ic add enough water to nearly saturate it. Squeeze the pat between the fingers. 3. 3. and toughness.4.6 Manaal Identifiation Tests . g) The colour and organic content. Fold and reroll the. The time required to dry the pat is the indication of its plasticity. it is further identified by estimating the percentage of gravel. Medium 8 . The appearance and disappearance of the water with shaking and squeezing is referred to as a reaction. until it has the. sand) silt and clay size particles and performing the manual identification tests for dry strength. cementation and hardness of the particles and possible breakdown. the appropriate group name and symbol is assigned.Dry the pat used in the dilatancy test by working and moulding. and k) Group symbol. striking vigorously agamst the other hand several times. h) Plasticity of fines. b) Toughness ( consistency near plastic limit ) . The same procedure is used to identify the fine-grained fraction of coarse-grained soil to determine whether they are silty or clayey. j) Local or geologic name. when compacted.5 Fine-Grained Soils .
which is distinctive from that of decomposed organic matter. such as caliche. Then measure its resistance to crumbling and powdering between fingers. is a measure of the plasticity of the soil and is influenced largely by the colloidal fraction content. Other id&t$cation tests test using dilute hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) is 1) Acid t&t -Acid primarily a test for the presence of calcium carbonate.This is a quick supplementary procedure for 2) determining the presence of clay. if pertinent.Completely dry the prepared soil pat.Isr14!w-1970 toughncs indicated by a medium thread and a lump formed of is the threads slightly below the plastic limit will crumble. a strong reaction indicates that the strength may be due to calcium carbonate as cementing agent rather than colloidal clay. The test is performed by cutting a lump of dry or slightly moist soil with a knife. the dark colour may be or may not be due to organic matter. Miwellaneow test . when not due to organic matter. Another indication of the organic matter is the distinctive dark colour. Observe and record the toughness as descriptive information. In tropical soils. if considerable finger pressure ISrequired and high. Dry organic clays develop an earthy odour upon moistening. This odour can be made more noticeable by heating the wet sample. Highly organic clays have very weak and spongy feel at the plastic limit. while a dull surface indicates silt or clay of low plasticity. For soils with high dry strength. The dry strength is designated as low. This resistance. called dry strength. medium. Non-plastic soils cannot be rolled into-thread of 3 mm in diameter at any moisture content. Dry strength ( crushing m-istance ) . The shiny surface imparted to the soil indicates highly plastic clay. Shine test . coral. such as calcium carbonates or iron oxides may cause high dry rtrcngth.Other criteria undoubtedly may be deve3) loped by the individual as he gains experience in clauifjring 9 . Observe and record the dry strength as descriptive information. The results of this test should be included in the soil description. but this can be dcc?tcd by the d%rvcscencc causal by the application of dduted hydrochloric . it is associated with poor drainage. if it cannot be powdered at all. crushed lime stone or soils containing carbonaceous cementing agents may have high dry strength.Fresh wet organic soils usually have a distinctive odour of decomposed organic matter. while low toughness is indicated by a weak thread that breaks easily and cannot be lumped together when drier than the plastic limit. if the dry pat can be easily powdered. NOTE -The presence of high-strength water soluble ccmendng mat&ah. Nonplastic roils. Organic content and colour .
). that is. first assume a coarse soil. 3.For example. Boundary classifications which are common are as follows: ML-MI. CL-CL CI-MI. CI-CH. wet and saturated properties. strike and dip ). and lensed. differentiation between some of the the soils. assign dual group symbols.9 Descriptive Information for Fine-Grained Soils . and Perviousness or drainage condition. The procedure is comparable to that given for coarse-grained soils ( ~86 3.3 ).10 Descripion of Foundation Soils . ( as dry.Peat or very highly organic readily identified by colour. OL-01. wet and saturated properties in the natural uncemented. or geologic symbol. sand and fines. uniform. CL-OL.4. moist. moist. that is. ML-OL. 10 ). of gravel. and content. Frequent checking by laboratory tests is necessary to gain this experience.ure (as stratified.Boundary classifications can occur within the fine-grained soil divisions. between low and medium or between medium and high liquid limits and between silty and clayey soils.7 Boundal-y Class$cation for Fine-Grained Soils . fine-grained soils depends largely upon the experience in the feel of the soils. and organic if known. MH-OH.4.The following tive information shall be recorded for fine-grained soils: a) Typical b) c) Colour d) Plasticity e) Local f) Group name. Also wet clay sticks to the fingers and dries slowly but silt dries fairly quickly and can be dusted off the fingers leaving only a stain. name. in moist condition characteristics. MI-01. when there is a choice. of compactness moisture ( as loose or dense ). MH-CH. sponginess or fibrous texture. CI-01.The following information shall be recorded to define the in-place condition of soils which are to be utilized as foundation for hydraulic or other structures: a) For coarse-graimd soils: 1) Natural 2) 3) 4) 5) moisture content ( as dry. 01-OH. 3.8 Very Highly Organic Soils . Type and degree Degree of cementation. Struct. soils may be 3. CL-ML. attitude.4. and then a finer soil and. Percentage descrip- 3.4. b) For fine-grained sails: 1) Natural 2) content Perviousness or drainage . MI-MH. and CH-OH.4.
Nom . WL = liquid limit.2 Boun&ary Classtjication for Coarse-&a&d Soils . root-holes. homogtnous. 35. 11 . for gradation and moisture limits. a very thick stratum of hard.0 and Z.The conaistcnq:and the compactness of undisturbed soil should be dkfmai clearly from the consistency of the soil when disturbed and manipulated. sticky. fissured. and 5) Consistency (very soft. that is. to have a border line case of a border line case. GM-GC or SM-SC. For exampI:. 35. lensed. 1 and Table 4. The ‘ A ’ line has the following linear equation between the liquid limit and the plasticity index: z9 = 0. very hard. where the Z. blocky.The coarse-grained soils containing between 5 and 12 percent of fines are classified as borderline cases between the clean and the dirty gravels or sands as for example. is the plasticitv Index of the soil ). 33. a Cc of 2. as it does not provide an adequate description of the soil. The thickness of lenses. Similarly border-line cases might occur in dirty gravels and dirty sands. a gravel with 10 percent fines. etc. honeycomb. Obviously the clatihcation without description of undisturbed condition might cause the interpreterto crroncously conclude &at it is soft and plasticin its natural state. or SI’-SM.1 @ass$cation Criteria for Coarse&rained Soils . for example. the descriptive information required for the field method should also be included in the laboratory classification.The laboratory classitca. hard. 4) Type and degree of cementation. high @asticity. not requiring piling. shall be noted.ir4 criteria for classifying the coarse-grained soils are given in Tables . of G would be classified GW-GM rather than GW-GC ( Z. and 20 ) 1. and attitude. varved. For example. may be correctly classified as a fat clay ( CH ) o tk. strike and dip ).3) Structures ( as strati&d. The rule for correct classification in this case is to favour the non-plastic classification. a Cu of 20. GW-GC.73 ( WL where = plasticity index. Therefore. soft.. friable and spongy ). therefore. Classification by these tests alone does not fulfil the requirements for complete classification. is between 4 and 7 as. fissures. It is possible.The laboratory method is intended for precise delineation of tire soil groups by using rt4ts of laboratory tests. rather than visual estimates. firm. dense shaie or prc-consolidated clay of high beann capacity. brittle.3 Classt~cation Criteriafor Fin&mined Soils .The laboratory classification criteria for classifying the fine-grained soils are given in the plasticity chart shown in Fig. 35 Liborrtory Identihation and QassZcation Procedure.
3. and which have plasticity index between 4 and 7 are classified ML-CL.The fine-pained whose plot on the plasticity chart falls on. However. colour. 60 @I 70 66 66 (00 Fro. 1 PLASTICITY CHART 3. by odour and colour. than three-fourth of the liquid limit before oven drying is positive identification of organic soils. Oven drying also affects the liquid limit of inorganic soils. when plotted on the plasticity chart. the material The can be oven dried.1 Organic silts and clays are usually distinguished from inorganic silts which have the same position on the plasticity chart. 3. The majority of the soils. and retested for liquid limit. or practically on it.4 Bowlday ClassiJication for Fine-Grailwd Soils . or practically on: a) soils ‘ A ’ line b) ‘ we = 35 ’ line c) (WL = 50 ’ line Soils which plot above shall be assigned the proper boundary classification. the ‘ A ’ line.1970 60 0 10 20 30 &O LlOUlD 50 LIMIT. owing to irreversible changes in the properties of the organic material. plasticity. when the organic content is doubtful. lie along a 12 .5.6 Black Cotton Soils . of fine-grained organic soils is greatly reduced on oven drying.IS : 1498 . remixed with water. but only to a A reduction in liquid limit after oven drying to a value less small degree. They are predominantly mnntmorillonitic in structure and black or blackish grey in They are characterized by high shrinkage and swelling properties.Black cotton soils are inorganic clays of medium to high compressibility and form a major soil group in India. 35.
The information given in these tables should be considered as a guidance only for treating a soil for a particular engineering purpose.Table 5 gives the characteristics of the various soil groups pertinent to roads and airfields. 3.IS : 1488 1970 - The plot of some of the black cotton soils is band above the ‘ A ’ line. Care should therefore be taken in also found to lie below the ‘ A ’ line. 13 . MI. although they are clays from mineralogical stand-point. such as kaolin. MH ). clas@ing such soils. Table 7 gives the characteristics pertinent to suitability for canal sections. compressibiliq. Table 6 gives the characteristics pertinent to embankments and foundaticns. behave as inorganic silts and usually lie below t!le ‘ A ’ line and shall be classified as such ( ML. workability as a construction material and shear strength. 3.7 Some other inorganic clays.8 Relative Suitability for General Engineering Purposes .
TABUS 1 BASIC SOlL COMPONBNTS ( Claust3. hard. rock partidc. passing 80-mm IS Sieve but retained on 4’75-mm IS Sieve Coarse : 80-mmto 20-mm IS Sieve Fine : ZO-mm to 4’75-mm IS Sieve Cobble GrPWl G Sand S Rounded to angular. hard. slightly plastic or non-plastic regardless of moisture and exhibits little or no strength when air dried Particles smaller than 75micron .IS Sieve. that is. rock particle. it can be made to exhibit plastic properties within a certain range of moisture and exhibits considerable strength when air dried Organic matter in various sizes and stages of decomposition Clay C Organic matter 0 NOTE . rock particle. that is. 14 . average dramctcr smaller than 300 mm but rctaincd on 80-mm IS Sieve Rounded to angular. passing 4*75-mm IS Sieve but retained on 75-micron IS Sieve coarse Medium Fine : 4. bulky. rock particle.0-mm to 425micron IS Sieve : 425micron to 75micron IS Sieve ii) Fine-grained components Silt A4 Particles smaller than 75-micron IS Sieve.A comparison between the size classifications of IS : 1498-1959 ‘ Clasiication and identification of soils for general engineering purpose ’ and the present revision is rhown in Appendix A. identified by bchaviour. bulky. identified by behaviour. hard.79mm to 20-mm IS Sieve : 2. hard.3:2 ) k (1) i) son (2) Coarse-grained components sou conPOXINT SYnaoL PARTICLL-SIZL AND RANOE D-ON (5) (3) Boulder (4) Rounded to angular. average diameter more than 300 mm None Rounded to angulag bulky. bulky.
uro - Ezl -i- 7 -hlL _ I_ -- Blue Cf. 0:. ___-. poor.) -SC ..- _ Grrcn OL - -iI _ Ml _- Silts and clays with m&u..3. SlOW Quick rlow to I None 01 Bmun -- _SIOW _MH -- -- Silts and clap with hi&h c”mpmribility and liquid limit garter than 50 CH OH Orlpnic cl. CLASJlRCAnON 1 INCLUDING s. :.i”. . m Shy rsnd.b Pe rmO”nl 01 h”” ) .TMLE 2 SO”.astic fina UT Snn with low plawcisy ( Lx idcntificrrio” pmrdurn.4 ) 3. cl .3 nnd 3. brlow ) GM Craw. “I rmd. _--- ~SW _ Clean rnndr ( Little 01 “0 hnn ) SP -SM with Sands Ii”” (A preci. :. with Ii”” (hppreciahlr amount of Yellow lCC finrr . Cll” mir.!ow . . .::. Snavcl.irr indicate rhrrsrtrr typicd n*mr drSrcc an d of “l”*ticilv.p. _- lzsl - .. FTRLD ID -CAT(ON ANY DESmON) For undirmrbcd noi..” romprcwihdity and liquid limit ~warcr than 35 and I”” than 50 Cl I___ Qnick %md undisturbed inlormalion *“ill “” None to \ cry . poorly Sradcd land.. /- Pmrly Srsdrd sand.::..*:.g Sradcd *and-silt mixturn \‘cllow Clsyey smd.? plartirily of medium to hiSh -P..CP Red Red _- Y”“.: little or no Ant.JL __-iG LI : rburr. and h.. IM h.. 3..:::.* cw .3.
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1 ) ( LAEOMTORY GIUU? SYnocJ -_ GW f& Greater than 4 c. SM. -‘pIuddty index.TABLE 3 -CATION 8Om OP C9Om -CATION CxmWUA ) ( cl&se 35. SW. between 1 and 3 uni~tyeoeslciat.SP 8X Coeukiit Not meetingall gradation requiremenu fix SW I _ L SC I. . greater than 6 C. Atterbag liiu above ‘A ’ gram than 7 line with I. q-2 ofcurv8ture . Depauling on pawntage of &Ice ( Eaction smaller than 7!Lmicron IS Sieve) coene-gkned aoils are clwificd al f0llows: Lua than 5# GW. _C.Between1and3 Dermine -_ GP Not meeting all gradatiat requiratmtr for GW -_ Atterbtrg limits below ‘A ’ line or I9 len than 4 of gmfrom grain-sixe cum. I . SP More tha 12% Gyk GC. pwcenuga vel and nnd z cc SW _. GP.
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I I I /I .
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y Sl.i. Mnpcr~lo”. No. F.32 20. . uitablc Not suitable Not . cry vc.rnr Good 2~00-2-32 40..Is : 1490 .ght Xonc rlight Fair 10 good d F..OI MH CH OH PI Poor (0 fair Poor PCIO.. LOgood None slight Ahno. .. Rubber-lyrcd roar .16 rhrrpr.acto. -hcrprl 60-2-16 I 44-2 OS IO-20 5..20 15 o. CI OL. . Fair 10 gocd F*i.. lc. rwr Not :uirablc 10 fair Slight Slight . 10 rai..3*-4.ar.ll S”“-C.uiuble No. suitable No. Exccllcnt Rubber-tyrcd loo.. rubbr.o. SC hi4 Poor Lo fair MI Pour tcI rai.AOr.77 _ Poor LOvery pm..“I. rubbrrstrrl-... rubbcr-lyrcd I 44-2 OS 1’44-1’68 1~28-la3 I 44-l 84 I 28-l 76 - 15 0.um Lllgh hlrdium hlcdrum Medium high hfcdiun.30 20....08 I SJs2...2 24 30.16 Z-OS-Z..c>.d .type tyred rollc.. Monurrn #I FPOW Amv.rn m F~arr Amo* S”n. suitable . .I . lcr.OllC. clmc EO”l. Pm.acm. (10) w-80 :W CP Good 10 cxccllcnt Good “.s 2. . I 76.77-0 3 2.x wcm (1) (2) EXCdk”. 5 0%9-2. 5 0. .OllC. XIcdwn Sligh.ollc.OllC.. Pm.. IO 10 high high Slight .-type 1yrcd roll. . rbcrpr- I 04-2.53-l 1’07 Shgh.77-E 3 2-77-5 53 LO rcry CL..o medium Poor 10 practically impcrxiou Fair IO pao..* . (3) EXcelI.53-8’3 5.“.. nose Very hghl Crawl.76-2.4 15 1. C.. rubber- 1.c.. F&r LOgwd Slight Poor 10 practically impcrGou Poor to pracdcall.C~..“. In.oIlc.60 8~3-13~84 d coed GM “CCQd cc SW SP Good Good IO cxcc.\lrd.Ol of moisture 4’15-11 07 I%-2’08 Rubber-lyrrd r.awlc.lcr-rypr I).hcclrd roll.40 20.xJoar roll..38-Z 77 1’38-2-7~ 1. No..‘“r TO UNIT DRY WIvs.40 IO-40 15-40 5-53-8~3 5..ablc 10 hirh 10 high 10 ver) Slcdum hlcdium to high High Ihgh High Vrry high Shccps-loo..ur PI Q. SM t u Fsi.i.GO 8 3-13.c. 1’38. wimblc Not .1970 Slm. lcu 10 0. l”llC. I5 0. 5 0.84 Fli. lo “mh”nl to LO .ti.. g/cm” (9) 2-00-2’24 CRR \‘*.16 I 92-2.
IO-’ to I@ 1’12-1’52 1%)-1a I~NI~SO - OH Pt Pi.lue (7) Positive CutaS da to noor GW GP CM 203.2’oS I60. COW not dcr8nb.1%7.c CH of b draulic till dam in rolled I II corutruction K . do SW SP “L-a do da a? SM 1~762’00 SC la-2ao MI Stable. corn and blrnkctl 1~52-1~92 1~52-1~92 13.2~16 134-2’00 1~92-2~16 CC I34-2’08 1%.IflII496. imprrviou. CL. 01 MH Poor stability.197” TMLE 6 CZL4RACTERIS~CS F’ER~ TO ZMBANKMENIS AND FOUNDATIONS son ClOW (1) umr wrra* (5) Duu zslcm’ (6) Good be‘ri”~ do do Toe umcb v.71 I 22 .1’60 ML. CI OL.
01 MH CH OH Pt 5 ( Erwion 2 6 criticd) Low LOW Good to Fair Fair Fair Pow Fair to Poor Poor ( Eroaion critial ) 3 critical ) Medium Medium Medium High 9 7 (‘Erosion 10 8 (Volume critkal change ) Higb High - l Nitmbrr I ir the beat. WOTABLE 7 SUlTA8lLITY AS A CONSTltUCl’ION MATERIAL AND SEIEAR STnENm’Ii ( Cku. 8.Good Pair Good to Fair Fair Poor Poor 04od Good to Feir Rxcellent Good Negligible very low 1: SP SM SC ML. $ . CO-. Ml CL. if grwelly if gravelly 5 CkmlPBlmnmLPPY WOKKABILITYAI CON~BD~EX~N MAT~IU A WJISN COYPAOTSD AND SNMBINO STBBNOTE WBKN COMPA~BD AND SA'PURA'M SATURATED GW GP GM CC SW Negligible Negligible 4 1 Negligible very low Excellent Excellent Good EBcelleDt Fair Fair .w 3.FOR CANAL SECTIONS.____A--_-_--Erosion Rcriatmxe Compacted Earth Lming I 2 4 3 6 7. _. CI OL.8 ) SOIL GROUP RVLATIVB SUITABILITY POP CANAL SECTIONr* .
c 1 1 . A E 3 % i !j OF IS: 1498.1959 AND IS: 1498-1970 15:14¶8-1959 is:+: .APPENDIX ( Table I ) COMPARISON BETWEEN SIZE CLASSIFICATIONS Particle size in millimetres.I I i_ flNE I MEDIUM 2 I COARSE n MEDIUM GRAVEL Y .lNE 1I 5lLl SIZE I COARSE i .
R. Bhadbhada Road. 23 89 23 5251 71 $ Peenya Industrial Area. Site IV. 380001 550 13 4s 839 49 55 55 40 21 40 36 27 21 01 41 8-28 88 01 8-71 19 96 781003 500001 54 11 37 201083 37 29 25 21 68 76 Naval Kishore 440010 Road. Mathura Savitri Complex.BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Headquarters: Manak Bhavan.T. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. 1st Stage. IV Cross : Manakalaya. Nampally Marg. Grant Road. Ganga Nagar. Princep Street. Sarvodaya Nagar. Gupta Marg. BHOPAL 751001 641037 121001 462003 P!ot No. PUNE 411005 THIRUVANANTHAPURAM P. Barua Road.N. T. KANPUR 208005 Seth Bhawan. TWestern MUMBAI : C. NEW DELHI 116002 Telephones: 323 0131.C. Sahibabad Industrial Area. MUMBAI Narashimaraja *Sales Office is at ‘F’ Block. No.91 11 3239382 Telegrams : Manaksanstha to all Offices) Telephone 8-77 00 32 (Common Central Laboratory: Plot No. CHANDIGARH Road. Approach. Station JAIPUR GUWAHATI Road. Unity Building. GHAZIABAD 53/5 Ward No. Gokulpat Estate. Road. NAGPUR industrial PATNA 800013 1332 Shivaji Nagar. Behind Leela Cinema. 116 G. “Sales Office is at 5 Chowringhee CALCUTTA 700072 TSales 27 IO 85 309 65 28 222 39 71 Office is at Novelty Chambers. FARIDABAD 201001 Plot No. CHENNAI Marol Telephone 160022 600113 Exchange.G. 323 9402 Fax : 91 113234062. 670 Avinashi Road. Sector 34-A.O. 323 3375. Nurmohamed Shaikh Marg.91 11 3239399. Sahibabad 201010 Regional Central ‘Eastern Northern Southern Offices: 323 76 17 337 86 62 60 38 43 235 23 15 Andheri (East). 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. LUCKNOW NIT Building. Patliputra Institution 2nd Floor. 400007 Square. 695034 26 23 05 32 36 35 621 17 of Engineers (India) Building T. V. Campus.T. 5-a-560. 832 92 95 : Manak Bhavan.O. 5th By-lane. Sector 16 A. 20/9. University P. Chitaranjan 117/418 B. 14/1421. Road.I. 43. AHMEDABAD Road. L. Maniktola. BHUBANESHWAR Kalaikathir Buildings. Unit VI.I. 29. Behind 400093 Branch Offices: ‘Pushpak’.T. Market. E9. Delhi . C-Scheme. BANGALORE 560002 Printed al Simco Pnnting Press. Bangalore-Tumkur 5th Floor. NEW DELHI 110002 : l/14 CIT Scheme VII M. COIMBATORE Road. CALCUTTA 700054 : SC0 335-336. BANGALORE 560058 Gangotri Complex. 226001 Second Floor. HYDERABAD 302001 E-52. Nagar. Palayam.P. Khanpur. 62-63.
I TO AUGUST 1982 IS : 1498-1970 CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES ( First Revision) Addenda ( Page 13.AMENDMENT NO.8: ‘3. A minimum CBR value of 2 is recommended for use foi design purposes in such soil. co1 5 against Sl No. Based upon Atterberg’s limits and free swell of the soils the degree of expansion and degree of severity for soils is shown in Table 8. Table 5.to (Page 21. the CBR ~alucs after soaking are often found to be less than 2. (ii) ] 75 rnieron to 7. ’ ( Page 23.Add the following new clause after 3.Fine grained soils depending upon the presence of clay mineral exhibit low to very high degree of expansion.5 micron. 50 50-100 100-200 Low Medium High Very High Non-critical Marginal Critical Severe ~32 > 60 > 200 (BJX23) Printed at Slmco Printing Press. India . Delhi.’ [Page at the end: 14.s ) FREE SWELL ( PIUXCENT ) LIQUID LIMIT (WL) PLASTICITY INDEX DFXXWC OF EXPANSION D&ne~ OB SEVERITY ( Ip ) 20-35 35-50 50-70 70-90 < 12 12-23 23-32 < 15 15-30 30-60 <.5 micron 2 micron’ 4 ) - Add the following new matter ‘ Coarse: Fine: note 4: 7.9 ) SHRINKACE INDEX ( 1.9 Degree of Expansion . Table TABLE 8 7) - Add the following new table after Table OF FINE 7: SHOWING THE DEGREE OF EXPANSION GRADED SOILS ( Clause 3. clause 3.i’ote Add the following new note after ‘iVoTE 5 -In most of the expansive soils.8 ) . The thickness of the pavements for such small values turn out to extremely high and impracticable. .
line 5): lines 10 and 12 (Page 6. -and para 2. Appendix A.4.AMENDMENT NO. matter against '75. Delhi. 2 TO SEPTEMBER 1987 IS:1498-1970 CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING PURPOSES (First Revision) (Page 4. para 1. --Table 1.4(b) and cc>]: (Page 14. IS:1498-1970): Substitute existing. clause 2. Note 3) . line 3): [Page 7. Table 5.Dry density relation using heavy compaction (second revision).4.Substitute 'IS:2720(Part 81-1983' for 'IS:2720(Bart 8)-1965'.' (BDC 23) Printed at Slmco Prlntlno Press. India .Substitute the following for the existing footnote: '*Method of soils: Part 8 test for Determination of water content . clause 3. clause 3. mm' for '80 mm' wnerevek (Page 21.3. co1 5. footnote with '*' mark) . (Page21. lines 6 and 8): (Page 24.