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Mentoring in Education The Mentor as Critical Friend
Skills for Life Improvement Programme
Skills for Life Improvement Programme
Mentoring in Education
TE4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend
Tutor: Dr Michael Stokes
The Skills for Life Improvement Programme is delivered on behalf of the Quality Improvement Agency by CfBT Education Trust and partners
CfBT Education Trust 60 Queens Road Reading, RG1 4BS
T: 0118 902 1920 F: 0845 838 1207 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.sflip.org.uk
These are: • • • • • • • • • • • • CfBT Education Trust Edexcel/ Pearson Epic General Federation of Trade Unions LLU+ London South Bank University Learning and Skills Network National Foundation for Education Research The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education National Research and Development Centre Skill: National Bureau for Students with Disabilities The Network University of Wolverhampton QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 2 . systems and materials to help deliver the Skills for Life strategy in the future. It is an innovative programme designed to support creative change in a wide variety of self-improving organisations. It builds on previous initiatives. making best use of people. The programme is delivered through three separate strands: • • • Strand 1 – Workforce development Strand 2 – A whole organisation approach to quality improvement Strand 3 – Innovation in teaching and learning The Skills for Life Improvement Programme is delivered by a consortium led by CfBT.Skills for Life Improvement Programme The Mentor as Critical Friend TE4056 Introduction The Skills for Life Improvement Programme is new. The consortium includes some of the key national agencies.
gain knowledge and skills in coaching and mentoring 5. Such a programme for staff new to an institution helps them develop into dynamic and resourceful educational leaders who can respond to the diverse academic and social needs of their colleagues and/or their learners. outline how they will put into practice a coaching and mentoring model in their organisations. define and differentiate between coaching and mentoring 4. recognise the value of coaching and mentoring in their work with their colleagues 3. identify future professional development needs. Aims To enable participants to enhance their mentoring and coaching skills by: • • • setting up coaching and mentoring programmes. There will also be an additional Reader to be used alongside your practice.Skills for Life Improvement Programme This is one of two modules that make up the Postgraduate Certificate in Mentoring and Coaching in Education. Outcomes To enable participants to: 1. achieve The Mentor as Critical Friend certificate 7. The Mentor as Critical Friend (TE 4056) concentrates on how the concepts and skills of mentoring and coaching are set within current professional contexts of Skills for Life. The programme is designed to engage new and experienced mentors and coaches in a consideration of their contribution to the training and support of others and to their own professional development. evaluating the effectiveness of coaching and mentoring as a mode of continuing professional development making Skills for Life developments sustainable and embedded within the fabric of organisations. Introduction A well conceived mentoring and coaching programme contributes to a culture of learning in an organisation and supports broad-based leadership and high levels of professional quality in staff. Module 1. The module enables participants to understand how they carry out their practice. In this handbook you will find a series of activities and supporting material and ideas that should help you to meet the outcomes of the module. consider the role of mentor and coach in their organisation 2. suggesting possible barriers and strategies for overcoming these 6. Research also shows that mentoring programmes have the potential to decrease the number of staff who leave an organisation in their first year of practice. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 3 .
On the timeline place an arrow at the year of influence and the initials or name of the person who was influential. will a colleague be seeking the same things from a mentor or coach? Do you as a whole class feel there is anything missing from the lists? (b) As a mentor/coach who will have to meet the needs of this colleague. Age 10 Now How many do you remember? What made them so influential? Those memories should help you decide what is required by a protégé from a mentor or coach. Compare your list with those from other groups. Activity (a) With a group of colleagues. You could consider a ‘timeline’ of your life and identify when a person was influential.Skills for Life Improvement Programme It is unlikely that you are unfamiliar with the role of mentor or coach. list what you feel is required from a mentor by a colleague in a mentoring relationship. On completion. It is likely that there will have been several people who have been influential in your life at particular times or stages. compare your list with those from other groups – are they similar. Are you in agreement? Do you possess those qualities/attributes? If you do not have all of these attributes does that mean you should not be a mentor/coach? QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 4 . Or: List what you feel is required from a coach by a colleague in a coaching relationship. Think about someone who has influenced you in your life and why they were influential. what qualities/attributes do you have to have in order to meet their expectations? In your small group produce a list.
take decisions and approach complex issues.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Other groups have produced a list of skills and attributes for mentors/coaches: compare your list with theirs. the mentor offers guidance. Both share a common purpose of developing a strong two-way learning relationship. they are off-line. counselling and support in the form of pragmatic and objective assistance. Mentors can help individuals reach significant decisions about complex issues. Mentoring is a positive development activity. In this way. It is a process in which the mentor offers ongoing support and development opportunities to the mentee. The aim of mentoring is to build the capability of the mentees to the point of self-reliance while accelerating the communication of ideas across the organisation. The mentoring relationship is confidential. Sharing views and ideas builds QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 5 . where relevant. they help clarify the mentee’s perspective while bringing an additional view to bear on the issues. The mentor offers a safe environment to the mentee within which they can discuss work-related issues and explore solutions to challenges. Mentors are not there to solve problems but rather to illuminate the issues and to help plan ways through them. Through skilful questioning. (2001) Everyone Needs a Mentor. and. they can challenge assumptions. Mentoring has proved to be very effective in transferring tacit knowledge within an organisation. 3rd edition. the mentors are not required to evaluate the current work performance of the mentees. For this reason. highlighting how effective people think. in a formal mentoring scheme. offering insights into the ways the organisation works. D. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel Development: “Mentoring is a partnership between two people built upon trust. Mentoring helps mentees and mentors progress their personal and professional growth. They are there to help the learner manage his/her own learning. See CUREE (2005) The National Framework of Mentoring and Coaching London: DfES (in the Reader). Addressing issues and blockages identified by the mentee. how the informal networks operate and how they think about the challenges and opportunities they encounter. Mentors can discuss current issues relating to the mentee’s work. Is there anything missing from your list in comparison with the others? The lists illustrate the various views of what is thought to be a mentor/coach and to some extent these lists help define a mentor/coach. From Clutterbuck. mentors are rarely in a line relationship. Mentors can advise on development and how to manage a career plan. they can share their own experience. Its primary focus tends to be on the acquisition of people skills which enable individuals to operate effectively at high levels of management.
refine and build skills. and personal characteristics. 1995). mentoring can provide individuals with opportunities to enhance cultural awareness. to facilitate personal and career growth and development. 2001. Coaching within the context of a mentoring relationship has to do with the skill of helping an individual fill a particular knowledge gap by learning how to do things more effectively (Zachary. or desires. 1) Mentoring is typically defined as: a relationship between an experienced and a less experienced person in which the mentor provides guidance. p. share ideas. and to expand opportunities for those traditionally hampered by organisational barriers. advice.Skills for Life Improvement Programme understanding and trust. support.” (Bennet & Martin. or solve problems in the workplace (Robbins. address the goals of the [organisation and their learners]. What is a coach/coaching? Kilburg (1996. Murphy. Mentoring is a way to help new employees learn about organisational culture (Bierema. aesthetic appreciation. invaluable when difficult decisions arise. 6). 1991). p. and involve individual teachers in determining the direction their learning is to go (Joyce. The benefits of mentoring are not only work related.. and the potential to lead meaningful lives (Galbraith and Cohen. coach’s strengths should fall into three areas: knowledge. purpose. 135) defines coaching as “a helping relationship formed between a client… and a consultant who uses a wide variety of behavioural techniques and methods”. (p. Coaching is always part of mentoring. a. Peer coaching is a confidential process through which two or more professional colleagues work together to reflect on current practices. In summary. Kilburg further contends that the aim of this coaching intervention is to achieve a “mutually identified set of goals…”. The attributes of a coach For coaching to be effective. 1995). QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 6 . p. The mentor and mentee relationship often evolves into a key friendship. and site of the mentoring relationship. 4–5) What is a mentor/mentoring? Hall (2003) suggests that: • mentoring is an ill-defined concept which is deeply contested by some critics who see some manifestations of it as built upon a questionable ‘deficit’ model. and feedback to the protégé (Haney. take into account the context in which learning is taking place. such as women and minorities (Gunn. & Murphy. conduct classroom research. Showers. teach one another.. it must offer a high level of content knowledge. but coaching does not always involve mentoring. 1989). 74). expand. skills. The International Coaching Federation (ICF) defines coaching as “… an ongoing relationship that focuses on clients taking action toward the realisation of their visions. 1996). nature. 1997). 2000.” (pp. goals. • mentoring exists in many forms which are at least partly defined by the origin.
For example. subject areas. “the biggest problem for researchers into mentoring is still defining what it is” (Clutterbuck. • • • Feger et al (2004) suggest that coaches need specific knowledge and skills: • • • • • • Interpersonal skills Content knowledge Pedagogical knowledge Knowledge of the curriculum Awareness of coaching resources Knowledge of the practice of coaching How do coaches use their skills? Other definitions and analyses The problem with any study of mentoring begins at the very beginning for. tutoring. and student needs possesses the characteristic of being a good listener. 1998). Similarly the role of the QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 7 . For example. volunteering. youth mentoring has been associated with programmes aiming at coaching. which includes asking open-ended questions and using pauses effectively possesses the characteristic of being trustworthy. we find that we are back in what has been described as the ‘definitional quagmire’ (Roberts.11). instruction. and researcher possesses teaching skill that can be used to model lessons and strategies. this does not take us very far: as soon as we attempt to describe what this means in practice. skills. as Clutterbuck noted at the Third European Mentoring conference in 1996. uses knowledge. and standards has knowledge of curriculum-driven support materials and technologyenhanced resources for grade levels. assessment.Skills for Life Improvement Programme A coach: • • • • has knowledge of curriculum. in a nonjudgmental manner” (Gulam and Zulfiqar. often drawn directly from dictionaries. 2000) surrounding mentoring.1996). The emphasis on ‘care’ and a ‘non-judgmental manner’ are the features which are taken to distinguish mentoring from other forms of instruction. which includes honouring confidentiality and being consistent in language and behaviour has skills in collaborating with others and being a team player has skills in being a good note-taker. teaching. role modelling and advising. counselling. p. However. A typical example would be the characterisation of mentoring as “conceptually it is the classic strategy: the more experienced shall care for and train the less experienced. collector of data. 2004. Simple rule-of-thumb definitions abound in the literature. and characteristics to provide feedback and new ideas for various situations. Philip (1999) has the following to say about the litany of terms associated with mentoring: Mentoring can hold a range of meanings and the terminology reveals a diverse set of underlying assumptions. (LPA.
Clearly some of the meanings are contradictory. a career development process. In order for mentoring relationships to function well. p. mentoring can perform an important function in helping people develop their highest potential. especially in the absence of explanatory frameworks (p. sponsoring.. protector and preceptor. The contingent attributes of the mentoring phenomenon appear as: coaching. a reflective process. ‘advising’. protégés or learners is bewilderingly various. Such a climate includes mutual trust. as are praising positive growth. individuals should strive to develop their capacity to learn from and support the learning of others. 125). counsellor. client. apprentice. a teaching-learning process. but does little to indicate what. if anything. p. The process of mentoring itself may also be described variously as ‘reciprocal’. volunteer. adviser. and appreciation. Daloz emphasised the importance of giving the protégé voice so that both mentor and protégé can see movement in perspectives and thinking. or ‘facilitating’. attempts to cut through this ‘quagmire’ by distinguishing between what he sees as the essential and the contingent attributes of mentoring: Mentoring appears to have the essential attributes of: a process. If ‘everyone is capable of being a teacher (mentor) and a learner (mentee)’ (ibid. role-modelling. mutual trust and non-judgmental listening are crucial to ‘move the [protégé’s] reflections onto a level where meanings are made’ (1986. If developing learning organisations in a learning society is a desirable social goal. 1–2). in a re-reading of mentoring literature published between 1978 and 1999. sponsor. There are a few guiding principles for effective mentoring. a healthy psychological climate must be maintained to provide a mutually beneficial and growth producing experience. leader. as ‘a collaborative enterprise’ with shared ideals or as a ‘learning process’ by which the mentor leads by example. champion. ‘leading’. eventually introducing conflict to promote selfexamination and further development of alternative perspectives. a supportive relationship. a formalised process. ‘helping’. autonomy. a helping process. Roberts (2000). coach. The terminology surrounding mentors. ‘providing a mirror… to extend QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 8 . vague and sometimes misleading. In general however knowledge and understanding about the processes which take place within mentoring relationships remain at a preliminary stage. respect. pupil. mentoring and mentees. guide.Skills for Life Improvement Programme mentor has been described as role model. assessing and an informal process. Motivation is critical throughout the mentoring relationship. According to Daloz (1986). and a role constructed by and for a mentor. 92). care. modelling appropriate professional conduct. A similar range of terms may apply to the mentee: protégé. is unique to mentoring that can distinguish it from other forms of educational process. This certainly demonstrates the potential for confusion. aspirant. etc.
QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 9 . In Area B list just a few of your talents that are not so obvious to others. 234). On the diagram below in Area A identify those of your talents that are obvious to all.Skills for Life Improvement Programme the student’s self-awareness’(p. and watching for signs that the relationship may be transformative and growth producing for both partners. but what other attributes do you possess? In order to mentor others it would be helpful if you knew more about the person you are. Mentor capability Task Hidden talents Malderez (2001) suggests that much of our talent remains hidden until required and that we are rather like an iceberg in which seven eighths of our talents are hidden beneath the surface. Are you capable of being a mentor. do you have the necessary attributes? As you are studying this module you will undoubtedly have the professional experience to be a mentor.
would you be a capable mentor? QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 10 .Skills for Life Improvement Programme Activity The Iceberg Area A Known Area B Unknown From Malderez and Bodóczky (2001) Share your findings with a close colleague – perhaps identify some similar talents. However. It is likely that after some thought you recognise that you do have a range of talents that could help meet the needs of a protégé.
Standard-prodder 7. & O’Hara. Idea-bouncer 12. Tutor This is an adaptation from: Cameron-Jones. The following questionnaire may help you determine more objectively if you do have the capabilities of being a mentor. Energiser 4. 25. Model Low 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 High 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2. No. 2. Problem-solver 13. pp. ‘Mentors’ perceptions of their roles with students in Initial Teacher Training’. M. Challenger 15. Career counsellor 14. Investor 5. Intermediary 18. 189-199. Supporter 6. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 11 . Door-opener 11. an instrument developed by Will Schutz for leadership training. Assessor 17. Envisioner 3. (1995). Coach 8. Vol. Friend 16. Feedback-giver 9. Cambridge Journal of Education. The Mentor Scale is inspired by the FIRO-B. P. high or low? Features of the mentor role I. Eye-opener 10.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Aspects of the mentor role Where do you think you will be.
After completing the questionnaire fill out your score form. The Mentor Scale 1. get involved b.Skills for Life Improvement Programme The Mentor Scale This scale lists 39 sentence stems. I believe leaders should be more concerned about employee 10. I am typically 17. mercy b. People generally see me as 7. When people I depend on make mistakes. Work days I like most are 3. comfortable a. jump in b. rights a. open b.. each with two possible endings. orderly b. most people probably see me as 16. Read each item carefully but choose your response quickly. listener people would most likely remember me as a 15. impatient b. feelings b. hard-nosed a. easy-going a. Most people see me as 13. guarded b. justice a. planned b. When it comes to celebrations. When I eat out. When I encounter people in need of help. Instruments like this tend to be more accurate if you go with your immediate reaction rather than pondering on your choice. People probably see me as 2. You will find some items in which neither choice is perfectly accurate. unpredictable a. firm b. When it come to social situations I 8. spontaneous a. My approach to planning my personal activities is 6. I know I like QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 12 . a soft touch b. follow a. private a. personable b. My friends know that I am a. avoid a. Do not leave items blank. I typically 12. a. When I am in a group. Select the one that seems better. If I were in a group of strangers. lead b. routine b. patient a. gentle b. quickly review each item and circle the letter of the ending that you think best completes the sentence. hold back a. sounds unique b. most organisations need 4. When I evaluate people my decisions are based on 5. I generally order food that a. more b. I like to spend my leisure time in ways that are fairly 9. I’m more likely to 11. When it come to expressing my feelings. leader 14. fewer a. formal a. Keeping your work environment in mind.
my emotional fuse is usually 20. careful b. embarrassed a. alone a. calm a. too loud b. the theatre a. In general I prefer 19. friend a. carefree a. listen a. My social blunders typically leave me 35. my initial reaction is to 26. indirect a. direct b. when anger is involved. completed b. an optimist a. critical b. Most people see me as 29. awkward a. When my organisation announces a major change. exhausted myself 32. In a conflict. sad a. If people were given a forced choice they would say I was a. with others b. Change is most often my 39. short a. a party b. passive a. When I am blamed for something I did not cause. logic a. In a festive social situation. I am usually 25. I am best at getting them 33. When in a new and unfamiliar situation. active b. amused b. People are likely to see me as 37. My work and social life a. are separate QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 13 . If I am in a situation in which I lose or am left disappointed. long b. too quiet b. I would most likely be 21. uncritical a. a pessimist b. dedication a. People usually see me as 30. warm b. mad b. If someone came to me in tears. energised b. I am usually 24. often overlap 31. At the end of a long party. When I work on projects. excited a. at home b. defend b. adversary b. In an emergency situation. inspiration b. I get 27. I get 36.Skills for Life Improvement Programme 18. anxious b. I believe people should approach their work with 34. After a tough day. I would probably feel 28. started a. firm a. concerned b. I am likely to be ruled by 23. emotion b. I prefer to express myself to others in ways that are 22. I like to unwind 38. I usually find a.
26. 36. 11. 9. and openness. 37 Totals ________ Dominance Count up your thirteen dominance items ‘a’ 2. 38 Totals __________ ________ ‘b’ ________ ‘b’ Openness Count up your thirteen openness items ‘a’ 3. 34. count up your ‘a’ and ‘b’ for the thirteen sociability items ‘a’ 1. 29. a coach’s need for sociability. 21. Sociability has to do with your preference for being with or apart from others. 5. 25. 31. 39 Totals ___________ ________ ‘b’ From: Bell. 18. 35. 30. 28. 4. 12. 27. 20. 10. dominance. 23. 14. 33. 13. at one point in time.Skills for Life Improvement Programme The Scoring Form Sociability Using simple hatch marks. 16. 19. 24. pages 23–28. 6. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 14 . 15. San Francisco. Interpretation This scale measures. 32. C (2002) Managers as Mentors. 8. 17. 7. USA: BerretKoehler Publishers. 22.
High column ‘b’ scores are typical of people with many close relationships. We do not use a similar selection process for protégé on the course but there is information available for protégé selection on websites. however. e.peer. their challenge is to be candid and open enough to encourage their colleague to do likewise. depending on the situation. Openness refers to how easily you trust others. while not being so aggressive as to overwhelm or intimidate them. People with balance scores are neither highly dominant nor highly submissive. Low-openness scores. www. People with high column ‘b’ scores tend to like being in control and often assert that need. Dominance is about your preference regarding being in charge. Low dominance scores can also indicate a high need for independence. People with similar ‘a’ and ‘b’ scores are moderately open or moderately cautious. their instinctive guardedness can make their colleague feel that mistakes might have dire consequences. Low sociability scores are found among people whose reserve may make them a bit unapproachable. will need to work at overcoming their caution in order to take early emotional and interpersonal risks with the colleague. People with similar numbers of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are neither highly sociable nor highly reserved. who are comfortable being vulnerable and tend to express their feelings easily. Your coached colleague has talents and experience that you will be able to draw on as you develop your relationship with them.Skills for Life Improvement Programme People with high column ‘a’ scores in sociability tend to be reserved loners. The whole concept of peer coaching is based on a relationship of shared power. may need to work to assume leadership of the relationship. They may take such a low-key. guarded. they can be moderately sociable or moderately reserved. depending on the situation.ca or QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 15 . In fact. They can control moderately or not at all.g. The above tasks have helped you have a clearer picture of who you are and what you might become. High column ‘a’ scores are found among people who are cautious. People with high column ‘a’ scores are comfortable having someone else do the leading. and reluctant to show feelings. High-openness scorers will find it easy to reveal themselves in a coaching relationship. and often prefer it. What does sociability have to do with coaching? People who have high sociability scores will find the rapport-building and dialogue-leading dimensions of coaching easier. those with high column ‘b’ scores tend to be outgoing joiners. High-dominance scorers are reluctant either to give up control or to share control of the relationship. on the other hand. laissez-faire approach that their colleague feels insecure and without guidance. they have to work hard to listen rather than talk. Low-dominance scorers. They will have to work hard to avoid dominating discussions. depending on the situation. These people will need to work harder at helping colleagues open up and communicate. Dominance is a major issue in coaching with a partnering philosophy.
Mentors and protégés both gain from the experience. new staff can focus on professional development and serving students. ‘equality can be achieved between all participants’ (p. Stanulis & Russell (2000) also view ‘mutuality’ as a feature of the mentoring relationship and insist. from one-on-one mentorprotégé partnerships.or. a formal programme with in-depth mentor preparation and support must be in place. The idea of mentoring is that it is a particular kind of personal relationship in which there is some degree of choice between the parties to it.us The first meeting between mentor and protégé is usually the most difficult or awkward for many prospective mentors and the following information may help.g. Basic assumptions about mentoring • • • • • • Beginning educators need and deserve ongoing professional development opportunities. AoC. new staff will focus on survival. which may be found on the www.lsc. Without mentoring. 79). QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 16 .gov. LSC (2001) Mentoring Towards Excellence.ode. If a district has expectations for a mentoring program. • From Oregon State Mentoring Programme 2004: www. Gehrke (1988) makes exactly this point when she writes that the mentor-protégé relationship requires ‘desire by both parties’ (p. 43).uk website. Mentor programmes built on a knowledge base of best practices have the greatest potential for success.state. Mentoring is the central feature of any successful beginning educator induction programme. to teams of mentors working with single or multiple protégés. Thus. e. Landay argues that mentoring exists only in the context of a collaborative relationship based on a partnership in which neither party holds a position of power over the other.Skills for Life Improvement Programme in texts. Mentoring partnerships can vary widely. With mentoring. the relationship can be understood as one that is not based on rank but on a mentor's greater experience and wisdom.
note the comments from Shea. Ask: What is the most useful kind of assistance I can provide Discuss ways: learning and communication styles Discuss the implications of each other’s styles and how they might affect the relationship. expectations. (2002). Your style of conversation too is important. needs. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 17 . Discuss opportunities and options for learning Ask for feedback. G.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Strategies and Considerations for Initial Conversations To-Do List Take time getting to know one another Talk about mentoring Determine the protégé’s goals Strategies for Conversation Draw up a picture of your protégé through conversation Ask: ‘Have you ever been mentored before?’ Ask: ‘What do you want to learn from this experience?’ Ask: ‘What do you want out of the relationship?’ Mentor Considerations Establish rapport Exchange information Identify points of connection Talk about your own mentoring experience Determine if the protégé is clear about his or her own aims and objectives Be sure you are clear about what your protégé needs or wants from the mentoring relationship. If you are not. encourage the mentee to think through what he or she wants from the relationship Do you have an area of experience or expertise that is relevant to this person’s learning goals? What are you willing and capable of contributing to the relationship? Determine the protégé’s relationship needs and expectations Define what you will be able to do Ask: ‘What would success look like for you?’ Share your assumptions. and limitations candidly.
It illustrates why people often resist taking advice. Each new suggestion is rejected for some seemingly new reason. Most often the victim rejects the advice with ‘yes.e. ‘Buzz-off – you don’t really want to solve this problem. Advice Shea. but’. The victim’s feelings of inadequacy are real. he also has to deal with the would-be rescuer who is exasperated with him. This is hardly surprising. He not only has the original problem. The victim is convinced the problem is too big to be solved by anyone. responding with something to the effect of. The rescuer has only the information that the victim gives in response to each suggestion. And the relationship has been damaged. each party is confined in his or her own judgement. S. The would-be rescuer has confirmation that the victim was and still is inadequate. In doing so. on a way of analysing psychological games. The victim feels even more like a victim. (Shea. G (2002) describes a useful device from Karpman. followed by a reason for not taking the advice.’ At that point. she contributes the ‘why don’t you’ component to the ‘why don’t you – yes. Finally the rescuer grows impatient with the rejections and turns persecutor. G (p. The would-be rescuer accepts the inadequacy of the victim and offers advice. Persecutor Rescuer Victim Someone who feels victimised by a problem may send a plea of ‘help’ to another person who is perceived as a rescuer (i. but’ psychological game.66)) QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 18 . but their lack of ability usually is not.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Information vs. a more capable person). since the person knows all of the facts of the problem and has already considered and rejected the easy answers. Karpman called his device the ‘Drama Triangle’.
observe and learn from each other. curriculum materials. 3. Other researchers have found that. staff motivation and retention and it will improve student motivation and achievement. Research shows that results will be very low (5–10 per cent) if only theory. directly influences implementation and teacher effectiveness which leads to increased student achievement: • Lowe-achieving students are the first to benefit as teacher effectiveness improves. Thirty-one managers in public sector agencies underwent a training programme which was followed by eight weeks of one-to-one coaching. and practice are used to teach new instructional strategies with an expectation that implementation will occur. is essential for implementation of new curriculum and instructional strategies into classroom practice: • Just because a teacher has read about. There appear to be great improvements if coaching is also linked to other forms of staff development. deepens subject matter knowledge of teachers: • It encourages teachers to be action researchers: to examine student work.4 per cent. breaks down isolation: • It gives teachers opportunities to plan lessons together. Training programmes that include coaching post-training will result in increased performance. in particular. heard about.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Why use a coaching scheme in an organisation? The easiest answer is because it will improve performance in the organisation. It will improve staff performance. does NOT mean it will be used in the classroom. demonstration. offers meaningful intellectual and social engagement with ideas around teaching and learning practices: • It increases the thinking a teacher does about student work and classroom practice. share materials and strategies. 4. peer coaching: 1. (From SCCAC (2004)) • QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 19 . or attended a ‘training session’ on a new instructional strategy. • Implementation of new instructional strategies into classroom practice is high (80 per cent) when peer coaching is used 2. The training programme increased productivity by 22. Olivero et al (1997) found that coaching following a training programme significantly improved productivity. Following the coaching programme productivity increased by 88 per cent. and subject matter in relation to content and performance standards. The following statements are just some of the many that support the use of coaching and the benefits that coaching brings to individuals and organisations. 5.
reflective practice effective embedded professional learning promotes positive cultural change a focus on content encourages the use of data analysis to inform practice coaching promotes the implementation of learning and reciprocal accountability coaching supports collective. current practice appears to concentrate the opportunity amongst those who already excel. interconnected leadership across a school system. i. J.e. The commonest. suggest Creasey. CUREE (2005) point out that: “Learning to be a coach or mentor is one of the most effective ways of enabling teachers or leaders to become good and excellent practitioners. and Paterson. (2005). These are: • • • • establishing rapport and trust listening for meaning questioning for understanding prompting action. These skills are of course used in the coaching process. the one that is advocated by most coaches is that of GROW (Downey. F. in a study by CIPD (2004) they asked employers questions about the benefits of coaching: Questions asked Coaching can deliver tangible benefits to both individuals and organisations Coaching is an effective way to promote learning in organisations Coaching and mentoring are key mechanisms for transferring learning from training courses back to the workplace % of respondents who agree 99 96 93 When coaching is managed effectively it can 92 have a positive impact on an organisation's bottom line Coaching is grounded in five key skills. 2001): QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 20 .Skills for Life Improvement Programme The Annenberg Institute (2003) in their work with schools has found that: • • • • • effective coaching encourages collaborative. There are also a number of coaching techniques that complement a coach’s preferred style of working.” (p 7) Finally. reflection and learning • developing confidence and celebrating success.
Skills for Life Improvement Programme G R O W Goal for the session Reality of the contextual issues surrounding the topic Options for a way forward with the topic Wrap up the session with agreement about the next steps Activity You are the coach: how would you use GROW in your particular circumstance? What actions would you take under each of the headings in the table below? Coaching step Goal Activities Reality Options Wrap up On completing the model – in discussion with the whole group – ask: what are the issues that arose with the GROW model? Do you feel this is the model for all coaching occasions? What else would you be seeking? QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 21 .
For example.Skills for Life Improvement Programme The ‘10 minute’ session For some colleagues goal-setting may be an uncomfortable process and they may want their ‘coach’ to help them determine their goals. For example: You talked for eight out of the ten minutes I observed. (2002)) Activity You are going to observe 10 minutes of a video of a teacher working with a group of adults. if a colleague is seeking the help of a coach to improve their teaching they may not recognise which aspect of their teaching they need to improve first. Step 7 – decide on the next steps. B. Step 2 – seek agreement to watch them teaching.) Step 5 – once they are comfortable agree with them what aspects of the session they wish you to observe. Many staff are not comfortable with other colleagues sitting in on their session. Step 1 – they have to decide whether teaching is the issue that they should be considering. e. After the 10 minutes you are going to be asked a number of questions: For what three things you observed would you congratulate the teacher? What three things you observed would you wish to discuss with the teacher? Thinking about the end of the Day 1 session. I thought it went well. how will you report your views to the teacher? If you had been the teacher observed by the coach how comfortable would you be by the comments made? How do you make your comments comfortable? One answer is to only report facts to your colleague. Step 6 – meet after the observation to offer your report on your observation. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 22 . (After: Gottesman. You do not report or offer value judgements. Step 3 – watch them teaching for 10 minutes. (You may have to watch them two or more times before they feel they are not disturbed by your presence. two of them to named individuals and three to the class as a whole. This requires a number of steps. Step 4 – check if they were comfortable with you in the classroom/workshop.g. Agree what you will be looking for and what you will take notes on. You asked five questions.
Your reports are always late. Neutral Terms Your last three reports were 2–3 days late.g. Describe them first in evaluative terms and then in neutral terms that are specific and measurable. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 23 . ________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 3._________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 1. 1. neutral terms Think of three personal performance problems you have encountered. ________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Feedback There is a lot of advice about giving feedback: some of it is down to style and some of it is down to views of learning.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Evaluative vs. Evaluative Terms e. _________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 2. _________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 3. ________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 2.
uk/schools/mentors. administrative tasks. techniques/skill issues. relate to behaviour not to the person. be honest. avoid exaggerations.g.html This exercise has considered the performance of lecturers in the classroom/workshop but coaching and the techniques offered may also be used in a range of other contexts.com/articles/default. not vague or general. not instruct. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 24 .go4uni. focus on what can be changed rather than on what can not. accurate. Found in http://www.ac.Skills for Life Improvement Programme There is the advice to keep it SIMPLE from Ford (2003): Feedback skills Sensitive Issue related Meaningful Prompt Listen Easy to understand From Lynda Ford 27 April 2003 from http://www.trainingfoundation. management issues. ask questions rather than make statements. e. encourage self-evaluation. suggest.asp?PageID=1170 There is advice from South Yorkshire: Feedback should: • • • • • • • • • be precise and specific. focus on the receiver and offer feedback which is of use to them – it is not a chance to show off your powers of observation. career progression.
(The article ‘Flying Solo’ may help. Provide feedback – record the feedback. This would be close to 1000 words in total. record those you refer to. You may also state if you were evaluative or neutral in your feedback.g. those from Woodd or from Anderson and Shannon – does this help you re-write a definition?) What are you expecting from the mentoring process? Do you have a model of the mentoring process that you might use? (Are you an Egan or a Kolb type?) Who is your protégé? What is their background? What do they teach? (Some mentors find it helpful to identify the learning styles of their protégé and compare it to their own – Mumford’s article suggests this is important. e.g.) Does your protégé have a scheme of work. Action Plan. Part 2 Lesson observation – keep a record of your observation – in writing. or current lesson plans? Congratulate them: they have already met some of the FENTO standards. Observe with the action plan in mind – record your observation. depending upon how easy you find it to write. Think of it in four parts: Part 1 The context – who are you and what brings you to mentoring. did you behave like a coach or a mentor? Another 500 words! Part 3 Carry out a second observation perhaps a month after the first. compare it to the suggestions in ‘Mentoring Towards Excellence’ you may wish to state whether you felt comfortable as the observer. (The Mentor Scale indicated the sort of Mentor you would be – do you agree with it? Why might it not be accurate. You may wish to write about the way you observed. Provide feedback – keep a record of your feedback – in writing. Another 1000 words! QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 25 . e. share some of them with your protégé. The following advice should help. make a note of what was said – perhaps link it to one of the readings. (Compare it to the definitions in the readings. This could be 1500 or 2000 words. You may have meetings with your protégé at other times – record them.) Produce an action plan for your protégé as a result of the observation and feedback.Skills for Life Improvement Programme In order to meet the requirements of TE4056 you must complete the assignment. why might you not wish to agree?) What do you understand about mentoring – you will have a definition of mentoring from the first workshop. Consider the FENTO standards. The Assessment Task for ‘The Mentor as Critical Friend’ This is made up of an evidence file based on your work as a mentor with a protégé.
Quotations or paraphrasing should not be italicised.Skills for Life Improvement Programme This observation and feedback to be observed by a University tutor. All could be published! You will need to refer to some of the literature to support your views.120) name is used here outside of the brackets (parentheses) because it is “an integral part of the sentence” whereas elsewhere the author’s name is shown in parentheses because the name is not part of the sentence (Thumb 2002). p. p. this last piece will be 300 – 400 words. The best could be published. in this case Coyote.27) then you must also include the page number. Brief guide to Harvard Referencing Paraphrasing is the act of taking the essence or key themes of an author’s work and presenting those ideas in your own words. (Fry 2002. coloured or emboldened. “the exact words of the original text” (Footsore 1999. Be critical of the verification information – use the articles and other reading or activity. Paraphrased work is indicated by use of the author’s name and the date of publication (Armpit 2002). Where you have used a direct quotation i. The author's surname. Where the author is unknown the citation should appear thus: (Anon. Finally. Be critical. Thumb’s (2001. pp. The following guide will help you set out those references accurately. 127–128) QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 26 . p. indented five spaces from the left margin and typed with single spacing but without quotation marks. You will receive a verification statement of this ‘joint’ observation. The only necessary indicators of quotation or paraphrasing are the use of name and date with the inclusion of double quotation marks and page(s) for direct quotation (Fry 2002). The final evidence file will be around 4000 words. Part 4 Record your conclusions about your mentoring. 2000). 34) is the correct way of citing a secondary source though in the references section “the writer should reference only the source that was actually encountered”. date and appropriate page number(s) appear at the end. 1987 (in Coyote 1997.e. underlined. Wiley. Fry adds: Where a quotation is more than 4 lines in length it should be introduced by a colon followed by two empty lines.
g. only ever the author’s last name. just a list of the actual sources cited in the text. The School of Education does not require Bibliographies.5 line-spaced. it does not include the references section or appendices. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 27 . website addresses. Tahoma).e.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Other tips First names. Arial. Submitted work should be at least 12 pt font of a suitable type (e. Work should be at least 1. journal or book titles should not normally appear in the text. Wordage includes all of the direct quotation and paraphrasing used in the text. only References i. Each page should be numbered and should include your name. Times.
E. 66.H. l.J. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education no. 6–8. H. J. Daloz. B. pp. 2(3). M.2 pp 14-18. L.W. Woleck. and Paterson. No. Journal of Staff Development.uk/media/416/5B/leading-coaching-in-schools. P. and Murphy. Annenberg Institute for School Reform (2003) Instructional Coaching. Summer 1995. pp. CUREE (2005) Mentoring and Coaching for Learning: Summary report of the mentoring and coaching CPD capacity building project 2004 .L. (2004) ‘How to develop a Coaching Eye’. and Cohen. Consulting to Management.A. ‘Effects of Race. F. and Contact on Mentor Relationships’. (2001) ‘The next professional wave: Consultant/coach’. 3rd edition. 7. Downey. Vol. N. (1998) The Mentoring Pocketbook. Providence. CA: Jossey-Bass. Blackwell.pdf. Perceived Similarity. S. M. (1997) A second chance: Developing mentoring and education projects for young people. (2001c) ‘Righting rewritings of the myth of mentor: A critical perspective on career guidance mentoring’. Vol. S. (2001) Effective Coaching. (2001) Everyone Needs a Mentor. 29 (2). See www. (2005) Leading Coaching in Schools. RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform. Bennett. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Nottingham: NCSL. E. Benioff. (1996) ‘How executive women learn corporate culture’. Galbraith. 3 (June 1997): 460-481.L. Creasy.. Ensher. G. K. San Francisco. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. no.A. and Hickman. Colley. Clutterbuck. Gender. (1986) Effective Teaching and Mentoring: Realizing the Transformational Power of Adult Experiences. (eds. No.Skills for Life Improvement Programme References Alred. London: Commission for Racial Equality. 25. Garvey. Journal of Vocational Behavior 50. Coventry: CUREE. London: Texere. London: CIPD. CIPD (2004) Coaching and Buying Coaching Services.org. D. (EJ 511 202-208). (EJ 543 999) Feger.2005. 2 pp 145-164. London: CIPD. in Human Resource Development Quarterly. and Smith. 177–197. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 28 . J. S.) ‘Mentoring: New Strategies and Challenges’. D. Bierema. R. & Martin.ncsl.
(1999) Positive Teacher Appraisal through Classroom Observation. ‘The Role of Mentorship in the Workplace’ in Workplace Education. C. C. R. 26. 39-45. W. Olivero. 64–67. Vol. D. (1988) ‘Preserving the essence of mentoring as one form of teacher leadership’. M. K. E. Rhodes. Kram. J. 134–44.5 No. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. 48. (1997) ‘Executive coaching as a transfer of training tool: Effects of productivity in a public agency’. (2003) Mentoring Young People: A Literature Review. Landay. pp. and Bodóczky.26 No. and Hampton. R. in Mentoring and Tutoring. E. Haney. ‘Mentoring: The Democratic Version’. K. (1983) ‘Phases of the mentor relationship’. 461–9.J. (1999) Mentor Courses. 1–15. Gunn. (1996) ‘Towards a conceptual understanding and definition of executive coaching’. 608–25. 4. edited by M. pp. Coaching and Peer-networking.A. M. SCRE Research Report 114 Glasgow: University of Glasgow. 3. Megginson. pp. N.. 4 pp. D. Lanham. 8 (August 1995): pp. 59–63.R. 2. (2004) Techniques for Coaching and Mentoring. (1998) ‘Mentoring: Dr Plum’s elixir and the alchemist’s stone’. USA: Scarecrow Education. Montgomery. 211–228. MD. Training 32. (2004) A Practical Guide to Mentoring. Vol. 43–45 Gottesman. Vol. G. Illinois: Learning Point Associates.L. www. Stokes. (2002) Peer Coaching for Educators.org Malderez.learningpt. London: Routledge Falmer. Taylor. pp. G.C. pp. & Clutterbuck.D. Ontario: Culture. Gulam. 67. A.. No. Hall. no. (2000) ‘Mentoring: pitfalls and potential for young people?’ in Youth and Policy No. A.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Gehrke. & Kopelman. Journal of Teacher Education 39 1 (1988). K. Bane. pp. D. and Zulfiqar. (1998) ‘Mutual mentoring: Designing and teaching a linked university/ secondary school course on literacy’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Consulting Psychology Journal. Phillip. B. Leading First Associates (LPA) (2004) Reading First Coaching: A Guide for Coaches and Reading First Leaders. London: David Fulton. in Academy of Management Journal. Public Personnel Management. Toronto. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 29 . Kilburg.E. English Journal 88 1 (1998).C.
VA. (2002) Mentoring.Skills for Life Improvement Programme Robbins. 3rd edition. pp. in Mentoring and Tutoring. P. (1991) How to Plan and Implement a Peer Coaching Program. pp. (2000) ‘Jumping in: Trust and communication in mentoring student teachers’. USA: SCCAC. G. LA. 65–80. and Russell. D. Shea. Stanulis. Southern California Comprehensive Assistance Center (SCCAC) (2004) Coaching for Results: Peer Coaching Study Teams to Increase Professional and Students Learning. Alexandria. No. Teaching and Teacher Education 16 (2000). Vol. A. R. 145–170.N. (2000) ‘Mentoring re-visited: a phenomenological reading of the literature’. Crisp: Menlo Park. 2. 8. Roberts. QIA Skills for Life Improvement Programme – D2 Coaching and Mentoring Mentoring in Education: TE 4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend 30 . USA. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Skills for Life Improvement Programme Skills for Life Improvement Programme Mentoring in Education TE4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend: A Reader .
(1995) Issues in Mentoring. B. J. Maynard. 8. Vol. M. P.L. No. 145–170. D. 2. Gibb. 2. Fabian. pp. 7. 97–106. 9. 28–52. 39. 101–111. Vol. (2000) ‘Mentoring in professional development: the English and Welsh experience’ – extract from Moon. 1. N.H. pp. Vol. 9.H. H. Roberts. pp. 11. pp 39–48. N. (1995) ‘Towards a conceptualization of mentoring’ – extract from Kerry. & Gilchrist. .Skills for Life Improvement Programme TE4056 The Mentor as Critical Friend: A Reader Contents 1. Vol. (1995) ‘The Mentor Role: Six Behavioural Functions’ – extract from Cohen. pp. Cohen. pp. 187–190. Montgomery. 117–125. 3. J.31.D. Anderson. (2000) ‘Learning to Teach or Learning to Manage Mentors? Experiences of school-based teacher training’ in Mentoring & Tutoring. No. A. E. (1997) ‘Mentoring in further and higher education: learning from the literature’ in Education + Training. T. 5. pp. A. Vol. Butcher. (1999) Teacher Appraisal Through Classroom Observation. 8. Florida. 2. 333– 343. London: OU Press/Routledge. No. A. (2002) ‘Mentoring the Experienced Teacher’ in Mentoring & Tutoring. (1999) ‘Classroom Observation’ – extract from Montgomery. E. 6. (2003) ‘What do we do when we talk about mentoring? Blooms and thorns’ in British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. and Shelton Mayes. Vol. (2000) Leading Professional Development in Education. I. (1995) ‘Learning styles and mentoring’ in Industrial and Commercial Training. 8. 4.25–34. S. No.8. pp.. pp. No.. London: Routledge Falmer. and Shannon. 10. (2000) ‘Mentoring Revisited: a phenomenological reading of the literature’ in Mentoring & Tutoring. Mumford. Butcher. Woodd. (1999) ‘Flying Solo: understanding the postlesson dialogue between student teacher and mentor’ in Mentoring & Tutoring. D. A. 1. 4-9. USA: Krieger Publishing. Vol. Bird. Mentoring Adult Learners. pp. No.A. 7. T. 10. 27. 2. & Simpson. pp. No. John. 17–30. A.
gov.uk .uk Action for Employment Edexcel/Pearson Epic General Federation of Trade Unions LLU+ London South Bank University Learning and Skills Network The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education National Research and Development Centre Skill: National Bureau for Students with Disabilities The Network University of Wolverhampton The Skills for Life Improvement Programme is delivered on behalf of the Quality Improvement Agency by CfBT Education Trust and partners CfBT Education Trust 60 Queens Road Reading RG1 4BS T: 0118 902 1920 F: 0845 838 1207 E: sﬂipinfo@cfbt.org.com W: email@example.com Website: www.The Skills for Life Improvement Programme is delivered on behalf of the Quality Improvement Agency by CfBT Education Trust and partners For more information on QIA’s other Skills for Life projects please contact QIA: Quality Improvement Agency for Lifelong Learning (QIA) Friars House Manor House Drive Coventry CV1 2TE Tel: 0870 1620 632 Helpline: 0870 2113 434 Fax: 0870 1620 633 E-mail: general.gsi.sﬂip.org.
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