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1. INTRODUCTION Speaking is a productive (creative, useful) skill because a speaker needs a listener. So, it is more complex than listening. It often follows listening. The more you listen, the more you speak. In Pakistan and most of other countries, it is a neglected skill. As, Martin Bygate observes in his book ‘Speaking’ that speaking is ‘an undervalued skill’, because we can almost all speak, and so take the skill too much for granted. Further, he says that this relative neglect may perhaps also be due to the fact that speaking is transient (temporary, momentary) and improvised, and can therefore be viewed as facile, superficial, or glib. However, it is observed by researchers that speaking is a skill which a learner requires to communicate. As, Martin Bygate observes that our learners often need to be able to speak with confidence in order to carry out many of their most basic transactions (contact, communication). It is the skill by which they are most frequently judged, and through which they may make or lose friends. It is the vehicle par excellence of social solidarity (unity, harmony), of social ranking, of professional advancement and of business. It is also a medium through which much language is learnt, and which for many is particularly conducive (favourable, advantageous) to learning. Perhaps, then, the teaching of speaking merits more thought. TEFL focuses the teacher’s attention to facilitate the oral expression of students. Teacher should know a variety of strategies and exercises to ensure that each student is getting enough and relevant practice in speaking English to develop fluency and confidence. Fluency is not the only objective or aim of oral proficiency but accuracy of pronunciation comes along with it. If the F.L.L. (Foreign Language Learner) wants to speak with the native speakers or others, the teacher should help them to acquire following sub-skills involved in speaking process: Good pronunciation of individual sounds Appropriate selection of vocabulary Correct stressing of words. e.g. ‘I want to go out’. Correct grammatical patterns Good features of connected speech e.g. ‘I’m going out’ Appropriate pace or proper word-linking. e.g. ‘No, I’m a student.’ Effective cohesion i.e. linking between ideas. Idea should match the situation 2. BASIC PROCEDURES OF TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS Following basic procedures should be adopted to teach speaking skill. An oral lesson which aims to teach new structures or functions is often divided into three stages, commonly known as the presentation stage, the practice or accuracy practice stage and the production, freer or fluency practice stage. PRESENTATION STAGE It is also known as pre-speaking stage. At this stage, usually, the teacher does most of the talking and the student listen. Following procedures should be adopted at this stage by the teacher:-
The simplest way is to write the dialogue in three imaginary columns. Establish personal link with situation 3 . • Give clear and realistic prompts • One or two brief drills to allow practice with the form of the language. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP SPEAKING SKILLS DIALOGUE Dialogue is the best tool or technique which a teacher can use to present conversational language. etc. chatting. the role of the teacher is to provide maximum practice within controlled. unite) the meaning of the new language. 7 .Speaking Skills . One technique is to write the names of the two dialogue characters on each side of the blackboard and to stand by the appropriate name as you play part. a tape. Establish the setting 2 . The procedures involved at this stage are:• To allow students to work at their own pace • To motivate students • To check how much has really been learnt 3. Focus the student’s attention on the marked situation. This can be done through the use of pictures. in sequence) rub out column 3 and column 2. Ask the students to read silently as they listen. A surprisingly popular technique used to enhance oral fluency is the ‘disappearing dialogue’ technique. 6 . Check the students’ understanding of the concepts behind the new language. Set a listening task 5 . It is founded on sheer memorization.2 • • • • Build up the situational context. PRACTICE STAGE It is also known as while-speaking stage. Similarly. 1 . . Pre-teach selected items 4 . A teacher can change hats as he/she goes from one side of the blackboard to the other side and this could be enjoyable for the learners. At this stage. Following procedures should be adopted by teacher at this stage:• Provide the guidance for utterances. It consists mainly of the cumulative rubbing-out of bits of a blackboard dialogue. Ask the students to listen. more creative ways. • One or two controlled communicative activities to consolidate (combine. a dialogue. so that erasing from right to left is done quickly and easily. Elicit the new language from the students or tell it to them. PRODUCTION STAGE At this stage. join. Dialogues are useful for the development of accuracy and fluency in speech. but realistic and contextualized framework. You challenge pairs of students to remember it as you successively (one after another. Donn Byrne in ‘Teaching Oral English’ lists ten steps in presenting new language through a dialogue. the students are allowed to use new language in freer. Ask the students to listen and repeat.
draw out. Ask the students to practice saying the dialogue.Speaking Skills . four phase drills consisting of Q-A-Q-A: A. one student describes a structure made of rods. Cloth. Is Salman English? . Ask the right question In ‘describe and draw’ activities. How many apples are there? B. For example:1. Find the difference 4. and the others draw it. each student asks the other for their missing pieces of information:The Store Inventory Store List A Apples 5 Meters 3 Liters Bananas Store List B 15 Kg. (A writes 15 Kilos in his list and B writes Apples in his list) B. Milk. Oral Drills Oral drills are another way for developing speaking skill. they can complete a task. Explain any difficulties. Describe and draw 2. In the pairs the students might work like this:A. For ‘Find the difference’ two students each have a picture. The other techniques used for practicing the new langue or to enhance speaking skill of learners are as follow: Information Gap Activities In this technique. 3 Liters (B writes 3 Liters in his list and A adds Milk) Communicative Games These include a set of sample activities out of which some are described in terms of the actions which the participants have to perform in order to complete the tasks. match sticks or simple objects and the others reconstruct it without seeing the original. Describe and arrange 3. In ‘Describe and arrange’. 9 . get out) the differences. students are given different bits of information. 1 0 . By sharing this separate information. one student describes a picture. they must winkle out (extract. For example. one slightly different from the other.3 8 . Without seeing each other’s pictures. 1 Dozen. Get the students to dramatize the dialogue. 15 Kg. Examples are given for question-and-answer drills. How much milk do you have in your list? A.
The other student is police officer. A.’ Martin Bygate calls such type of techniques as ‘project-based interaction activities’. For example. a teacher can ask the students to ‘look at the given picture and say what you think is happening. He’s Pakistani. and asks for details. Discussions These include group work and are considered as important techniques. Students produce their own language. Where is he from then? B. He is at the police station reporting it to the police. Role-play Technique It is a free student activity. For example. . he isn’t. one student has lost a bag.4 B.Speaking Skills . No.