You are on page 1of 8

Price $2.


The Newsletter of the Ecological Landscaping Association Vol. 13, No. 1 Summer 2006

Trees: “The wonder is that we can see these trees and not
wonder more.” With due respect, contrary to Mr. Emerson’s quote, many of us do think
about trees. And because we wonder, this issue contains articles and
Ralph Waldo Emerson information from folks who not only think about trees but share their
findings with us. Hope you are inspired to wonder more.


• Rolf Schilling

I t’s all about competition. Or is it?

For most of the past two centuries,
we have been given a picture of forests
understanding and insight. We now
realize that there are a number of sym-
bioses in arboreal life processes and
of an integral community has many
hazards. Pesky fungi can simply be hit
with some heavy metals. Spray lar-
as realms of fierce competition, and that trees normally, not by exception, vae with toxic alkaloids. Slow growth
have looked upon human interfer- depend on multiple other organisms of can be pushed with nitrogen, slow
ence as constructive refereeing. Partly their own and diverse species for sus- blooms with phosphorus. All these
as a result, landscaping practices have tained health. Where biologists tended things seem practicable, with discre-
traditionally treated trees as individu- to study one species, they now study tion, because the tree is thought to be
als and plants in general in isolated communities. There is much to learn, viable on its own. The track records
terms. Every sort of attempt has been but the emerging picture of trees sug- of human intercession against pests is
made to protect trees from shrubs, gests that we could better view them as very disappointing, and often includes
herbaceous plants, insects, everything. we do coral reefs than as stand-alone devastation of non-target species while
“There’s a fungus among us,” goes the specimens in a lawn or clumps in a the pest continues to thrive.
dark refrain. parking island. There is little evidence from nature
Ecological and biochemical re- While the heady parts of science that trees remain healthy on their own.
search in tree biology and plant may seem remote to daily landscape What appears in all the research is
communities has yielded endless new practices, there is much that can be close interdependence between trees
put to use. Treating the health of trees and most or all the life forms that
as isolated individuals is a practice inhabit their native communities.
contents that misunderstands the life functions What is also becoming apparent is
of trees and the plant community. that the removal of an organism from
1 Trees, a Challenge of Perspective
4 Learning About Trees
The tree growing wild in disassocia- a community creates extended chains
5 Biological Control of the Winter Moth tion with fungi, shrubs, herbs, lichens, of disruptions that can lead to the dis-
6 ELA News mosses, insects and other herbivores, appearance of many other organisms.
7 Unclassifieds, Events, Gleanings their predators, and other trees is The picture is one where symbiosis
rare indeed. Not viewing trees as part – organisms mutually benefiting from
— 1—
their interdependence – becomes the lighting up the hillsides of the north-
“Gramma said when you come on
something good, first thing to do is
dominant force. Symbiosis occurs on ern states. Root fusion, pest-parasitoid
share it with whoever you can find; intra- and interspecific levels, within life cycles, and fungal symbioses may
that way the good spread out where the same species and between organ- all have a role in the final explanation
no telling it will go. Which is right.” isms of different species, genus, order, as to why we see this. Furious pursuit
—Little Tree in The Education of and kingdom. of Sudden Oak Death in California
Little Tree, by Forrest Carter
Current events in the IPM life of a has produced the observation that
landscape professional provide plenty impact is greatest in forest edges and
of case examples pointing toward the in disrupted groves. The Phytophthera
importance of understanding trees as genus of fungus has a nefarious history
The Ecological Landscaper is pub- community organisms, and the dan- of creating destruction where humans
lished by the Ecological Landscaping gers of tampering. In the case of gypsy have recently changed the landscape.
Association (ELA). Subscriptions are
moth infestation of oaks, economic Fungi in general suggest that an empty
a benefit of membership in ELA. For
information about ELA, contact: loss has driven research on many levels niche is the devil’s playground.
ELA, 60 Thoreau Street, #252
in this pest-host relationship. Oaks Pines and their use of resins, the
Concord, MA 01742-2456 often fuse roots in an extended group, complex of terpenes some of which
(617) 436-5838 and this is accomplished with mycor- create that wonderful piney smell,
n rhizal fungi as an intermediary sharing provide an object lesson on the infe-
Talk to us! We welcome comments, chemical messengers, defense toxins, rior nature of human insect control.
letters, articles, ideas, and opinions. and nutrients this way. Through this Pines are very diverse in the mixture of
Write to us with your ideas for news- means and through volatile terpenes, terpenes their resins contain, even in
letter content:
oaks are able to signal the onset of a the same species and the same stand.
Rolf Schilling
180 Hemenway Road
devastating infestation. Unaffected Under intense herbivory from beetles,
Framingham, MA 01701 oaks are able to withdraw nutrients the pines retain their chemical diversi-
508-877-3452 into their roots and thus cheat, and re- ty. The result is that the beetles cannot
[Note: Rolfʼs email address will appear in the Fall
duce the breeding success of the gypsy successfully adapt to any one array of
issue of the ELA Newsletter.]
moths. On the other hand, human chemical defenses. In addition, mono-
Send all other ELA business, includ- intercession with Bacillus thuringensis terpenes are released heavily into the
ing address changes, to the Concord (Bt), while a natural pathogen from air immediately as pines endure dam-
address listed above. the moth’s native range, has devas- age to their needles, and this creates a
The ELA board meets throughout the tated our native silk moths, like Luna localized cloud of ozone and organic
year in various locations in eastern and Cercropia, along with pesticides nitrates toxic to beetles. It is produced
Massachusetts. All members are and introduced fungi. Then there are ‘on demand.’ The same cannot be said
welcome. Contact us for specific dates
unresolved questions such as how for any human treatment product. The
and locations.
nitrogen fertilizer and resulting excess range of actions on beetles of pine sap
ELA Board of Directors
tender growth (with low toxin concen- is astounding. Sap resins are a mix of
President: Chris O’Brien
Vice President: Dennis Collins trations) affects browsing selection by simple and complex terpenes that have
Treasurer: Sue Storer deer and ovipositing insects. very distinct effects on insects and
Recording Secretary: Owen Wormser Birches and other members of Bet- animals that feed on them. It has been
M.L. Altobelli John Larsen ulaceae, maples, willows and poplars shown that one pinene repels beetles
Nancy Askin Bob Levite
are all known to engage in root fusion, while another in the same mix attracts.
Don Bishop Cathy Rooney
Joanna Campe Kathy Sargent- and some are even known to fuse roots Also, other elements of the same mix
Karen Dominguez-Brann O’Neill with trees outside their own genus. We interfere with beetle pheromones, and
Bill Jewell Sandy Vorce know that stands of sumac, aspen and others are directly toxic. Pines alter the
Andrea Knowles Bruce Wenning
beech tend to be clonal, one organism mixture in response to infestations that
Executive Administrator : Penny Lewis really. Root fusion in forest trees, shar- form complex cycles over the life of
Mention of products is not intended to con- ing nutrients and defenses, questions the pest. Similar interactions have been
stitute endorsement. Opinions expressed in whether we should view trees as indi- studied with Scolytid beetles, spruce
this newsletter do not necessarily represent
those of ELAʼs directors, staff, or members. viduals. As we see borers and miners budworms (Choristoneura spp.), and
wreak havoc on white birches in land- sawflies of Rhyacionia and Neodiprion.
©Ecological Landscaping
2006 scape plantings, these are contrasted by Despite well-funded research driven
healthy and numerous white birches by the value of commercial timber, the
— 2—
exhaust. In the general sense, using as completely as possible may become the
many members of a naturally-occur- trend of long-term success.
ring community as is practicable is a
plan for success. In the more particular Rolf Schilling worked in biochemistry before
sense, thorny and/or toxic small shrubs entering into garden design/installation in
the Metro New York area. More recently,
provide a good encouragement for
he has gardened in the Berkshires and is
deer to move on past your highly ed- Horticulturist at New England Wild Flower
ible large shrub or tree. Another shrub Society in Framingham, MA.
provides nitrogen-fixing ability, root
resins that are toxic to a pathogenic Bibliography:
fungus, or late winter protection from
sun scald. In the clear sense, some trees Holdenrieder, O., M. Pautasso, P.J. Weis-
berg and D. Lonsdale. 2004. Tree Diseases
can share chemical defenses with other and Landscape Processes: the Challenge of
species through their roots, or confuse Landscape Pathology. Trends in Ecology and
the reproduction cycle of pests with Evolution. 19(8): 446-452.
leaf resins. In the intuitive sense, plants
Langenheim, J.H. 2003. Plant Resins: Chemis-
that share a wild community share a try, Evolution, Ecology, Ethnobotany. Portland:
long list of more subtle interactions Timber Press.
which sustain that community.
Litvak, M.E., S. Madronich and R.K. Monson.
Planting by community requires
1999. The potential impact of herbivore-in-
change in how we sell, design and duced monoterpene emissions from coniferous
plant landscapes. Predesign atten- forests on local tropospheric chemistry dynam-
host-pest cycles remain incompletely tion to each plant’s long-term ideal ics. Ecological Applications. Vol. 9: 1157-1159.

explained. Interceding at any point of conditions, interactions with agents Money, N.P. 2002. Mr. Bloomfieldʼs Orchard:
this game can prevent the pines from of control, and manual methods of The Mysterious World of Mushrooms, Molds
completing their management of the infestation control (not all are labori- and Mycologists. New York: Oxford University
pest life cycle. In other words, spray- ous/disgusting) become paramount. Press.

ing can, and likely often does, backfire, The notion of single focal plants needs Ricklefs, R.E. and G. Miller. 2000. Ecology,
as in the case when caterpillars are to go, or specimens need to be nearly 4th Edition. New York: WH Freeman & Co.
sprayed only to produce an outbreak of foolproof. Initial, successional, and
mobile spider mites because their more replacement plant material costs can
local predatory mites are gone. be higher (I found little data for com- Neptune’s Harvest
Trees draw on soil bacteria and fun- parison). Place this possibility against Organic Fertilizers:
gi for food, as well as defense. Preda- the cost of fertilizer, pesticides, higher Commercially proven. Products
tory fungi hunt nematodes and others maintenance hours, still the cost of include: Cold processed Hydrolyzed
have a limiting effect on potentially replacements, and impact on family/ Liquid Fish, Seaweed and Fish/Sea-
weed Blend, Dry and Liquid Humate,
pathogenic organisms. Parasitoids that community health.
Dry Kelp Meal and Crab Shell Fertil-
control potential arthropod pests have However you look at trees and their izers. Also, Liquid Garlic Spray Insect
life cycles that require a few too many relationship to other plants, successful Repellant. Our Fish is filtered through
species other than the tree of inter- long-term health relies on understand- a 165-mesh screen and then through
a 150-micron for easy application
est. Parasitoids often have their own ing their connectedness. While we through any type of equipment,
parasites. A fungus that controls one know important pieces of a pest-host- including drip-tape. Our Fish has been
pathogen may itself become patho- parasitoid cycles, we have yet to exhibit reported to REPEL DEER!
genic at another point in its life cycle. in practice that understanding. Putting “Our Products Work”
In this sense, a diverse community of the pieces of what we know together, it
Call for FREE
species where all are held in check and becomes less useful to view an organ- catalog and sample
balance by their interactions with a ism as a pest, host, or parasite. If we 1- 800-259-4769
host of other species deserves consid- allow new insights to inform landscape
eration as the model for landscapers practices, we can move toward pre- 88 Commercial Street
and gardeners to pursue. serving and recreating self-sustaining Gloucester, MA 01930
(978) 281-1414 ph. (978) 283-4111 fax
The applications of the tree-as- landscapes. Plantings that present
community model are difficult to naturally-occurring communities as
— 3—
LEARNING ABOUT TREES and branches tapped into the trunk sprouts that appear each summer, and
• Henry Homeyer for their supply. Not so. The phloem these vertical branches can be trained
and xylem – the pipes, if you will – go and pruned to develop into branches

O ne of the workshops at ELA’s

2006 Winter Conference &
Eco-Marketplace, “Strengthening the
from below ground to a particular part
of the tree.
I also gained a new perspective on
that aren’t reaching straight up or
causing problems.
These arborists also emphasized
Weakened Tree” gave me some new watersprouts. I had understood that that it is critical to plant trees at the
ways of looking at trees. Rolf Briggs these pencil-like sprouts on fruit trees, proper depth. I raised the question of
and Dave Ropes, of Tree Specialists the ones that shoot straight up on how to deal with trees that have been
( in Hollis- larger branches, were a stress response. living in a pot at the garden center
ton, MA, are certified arborists who Apparently, in summer, photosynthe- for a year or more and have had their
conducted this workshop on good sis stops when temperatures are too trunk flare covered with 3-4 inches
practices for pruning, planting and high; the stomata (the pores on the of soil. Small adventitious roots often
caring for trees to optimize tree health underneath side of leaves) shut down grow out of the trunk (the portion
and structure. to minimize water loss. The interior of that should be above ground) mak-
From them I learned that roots and the tree, shaded by outer canopy, stays ing it difficult to remove the soil and
branches are directly connected. This cooler, and photosynthesis continues. find the trunk flare. Briggs and Ropes
is to say, this particular root connects Watersprouts grow to provide the tree reported it would be better to plant the
to that particular branch. If you prune with a way to continue producing food tree high in the hole, and let it extend
off a big branch, or if a big root is by photosynthesis in hot times. In its primary roots the first year. It can
damaged, one affects the other. That past springs, I’ve usually removed all be stressful for a young tree to have its
explains why, when I damaged a large the watersprouts that had grown the roots removed, even roots that ulti-
above-ground root with a lawnmower, year before. I considered them clutter, mately shouldn’t be there. Let the tree
a big limb on the tree went into de- and knew that left on their own they get used to its new home for a year,
cline and died some years later. And would grow into large branches that then remove the excess soil, snip off
shame on me for my carelessness! I’d fill the interior of the tree with too the adventitious roots (growing above
never really thought about it, but I much growth. Ropes explained that the flare) and re-grade the soil the
guess I’d always assumed that the roots leaving a few watersprouts is a good second year.
brought the “tree” water and nutrients, thing. It reduces the number of new Briggs and Ropes also made the

— 4—
good point that whatever we do to sachusetts, a “new” insect outbreak was
help a tree should mimic what nature first thought to be an infestation of
would do. Don’t just water the rootball the native fall cankerworms (Alsophila
with a hose – water with a sprinkler pometaria). These outbreaks usually
that mimics rain. Don’t add 3-4 inches crash from natural causes after about
of heavy bark mulch. Add a light layer three years, so specialists did not think
of mulch similar to what would fall in there was a problem. However, the
the forest: leaves and bits of ground South Shore defoliation continued GEI’s Blower Service
branches are ideal. Sometimes this and spread. Finally, scientists at the Erosion Control • Ecological Work
type of mulch is available free from University of Connecticut and Cornell Topdress • Seeding • Mulching
electric companies- just ask a crew identified the pest as a new arrival of
GEI’s Compost Blends
working by the side of the road. Don’t the Winter Moth (Operophtera bruma-
add fertilizer. As mulch breaks down, ta), a European native. It is so named EarthBoost™ FilterMitt Mix™
PowerBoost Mulch™
it will enrich the soil. because the adult moths emerge from
GEI’s Compost Tea Blends
Among other things, I also learned their cocoons to mate in late Novem-
which months are best for pruning ber and December. Their offspring Organic Maintenance Programs
fruit trees. Next year, when I do prune, hatch in the Spring. The tiny green
I’ll leave some of those water sprouts. inchworms start out devouring oaks, P.O. Box 737, Wrentham, MA 02093
Henry Homeyer is the VT/NH associate maples, ash, fruit trees, and blueberry Office (508) 384-7140 Fax (508) 384-0571
editor of People, Places and Plants magazine bushes. Once these are consumed
and the author of “Notes from the Garden:
Reflections and Observations of an Organic
almost any leaves or flowers are fair effective and permanent solution to
Gardener.” His next book, The New Hamp- game. the problem. Experience has shown it
shire Gardener’s Companion,” is due out in Although the females are flight- to be very host-specific in parasitizing
November. less, the Winter Moth manages to moth larva, making it safe for non-
spread. “It’s in the coastal towns from target insects. Now the race is on to
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF Gloucester to Boston and pretty much produce enough of the flies to release
THE W INTER MOTH throughout southeastern Massachu- into severely affected areas.
(Operophtera brumata) setts, and most of the Cape out as Using a quarantine facility at the
far as Eastham,” said Robert Childs, USDA labs in Cape Cod’s Otis Air

R eleasing parasitic organisms to

stop insect outbreaks has become
common practice for landscapers
an entomologist at the University of
Massachusetts Extension’s Landscape,
Nursery and Urban Forestry Program.
National Guard Base, Elkinton is
leading efforts to raise thousands of
them. In June, 2005, an initial release
seeking alternatives to pesticide use He is one of a team of scientists, along of several hundred flies was made at
and is known in the trade as a biologi- with colleague Joseph Elkinton, trying Wompatuck State Park in Hingham,
cal control. We sometimes see it used to control these foreign insects on a a coastal town just south of Boston.
on a larger scale, when regional land large-regional scale. For a region that An ambitious collecting trip in Nova
managers employ it because it is either still remembers previous devastating Scotia was then conducted and ad-
more economical or more effective outbreaks of the gypsy moth (Lyman- ditional material for propagating more
than conventional practices. Whether tria dispar), such as in 1981 when a than 800 flies was sent from British
it is used in small single-property record 12.9 million acres of vegetation Columbia. In May, 2006, a second
applications or large regional ones, were defoliated, the stakes are high. release was made in Wenham, a town
the same issues and concerns come The insect has no natural enemies to the north of Boston. Responding to
into play. Accurate data and a good in New England. However, in the two pleas by Elkinton for state funding to
means of monitoring the outbreak other outbreaks recorded in North help ramp up production, a $150,000
are required. The organism released to America (Pacific Northwest in the earmark was placed in a recent leg-
control the pest insect must not have 1970s; Nova Scotia in the 1950s) islative bill. Unfortunately, although
the potential to attack other types of a European-native predator of the the bill had bipartisan sponsorship, it
non-target insects. The organism must winter moth was found to provide was vetoed in June by the governor,
be released in sufficient quantities to effective control. This is a tachinid fly who mistakenly perceived it as “un-
make an impact on the outbreak. called Cyzenis albicans. In Nova Scotia, necessary and wasteful spending by a
Originally reported on the South where several thousand were released Democratic-dominated legislature.”
Shore and Cape Cod regions of Mas- nearly 50 years ago, it has provided an In a remarkably rapid response, the
— 5—
legislature passed a veto-override in
SAVE THESE DATES! March 1-3, 2007 Ecological Landscaping Associationʼs
the final hours of their session at the
2007 Winter Conference & Eco-Marketplace
end of July. “Sustainable Landscapes: Creating Healthy Communities”
Unfortunately, the moths have a big NEW FORMAT
head start. It took the tachinid fly 5
* Thursday, March 1: Pre-Conference Workshop with Dr. Elaine Ingham
years after its release in Nova Scotia to
* Friday, March 2: Four Educational Tracks, demonstration workshops, live
multiply enough to catch up with the exhibit displays, and the 4th Annual Eco-Marketplace
Winter Moth population. An estimat- * Saturday, March 3: Three Educational Tracks, demonstration workshops, live
ed several million trees in Massachu- exhibit displays, and the 4th Annual Eco-Marketplace
setts are infested. Until fly populations NEW LOCATION MassMutual Center, Springfield, Massachusetts – a spacious, easy to
expand, trees that have been defoliated reach, state-of-the art facility.
for several years are in danger. They BEST OF THE REST Great speakers, cutting-edge topics and a chance to network with
face decline and even death without like-minded individuals!
extra help. (Canadian research found BACK BY POPULAR DEMAND Keynote speakers & dinner on Thursday and Friday nights.
that many trees die after four con- Visit for updated vendor and attendee information starting
secutive years of complete defoliation, October 2006 and look for more information in the Fall and Winter Issues of ELAʼs
though this will vary with the tree member quarterly newsletter the ʻEcological Landscaperʼ. See you there!

condition and species.)

Alternative control methods are Joanna Campe is the president of
limited at best. The Winter moth off- ELA NEWS Remineralize the Earth in Northampton,
spring usually hatch around April 20th Welcome to New ELA Board Members Massachusetts. Remineralize the Earth is
a non-profit, educational organization that
and are active for only about three or We are delighted to have four strong addi- encourages soil remineralization through
four weeks. They burrow inside swell- tions to the ELA Board: John Larsen, Karen the cooperation of individuals, organiza-
ing leaf buds, where sprays cannot Dominguez-Brann, Sandy Vorce, and Joanna tions, companies, and government bodies.
Campe. Joanna has been actively working toward
reach them. The leaves then open in
John is president of Well Water Con- the remineralizing effort for almost 20 years.
tatters. After that, the caterpillars are She has been consulted by gardeners, farm-
nection of Tewksbury, Massachusetts, a
“free feeders”; they spread by “balloon- full-service water, well design, and project ers, scientists and policy makers around the
ing” to other tree on their own silken management firm specializing in irriga- world; non-profits and government organi-
tion wells, pump systems and stain-removal zations such as the USDA and the DOE;
ropes looking for new food sources. stone and aggregate companies; the National
systems for green industry professionals and
Around May 20th, they will drop to their clients. John is a member of MACLP, Aggregate and Stone Associations; the
the ground and burrow into the top Irrigation Association of New England, International Center for Aggregate Research
layer of soil, where they will become National Ground Water Association, and the (ICAR); and the Aggregates Foundation
American Ground Water Trust. John brings for Technology, Research, and Education
dormant pupae until emerging as adult (AFTRE). Joanna brings great interest and
great energy to the ELA Board.
moths between Thanksgiving and New passion to contribute to the ELA mission.
Karen Dominguez-Brann is the Market-
Year’s. They do not eat anything then. Join us in welcoming John, Karen, Sandy,
ing Director of Team KDB, a marketing and
and Joanna!
The males just flutter around and mate PR firm located in Maine and specializing in
with the flightless females, who climb targeted and niche marketing to help clients
trees, lay eggs, and die. Although it’s better promote their businesses. Karen is ELA’s Annual Meeting Recap
also marketing director for Maine Summer ELA recently marked another year of
possible to “trap” females as they climb Company, a home and lifestyle company. environmental education and stewardship at
up the trunks, widespread control by Previously Karen lived in Los Angeles, CA the summer Annual Meeting. This gather-
this means is impractical. and owned Foxglove Design, a home and ing provides an opportunity to conduct
garden design firm that practiced and pro- the annual business meeting, report on the
The best hope is a successful biolog-
moted organic, earth friendly designs. Karen annual ballot results, and to thank the many
ical control for this outbreak. ELA will is very excited to be a part of ELA. volunteers that have contributed to the ELA
report on the Winter Moth status in Sandy currently works for a Mass Audu- efforts throughout the year with an apprecia-
future newsletter issues. Stay tuned… bon wildlife sanctuary in a variety of roles tion potluck dinner.
including Assistant Property Manager and Thanks to Andrea Knowles and Kathy
Extrapolated from several UMass Fact Sheets Sargent-O’Neill for helping to organize this
written by: Robert. D, Childs, Entomol- Teacher Naturalist. She is also a technol-
ogy Depart., UMass, Amherst; Deborah C. ogy consultant, offering business planning year’s Annual Meeting at the Wolbach Farm
Swanson, Plymouth County Extension & services and advice on topics from web in Sudbury, Massachusetts, the permanent
UMass Extension; and Dr. Joseph Elkin- development to electronic communication. home of the Sudbury Valley Trustees, www.
ton –Plant, Soil & Insect Science Depart., With over 25 years experience and a passion This 54-acre
UMass, Amherst. [visit http://www.umass- for ecological stewardship, Sandy is enthused property along the Sudbury River is a great for full reading.] to be involved in such a vital and essential place for a nature walk, to volunteer, or to
organization as ELA. rent for gatherings.
— 6—
2006 Ballot Results unclassifieds Wilderness.” October 20, 2006, Chicago Botanic
The slate of officers for the upcoming year Garden, Glencoe, Illinois. For further information
“I went to the woods because. . . .” ELA
is: Chris O’Brien, President; Dennis Collins, visit
member offers unique, environmentally
Vice–President; Sue Storer, Treasurer; Owen friendly vacation rentals with low-tech, Planting Peace: An Evening with Nobel Peace
Wormser, Secretary. Incumbent Board mem- rustic comfort. Three thoughtfully renovated Laureate, Dr. Wangari Maathai. October 24,
bers elected to serve additional terms are: housekeeping cabins on 75 wooded acres 2006. Faneuil Hall, Boston, MA at 7:00 pm. For
Cathy Rooney, M.L. Altobelli, Bruce Wen- with private beach on spring-fed pond. further information visit
ning, and Nancy Askin. Newly elected to the Swimming, canoeing and kayaking, fishing, – email, or call 508-698-
Board are: John Larsen, Karen Dominguez- miles of hiking trails, gardens w/400 varieties 6810 for sponsorship and ticket information.
Brann, Sandy Vorce, and Joanna Campe. of native plants. Located in south central
Board members serving existing terms are: NH just 80 miles from Boston. See www. ELA events
Dave Anderson, Donald Bishop, William or contact Carl Wallman Roundtable: Harnessing Microclimates in
Jewell, Andrea Knowles, Robert Levite, and 603-435-5209, the Landscape. Ben Falk, Landscape Designer,
Kathy Sargent-O’Neill.  Whole Systems Design. Offered in collabora-
As prior Vice-President, Robert Levite, tion with the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard
is not able to assume the role of President RETIRING - Small nursery in Plymouth
has plant stock and nursery equipment/ University. Nov. 3, 2006, 9:00am-4:00pm,
for the ELA year 2006-2007, a one-year Hunnewell Building, Arnold Arboretum,
extension of Chris O’Brien’s presidency was trucking for sale. Prefer one buyer for all, will
entertain all inquiries. Contact Ed DeNike, Jamaica Plain, MA. Fee $75 member, $90 non-
approved. This extension will allow the new member.
Vice-president, Dennis Collins, a year of Center Hill Nursery at 508-224-2277.
training, and will ensure continuity of strong  announcement
leadership for the organization. WELL WATER CONNECTION, INC. November 3, 2006, “Turning a New Leaf ” a
provides innovative solutions to water-re- conference and eco-marketplace on sustainable
General News: lated problems experienced by green industry landscaping. Held at Unitarian Universalist
The new EPA landscaping publication professionals and their clients. Our unique Church in Bethesda, Maryland (located near
“Green Scaping: The Easy Way to a Greener approach combines professional project Routes 495 and 270).
and Healthier Yard” is hot off the press management with competent, highly skilled Sponsored by the Chesapeake Conserva-
and may be of interest. Print it off the web, water well, pump, filtration, and related tion Landscaping Council and co-sponsored by professionals. For immediate service or more ELA, ASLA-Maryland Chapter, IAI-MidAt-
catalog/greenscaping.pdf . information, please contact John Larsen at lantic Chapter, and several other organizations. or 978- The full day’s agenda and registration infor-
ELA Welcomes a New Editor 640-6900. mation is available by
We’re delighted to announce that Rolf Schil- August 1st at www.
ling has signed on as Editor of the “Ecologi- chesapeakelandscape.
cal Landscaper.” Mr Schilling is a horticul- org For additional
turist with the New England Wild Flower information: Carol
Society at their premier site Garden in the Jelich 410-634-2847 x
Woods ( 40 or Sylvan Kaufman,
He’s studied at the New York Botanical 410-634-2847 x 24.
Garden and at Columbia University earning
a Masters in Biochemistry. Besides Garden
in the Woods, he has worked at the Berk- gleanings
shire Botanical Garden and brings many ELA’s publication
years of practical experience in landscape “Discover Ecological
design, installation, and maintenance gained Landscaping” was
in his own business and while working for other events written up in the March 2006 issue of
others. Association of Natural Bio-Control Producers The Avant Gardener newsletter, a unique
We look forward to reading more cut- Annual Meeting. September 29 - October 02, monthly horticultural news service. This 8-
ting-edge information and orginal articles 2006, Tahoe City, CA, USA. Contact: ANBP, page booklet, created by ELA board member
(see page one) by Rolf and sharing in his 2230 Martin Dr., Tustin Ranch, CA 92782, USA. Andrea Knowles and committee members
wondering about things ecological. Mailto: F/Ph: 714-544-8295. Brian LeSuer and Mary Whitney, is full of
To contact Rolf, you may write him at partial tips and resource references and whets
180 Hemenway Road, Framingham, MA 16th Annual Perennial Plant Symposium:
When Human Nature Embraces Mother Na- our landscaping appetites. Congratulations
01701 or call him at 508-877-3452. [Note: to the committee and to ELA.
Rolf ’s email address will appear in the Fall ture). September 28th or 29th , 2006 (Registra-
tion Deadline: Sept. 21, 2006) Chicago Botanic If you don’t now subscribe to the Avant
issue of the ELA Newsletter.] Gardener, see what Ann Raver, Garden Edi-
Garden, Glencoe, Illinois. For further information
visit tor of the New York Times says “– My two
ELA friend and supporter, Bob Childs, all-time-favorite newsletters for fast-break-
Invasive plant symposium “Working Together ing news on the latest research in the plant
Entomology Department, UMass, for the Landscape of Tomorrow.” October 12,
Amherst is undergoing chemotherapy. world are The Avant Gardener and HortIdeas.”
2006, Mountainside Resort in Wallingford, CT. The New York Times, December 10, 1995. To
Please take a minute to send notes or For further information visit www.hort.uconn.
cards of encouragement and support to subscribe send a check to: The Horticultural
edu/cipwg or contact Donna Ellis 860- 486-6448. Data Processors Box 489, New York, NY
cheer him on. Address: Bardswell
Ferry Rd., Conway, MA 01341. Thanks! The 2006 Janet Meakin Poor Symposium Urban 10028 in the amount of $24 per year or $30
Ecology “Celebrating 10 Years of Chicago per year outside of the USA.
— 7—
gleanings – con’t “nutrient loading”, to continue growth when RESEARCH
nutrient uptake may be limited by root dam- Natural infection of tanoak seedling roots by
PEST ALERT age during transplanting. However, recent Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthera ramorum)
Pine Shoot Beetle Quarantine in MA, CT, research is indicating that high fertilizer Phytophthera ramorum, cause of Sudden
and RI (May 8, 2006), issued by the North rates can reduce the plant’s resistance to Oak Death and ramorum blight, is believed
American Plant Protection Organization: “... stresses such as drought and pests. to infect only the above ground parts of trees.
the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection In a cooperative project of the University Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) seedlings
Service is quarantining the States of Massa- of Idaho-Moscow and the Ohio Agricul- and saplings with unusual symptoms were
chusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island for tural Research and Development Center in collected from three P. ramorum-infested
Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda. Wooster, Ohio, rooted cuttings of a flowering sites in Humboldt Co., California: two in a
This action is in response to recent trapping crabapple were given three rates of fertil- coast redwood forest with an under story of
of PSB in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, izer. After transplanting, the trees which had tanoak, California bay laurel, madrone, and
and is necessary to prevent the dissemination received the highest rates of nitrogen grew evergreen huckleberry, and one in a Douglas-
of PSB to other non-quarantined areas of faster, but they also had the lowest concen- fir/tanoak-madrone forest also containing
the United States. trations of phenolics (defense compounds) redwood.
It has been detected in 16 states (MN, in their leaves and were susceptible to injury Lower leaves of the tanoak were necrotic
WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, WV, VA, MD, by the gypsy moth, eastern tent caterpillar or had dark discoloration of the midveins
NJ, NY, VT, NH, ME, and MA). For more and white-marked tussock moth. The also and petioles, while upper leaves appeared
information visit the project website (http:// showed decrease drought tolerance. healthy. Roots and below ground stems were The researchers report that within a year, either asymptomatic, had internal discol-
the plants had acclimated to the garden envi- oration of the vascular system, or had root

ronment and the effects of nursery produc- lesions. P. ramorum was detected with PCR
tion practices were no longer seen. and isolated from taproots several cm below
DON’T FEED NEW TREES Proper planting – a hole as deep but twice ground level. The pathogen was also recov-
The first year a tree or shrub seeding is as wide at the root ball, NO fertilizer or ered from below ground stems, above ground
transplanted into the garden is crucial to amendments, weekly watering and an stems, and symptomatic leaves. Infected
its survival. Many factors can influence its organic mulch – will promote successful tissues were viewed with SEM and light mi-
health and growth during this period, and establishment. croscopy to visualize P. ramorum structures.
one that is being increasingly examined Reprinted from the April, 2006 issue of This is the first report that P. ramorum can
is the treatment it received in the nursery “The Avant Gardener” horticultural news be recovered from roots of naturally
where it was originally started. service. Thomas Powell, Editor & Publisher. occurring forest vegetation.
To promote rapid growth to salable size, Box 489, New York, NY 10058. Parke, J.L.; Bienapfl, J.; Oh, E.; Rizzo, D.;
nurseries commonly apply large amounts of Hansen, E.; Buckles, G.; Lee, C.; Valachovic, Y.
fertilizer. This is also believed to increase  Phytopathology 96:S90.

The Ecological Landscaper Non-Profit

60 Thoreau Street, #252 Organization
U.S. Postage
Concord, MA 01742 PAID
Permit 88
Ashland, MA

— 8—