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L to
Help you develop you r skills and the power 01 your computer. Q
These complete development systems for the VIC 20 and the Commodore 64 computers are tools
for the professional and learning aids for the developing programmer. A must for anyone who wants

to understand the internal working~ of the computer or who wants to design fast·action graphics or
other powerful machine language programs .
The Full·featured Assembler, Screen editor, Loader, Decoder and Debugger are accompanied by a
tutorial on machine language, graphics programming and sound generation programming. The book
also guides you through step· by-step instructions for the use of the tools and contains the most

~I ~I
complete memory map available . A complete list is included of all the internal programs in ROM and
the means by which you can call them from your own programs. Sample programs are fully
All programs support disk, tape and printer output. A speciallimited·feature version is available for

~u ~u
the 5K VIC 20.

To order direct send $49.95 U S. fund s plus $2.00 p&h to
French Silk. PO Box 207 . Cannon Faits . MN 55009.
VISA/Me charges accepted (please include eXpiration
dale). Please specify Develop · 20 or Oevelop -64 and the
5K version fO( the VIC 20 if so desired Prog rams are
distributed on cassetle or dlsket1€ Pleas€' s peeily yo ur


IJUJ Dealer enquiries invited.

" VIC 20 and Commodore 64 are registered TM of Commodore Bu s ine ss Ma c hines Ille

Call for Clubs and Newsletters Directory

Circle No 17

To be included in the future issues of the Commander Clubs and

Newsletters Directory, your club or publication must supply the follow-
ing information:

1. Name of organization or publication

2. Mailing address
3. Contact person and telephone number
4. Name of newsletter or publication
5. Special interests

Send your information to Clubs and Newsletters Directory, Com-

mander, PO Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498.

Commander- The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users is published monthly by Micro Systems
Specialties. 3418 South 90. Tacoma, WA 98409. Domestic Subscri ptions, 12 issues, $22.00. Second Class
Postage pending at Tacoma, WA 98143 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to
Commander- The Monthly Journal for Commodore Usersj PO Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. Entire
Contents copyright © 1983 by Micro Systems Specialties. All Rights Reserved.

2/Commander September 1983 VOLUME 1, ISSUE 10

- _ . - - - -- - - - - - -- -- - - - - - -- -- ----~ - - - - -- --- - - - - - -

announces ...
Small Business Accounting
for the Commodore-64

Now the power of Info-Oesig s

Management Accounting System
is available on the Commodore-64
in a full and faithful version!

Thousands of these quality business accounting Flexible Design

software packages have been sold on the CBM The accounting system will work with one or two
computer at $595 each. Now, similar feat ures are VIC-154 1 disk drives (or 2031/4040 with IEEE
available to the small business user on the new interface), 1525 printer, and color or b&w monitor
Commodore-64 for $199 per module! or TV.
Select the accounting modules you need-
• Accounts Receivable/Billing
Customer Support Plan
• Accounts Payable/Checkwriting As part of Info-Designs ongoing effort to provide the
• General Ledger highest quality microcomputer applications in the
• Inventory Management marketplace, we offer an optional telephone con-
• Payroll sulting service to support installation and ongoing
• Electronic Calendar ($149) ope rations.

Limited Introductory Offer! Order NOW.. .for immediate delivery

Our SoftPack combination contains the "Big-3" See your local Commodore-64 Dealer or call us
accounting-AIR, A/P and GI L-for only $495. directly at (313) 540-4010. MasterCard and Visa
Available for immediate delivery! accepted.

Circle No. 52

6905 Telegraph Road. Birmingham, MI 48010. (313) 540-4010

aster Menu
Article Guide Page No_ Article

VIC-20 8 By Donald L. Stoner
GENERAL 13 by Richard F. Daley, PhD.
C-64 21 by Ted Jean
GENERAL 28 By Joe Rotello , Jr.
VIC-20 32 by Jim Grubbs
VIC/64 39 by Eric Giguere
GENERAL 45 by Tim Parker
82 VIC-20 49 by Colin F. Thompson
GENERAL 56 by Tony Lamart ina
PET 60 by Howard Rotenberg
GENERAL 83 by Arthur Dudley
VIC-20 87 by Eric Gigure
Critic's Page-Page 124 VIC CLOCK
VIC-20 92 by Arthur J. Dudley
GENERAL 98 by Kirk Anderson
VIC/64 110 by R. G. Partner
GENERAL 124 by Eric Gigure
VIC/64 128 by Howard Rotenberg

New Products - Page 143 DEPARTMENTS

6 Editorial
COVER BY: Randy " Tarkas " Hoar 7 Letters
" Commodore Goes to School " 82 Bits & Pieces
Wi th the emergence of computers in the 132 Educational Reviews
nation 's school districts, more and more 137 Reviews for the C-64
students are learning their A,B,C's & 141 News Releases
1,2,3 's with the Commodore computers 143 New Products
and software. 152 Game Contest
4/Co mm a nde r Septem be r 1983
STAFF The Education Boom - Or Bust?
Publi sher A recent survey publ ished by "computeritis" . There is an unbe·
Time magazine showed that 51 % lievable push to teach our kids
Editor·in·Chief of all personal computer software about computers and the rallying
liNDA L. liNDEN manufacturers had a " game" in cry is " computer literacy". To be
their line of products. This is not sure, the technology produced by
Tec hnical Editor
really much of a surprise since the electronic revolution seems
everyone knows that all computer to be the natural path for our eco·
Ed itorial Assistant software manufacturers are only nomy to follow and if such is the
TERiLYN M. AiCHLMAYR interested in making games- case there will be a need for hun·
RIGHT? Wrong-the same survey dreds of thousands of people to
Deal er/Distribution also showed that 46% of the design, develop and maintain the
PAULA M. ANDERSON , ASS istant manufacturers produced some technology and its offspring.
kind of educat ional program ! So the word has come down
Sales/Su bscription Surely with in one or two years the from on high- " Thou shalt be
EliZABETH K. STEAN, Manager educational sector of the market computer literate" . The pressu re
CATHY A. SALZER, Assistant
will have surpassed the game is on and the school districts are
Advert ising market as the predominant force reacting . I pray that the results
PATRiCIA A. ANDERSON , Manager In the personal computer soft· will be better than the previous ef·
ware arena. forts which have given uS a gener·
GEORGE R. GAUKEL The increase In availability of ation of citizens who cannot spell
JOHN GABBARD educational software is a natural or do arithmetic without a calcu·
HOWARD ROTENBERG progression of personal compu· lator but I fear it will. Policies and
ter evolution . At first, very few plans are being developed by peo·
G raphics and Produ cti on good programmers were avai lable pie who have never even used a
for personal compute rs so they personal computer and have no
programmed games because they desire to learn anyt hing about
Pri nted By were fun. Then , as more program· them. There are virtually no teach·
GRANGE PRiNTING mers moved into the field, compe· ers trained or available to teach
tition became more intense and computer technology in the pri·
COMMANDER is published monthl y by:
MIC RO SYSTEMS SPEC IALTI ES, PO Box 98827, programmers were forced to pro· mary and secondary school sys·
T acoma, Wash ing ton 98498 vide what the users wanted in· tem and no sign of a change from
stead of what they thought the this situation for many years to
Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) Per Yea r users should want. The rapid de- come.
U.S. $22.00
Canadian, Mexican $26.00 crease in price of the personal The gauntlet has been flung
Surface Rales, Foreign $37.00 and we must answer the chal·
Air Mall, Foreign $75.00 computer brought millions of
first-time users with it and these lenge. But how? The reasonable
F()( back Issues, subscriptions, change of address or newcomers wanted someth ing approach would be " Computer,
other Infonnalion. wri te to: " useful " for their new computers teach thyself" . Let the computer
PO Box 96827 to do. The logical step was into do all of th e work through soft·
Tacoma. Washington 9849B education and the computer ware. But today' s programmers
BACK ISSUES- manufacturers are j umping on the are writing good software and the
2 months old- $4.50 bandwagon in a very big way. good teachers can 't program .
Commodore, IBM , Tandy and the Hmmm .. . 1 wonder what the
other " biggies" are applying a lot answer is. Let' s get on the st ick,
of pressure to their programmers programmers and teachers, and
to produce educational software make some top notch , high qual·
and offering huge discounts to ity educational prog rams. Let's
school districts to induce them to get together and make sure that
buy thei r computers . the promise offered by the per·
Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES The educational establishment sonal computer doesn 't go bust. O
All Rights Reserved of the U.S. seems to have caught
6/Commande r September 1983
e ters
I have no need for a business I don't know exactly what you
Man Bytes Computer spreadsheet, but I am sure it can use your VIC for, but I have a lot of
be used for a great many jobs- software and hardware under re-
Dear Colin, Please give your readers some view that you might be interested
Years ago, when I was a ideas on other uses of a spread- in. In September, the column 's
graduate student, I happened to sheet rather than the usual office- format will change. I'll be writing
visit the University computer sales·projection applications. We about three or more items a
center. To be quite candid, I have beginners NEED to be hand-fed month, instead of only one. I've
never been so completely and and our diapers changed until we enclosed the latest VIC List. It is
totally intimidated by a machine "grow up" (soon I hope). done on Totl.Label now, but I'm
in my life! So for all these years I Again, keep up the excellent changing it to a new Database
have resisted any temptation to job you are doing. program called Flex File. FF is
even become mildly associated Sincerely yours, Joel R. Crabbe the only "complete" database for
with computers. Then I saw my the VIC now. At $110 it's not
first VIC-20 about a year ago and I cheap, but it is the best.
remember thinking to myself, Dear Joel, Thanks again for your letter,
" ... a computer that size could Thanks for your supportive let- and if I can answer any questions,
not possibly be vicious. And if it ter. I try to explain each kind of just write.
is, I am still bigger than this program before I review an exam- Sincerely, Colin
machine ..... 1 can always smash ple. It sounds like we come from
it before it charges me .... " So similar backgrounds. I repaired
here I sit in front of my VIC with computers for 15 years and ac-
full expansion, 40/80 adapter, disk tively avoided them in my off If you have any
drive, Gemini 10 printer, and hours. The VIC is my third micro,
and my favorite. questions or
Quick Brown Fox (thanks to your
column in COMMANDER) .. .. I noted with interest your men- comments for the
Evolution works . . .. . ! tion of a 40180 card. I have the editors of
I do enjoy your column and Data 20 64K Video Pak. In future Commander please
among other things, you have a columns, I will report how each
wonderful style which a rank piece of software works with this write to:
device. Practicalc will not work.
novice (like myself) can read and
I've talked with Sandy Ruby about
not be confused with buzz talk
and hacker rhetoric - God bless it, but he said it would be too P.O. Box 98827
you for that much alone. complex to change. Sandy will Tacoma, WA 98498
soon have some templates avail-
I have purchased TOTL.LABEL able for PractiCalc. You should
and it is all you said it would be . I write for information. Totl.Label
just received my PRACTICALC will work with 80 columns, but the
and eagerly wait to read your version you have may have prob-
review. I am not sure how I can lems. A fix is available, for free,
adapt PRACTICALC to my needs. from TOn.
Commander September 1983/7
by Donald L. Stoner

You'll never guess how I got logic) compatible; that is, the data Interfacing the VIC-20 to the
"hooked" on the VIC-20. Forgive signal varies from plus 5 volts (a MicroConnection was a simple
me, but I've been a TRS-80 user one) to zero volts (a zero). task with a little assist from Radio
since the Model I was first intro- There are no modems on the Shack . The MicroConnection has
duced. market that are directly TTL (and a female DB-25 data connector on
About a year ago, however, I VIC) compatible with the excep- the rear panel, while the VIC-20
needed a low cost computer to tion of the Commodore product. (and 64) require a 24 contact card
use as a communications ter- To use a conventional modem, it edge con nector (two rows of 12,
minal. The primary application is necessary to reverse the polari- called a 12/24). A small perforated
was to send electronic mail to the ty of the TTL signal; that is, make construction board was used to
Source and CompuServe . Dan, a "one" zerQ volts and a "zero" mount the interfacing compo-
the heir to the Stoner fortune, was equivalent to five volts. This was nents (see photo- Fig ure 1).
using my main computer con- done by constructing a simple cir- Finding the mating male DB-25
stantly for his school homework. cuit (see Figure 1) using tran- connector was easy. It is Radio
Most evenings, fate decreed that sistors for polarity inversion. Shack part number 276-1559.
we both needed the computer at The modem I selected (The However, Radio Shack does not
the same time. MicroConnection from The Micro- stock a 12/24 pin card edge con-
The low cost of the VIC-20 Peripheral Corp., 2565 152nd Ave. nector. I solved the problem by
seemed a small price to pay for N.E., Redmond, WA 98052) has purchasing one of their 25/50 con-
maintaining peace and tranquility provision for 0-5 volt (instead of nectors (part number 276-1545)
in the Stoner household. Shortly RS-232) data signals by adding a and cutting it in half. A small
after the transaction was con- jumper to the DB-25 data connec- piece of plastic was glued over
summated at the local K-Mart, I tor. As a result, the MicroConnec- the open end so the connector
began shopping for a modem to tion can be easily interfaced to could not slide back and forth on
use with the VIC. The Commo- the VIC and 64 and works like a the card edge. The contacts on
dore modem was out of the ques- "charm". the connector must match the
tion. I live in the General If you want to go "first cabin", card edge conductors on the
Telephone service area and their the M icroConnection even has an VIC-20 as closely as possible.
telephones do not have handset autodial, autoanswer option. The This modified connector was
connectors. money I saved by not buying the epoxied to a piece of "perf board"
Several modems can be used Commodore RS-232 adapter paid measuring 2.5 x 2.5 inches. Figure
with the VIC-20 without requiring the cost of this option. My VIC-20, 2 shows a rear view of the con-
the Commodore RS-232 interface. with only 3585 bytes of memory, nector as described on page 283
For those not familiar with the will now dial other computers of "VIC-20 Programmers Refer-
RS-232 specification, it mandates automatically from the keyboard. ence Guide". This is the same
that the data signals (between the With suitable software and addi- view you would see looking at the
computer and modem) vary from tional memory, the VIC and Micro- card edge from the back of the
more than minus 3 volts (a one) to Connection could also be used to VIC-20. Ignore the pin numbers
more than plus 3 volts (a zero). make an inexpensive bulletin and letters stamped on the con-
The VIC (and 64) user port is call- board system (BBS) with in- nector you modify. Instead,
ed TTL (transistor-transistor memory messages. assign the designations shown in
a/Commander September 1983
Please send me the 1ollowing,
COLOR Solve Them With QuanUty 118m Amount

PROBLEMS? Matching Dust Covers

Color Sharpener
@518.95 5 _·_

Solve Them With for Computer, Computer Dust

Covers @58.95 5 _ ' _
The Color Sharpener Tape and Disk. Computer Type,

518.95 56.95-58.95 1541 Disk Dust

Covers @57.95 5 _ . _
You're not alone. Thousands of These are the deluxe covers for Dataset Dust
Commodore 64 owners have either the Commodore 64 or the Covers @56.95 5 _·_
"fuzzy" color on their TV. Most Vic 20 made of brown leather Shipping & Handling 5 2.00
have intenerence lines crowd- grain Naugahyde, specially
ing out their great graphics. lined with a soft non -scratch 5% State Tax
(Wisconsin Residents only) 5 _'_
Many have bought expensive liner, for a cover you
monitors or new TVs, and often can't beat. TOTAL $ ~
even that hasn't helped. But. Check or Money Order enclosed
most of us just lived. with the Donl waste your money on those Charge to my VlSA or MasterCard
problem. Now the engineers at cheap looking, clear plastic, VISA # _ __ _ _ __ __
Bytes & Pieces have a simple, static filled covers, Get the MasterCard # _ __ _ _ __
inexpensive solution . . . The quality ones, custom fitted to Inner Bank # _ __ _ __ _
Color Sharpener. No soldering your Commodore computers. Expiration Date _ _ _ _ __
or Wiring .. , just plug the Color Available singly or as a matched
Sharpener into your 64 and set in beautiful brown sim111ated Signature
PRESTO! The intenerence disap- leather.
pears, Instantly, And if it doesn't SHIP TO,
work to your satisfaction, just Name
send it back and we'll refund Address _ __ _ __ __ _
Commodore 64 and Vic 20 are registered

your purchase price in full. lI'ademarks of Commodore Computer Company. City
State/Zip _ __ __ __ __
Bytes & Pieces 550 W, 68th Street, Wauwatosa, WI 53213, 414 / 257-3562 Circle No. 90

Unlock 'Ilur Creativity.

Commodore®64 Color Sketch Pad
Whether you're six or sixty-six, you can use high resolution graphics
and color to DOODLE! Draw up a house plan, sketch a landscape,
create a colorful masterpiece or just "doodle." On-line MENUS
make DOODLE easy to use; 100% machine language means
instant response. With your Commodore 64 and joystick or
WICO tt Trackball you can:
• DRAW pictures, a!ld PAINT with 8 "brush" sizes.
• ZOOM in to draw fine detaiL. Instant BOXES and
straight LINES anywhere on your screen.
• DUPLICATE, Enlarge, Stretch, Squeeze or
Rotate any part of your doodle .• Instant
• Type in LETTERS anywhere in a doodle ...

539 95
even sideways,. SAVE your doodle on a disk.
LOAD it in to doodle some
more. PRINT your doodle on
many popular printers,

for information, your nearest dealer, or to order direct, CAll. TOll FREE!
In Wi~onsjn. collect
1 800 558 1008
• . • • .
Dealer and Distributor [nvited
. 414-291-5125

City Software Distributors, Inc.

735 W. Wisconsin Aye.
Milwaukee, WI 53233
C Copyright 193J by MArl.:. R. Rubin &. OMNI Unlimittd. Commodort 64 I' • r4!'gtSlf!rt~d
tr.d~mt1rk of Commodore EIE'C(rorUcs. Ltd.

Commander September 198319

Figure 2. The numeric row is on done by looping a short length of signal transistor can be used. The
the top row while the alpha pins bare tinned wire through a couple MPS2222 stocked by Radio Shack
are on the bottom . Note that the of holes. This provides a good (part number 276-2009) works
pins in the alpha row do not junction between the compo- perfectly. The 22K ohm resistors
follow an exact A-B-C sequence . nents on the board and the five are their part number 271-1339 (a
When you epoxy the connector to wires that go to the OB-25 con- package of five for 39 cents).
the "perf board", make sure the nector. To further insure that the The five wire cable may present
alpha row is closest to the board. wires don't come loose, a plastic a problem. Radio Shack has
The top and bottom are in the "tie wrap" was used to lash the antenna five conductor rotor
same position as shown in cable wires to the board. Oon't cable but only in 100 foot lengths.
Figure 2. skip this step because, sooner or You can probably "scrounge" a
Figure 1 shows a pictorial draw- later, flexing of the wires will piece from a friend who is into
ing of how the interface compo- cause one to break where it con- electronics or make one up by
nents are assembled . The circuit nects to the board . twisting five different colored
consists of three transistors and Note the wire between pins 4 wires together.
four resistors. If your modem and 7 on the OB-25 connector. The total cost for the com-
does not have the autodial auto- This connection puts the Micro- ponents is about $12.00, assum-
answer option, you can eliminate Connection in the autodial mode. ing you already have the epoxy,
transistor Q2, plus its associated If you use the modem in an auto- bare wire, and tools such as a
resistor along with the "H" con- answer application, this wire soldering iron. For those of you
nection to the VIC and the wire to should be removed. The connec- not into "home brew" construc-
pin 8 of the OB-25 connector. The tion between pins 1 and 7 is re- tion, the complete interface
wire between pin 20 of the OB-25 quired to insure the MicroCon- (wired and tested on an epoxy cir-
connector and the "E" pin to the nection works with TTL level cuit board) can be purchased for
VIC can also be eliminated. signals. $24.95 from ByteSize Computer
To make the modem cable stur· The three transistors are Products, P.O . Box 21123, Seattle,
dy, wire terminations were placed 2N2222 general purpose NPN WA 98111.0
at the edge of the board. This was types. Virtually any NPN small

PIN N Figure 1

0 PIN 2
c:J PIN 8 ~
w o
II: ~
c( r-
0 PIN 20 m
ii: <J--------------------------------------------~~ til
~ PIN C U1
0 o
I- z
PIN 3 o~


To be continued on page 11
1 O/Commander September 1983

Continued from page 10

DB25 MALE 20

Figure 2


Figure 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1/0 PORT

PIN 6522 IN/
6 JOY2 F PB3
10 + 9V 100mA MAX L PB7 M CB2 TRANSMITTED DATA (BA) Soul OUT 1 2

Commander September 1983/11

A Commitment to Educational Excellence
With Computer Technology

As told by David Rosenwald, Minimum Requirements: Provide:

Director of Education Marketing, -A commitment to Commo- -Name, address, title and
Commodore is more deeply com- dore computers. phone number of superintendent
mitted than ever to increasing -At least five Commodore or other senior official as well as
service and support to education computers. (If you do not have similar information for the Re-
users. Commodore feels the Edu- five computers and believe you source Center Director.
cation Resource Center is only can complete all other require- -Approval by Board of Educa-
one of many grass root support ments, please prepare a short tion or similar legally designated
systems being planned for educa- note explaining your position and approval agency.
tors. Dave Rosenwald feels teach- attach it to the Application Form. Commodore Will Provide (One
er-to-teacher information ex- -Willing to allow educators at Per School Organization Or Agen-
change through Resource Cen- reasonable intervals from other cy):
ters will be one of the most eco- districts or schools to: -Certificate of Appreciation
nomical ways for teachers to gain 1. Observe use of Commo- for involvement in the Commo-
useful working knowledge of dore equipment in dore Education Resource Center
computers and software pro- classrooms. Program.
grams. He further stated this pro- 2. Discuss operation and -VIC/64 Modem if requested
gram is available to every school uses with teachers and (free). (See Application Form-
that can meet our guidelines. administrators. Second Signature Required.)
To qualify as a Commodore 3. Allow teachers/adminis- -Compuserve subscription
education resource center you trators to duplicate public (free). (The center must pay for
must be domain programs. connect time and the telephone.
-A non-profit school organiza- -Provide occasional inservice Special Compuserve password
tion or agency (public or private) to other educators and public. for Resource Centers to be used
serving students in one ot more -Assist Commodore to form for electronic bulletin board.)
of the following categories: educational support user groups. -Education Resource Center
-Preschool -Develop news items, arti- newsletters and information up-
-K-12 cles, success stories and photo- dates.
-Post Secondary Educa- graphs about your computer ap- -Early information on pro-
tional Institution plications for potential use in ducts, software, etc.
-2 or 4 Year College or Commodore and other publica- Schools interested in becom-
University tions. ing an Education Resource Cen-
-Adult Education Program -Evaluate software and hard- ter can write to the Education Re-
-An intermediate unit or ware (provided by Commodore), source Center Coordinator, Com-
teacher center designated as a as reasonably requested. modore Business Machines, 1200
teacher training organization and -Willing to be listed as Com- Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA
given formal status by a Munici- modore Education Resource Cen- 19380.
pal, State, County or Federal ter.
School Authority. Education Resource Center Must
121Commander September 1983
\n'''OdUC''O An Exclusive Instructional Aid
By the Author of Vanilla Pilot
Richard F. Daley, Ph.D.

In educational computing certain types of tasks. Most with this concept must look for
circles today you hear and read microcomputers have languages BOTH responses and handle
about terms like 'authoring like BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, each appropriately,
languages' or sometimes PILOT. LOGO, APL, and ASSEMBLER From the programmer's view-
This article will introduce you to available. All of these languages point, it is easier to require the
these two terms and their mean- can be used to write interactive user to enter one word replies like
ing. In addition, an introduction to dialog programs. However, PILOT RAIN or CLOUDS . From the
programming in PILOT will be is a specialized language design- students viewpoint an answer
given. ed for dialogs, drills, and tests such as :
rather than the computation IT WILL LIKELY BE CLOUDY
Authoring languages in innu-
handled well by general purpose AND RAIN .
merable variations are found as a is much easier to work with , It is
part of many computer installa- languages.
more natural-like a conversa-
tions. The main point of each of BASIC, for example , can handle tion. As shown by this example,
these languages is that they can a free response dialog, but the free response dialog allows the
be used by teachers who want to ' programmer must often make un- user to respond to the computer
write computer assisted instruc- wieldy arrangements for process- in a normal conversational man-
tion, but don't want to learn the ing input and for comparing ner.
inner workings of a typical com- words or portions of words that Ideally, the language used in
puter language. Unfortunately, the program must recognize. developing an interactive dialog,
most are failures . They become Before proceeding look at the will handle such an interactive
much too com plicated for anyone term 'free response dialog' , dialog efficiently and easily. This
but computer professionals to Understanding this term can help rules out most languages, in-
use, us in understanding how the cluding BASIC, as they use slow,
PILOT language can be used. To complex program structures to
PILOT, developed to be used as
illustrate free response dialog, accomplish this.
an authoring language, avoids the
look at this simple example: The PILOT language is design-
pitfalls of most other implementa-
THE WEATHER FORECAST ed to take the pain out of writing
tions. It is best used in the
FOR TODAY HAS A 100% an interactive dialog program.
development of interactive dialog
PROBABILITY OF With PILOT, just as with a spoken
program, conversational games,
PRECIPITATION. language, you can express many
or, in modern enhancements of
WHAT WILL WE SEE: ideas and accomplish many tasks
the language, with added turtle
BLUE SKY, CLOUDS, RAIN, by combining a handful of Simple
graphics features.
SUNSHINE statements.
I am frequently asked "Why use As you can see there are two Tamarack Software, Inc. mar-
PILOT?" There are many, many possible correct responses from kets a version of PILOT, called
computer languages from which the list of weather types. Precipi- Vanilla Pilot, for all Commodore
to choose. Every computer tation is synonymous with rain computers currently on the
language has some specific and, if it rains, there are clouds. market. I suggest you obtain a
features which make it ideal for So any program written to work copy of Vanilla Pilot, a bargain at
Commander September 1983/13

its suggested retail of only

$29.95, from your local computer
store before continuing this arti-
cle. It will help you appreciate the
power and ease of use of the
PILOT language. 110 T:HAS A 100% PROBABILITY OF
There are four types of PILOT 120 T:PRECIPITATION.
statements which make up the 130 T:
majority of most PILOT programs. 140 T'WHAT WILL WE SEE:
In fact, you can write programs of 150 T: BLUE SK'r11 CLOOU!IS / RA IN" SUNSH I NE
considerable complexity using 160 A:$
only these . four statement types. 170 T:
Look at each of these statements: 180 M:CLOUD
The first statement is the TYPE 200 M· RAIt~
statement. It is much like the 210 T'T': RIGHT J PRECIPITAION ~1EANS RAIN.
PRINT statement in BASIC. It's
function is to display, or TYPE, in-
formation onto the computer
screen. The format of this, and
240 E:
any other, PILOT statement is
If you wish, for example, to LISTING 2
display the word HELLO on the
computer screen, the TYPE state-
ment would look like this : 100 *STFiF.:T T: THE ~~EATHER FORECAST FOR TODAY
240 T: WANT TO TR'r1 AGA I N?
250 A·$
When you run this PILOT pro- 260 M:YESJY/OK/SURE/YEP,FINE,GREAT
gram line the word HELLO will be 270 J'r': STAF~T
displayed on the screen. 280 E:
All PILOT program lines have
about the same format. This for-
mat consists of four separate LISTING 3
parts. Each program line needs a
line number. A line number may 100 *STARTT : THE l~EATHER FORECAST FOR TODAY
be any whole number between 0 110 T :~AS A 100% PROBABILITY OF
and 63999. The line number is 120 T :PRECIPITATION.
followed by a PILOT statement or
command. These statements con-
130 T
sist of a single character (like the
T for TYPE). Next there is a colon .
The colon is a separator between
160 A :$
the PILOT statement and the 170 T
operation field, or operand, which 180 M :CLOUD
is the fourth part of a PILOT pro-
gram line. Thus the TYPE state- 200 M :RAIN
ment shown above is incomplete. 210 TY:RIGHTI PRECIPITAION MEANS RAIN.
It would be better like this: 220 M : CLOUD, RAIN
100 T:HELLO 240 T : ~~ANT TO TRY AGA I N?
250 A :$
The next PILOT statement is 260 M : YES" '111 OK SURE YEP FINE, GREAT

the ACCEPT command. The AC- 270 JY:START

CEPT command takes input or in- 280 E :
formation from the keyboard
while the program is executing or
running. When the computer
comes to an ACCEPT command,
14/Commander September 1983
it stops and waits for you to type
something on the keyboard.
LISTING 4 There are a number of options for
the operation field of the ACCEPT
command in Vanilla Pilot; one is:
lee G:CLEFtR A:$
110 G:COLOR 2 When the computer sees the
120 0:60TO 20~20 dollar sign ($), it ACCEPTs input
130 G:DRAW 40 from the keyboard, then transfers
140 G:RIGHT 144 it to a section of memory called
150 G:DRAW 40 the 'ANSWER FIELD'.
160 6:RIGHT 144 The third PILOT statement is
170 G:DRAW 40 the MATCH command. Here the
180 G:RIGHT 144 PILOT program makes decisions.
190 G:DRAW 40 Complex pattern matching is
20e G:RIGHT 144 done on the user input stored in
the ANSWER FIELD. The program
210 G:DRAW 40 then makes decisions based on
220 G:RIGHT i44 whether or not a match was
230 E: found .
The MATCH command con-
tains a list of patterns to be
LISTING 5 searched for and matched with
the input information stored in
the ANSWER FIELD. For exam-
1£10 G :CLEAR ple,
120 G :ooTO 20 .. 20
130 U :SIDE Suppose you wish to search
140 U :SIDE the user input for the words TEST
150 U :SIDE or its synonym EXAM . The
160 U :SIDE MATCH command works by using
U :SIDE what is called a 'sliding window'
170 match. That means that each of
180 E
the patterns in the MATCH state-
190 *SIDE G :DRFtl~ 40
ment are scanned across the con-
200 G :RIGHT 144 tents of the ANSWER FIELD.
210 E Thus, the word TEST found in the
above MATCH statement would
match with the sentence


or the word EXAM in the sentence
110 G :COLOR 2 The 'sliding window' match will
120 G :GOTO 29120
match with the set of characters
130 C :E=5
contained in the ANSWER FIELD
140 C :T=0 no matter where they appear.
150 *LOOP U :SIDE There are only TWO possible
160 C :T=T+l outcomes of the MATCH. Either a
170 C :$=T match will be found or one will
180 M :#E not be found. That is either YES or
190 IN:LOOP NO. The MATCH statement will
290 E communicate with the rest of the
210 *SIDE G :DRFtW 40 PILOT program using a memory
2210 G :RIGHT 144 location called the Yes/No flag .
230 E The Yes/No flag is important .
Each PILOT statement type can
Commander September 1983/15
have either a Y or a N between the
command letter and the colon.

COMMODORE·64™ The Y and N are conditionals and

the statement will be executed
ONLY if the conditional is the
and YIC·20T~sersl same as the Yes/No flag. For ex-
The sentence following the COl-
on would only be typed if the
Yes/No flag were set to YES. If the
Yes/No flag were set to NO then
this statement would be skipped.
The final PILOT statement is
or EN D statement. The EN D state-
ment is the last program line ex-
ecuted by the PILOT program . It
may come at any point in the pro-
gram, but must be the last line ex-
ecuted by the program.
To pull this all together study
the simple example of a PILOT
program shown lin Listing 1. If you
have a copy of Vanilla Pilot
available, load it and enter the
program in Usting 1 into your
IM'ACT ' I..TII IIItftKt Prittt., computer. Based on what we
COMIS COMPLITI ., r~.lit, have already talked about, study
W.TH ALL 201M IJecfrMics
4"X4.S"2" the listing for yourself to see if
.IITIIFACIS you understand the program.
CAlLIS Lines 100 to 150 of the program
are simply TYPE statements. The
computer will display these lines
Features: High quality print head-MCBF equal on the screen as
to 500,000 lines, 5X7, 30cps impact dot matrix, THE WEATHER FORECAST
144 dots per line, 2.25"w plain paper roll and FOR TODAY HAS A 100%
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width, lower case descenders, upper/lower WHAT WILL WE SEE:
case characters, can reproduce the entire BLUE SKY, CLOUDS, RAIN,
20/64 graphics set, dot addressable graphics, SUNSHINE
supports custom character capability, reverse At this point the program will
character mode, permits user selection of two be waiting at line 160 for an entry
character sets. Transformer included. gO-day from the keyboard. Remembering
warranty. N.Y. residents add applicable sales the 'sliding window' of the
tax. MATCH statement, enter a se-
quence answer. For example,
All Major Credit Cards Accepted I EXPECT TO SEE SOME RAIN.
DEALER When you press the RETURN
INQUIRIES key the computer takes the
INVITED sentence you typed on the
keyboard and places it in the
ANSWER FIELD . Next, it checks
for the match for the word CLOUD
in line 180. There is no match, so
the TY: in line 190 will not be ex-
There is a match with the word
RAIN in line 200, so the computer
will TYPE the words:
16/Commander September 1983 Circle No. 95
II our
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is so great, why are we
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It's our way of introducing you most commands one-key simple, eliminating
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MEANS RAIN. label is found, the program number of sub-commands which
Try it! begins executing that program tell the computer which of the
Now RUN the program again. line. graphics options to do.
This time enter the words Until now all the program lines In this article, you will look at
I WILL SEE CLOUDS. you have looked at have been ex- some of the GRAPHICS sub-
This time when you press ecuted in numeric order. Labels commands used on a computer
RETURN the computer will test in a PILOT program transfer con- li'ke the Commodore-64. These
the input against the MATCH in trol to different parts of a program commands also apply to the
line 180. The matchstring CLOUD as needed . VIC-20, 4032, and 8032 versions of
matches with CLOUDS in the in- The other part of the transfer of Vanilla Pilot. The VIC-20 version
put. So the computer will res- control is found in the new line has 8 colors and the 4032 and
pond: . 270. This part is the J: or JUMP 8032 versions have no color
YES!! IT WILL BE CLOUDY. command . Here you JUMP to the capabilities.
A word about lines 220 and 230. label START, if the Yes/No flag is In the Turtle Graphics system,
The MATCH in line 220 checks set to YES. And the Yes/No flag is the computer screen becomes
the contents of the ANSWER set to YES, when the input from the playground for a tiny invisible
FIELD to see if either RAIN or line 250 contains one of the affir- turtle, with the turtle at the center
CLOUD appears , if neither word is mat,ive answers from the MATCH of an invisible circle that moves
there, then the Yes/No flag is set statement in line 260. with him . This circle is divided in-
to NO. This allows the TYPE When writing your own pro- to 360 segments or angles, each
statement in line 230 to be ex- grams in Vanilla Pilot, there are measuring one degree. The turtle
ecuted . Thus , if neither RAIN nor two things you need to watch for. can face into anyone of these
CLOUD appears in the ANSWER These are segments.
FIELD the computer will respond: 1. Be sure you have a label for The turtle's position on the
ARE YOU SURE ABOUT THAT? every J: statement for the proper
Try one final test of the pro- screen Is determined by a system
gram . What do you expect will transfer of control. of coordinates. The top left hand
2. Be sure you have only one corner of the screen is 0,0 while
happen if you enter a sentence possible destination label for
with BOTH the words CLOUD and the bottom left hand corner, ex-
each JUMP statement. The rou- cept on a VIC-20, is 0,49. With a 40
RAIN in it? tine to search for a label will look
Decide what you would expect , column screen the center of the
at the same number of characters screen is 39,24 and the coor-
then try it! Type RUN, then enter
the following sentence in the label as there is following dinates for the upper right corner
the colon of the JUMP statement. are 0,79.
That is-J:TEST will find the Following is a description of
You should have successfully labels *TEST, *TESTING or seven graphics sub-commands
predicted that BOTH responses *TEST5. Thus, i.f the label *TEST for Vanilla Pilot. They are CLEAR,
and *TEST5, you will never reach that TION , LEFT, and RIGHT. There
RIGHT, PRECIPITATION line with a JUMP. are several additional sub-
MEANS RAIN. There is a variation of the LIST commands , but these will be left
would be displayed. command you have been using in for you to learn from your Vanilla
At this point, many of you are Vanilla Pilot. Try using the com- Pilot manual.
probably tired of typing RUN mand LLiST (Yes, there really The CLEAR sub-command in-
every time you wish to try another shOuld be two L's). You should itializes the' turtle. It ac-
entry in this program . Here's how see a listing on the screen of your complishes, among other things,
to modify Listing 1 so you can computer that looks like Listing 3. moving the turtle to location 0,0
loop back to the start if you wish By the way, PLiST sends the out- and setting its direction and color
to try again. put to your printer. to O. Always begin your Turtle
Begin by entering the program Now for a look at the Turtle Graphics program with a CLEAR.
lines shown in Listing 2. LIST the Graph ics features of Vanilla Pilot. With the COLOR sub-command
program and notice that the old Turtle Graphics means that the you can control the color of the
line 100 has been replaced by a computer has an 'invisible' turtle pen the turtle is carrying. You
new line 100. This new line con- with a pen. On a computer like the need to specify a color number, c,
tains a label. A label is a way of Commodore-64, the turtle actual- from 0 to 15 on the Commo-
NAMING a program line. The ly carries a set of 16 different col- dore-64 (0 to 7 on the VIC-20).
label, *START, tells the computer ored pens. One corresponding to Using the DRAW z sub-
that this program line is special. each of the various colors that the command, you can DRAW a line z
Whenever you tell the computer computer is able to display. units long across the screen. This
to search for a label, it looks The Turtle Graphics is access- line is drawn using the current
through your program until it ed by the GRAPHICS command pen color and the turtle's current
finds the correct label. When the G:. The G: command has a direction.
18/Commander September 1983



~ •. ..:.:.-. YRllMETHEUS 1
J .~~ By


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=.-- == =----~---~==
~= = ~=
P.O. BOX 19597

COMMODORE 64 and VIC 20 are Trademarks of Commodore Electronics Circle No. 86
The GOTO x,y sub-command ing the same lines repeatedly in a Well, Vanil i a Pilot ai l ows you to
places the turtle at locations x,y single program. Like most com- keep your self-respect! Eliminate
in the coordinate grid of the puter languages, PILOT takes these repeating lines by using the
screen. care of this drudgery using a sub- COMPUTE statement. The COM-
Change the direction the turtle program which is called from PUTE statement allows you to do
is heading using the DIRECTION within the main program. This arithmetic in PILOT. It takes the
d. The value of d is in degrees and sub-program is called a sub- form of
can be any value between 0 and routine in some computer C:expression
359. Direction 0 is facing to the languages. When the sub-pro- The expression is any equation
right side of the screen. The value gram has accomplished its task, including ON LY addition and sub-
of the direction increases in control is returned to the program traction. An example of this
counter-clockwise fashion. line immediately following the would be in line 150 of Listing 6.
The LEFT d sub-command ad- statement which called the sub- Here the expression is T=T+ 1.
justs the heading of the turtle by program. There is a reserved character
d degrees to the turtle's left. This The start of a sub-program is used in the COMPUTE statement.
is different from the DIRECTION marked with a label and the end is It is the dollar sign ($). The expres-
sub-command in that the change marked with E: or END statement. sion, in the form
of direction is relative to the cur- To visualize what this means, $ = expression
rent direction. That is, if the turtle rewrite the program in Listing 4 will be evaluated and the result of
is facing 0 degrees then a LEFT using sub-programs. The result of this evaluation will be placed in
90 will turn the turtle left (counter- this rewriting is shown in Listing the ANSWER FIELD. This transfer
clockwise) to 90 degrees. 5. to the ANSWER FIELD allows a
The RIGHT d sub-command is The first thing you can see is comparison using the MATCH
like the LEFT sub-command but that, instead of repeating the statement. A special form of the
will adjust the turtle's heading to DRAW and RIGHT graphics sub- MATCH statement allows the
the right (or clockwise). Thus, a commands, we repeat the com- contents of the ANSWER FIELD
RIGHT 90 will turn the turtle to mand U:SIDE to be compared with a numeric
270 degrees. This command operates much variable.
like the JUMP command, but has Look at the program in Listing
Now look at a simple example
one important difference. The 6. It will do the same things as the
of a Turtle Graphics program. The
USE command remembers its programs in Listing 4 or Listing 5.
program in Listing 4 is designed
location in the program. As soon However, there is no repetitive
to work on the Commodore-64
as the END command is found, typing of the same lines. We are
computer. The other Commodore
control is returned to the program using a program structure called
computers will require some ad-
justments to run properly. For the line immediately after the USE a LOOP. Lines 150 to 200 are the
4032 and 8032 delete line 110. For command. In this case, the pro- actual loop. A program loop is a
the VIC-20 change the DRAW 40 gram would be executed in the set of program lines which are ex-
to DRAW 25 and the GOTO 20,20 following line number sequence: ecuted until some condition is
to GOTO 10,10. 100 190 met. In this case, when the
Enter the program into your 110 200 190 variable T is equal to the variable
computer. Try to deduce what the 120 210 200 E the loop will be terminated.
figure is that will be drawn. Lines 130 140 etc. First the program draws a
100 to 120 simply initialize the tur- Try it! single line 40 units long. Next it
tle, set the color of his pen to col- Vanilla Pilot also includes a adds 1 to the numeric variable T
or 3 (cyan) and locate the starting command called TRACE. The and transfers the new value to the
point of the first line at coor- TRACE command allows you to ANSWER FIELD. Finally, in line
dinates 20,20. see each line at the top of the 180 this value is compared to the
Remember that the turtle is fac- screen as it is being executed. To contents of the numeric variable
ing to zero degrees or towards the use the TRACE command type E. If there is not a match, then the
right hand side of the screen. TRACE and then RUN. Watch the loop is repeated with the
Draw a line 40 units long in that program lines as they appear on IN:LOOP. These few lines can be
direction. Now the computer will the screen. used as a general looping calcula-
turn to the turtle's (not your) right, When you wish to stop the tion for any type of loop in PILOT.
or in a clockwise direction. This TRACE function, simply type This is a brief overlook of the
pair of actions is repeated four OFF. PILOT language, using Vanilla
more times to complete the Your first reaction in moving Pilot from Tamarack Software for
figure. from Listing 4 to Listing 5 was our examples. There is much,
To check your prediction about probably that there is STILL a set much more that you can do with
the shape of the figure, Listing 1 of repeating lines. No self- the PILOT language. I hope that
shows the figure as you should respecting programmer would do this overview will get you as ex-
see it on your computer screen. this unless there was absolutely cited about the PILOT language
Many people get tired of enter- NO other choice.' as I am.D
20/Commander September 1983
would have been lost trying to memory with a machine language
An educational program for the draw with a high resolution routine. Don't worry about
Commodore·54 that rewards correct screen. understanding how it works. If
answers to math problems with drawing
time using a joystick. Then, the final step was to con- you type it in carefully and avoid
nect the two. This gave t he pro· mistakes, it will work all by itself.
gram a game environment. The (Briefly, it copies the 1k of
When I brought my Commo- person using the computer would SCREEN MEMORY starting at ad-
dore-64 home, I didn't want it to be given five math problems. For dress 1024, and the 1k of COLOR
turn into just another game each right answer, he would NYBBLES from 55296 into the
machine. This time I wanted receive credit of one minute for protected RAM area just above
some educational value from it. drawing. After all five problems the BASIC ROM chip .)
On the other hand, "all work and were done, the screen would With this done, the second pro-
no play, makes Johnny a dull clear. Then, by using a joystick, gram received much higher
boy". So, I was willing to com· the student could draw or doodle reviews from the two experts. So,
promise. I would spend a littl e.. with the computer. When time here it is for your enjoyment.
time with education, and then, as was up, it would be back to the
an incentive, give an equal chalkboard for five more prob- Instructions
amount of time to recreation. lems. Again, he would receive Five math problems are given
These were the guidelines I used credit towards drawing time for using a Random Generator in
in developing "MATH AND each correct answer. lines 1010 and 1015. Two tries are
DRAW". My first program went to the ex- allocated for each problem before
First, I wanted the educational perts for review (my two the correct answer is displayed.
value for my two daughters. This daughters). The response was During drawing, pressing the
was developed as math problems . good but with two complaints. fire button will TURN ON the
Simple "ADDITION" problems for 1) Saving the screen between square . Pressing the SHIFT key
my first grader, and a little harder math drills was very time consum- will TURN OFF the square. To
"SUBTRACTION" ones for the ing and boring. erase multiple squares, press the
older, third grader. 2) " SUBTRACTION" was a big SHIFT LOCK key.
Second, build the FUN part. person's word. Their school used Then,using the KISS technique
This was to use the C-64 color the term "TAKE-AWAY" instead . again, I eliminated worrying about
capability for drawing . The idea of Problem #2 was quick to solve; the CONTROL and COMMODORE
KISS (Keep It Simple Susie) came "SUBTRACTION" now reads keys for selecting the colors for
to mind, and I only used a low "TAKE·AWAY". Problem #1 re- the squares. You simply press the
resolution technique for the quired me to remove the BASIC number keys 1 to 8 and the cor-
screen. This turned out to be a routine of PEEKS and POKES to responding color will replace the
plus with my six year old who save the screen and color current cursor color. O
Commander September 1983/21
Continued from page 21

** -- * -
PROGREJ.:lii IVE 5 REM - * - * - MATH AND DRAW - * -
PERIPHE ALf .. 10 REM- * - * - BY TED JEAN -
EtfOFTW RE • 15 REM*********************************
~--------------. 20 REM*** BUILD SCREEN CONTROL TABLE***
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40 LINE$(A) = LINE$(A-l) + CHR$(17)
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• 20 page illustrated manual with detailed 55 REM*** SEND TITLE TO SCREEN ***
programming examples .
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65 POKE64619:PRINT CHR$(147)
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• State 01 the ~rt PrO-Adventure Series for the
Commodore 64.
75 PRINT LINE$(6)SPC(12);
• RealistIc sound effects and animated color 76 FOR A=l TO 13:PRINT CHR$(183);: NEXT
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• Over eighlY areas. 70 objecls. and 40
commands . OBLEMS ?II
• A "real-time" adventure with a user-friendly
he lp lealure. updaled conslanlly . 85 PRINT LINE$(14)SPC(5)"PRESS + FOR
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• Your success In Gothmog 's Lair will depend on 90 PRINT LINE'(16)SPC(S)"PRESS FOR
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115 REM********************************
VIC·20/C-64 125 FOR A = 0 TO 10: READ XY(A): NEXT
From the producers of
z 130 DATA 01 -401 401 01 -lJ -41
SNAKMAN 135 DATA 391 01 11 -391 41
come 3 more winners in the No. 1 140 REM********************************
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155 FOR A = 0 TO 64: KEY(A)=0: NEXT
KE IT'(08)=11: KEY.( 11 )=15: KEY( 16)=5
A space game with excjting graphics
- -
GRIDDER 165 KEY(19)=6 : KEY(24)=7 : KEY(27)=8
A new generation of grid game 170 KEY(56)=1 : KEY(59)=2
I QI~ I:ti 1! Ii,'J tiJ; J'1 200 REM********************************
1 or 2 players; watch out, you can tilt! 205 REM*MACHINE LANGUAGE SCREEN MOVER**
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210 AD=49152
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215 READ X: IF X = -1 THEN 310
All 4 games operate on joystick or
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220 POKE ADIX: AD = AD + 1
VIC-20 '19.95 Tape '24.95 Disk 225 GOTO 21~
C-64 '24.95 Tape ·27.95 Disk 230 DATA 1621 41 1601 1961 321 301 192
MCNISA (includes expo date)
231 DATA 1621 216J 160J 200J 32J 30
C.O.D. '1.50 (Certified/Cash/M.D.) 232 DATA 1921 961 1621 1961 160J 4
S & H '2.00 1st Item, '1,00 ea. additional
N.Y. add sales tax
233 DATA 321 301 1921 1621 2001 160
All prices U.S. Funds 234 DATA 216, 321 301 1921 96
Our Policy: If )'Ou can find any of our software pro-
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grams nationally advertised for less. including S & H.
send us lheir ad with )'Our order and we will match It.
236 DATA 1601 41 1621 0J 189J 01 0
We hate back-orders. 237 DATA 157J 01 01 202J 2081 247
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FABTRONICS 239 DATA 1361 2081 2381 961 -1
51 Quarry St .. Dept C. • Brockport. N.Y. 14420
240 REM ••• SIT'S (49152) = SAVE SCREEN
VIC 20 and C~. Reg . TM C8M. Inc To be continued on page 24
Snakman·Skramble-Gridder -Pinball Wizard Ic)M1crodlgi1al, Inc.
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instructions for efficient use. ($29.95 T) Composer~: A simple music composition 1-800-343-1078
Inventory 64 ~: Asmart inventory-tracking program for the Commodore VIC-20 that
teaches musical notation and allows For more information about these and
system for the Commodore 64 that handles many other programs for your home
650 parts. ($39.95 0) 'melodies' to be saved to tape for later
recall. ($19.95 T) computer, write to CSA.
C-64 Analyst: A diagnostic program which Programmers with programs to market are

tests the Commodore 64 and its periph- encouraged to send copies for review to
erals to detect hardware defects. An CSA.
invaluable tool for C-64 users! ($19.95 0)
~~ ASSOCIATES Dealer & distributor inquiries are welcomed by:
t 8K RAM required - t 16K RAM required
• Price given for tape version. Disk version slightly higher
Micro Software InterrJationa Inc
T Available on tape - D Available on disk
50 Teed Drive, Randolph, The Silk Mill 44 Oak Street
Prices shown are manufacturer's retail prices. Massachusetts 02368 Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts 02164
Circle No. 91
r Continued from page 22
245 REM •.• 8Y8(49167) = RESTORE SCREEN
. 300 REM********************************
305 REM***
310 POKE204J0:POKE19810
315 PRINT"?IICHR$(157);

320 GET AN$:IF AN$ () "+11 AND AN$ (> 11-

325 POKE204J1
335 FOR A = 1 TO 1000: NEXT
400 REM********************************
410 POKE53280J8:POKE53281/5
420 POKE646 13:PRINT CHR$(147)


ET 5 II '


IIOIatecl SocketI. •• 20G.95
455 PRINT LINE$(16)SPC(12);
456 FOR A=1T011:PRINT CHR$(175); : NEXT
460 PRINT LINE$(17)SPC(12)CHR$(18)1I GOO
465 PRINT LINE$(18)SPC(12);
466 FOR A=lT011:PRINT CHRS(163); : NEXT
TO co~n I NUE II;
475 POKE204/0:POKE198J0
EERIE MANSION -Explorethe 485 GET A$ : IF AS=II .. THEN 485
mansion and find the treasures but 490 POKE 204J1
beware the dangers. 1995 tape 24 95 disk
500 REM********************************
MONOPOLY - Sound and 510 PROB=1:TL=0
graphics make this family favorite 515 GOSUB 1000:TR'T'=0:REM GET NUMBERS
more fun than ever. 64 only -
19 95 tape 24 95 disk 600 REM*************~******************
DIET CALC - Tell the computer 615 PRINT CHR$(147);CHR$(31);CHR$(lS);
what you eat and what activity you do 620 FOR A=l TO 5
and it will calculate your gain or loss .
VIC 19 95 tape 24 95 disk
64 available soon. "; :REM 40 SPACES
All orders add 1'0 handling 630 NEXT A
Send for Free Catalog 635 PRINT II II; :REM 9 SPACES
640 PRINT CHR$(158)CHR$(109)"
P.o. BOX 536 645 PRINT CHR$(110)CHRS(31)1I II '
LAKESIDE, CA 92040-0536
(619) 443-9776 :REM 9 SPACES
Commodore 64" and VIC 20" are registered
trademarks of Commodore Business
660 FOR A=l TO 10
MachInes. Inc
e . ••• .e . ••.• ... • .••• _••.••• .••••••• _• . _••• .• .• :
Corcle No. 27 ~
665 PR I NT" II; : RE~1 9 SPACES
670 PRINT CHR$( 158) "CHR$( 144) j II

675 PRIt~T" .. ; : REM

6813 PRINT CHR$(158)1I IICHR:f(31)1I
685 NEXT A
•• PRINTERS ........ """
, ,
695 PRINT CHR$(158)CHR:f(119)1I
"; : REM 213 SPACES .. .
:REM 9 SPACES i & pin DIN to 4 RCA phono pluU'

7135 FOR A=l TO 7 guaranteed 10 improve resolution on

Commodore Color Monitor• .
7113 PRItH Il
FREE with purchDse of any mJmilgr .
"; : REM 49 SPACES • '0.00 if ooId separately.

715 NEXT A
7213 PR I t~T .. MONITORS
U51 Ir-., 11 _' ''IN IN U" ttl
511·10 Iill ""
TAXAI 't'u nt. ,Nr< ,
C••• M.,. , I) '''IN)
G••i.i · IOX 1110,, 11
G..... - li 'IOOe',)
725 POKE5629416:POKE213221224 : G.rll' l1) ..... 111 P""UIII • Olli,,"

7313 POKE5629516:POKE20231224 : - - - --4-- - - -

735 POKE532811e
7413 PRINT CHR:f(19):PRINT CHRS(5)
: Skyl .. Ellclric Works
: .....'iI"

1 Commodo.. Com,ulor
CUllom III 411$1 (0.-'" 101
(om,ultlS ,nit dIsk d,.II"
! A,r." JS 00 11th
81313 REM********************************

8113 PRINT LINES(e7)SPC(19)"#1I

815 PRINT LINE$(08)SPC(le)PROB ·•• FOR 1-(619)-282-5166

8213 PRHH LIt~E$(e9)SPC(20)N1S

825 PRIt~T LINES( 11 )SPC(29)N2:f
830 IF AN$="+" THEt~ PRINT LIHE$( 11 )SPCC
-. --.-.--...-. -_... ............... ....-.-
- -
18)11_" - SOFI'WARE -
8413 PRINT LINE:f(12)SPC(18); Supporting all COMMODORE computers
Written by users. for users.
8513 PRINT LINES( 13)SPC(22)i Over 1300 program, end growing.
8613 ANS = VAL(A$) VIC collection # 1 - 70+ programs - Tape/Disk - $10.00

865 IF N3<19 THEN 999 VIC collectIon #2 - 70+ programs - Tape/Disk - $10.00
VIC collection" 3 - 70+ programs - Tape/DIsk - $10.00
VIC collection #4 - 50+ programs - Tape/ Disk - $10.00

875 ANS = ANS + ( VAL(A$) 113) OOMMODORE64

8813 I F t~3< lee THEN 999 COMMODORE 64 # 1 - 25+ programs- Tape/ Disk- $10.00
COMMODORE 64 #2 -25+ programs- Tape/ Disk-$lO.oo
8913 ANS = ANS + ( VAL(A$)
91313 IF N3=ANS THEN 935
lee) * COMMODORE 64 '" 3 - 25+ programs - Tape/ Disk - $ I 0 .00

PET/C BM - 5 UtIlity - Tapes/DIsks - $10.00 each

9135 TRY=TRY+l:IF TRY=2 THEN 929 PET/C BM - , 1 Game - Tapes/ DIsks - $10.00 each
PET/C BM - 6 Educa tional - Tapes/ Disks - 510.00 each
9113 PRINT LINE$(15)SPC(12)IIWRONG - TRY DINSE'll Reset Switeh
Works on VIC·20 or Commodore 64 - $5.00
915 FOR A=lT02e00:NEXT:GOTO 61313 All price include shipping and handling.
9213 PRINT LINE$(14)SPC(le)IIWRONG." We are YOUR world wide u.ersoftwareconnectio~
925 PRINT LINES(16)SPC(10)IITHE ANSWER W An altem!ltive to the high coat of ,_ara.


9313 GOTO 945 VISA and MASTERCARD accapted.

935 TL=TL+l For A Free Flyer Write:

9413 PRIt~T Ln~E$( 15)SPCC 15) liVERY GOOD!" Publie Domain. Ine.
945 FOR A=lT03e00:NEXT 5025 S. Rangeline Rd .. W . Milton. OH 45383

950 PROB=PROB+l:IF PROB < 6 THEN 515 Phone (513) 698-5638

Circle No. 47

To be continued on page 26
Commander September 1983/25
Continued from page 25
955 POKE53280 14:POKE5328112

960 POKE64611:PRINT CHR$(147)

965 PRHn Ln~ES( UnSPC( 10) "YOU GOT "TL 1'
980 PRINT LINE$(17)SPC(S)"PORT • 2"
985 FOR A = 1 TO 4000: NEXT
99121 GOTO 3000
1000 REt1*******************************
1010 Nl=INT( (RND(e)*99) + 1)
112115 H2=INT( (RND(0)*49) + 1)
112120 IF Nl = N2 THEN 1015
1025 IF Nl ( N2 THEN N3=tH: Nl=N2: H2=H
1030 IF AN$="+" THEN N3 = Nl + N2
1035 IF AN$="-" THEH t~3 = Hl - N2
1040 Hl$ = STR$(Nl):IF Nl(10 THEN Nl$ =
" " + Nl$ .
1045 N2$ = STR$(N2):IF N2(10 THEN N2$ =
" " + t~2$
11215121 RETURt~
21210121 REM*******************************
2010 POKE20410:POKE19810
2015 PRINT"?IICHR$(157);
2020 GET AS: IF AS=II" THEN 202121
2025 IF A$ < "0" OR AS ) "9 11 THEN 2020
21213121 POKE204 1

2035 PRINT A$;CHR$(157);CHRS(157);

3000 REN*******************************
3010 PRINT CHR$(144);CHR$(147)
3015 POKE53280 8:POKE53281 15

3020 IF ZZ THEN ZZ=0: GOTO 3030

3025 SYS(49167):REM ••• RESTORE SCREEN
3035 PRINT CHR$(157)CHR$(157)CHR$( 157)C
HR$( 157);
3040 TI tiE$ = 11 00001210"
3045 T2$ = MID$( TIME$I 41 1)
3050 T2 = TL - VAL(T2$)
3055 PRIt~T CHR$( 157)C:HR$( 157)CHR$( 157);
3060 IF T2=e THEN 317121
3100 JV=PEEK(56320):KV=PEEK(197):SV=PEE
311215 FB=16-eJV AND 16):JV=15-eJV AND 15
26/Commander September 1983
3115 IF CH)127 THEN POKE SC~171:GOT0312 Products for home, industry
5 & education
3120 POKE SC,43:POKE SC+CO)CL PROr:1QUEEr.-i Write code for most
common 8-bit microprocessors, test it
3125 FOR A=1 TO 100: NEXT in circuit, and
3130 POKE SC,CH: POKE SC+CO,CC burn it on Ep·
3135 FOR A=l TO 80: NEXT ROM with this
3140 IF FB THEN POKE SC~160:POKE SC+CO, all-in-one mic·
CL ro development
system cart·
3145 IF SV THEN POKE SC,32 ridge. Power-
31 50 IF KEYCKV) THEN CL = KEYCKV)-1 ful machine code editor provides com·
3155 SC = SC + XY(JV) prehensive ROMware development sup-
3160 IF esc < 1024) OR esc ) 1983) THEN port. Ideal for robotics, process control,
SC = SC - X'rI(.JV) game development. Commodore VIC·20
host computer. Programs 2716, 2732,
3165 GOTO 3045 2758 EPROMS and similar EPROMS.
3170 SYS(49152):REM ••• SAVE SCREEN $199.00
3175 GOTO 400 PROr:1QUEEr.-i RS pack add RS·232
3180 REM************ END ************** communications to Promqueen devel·
opment system. $69.00
PCVb~ all features of Promqueen less
READ'T'. mimic mode. Software enhanced to in-
clude EPROM QC utilities, RS·232 com-
munication, printouts. 28 pinZIF socket.
Reads, ed its
runs and pro·
grams all 5 volt
2500 and 2700
series EPROMS
plus variety of
without per-
sonality modules. Commodore C-64

host computer. $299.00
PCVb~ RS pack performs RS-232
"Crafty Software from THE FOX~ voltage conversions for PQ/64 system.
The magazine for ·VIC 20 users. On CasseHe.
The all magnetic magazine with 5 or more original programs per monll\ Game - Educational - UtUl1y nect the VIC or 64 to the outside world
programs at an average cost of 88C per program. FOXTAlES • our video newalener haa Article., Hint., for robotics, control. sensing. 16 inde-
~viewe and more. Delivered monthly to your door. Give your VIC 20 value and power with FOX 20.
pendent inputs, 16 independent outputs
Texas Residents add 5'111 Sales Tax S53/yr. U.s. 583/yr. Canneda& 58.50 Single & Back ....... plus unique software allowing user to
JPr~teB~terT" FortheCommoclore64 define 255 "finite states." Includes 3
software timers, and stepper motor driv-
The user affectionate sprite development program. MenlHSriven. monoImulitcolor aprit... joy8tlcll/key- er software.
board, tape/disk. 20K w/FAST machine language routines. Over 60 commands: ROTATE (any angle 0·360) , IN·
VERT/OBVERT, SHIFT, SYMMETRY, AND/OR, REVERSE, REVIEW, MOVIE (animation). Create and edit 100% machine / ~.
up to 128 sprites per file. For programming efficiency and FUN! Includll the Game Maker· automatk:ally coded soft- "- . ~
prepares a baae for game developmenl ware for high ~ " ..,
CaaMlta 829.95 01111134.95 speed. All se-
FOXPACS quencer pro-
Selected program coliectlona lor the VIC 20 and Commodore &4 • Ga",", Adventurea, Educalionall. Home grams and state
Utilities. Programming Utilities. etc. Each ' FOXPAC contalna " programa on Individual _l1e.. See
catalog lor dellCriptions. definitions are ROMable . VIC-20 or C-64
820. host. $299.00
Ali ordera pre-paid (U.s. lunda~ Author and Dealer Inquirlea Invited. Send fot our Ir. . catalog lor mote ROM Packs Industrial quality circuit
information on the.. and other fine product.. cards are socketed, solder masked, fully
bypassed, and include a ground plane
Don't be outFOXed - Run with for low noise operation. Includes 1

EPROM . 8K & 16K models for VIC·20 and
C·64. Specify 2732 or 2764 EPROM type.
P.O. Box 507 Molded plastic case. $39.00
Deer Park, Texas 77536 All products shipped with comprehen-
(713) 473-6723 sive documentation. Call our user hot· ~
line 617·283·7719 or write for infor· ci
A DiYiaIon of Fodlre Spt_ Inc. mation: Gloucester Computer, 1 Black· !
·VIC 20 & Commodore 64 ar. trademarks of Com_re IIueIMu ... KIII ..... Inc. burn Center. Gloucester, MA 01930. 'i!
Introduction most irritating problems is to find Is each table and video monitor
Of all the areas of planning for that the electrical outlet system platform at a proper and comfor-
a computer we see, the one that you are on is shared with many table working height? Is the table
is most overlooked is the con- other electrical noise producing area large enough for the ter-
sideration given to the computer machines, such as air condi- minaI, video monitor, printer, disk
operating environment. tioners, heating and cooling drive and other accessories that
Things like furniture, flooring, devices and motor driven devices. you will be using?
power supply and telephone lines What happens when some of If the printer will be placed on
are often remembered last, or, that "dirty" power gets into the its own table, will the table be
sometimes, forgotten entirely. computer system? Bad news, easy to reach when the time
Keep some of the following ideas that's what. Lost data, periodic comes to connect cables and
in mind when it comes time to in- computer shutdowns and the like change or remove paper?
stall that new computer or can be avoided if you take the Be sure that the tables are stur-
change an existing installation time to survey the area, its power dy. One of the most humorous (to
around. outlets, and the prospects for the person who is looking on)
Whether you are a personal, "clean power" BEFORE installing sights is to see a hefty letter
business or corporate micro- the computer system. quality printer rocking a flimsy
computer user, the same basic Try to put each piece of com- table each time the printer per-
ideas presented here apply to just puter hardware on its own outlet, forms a carriage return. One finds
about any level of user. or better yet, install a multiple oneself placing small wagers on
outlet with a master power when the whole installation will
Where Is It Going To Go? switch. The bottom line here is to come grandly crashing to the
The very first step is to size up give each peripherial its OWN floor.
the room or area that the com- outlet. Don't cram or overload the So be sure to get firm, well
puter system is going to be outlet either. assembled furniture. It does not
located in. Is the area well Be sure to orient the cables and have to be expensive, just well
lighted, but not too well lighted power cords of the computer connected together and sturdy
that glare off the CRT will become system so that all safety hazards once assembled. DON'T EVER
a problem? such as exposed connections, overload a table or desk
Is the area cooled to the extent cords people could trip over or REGARDLESS of how well it may
that the computer (and you) will that a chair or table could pinch seem to be constructed!
not overheat or suffer from lack of and the like are eliminated . One last point. Always plan for
sufficient ventilation? EXPANSION. Someday (and a lot
Are there sufficient GROUND- What Are We Going sooner than you think), you are
ED electrical outlets present To Set It On? going to add to the present
around the room or at least in the Next, consider the tables or system. Don't run out of room to-
area that will be specific to the computer work stations you are day for something that you will do
computer work zone? One of the gOing to use. tomorrow.
28/Commander September 1983
for the VIC 20"
Programs written with MOSES run fifty to several hun· assembles the line thereby reducing debugging time
dred times faster than programs written in BASIC. A and conserving memory. This means an even faster
program that takes two minutes to execute in BASIC, assembly. Also included with MOSES is a machine Ian·
will only take two seconds (or less) to execute when writ· guage MONITOR with 34 powerful commands to help
ten with MOSES. you debug your programs.
ULTRA-FAST Whether you program for fun or
MOSES is written in MACHINE profit, or both, you need MOSES.
You'll love the ability to program

where imagination is your only
dozens of times faster than limit.
assemblers written in BASIC.
MOSES makes 3 PASSES. not
jl!st one or two like most other
, u a For a limited time, we will include
a free kit to upgrade your VIC
20' s outdated 6502 to the new,
enhanced 65C02A microproces·
U,-TRA-FRIENDLY sor, The 65C02A is totally com-
On screen ll1enu of EASY·TO· patible with all VIC 20 software
GSE COMMANDS. and hardware, uses 99% less
ULTRA-CONVENIENT energy, and has 27 new instructions to make program·
Comes in a CARTRIDGE with sturdy plastic case. m ing easier and faster. And, of course, MOSES takes
MOSES is easy to learn and powerful. As you enter advantage of all 27 instructions. This is a $24.95 value,
each line, MOSES verifies syntax, and partially but is included free while quantities last.

8K-16K 64K
A high quality memory expansion cartridge It's finally here. This highly versatile
housed in a sturdy plastic case. This prod· ram cartridge allows you to store or
uct has an easily accessible dip switch write programs in two separate 32K
which gives you mernory· block switch· banks that are bank selectable with
ing ability. Use one 8K and one 16K software - NO SWITCHES. This pro·
for 24K memory or two 16K cart· duct is power stingy using less than 200
.ridges for a total of 32K memory. rnA current. A must for programmers .
6·Month Warranty. 6·Month Warranty.

VIC 20 PRODUCTS: 8K RAM Cartridge $46.95*

MOSES $59.95* 16K RAM Cartridge 69.95*
MOSES with 8K RAM expansion 99.95* 64K RAM Cartridge 169.95*
' Manuracturer's suggested list price

Call CENTURY MICRO at (916) 920-3656 for the name of a

dealer in your area. Dealer inquiries invited.
1832 Tribute Rd., Suite 213, Sacramento, CA 95815
Circle No. 5
What Type of Floor? should be available without hav- suffer the same fate as that of an
The computer is remarkable! ing to tear apart a stocking area extension phone.
Remarkably sensitive to static, just to find them. Last but not least, make sure
that is! Keep ALL magnetic media that the modem and te'l ephone
The type of flooring that will be away from any magnetic field. connectors are compatible and
used in the area is very important That means do not store any disk that your local telephone com-
to the life of your system (not to or tape near loudspeakers, pany is aware that a modem will
mention your sanity). motors, electric typewriters, fans be in use. In many locales, since
If carpeting must be used, try or other office or home equip- the telephone company central
to select one of non-static ment that generates magnetic switching is done through com-
material. Another method is to in- fields when in use. puters, the phone company may
stall a large area static mat over Most importantly, the tele- have to " condition" the central
the carpet that will be centered phone is a remarkable magnetic unit to accept your modem data
under what one might call the field generator! Do NOT stack or properly.
"computer zone". The plastic store disks near, under or directly Last Will and Testament
static mat is grounded with a above a telephone! When the The most important item is just
small slender wire and is perhaps phone rings, there goes some about the most distant in our
the best safeguard against static. data.
An interesting option, and a Reminds us of the sad story we minds. Always have full records
good one if static will be a pro- heard of the well known company of model, serial H, date of pur-
chase and replacement cost avail-
blem, is to locate one or more that stored disks on the sides of able for each and every piece of
"static buttons" on the computer metal cabinets using a magneti- computer hardware, software and
furriiture. These "buttons" or cally held box ... . . accessories you own in case the
"conductive foam" pads are unforeseen disaster occurs. Make
grounded and act to drain off any Speaking of Telephones . .. MANY copies of this data, keep it
static charge that you the With the ever.increasing use of up-to-date and store a copy at the
operator may carry when they are telephone modems, it pays to computer site, your home arid
touched. take a close look at your perhaps at your bank.
Most importantly, when using telephone and how it relates or DO NOT store this data in a
static buttons, make it a habit to will relate to the computer computer file! That is a danger-
discharge yourself BEFORE system. ous mistake that we may make,
touching a piece of equipment. Locate the telephone in a con- thinking that if the computer is
Although it seems all shoes carry veriient spot. Not too close to the going to be used for data storage,
some type of charge, try to NOT computer system (see above!) but why not ..... , well, you get the
wear hard rubber or hard smooth within easy access. picture!
man-made sole shoes. They seem When using a modem, be sure In conclusion, installing a
to be the worst as far as static is that you try to have a private, non- micro-computer system, be it per-
concerned . On the other hand, extension phone line. Nothing sonal, small business or big cor-
" Hush Puppy"TM or other similar disrupts a computer/modem poration, may take more work and
sole type shoes seem to be the system more than having a per- thought than originally anticipa-
most compatible around com- .son picking up an extension ted .
puters. phone and thereby terminating In the long run, you will be glad
data transmission. you took that extra hour or spent
Where Do We Store Things? If you are in business, be sLire that extra dollar! 0
Next; take a good look at. how that the modem telephone line is
you will store the day to day files, NOT part of your switchboard or
printouts and new or active file PBX type system or your com-
floppy disks. A clean , dust proof puter modem transmission will
environment is essential not only
to the proper operation of the
computer equipment, but to the
safety of your critical paper and FOR THE VIC-20*
magnetic disk media as well.
Disks should be able to stand No Joystick Required PLA YE R VS COMPUTER Cassette
up on shelves or in drawers. BASEBALL ADVERSARY 5K $10.95
Paper should be stacked vertical- PITCHHITTERS, RELIEF PITCHERS , SACRIFICES, ETC .
ly when possible so as to not curl FOOTBALL ADVERSARY 13K (SK plus 8K exp .) $14.95
floppy disks and paper prefer a PARR PROGRAMMING
low humidity moderate tempera- We pay shipping 2664 TYLER STREET
Ind. residents add 5% sales tax
ture environment. ·VIC·20 is a TM of Commodore
Ribbons and other accessories Cirde No. 57 (219) 885-0611

30/Commander September 1983


(for the 3.5K VIC and

Displays single or multiple
digits with or w/o pictures ,
borrows, carries, scoring ,
and audio/video feedback .

NUM ER-BECi-$16.95
Number recognition, object
counting , object grouping,
and number/size/shape
discrimination .

BECi is composed of professionals dedicated to

providing non-trivial educational materials for the home
computer . In addition to our own software , we carry a full
line of evaluated hardware and software . Send $2
(refundable) for our catalog .
Send check or money order to
18 Dartmouth Street. Boston. MA 02116
(617) 536-5116 'MA res add 5% tax

Circle No. 43

For your Commodore 64

EXPAND YOUR For only $12.95 each, our CURSOR

64 tapes are your best buy for the

TM Commodore 64. They take advantage
of the color, sound , and sprites that
.make the 64 such a delight to use.
Most of our packages include three
excellent Basic programs on one cas-
686% sette tape. The programs are not copy
protected . so you can look at the
source code, and learn how to make
the 64 do its tricks.
We don't have room to describe all
25 of our CURSOR 64 programs here.
As a sample, you may want to order
tape 64-5 with the exciting Godzllla
program. You'll be challenged as you
try to save Tokyo from from the ram·
paging Godzilla. Or try tape 64-3 with
Our board Is the only memory board your VIC the popular Miser tex1 adventure that
will ever need! Check these features: will take you hours to solve (even if you
cheat and read the program source) .
• Assembled & Tested • Software Slot We have super programs for the
VIC 20, such as Dungeon ($12.95) , a
• Full 27K • Fully Guaranteed visual adventure for 16K VICs. Our
VIXEL programs are also popular with
• More Expansion Per Dollar VIC owners. And, we still sell all 30 of
the original CURSOR cassettes for the
original PET and CBM .
• Fully Assembled & Tested Board $129.95 Call or write for a catalog today. Be
• Kit Only 110.00 sure and tell us whether you have a 64,
a VIC. or a PET. We welcome credit
• Bare Board w/Documentation 50.00 cards, and ship most orders the same
Send check or m/o to: D. C. Circuits day they are received. Dealer inquiries
C.O.D. add 51.50 7460 N. Hwy. 99, Suite 35
CA Res. add 6% tax Anderson, CA 96007 CURSOR 64, Box 6905
Santa Barbara, CA 93110
Circle No. 72 805-683-1585
is proud to announce
their monthly column
for Amateur Radio

Command Post
~byJim Grubbs ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The command post has always tifiable group of individuals has What happened in between IL-
been the hub of communications. been at the leading edge of vir- LIAC and VIC was the space pro-
It is here that all information con- tually all new developmeots. The gram. We gave ourselves a goal
verges. Decisions are made bas- commercial operators called and then found the way to make
ed on all of the data that reaches them "hams", the government the dream become reality. Scien-
the command post. Since the first called them amateur radio tists challenged old ways of do-
leader organized the first govern- operators. But they existed even ing things, formulating the
ment, communications has been before the labels were applied. answers to the problems ever in-
one of the leading factors in suc- To me an amateur radio creasing miniaturization pre-
cess. The person who possesses operator is the perennial ex- sented. From all of this came the
the superior communication perimenter, always trying a new home computer. You may not
skills is victorious. circuit or modifying an old one. In realize it, but it was ready for you
The modern command post is a our time though, amateur radio ten years ago. The captains of
myriad of communication forms. has become many things. Ama- American industry though, realiz-
Each generation has contributed teurs are involved in worldwide ed you weren't ready for a com-
to communication as we know it voice, morse code, radio teletype, puter yet. So they gave you PONG
today. But not since the moment slow scan television, regular TV, and then more sophisticated
when men and women first learn- facsimile, satellite communica- game machines. They designed
ed how to speak, and later tions, and such esoteric modes plug in cartridges that looked like
created written language, has as moon bounce and meteor scat- an eight track tape because you
there been an advancement as far ter propagation. understood eight track tapes. All
reaching as radio . Even in the The eighties have finally the while, you were being readied
crudest form, electro-magnetic brought the power of digital com- for a home computer.
propagation has been used for puters to within the easy reach of There were many pioneers
less than a century. Imagine the most of us. In the fifties, ILLIAC along the road, among them the
effect the Gettysburg address at the University of Illinois, a very Heath Company who pioneered
would have had on a populace early forerunner of HAL, kept some of the first analog and
listening world wide by radio! many technicians busy every day 'd ig ital com puters for the ex-
Radio has evolved fairly rapidly replacing vacuum tubes. It was a perimenter. I still fondly
as technology goes. From early massive machine, difficult to remember the Edmund Scientific
spark gap transmissions on low house even in a very large barn. analog computer my junior high
frequencies to today's use of Your VIC has more power than math teacher bought and I
radio waves approaching the mil- that whole machine. Your ten assembled.
limeter wavelength of light for dollar calculator even has more As the market increased more
satellite transmission, one iden- power! companies jumped on the band
321Commander September 1983
wagon, some with very good pro- changing . In Canada " packet issues and show you how to add
ducts, but still motivated by radio " already allows some com - some very nice features to a basic
greed, with prices set as high as puter hobbyists to exchange pro- keyboard . For now though let's
the market would bear. grams over the air eliminating concentrate on something more
Then something happened. At telephone costs and tying up the fascinating , a CW receive pro-
a Commodore board meeting, the family line. Perhaps you are gram .
founder of the company announc- already a short-wave listener.
Before we proceed let me issue
ed that Commodore was going to Many of the subjects we discuss
build a full color computer for here will allow you to listen in on a few precautions. The receive
$300! The skeptics were many. program to follow has very
teletype and code transmissions
Little did they know that it was definite limitations. Within these
using your home computer, hook-
possible and before long they limitations it does work and is a
ed up to your receiver. Even this
would be displaying proudly on good exercise in taking data and
month 's project falls into this having our computer analyze it. It
their " golden arches " the over category . For the rest of you, all
one million sold sign . The biggest is a practical, simple program
of the interfacing we discuss has with practical applications, but it
surprise is perhaps that even with applications for virtually any kind won't be everything we could
the VIC-20 in the $80 range and of control. If you do not already hope for. After all, we have to
the C-64 at about $200 , there is own one, a programmers refer- save something for the future!
still room for a reasonable profit. ence guide is suggested. The Our program was written for
There are about 400 ,000 memory map and explanations
are particularly valuable. We will the VIC-20. It should be easily
amateurs in the United States
be looking at the pseudo RS-232 adaptable to the C-64 and other
alone. Guess where a good many
port quite a bit also. machines. You will have to bear
of those Commodore products
have turned up . Since the beginn - For those of you who are in- with me for a few columns . I do
ing of 1983, amateur operators terested , I have been a licensed not yet have access to a C-64, but
have been able to purchase a full amateur radio operator for 22 hope to before year's end.
fledged computer for less than years. I was first licensed as Machine sent morse code has
most any other piece of equip- KN9EIV at age eleven. My interest several elements that make it a
ment in the station. Even in computers began about the likely candidate for computer
microphones and special morse same time. My home built digital decoding. All the information in a
code keys cost more than a computer that added and sub- morse code character is binary in
VIC-20. t racted from zero to 127 in bi nary nature. The key is either open or
Amateur radio knows no age won me top honors for my divi- closed. Things get a bit more
limits. The youngest is perhaps sion in the St. Louis Science fair complicated when we realize that
six, the oldest, who knows . The in 1963. The VIC-20 is my first real our on and off tones can be of two
same is true of amateurs with home computer. I have done a lot different lengths, one length for
computers. Most of you are aware of design and building of digital " dits" and another three times as
of the possibilities of your Com - control circuitry for amateur ap- long for " dahs". Additionally we
modore computer, few of you yet plications. have intra-letter spacing, inter-let-
know how to realize that poten- So, with any luck at all , one of ter spacing and word spacing. We
tial. That is why Command Post our fellow amateurs Owen Gar- must be able to tell when each
was created , to help realize the riott, W5LFL is in space aboard character begins and ends and
possibilities . Every form of com- the space shuttle STS-9/Spacelab when each word begins and ends .
munications mentioned earlier flight as this column appears. It Our program must make allow-
can be enhanced or in some somehow seems appropriate for ances if we want it to decode
cases even revolutionized with the program that brought us our more than one sending speed.
the help of your computer. We home computers to have a Within the limitations of the
will discuss ideas and concepts, pioneer like Owen, an amateur BASIC language and the speed of
look at commercially available radio operator, aboard. In celebra- the VIC-20 the Command Post RX
amateur software and compatible tion of these events, let's get on program meets these require-
hardware. We will concentrate on with the show! ments.
connecting your computer to the In looking for a subject for my Take a few minutes to type in
real world-your amateur station, first column, I asked myself the program as listed and then
and programs that assist in radio which program do I hear asked save it (See Figure 1). Steal your
related activities that require no about the most. Without a doubt I joystick (with firebutton) back
interfacing. get more inquiries about a CW from the kids. We are going to use
I'd like to speak to the non- (morse code) receive program it to send code to the VIC!
amateurs for a moment. I'm glad than any other. It seems almost a When a mathematical formula
you are still reading! Perhaps the ritual that when a ham buys a new or set of formulas is used to
subjects we discuss will prompt computer one of the first things represent a real world situation it
an interest in amateur radio or he or she does is write a simple is called an algorithm ('al ge rith
rekindle an old desire to be a morse code sending program. We em), our buzzword for the month!
" ham". The licensing structure is will cover that subject in future Briefly, the program is broken
34lcommander September 1983
down into several parts. Lines 100 The "_" is a fill character used
through 260 are initialization. in the table for illegal combina-
Lines 280 through 480 are the tions of dits and dahs.
meat of the program. The lines The program has two major SElliNG
500 and above are the data for our limitations. Command Post RX
look up table, RX$. has no way to adjust for sloppy EDUCATIONAL
We first determine if the key is sending. Unlike the human earl SOFIWARE
up or down. Then we start timing brain combination, it can't guess
the pulse if the key is down. When what you send. It does everything CAN HELP PROTECT
we let up on the key we do some in a very objective manner and DEALER PROFIT
more timing to decide whether prints exactly what you send . You
the letter is finished. When you can achieve some fine-tuning by
first run Command Post RX it real- playing with the value in lines 330 AGAINST ERODING
ly doesn't know the difference and 410-.60·Z. Try changing the HARDWARE
between dits and dahs, you have .60 a bit one way or the other.
to teach it . It is a quick learner The other major limitation is PRICING
though! With the joystick plugg - speed. With the execution time
ed in use the fire button to send necessary for BASIC this program
T EST in morse code. Chances can only get through its loops ac-
are you will get some gooble-di- curatelyto about twenty words
gook on the screen. Now wait just per minute. The obvious solution
a few seconds and try it again. If is a machine language routine. OUR COMPANY
you are sending cleanly (not the Who will be the first to write us
easiest task with a joystick), by one? MICRO-ED
magic your VIC-20 prints T EST The more experienced among INCORPORATED
as you send the letters! you have probably already figured
out how you can interface this to MEANS
Take a look at lines 310, 350,
390, and 430. We are actually your receiver. For the rest of you, EDUCATIONAL
checking the joystick FB pin to all the details come next month. SOFIWARE
see if the button is pushed. We In the meantime find yourself a
will discuss this more next time 567 PLL integrated circuit chip
when we take a look at the 1/0 and either a plug for the joystick
ports and how to get information socket or a connector for the user
into and out of them. The rest of 1/0 port. Command Post RX is as
our algorithm helps us determine good as all of the inexpensive
dits and dahs and ultimately what software programs on the market FOR FURTHER
character was received. That big right now, and all it cost you was
long string in line 320 is our tim- the price of this magazine. INFORMATION
ing. It also continually adjusts for Finally, if you have any com- CALL
ments, suggestions, or general
speed variations.
questions you can reach me at
Now let's look at the data table
for a minute. Notice anything
P.O. Box 3042, Springfield, Illinois AND TALK WITH
62708. If you expect a reply in-
about the arrangement of the let- clude an SASE and allow time for
ters and figures in our table? ESBENSEN
me to answer. In the meantime,
Sound out the letters or write
welcome again to Command OUR NATIONAL
down their morse equivalents. An
Post. Tell your friends! 0
"e" is a single dit. It holds pOSi- SALES
tion one in our table. How about To be continued on page 38
the zero-dah,dah,dah,dah,dah. It COORDINATOR
is near the end of the table. Our
final character is the period at
position 83; notice it has six
elements, the zero had five, the
"e" only one. Look at the whole
table and you begin to see the
pattern. The shorter characters
are first, the longer ones later.
Can you spot the one confusing

thing about this? How about "a" Creators of more than 1,000 programs
and "n", "d" and "u", etc . I'll let o -
MICRO-ED Pr&-schoot through adult
you think about those until next Circle No. 26
Commander September 1983/35
for U8 by

11105 Shady 1taiI •

MSO~ CPI Parallellntetfaoa Y«lIks with either the VlC-20 or Commodore 64
~ total f8aIure flexibility through softv.ere commands or hardware
The CPI plugs into the serial port and directly interp!81S the signals generated by
the COI'I'1plIterli built in soflvtaJe, therefore no soflvtaJe needs to be loaded or
enabled. AI)1OU need is bUIt into the CPI carIridge. This feature allows the CPI to be
oompaWe with most soflvtaJe written fer the VIC-20 and ComI'TlOClole 64 that utilize
1515 or 1525 printers.
The CPlIs capable d twelve printing modes, specified by sdtware or hardware
switch aeIIir9. 'these twelve printing modes are combinations 01 three options as
L.hw Feed,ASCI eon..... .-1d LIstIng t..egIbility.
l.ile Feed: The CPI can generale a Ine feed if neei:Ied through software or
hardware switches.
ASCII Conwrsion: The CPI carwerts Commodore ASCII into standard ASCII
characters IhIol.9I softvoae or haRMaIe switches.
listing L.sgibiIiIy: Since many printers do not support the oodesIgraphics that the
VlC-20 and Commodore 64 produce, program iSting can become illegible if not
~ (Printer may "hang-up"). The -CPI provides three listing modes to
address this problem - Normal, Extended Tag and Abbreviated Tag.
In the Normal mode the CPI passes all commands from the computer to the
printer. The Normal code 'MlUId be used br programs written by the user or
programs with oommands supported by the printer.
In the Extended Tag mode the CPI wilf generate "lagS' (neumonics) fer graphics,
cursoroonbOl, print control and special ch8racters. For any 9'8Phics characters that
are not stanckrd ASCII, the decimal value d the graphics symbol is printed. For
instance, the ·checker board' character (press the Commodore key and the plus
sign) lists as (166).
The AbbreMIed Tag mode is the sane as Extended Tag mode, except aU the
Ufetime Warranty available upon tags 818 replaced by \he "#" sign. This mode would be used if )1OU wanted a
return of Product Warranty Card, program IisIIng to be fonTlaIIed as the original program. That Is without the .tags.
using S8Io'eI'8I print spaces inIIlead c:l one print space.
The CPlis equipped with a built-In seIf-tesI program that will check the RAM,
ROM and IIOhaldwMtdils ~. This test can be ~I in determining
if something is fUty or If the ' )1OU are using is valid. The self-test "';U
print information to the printer.
TAG Is PI'fntad For: TAG Is Prtnted For: TAG Is PriNId For: TAG Is Printed For:
[ORA) Change to Orange

5~ ~=~=
gPJ [BAN] Change to Brown
Function Key 2
Function Key 3
Cll rA) Qhenge to light Fled Fundion Key 4

C Cursor Right ED Change to Reel Y1) <::hange to Grey 1 FunctIon Key 5
Home Cursor [C Change to ~ GV2) Change to Grey 2 Function Key 6

Clear Screen
ReYerse On
ReYerse Off
[PUR) Change to Purple
~RN) Change to Green
WI Change to BkJe
m1 &':::
rG to Light Green
to Li9ht Blue
GY3) C~ to Gray 3
Function Key 7
Function Key a
PI) Pi Symbol
IN] Insert a) Change to Yellow F1) Fundion Key 1
Call toll free for nearest dealer MSD also manufactures RS232 Inter-
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Commander September 1983/37

Commodore Continued from page 35

100 DIM R~<$(85)


200 JS=37137:X=0:Y=0:Z=0
OWNERS: 240 POKE 37138 196
You have one of the best. But where
do you turn for sources of software?
Interfaces? Peripherals? Much more is 260 POKE JSI0
available than you may know. To real- 280 JR=PEEK (JS) AND 32:IF JR(32 THEN38
ize the true potential of your 64!M you
need this brand new, complete pro-
ducts resource guide 'What's? FOR 290 GOTO 280
THE 64"-a result of nearly 1000 300 8=0
hours of intensive research by an avid 310 JR=PEEK (JS) AND 32:S=S+10
64 1M user/researcher. Not simply a
mail order catalogue, 'What's? FOR"
320 IF JR=32 THEN Z=«5*Z)+(2*S»/6:Y=(
is '25 pages jammed with program, 2*Y)+1:X=(2*X):GOTO 380
software and interface sources, book 330 IF S (.60*Z THEN 310
titles, magazines, plus a section on
64 1M user groups. It's the best S' 5
340 Y=(2*Y):X=(2*X)+1
you'll ever spend! flf you don't agree,
350 JR=PEEK (J8) AND 32:S=5+10
send the book back undamaged within 360 IF JR(32 THEN 350
15 days & we'" retum your money 370 Z=(4*Z+8)/5
in fum) 380 8=0
Send S'
5 check or money order with
390 JR=PEEK (JS) AND 32:S=S+10
your name and mailing address to: 400 IF JR(32 THEN 300
"What's 7 FOR THE 64" 410 IF S(.60*Z THEN 390
3494 Chickasaw Circle. lake Worth, FL 33463. 420 GOSUB 470
~ Allow 3 lNeeks for delivery. 430 JR=PEEK (J8) AND 32:8=S+10
~--~~~~~~~~~--­ 440 IF JR(32 THEN 300
~ Dlr. Inquiries invited. Commodore 64
.g is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd. 450 IF S( (2*Z :. THEt~ 430
u 460 PRINT" II; :GOTO 280
470 X=(2*X):P=X+Y : IF P)84 THEN P=84
480 PRINT RX$(P); :X=0:Y=0 :RETURN
505 DATA L'-IPIJ,B,X,CIYIZIQ'-1-15141-1
(:: commodore 31-'-'-121-1-1-
VIC=20 1M
510 DATA -1-1-1-,1161-'/'-1-1-1-1-171-1
515 DATA '-19101-1-1-1-1-1-)-1-1-'-'-1-1
520 DATA -1.'-
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MasterCard & Visa Accepted
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Circle No 65
Include full name, card number, and expiration date 3·weeks to clear

38/Commander September 1983

. . __ " I

A Comprehensive
for the VIC-20
and C-64
Part III
by Eric Giguere

This Is the third and final part of my the Assembler module can How to Use CASS CONY
series on EDIT/ASM, a comprehensive assemble to disk but not to tape.
editor/assembler for the VIC-20 and Com- Before you can use CASS
The problem lies with the way
modore 64. It's of Interest mainly to CONY 20/64 it is necessary to add
cassette users but I would also like the cassette and disk files operate.
a few lines to the Assembler
disk users to pay attention for the first feW With a disk drive you can open
paragraphs as I have some changes to what Is called a program file. This module. These are given at the
is a file that will be considered a end of the article and simply open
Changes program and will be loaded as a file to cassette and send a few
These changes are concerned parameters. From then on the
such. All you have to do is open it,
with the Assembler module given assembled program will be sent
send two bytes holding the start
last month. I noticed two prob- in byte form using the CHR$
address of the program and then
lems that need to be corrected. send the rest of your program, statement. When finished you'll
The first was when the program one byte at a time. This is what have a data file that only needs to
was getting the addressing the assembler does. Unfortunate- be converted into . a program.
modes it considered a label like REMEMBER: after the assembly
ly, you cannot do this on a
LABEL + 1 to be totally separate cassette recorder. The only type you'll have only a data file, not a
from LABEL, not just LABEL with program. It will be necessary to
of flies it will open are data orse-
one added. This created problems use CASS CONY to change it to a
quentlal flies. Here, too, you can
by giving error messages. The send data to the file one byte at a program.
second problem also arose dur- time, but you can't load the file Once you have made the
Ing the same section. The routine when finished. It can only be ac- changes and saved the Assem-
that figures out the addressing cessed by an OPEN command, bler you can proceed to typing in
mode (lines 3175-3195) never not a LOAD command. Because CASS CONY. (CASS CONY 20 is
bothered to check if there was a opening a file to cassette was not for the VIC and CASS CONY 64 is
comma preceding an X or Y deno- the solution, I had to find another for the C64.) Please make sure
tation. This meant that a state- answer to the problem. you have the appropriate version,
ment such as STA LABELX would At first I considered moving the as they are not interchangeable.
be interpreted as STA LABEL,X,
OPEN routine in ROM down into After typing it in be sure to save
the wrong addressing mode. To
RAM and make a few changes to the program, because a mistake
correct these problems I've in-
it. But I felt that there were two in the data statements could
cluded a. list of changes to make
problems with this: it would use cause the computer to lock up.
at the end of this article (see
up too much memory and It would Once you're sure everything is
Figure 1). Simply type in the lines
be tricky to make the modifica- AOK you can run the program. Be
exactly as listed (they'll write over
tions. That is why I came up with sure to have a data tape prepared
some existing lines) and the pro- the two programs CASS CONY 20 by the Assembler on hand. If you
blems will disappear. Save your (See· Figure 2) and CASS CONY 64 don't, use the Editor to create a
new version and then have fun (see Figure 3). The will load in your simple little program and run it
assembling your programs. data file from tape and then save the through the Assembler (which we
Assembling with Cassette data as a program which can be just changed a while back).
If you use a cassette recorder loaded as usual. It's sort of a hassle, Reload CASS CONY and place
you're probably wondering why but it does work. the data tape in the recorder.
Commander September 1983/39
Now type RUN and hit A note of caution: if you ac- mal location of 828. Notice that
RETURN. The screen will clear cidentally stop the program never you should do this kind of thing
and there will be a momentary type CONT to continue where you only with small programs . If you
walt. Then the MESSAGE left off. Instead,always RUN it moved the cassette buffer while
"ENTER FILE NAME:" ("FILE over. Also, always use CASS using a large program (such as
NAME:" on the VIC) will appear. CONV on a VIC with 12K or more the Assembler) you could effec-
Enter the name of the file you are (8K expander or greater), never on tively create a hole in the middle
going to convert. It will auto- a regular VIC. of the program. Always be careful
matically add the suffix ".OBJ" when moving things around .
(example: type in TEST and it will Moving the Cassette Buffer
open TEST.OBJ). If you want to CASS CONV works fine with How CASS CONV Works
exit simply type QUIT when asked almost any assembly language CASS CONV uses a machine
for the file name. It will then open program. The only e)(ceptions to language routine to load and save
the fiie and jump to a machine this are programs residing in the the data. This routine is poked in-
il anguage routine which will load cassette buffer. These cannot to the first few I ines of screen
in your data, ask you to press a properly be converted by CASS memory (starting at 4096 on the
key and then save the data as a CONV because it already uses VIC and 1024 on the C64). I chose
program. When it asks to press a the cassette buffer when loading th is location because you may
key, rewind the tape or place a in the data. Solution: moving the want to assemble a program in a
new one in the recorder. The pro- cassette buffer. This is achieved certain location and CASS CONV
gram will then be saved under the by typing might already be there. To avoid
same name. Once finished the POKE 178,0: POKE 179,30 (RTN) this I placed the routine in screen
computer mayor may not return This moves the cassette buffer to memory where no one will touch
to the normal "READY.", depen- 7680 instead of the normal 828, it. This also explains why you
ding on where your program was leaving you free to convert pro- should never type CONT if you
located (as defined by the ORG grams that normally reside there. stop the program. If you're not
statement). If it doesn't, simply After the conversion you should careful the whole routine will
power down and up again (turn It change it back: scroll off the screen and when
off and on). You may now load POKE 178,60: POKE 179,3 (RTN) you try accessing it the computer
your assembly language program. The buffer will now be in its nor- will freeze up. Be careful.

Fig.... 1
31e~ IFX" "X"ANDMID'(C'JLENCC')-1 .. 1). It,lITHEN)O(a1:00T03205
3190 IFX.-"Y"ANDMID.CC'JLEN(C.)-1 ,1)-","THENY-2:00T0320'
3220 V$.C$:OOSUB~e0e:C'-V'
3222 I FLEFT. (B' J 1) -" B ANDB.() I'I I T"THENT-' : aoT0323~

3227 OR-..
3230 T-OR+XX+Y+P+IM+1:IF(T-60RT-1)AMD<,..)THENT-T+l
323~ PC-PC+l : IFT(40RT-9THENPC-PC-l
3248 BX(O)-T:HEXTO
I FSy-eTHEN3~a
srn e Z.-R I OHT. ( V$ J 1) : I FZ.-" , ORZ.... ) ItT~LEFT.(V." F) : OOTO~00:S

!S012 IFMID$(V',F,l)-/l,IITHENV'.L.EFT.(Y' ,F):OOTD~eee
asse OPEN311 .. 2,OF.:GOT02710
271~ DV-OO-INT(Oa/2'6).2'6:PRIHT'3 ICHRf( DY);CHR'(OO/2~6);
READ',' • To be continued on __ 42

40/Commander September 1983


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Commodore 64 is 8 trademark of Commodore Electronic6 Limited

Script 64 i6 a trademark of Richvale Telecommunications
Circle No. 11
As I was saying, CASS CONV Continued from page 40 Figure 2
uses a machine language routine.
I've provided the assembly listing 5 PRINT II [CLEARJ :FORI=0T0132:READA:POKE

(done on EDITIASM, of course) for 4096+IJA:NE.XT

all you assembly language fana- 10 POKE36879,27
tics (see Figure 4). Basically what 20 PRINT" [BLACKJ [DOWN] [DOW~~J [DOWt~J [IiO~JN
it does is load in the start address ]EDOWNJ[DOWNJERIGHT][RIGHT][RIGHTJEDITI
and set a pointer to this location. ASM CASSETTE[RIGHTJERIGHTJ[RIGHTJ[RIGHT
as a dummy location. It is chang- VERTER"
ed by lines 24 and 27.) It also 30 PRINTII[DOWNJ[BLUEJFILE NAME: "; : OPEN
loads the ending address and l,0:INPUT#lJNAS:PRINT:CLOSEl
places this in memory. The com-
puter then loads each byte of the

program and stores it in memory,

II • II :

incrementing the pOinter each READ·"''': WAIT197,64: ~JAIT197, 13

time. When it reaches the loca- 45 PRItH"OK. II

tion pointed to by LENGTH it 50 OPEN1, 1,0, ~~A$: PRItH LOAD Hm •••• S·r'S II II :

stops and loads the end-of- 4096

program pointer with this value. It 60 END
closes the file, prints a message 100 DATA 32, 192, 255, 162, 1, 32} 198,
and saves the data as a program. 255, 32, 207, 255, 133, 193, 141
It's a simple routine that does the 101 DATA 3a, 16, 32, 207, 255, 133, 194
job quite well. , 141, 39.. 16, 32, 207, 255, 133
You probably noticed that I 102 DATA 251, 32, 207, 255, 133, 252, 3
didn't have to use the pOinter 2, 207, 255, 141, 255, 255, 238, 38
LENGTH in my program. Instead, 103 DATA 16, 208, 3, 238, 39, 16, 173,
I could have used ENDPRG, :38, 16, 197, 251, 208, 235, 173
which would also save me the 104 DATA 39, 16, 197, 252, 208, 228, 17
trouble of loading it in lines 45 to 3, 38, 16, 133, 174, 173 . 39.· 16
48. The only reason I put it in was 105 DATA 133, 175, 169, I, 32, 195, 255
to make the program a bit clearer. , 162, 255, 232, 189, 109, 16, 240
I think it is easier to follow with
106 DATA 5, 32, 66, 231, 208, 245, 165,
separate pointers. (If you want,
197, 201, 64, 240, 250, 169, 193
you could always use EDITIASM
107 DATA 166, 174, 164, 175, 32, 216, 2
to change it!)
55, 32, 204, 255, 96, 72, 73, 84
10a DATA 32, 65, 32, 75, 69, 89, 32, 84
, 79, 32, 83, 65, 86, 69
A Final Word 109 DATA 46, 46, 46, 46, 13, 0, 0
I have to admit that EDITIASM Figure 3
is a trifle slow when assembling. 5 PRINT [CLEARJ u :FORI=0T0132:READA:POKE

This is to be expected: the pro- 1024+ I, A: t~EXT

gram is in BASIC. But it beats 10 POKE53280,3:POKE53281,l
paying $50-$150 for an assembler. 20 P~: I NT [BLACK J [DOWN J [DOWt~ J [IiOWt~ J EIIOWN
That's why I think EDIT/ASM is
quite worth typing in. But for
those cassette users who don't
want to enter all three programs 30 Pf;,: I NT ENTER ~~At'lE OF FILE: II;: OPEt~ I, 121

simply send me a self-addressed :INPUT#l,NA$:PRINT:CLOSEl

(no stamps unless Canadian) 35 I FNA$= II QU I TII THEt~END
mailer and a blank cassette along 40 NA$=NA$+ II • OBJ PR I NT [DOWN J PRESS ~~ET

with $6 to: Eric Giguere, Box 901, URN WHEN READY •• :WAIT197J64:WAIT197,13 II

Peace River, Alberta, Canada TOH 45 PRINTIIOK ••• II

2XO. Please be sure to include 50 OPEN!.. l,0J NA$: PRItHJlLOADING •••• SYS II :

which version you want, other- 1024

wise I'll send you the VIC version. 6121 Et~D
If you have any questions or pro- lee DATA 32, 192, 255, 162, 1, 32, 198,
blems please do not hesitate to 255, 32, 207, 255, 133J 193, 141
write me at the above address. 101 DATA 38, 4, 32, 207, 255, 133, 194,
Have fun! 0
421Commander September 1983
141, 39, 4, 32, 207, 255, 133
102 DATA 251, 32, 207, 255, 133, 252, 3
2, 207, 255, 141, 255, 255, 238, 38
103 DATA 4, 208, 3, 238, 39, 4, 173, 38
I 4, 197, 251J 208, 235, 173
104 DATA 39, 4, 197, 252, 208, 228, 173
I 38, 4, 133, 174, 173, 39, 4
105 DATA 133, 175, 169, 1, 32, 195, 255
162, 255, 232, 189, 109, 4, 240

106 DATA 5, 32, 22, 231, 208, 245, 165,

197, 201, 64, 240, 250, 169, 193
107 DATA 166, 174, 164, 175, 32, 216, 2
55, 32, 204, 255, 96, 72, 73, 84
108 DATA 32, 65, 32, 75, 69, 89, 32, 84
, 79, 32, 83, 65, 86, 69
109 DATA 46, 46, 46, 46, 13, 13, 0
Figure 4
e001 0400
0002 0400
eee3 0400
0084 0400 .*******************************
eee~ 0408 ORG $0400 ; SCREEN MEMOR'i (.1000 FOR VI C)
0006 0480 ,
0010 0400 PRINT EQU 'E716 ;PRINT-fE742 FOR VIC
0018 0400 ;
8020 0403 A2 01 LDX 11
"023 0401 a~ Cl eTA STPROG
0024 040D eD 26 04 STA POINTR+l
01326 13413 a~ C2 STA STPRO()+l
0027 041~ aD 21 94 STA POINTR+2
0029 0411 8~ FB STR LENGTH
0031 0420 e~ FC STA LENGTH+l
0032 0422 ;
003~ 0428 EE 26 04 INC POINTR+l ;MOVE POINTR UP 1
0036 042B De 03 BNE SKIP
0037 042D EE 27 04 INC POINTR+2
To be continued on page 44 Commander September 1983/43
Continued from page 43
0040 121435 De EB BHE LOOP iLENGTH
0041 0437 AD 27 04 LDA POINTR+2
0042 043A C5 FC eMP LENGTH+1
0043 e43C De E4 BHE LOOP ;NO, 00 BACK FOR MORE
121044 e43E i
121046 121441 85 AE STA EHDPRO iTO SAVE UP TO
012147 121443 AD 27 1214 LDA POIHTR+2
0048 121446 95 AF STA ENDPRG+1
0049 0448 ;
0050 0448 A9 1211 LDA 11
012151 044A 20 C3 FF JSR CLOSE ;CI..OSE FILE 11
012153 044D A2 FF LDX 4t25!5 ;PRINT MESSAOE
0054 044F Ea GET IHX
121055 12145121 BD 6D 1214 LDA MESSOEIX
0056 0453 Fe 05 BEQ WAIT
121057 121455 20 16 E7 JSR PRINT
012158 0458 D0 F5 BNE oeT
012159 04!5A ;
0061 045C C9 40 CMP 164
012162 045E Fe FA BEQ WAIT
0063 046'21 . ;
006~ 0462 A6 AE LDX EHDPRG
0066 121464 A4 AF LD'T' ENDPRG+1
0068 121469 ;
121010 046C 60 EXIT RTS ;NICE & TIDY AND I..EAVE
12112171 046D ;
121072 046D 48 49 54 MESSGE ASC 'HIT A KE"r' TO SAVE •••• '
20 41 20
4B 45 59
20 54 4F
20 53 41
56 45 2E
2E 2E 2E

121073 046D I


121015 046D 0D 0D 00 B"r'T 13,13,O
0016 12147121 J

lENOTH-$FB START--$0400 LOOP---$e422 POINTR-.e42~ SKIP---.0431
OET----.044F WAIT---$e4~A RESAVE-'84SB EXIT---'046C MESSOE-.e46D

441Commander September 1983

t 6oS\C
6oS\CS 0
pan \\
Commands in Overview
by Tim Parker

In the last column of this When the RETURN key is hit, the other peripherals. These are IN-
series, I mentioned a few of the error will have been corrected. PUT/OUTPUT commands, usually
ways to make BASIC programm- The ability to employ full screen abbreviated to 110. There are built
ing a painless undertaking. Such editing is a virtue few program- in mathematical functions, and
things as structuring programs, mers appreciate until they use a string manipulation functions,
documenting well, and using computer without the function. and there are the BASIC instruc-
descriptive variable names seem Many machines running a stan- tions that are used to write the
like common sense, but are dard BASIC require either an ex- program. We'll examine the latter
seldom employed. asperatingly complex editing se- first.
In this second part, as promis- quence to be learned, or need the Statements are the controlling
ed, we'll look at a few of the more faulty line to be typed. When a aspects of any program. They
advanced BASIC functions that program has many bugs, that can direct the machine's actions.
are readily available to the Com- get to be very frustrating! Although the number of state-
modore computer user, and also Another feature that is sported ments, and their syntax may be
delve into a few other assorted by most Commodores is the abili- different on certain machines,
subjects. Once again, a reminder ty to abbreviate instructions. For they all share a similar "core"
that this series is not going to example, the VICs allow a two key series. Instructions such as
teach you the fundamentals of sequence to replace a typed word IF/THEN and GOTO are required
BASIC. For that you require a well in most caSes. This again speeds in all BASIC versions in order to
written book. Instead, this series up programming. The most useful work. A rapid look at the Com-
will examine a few of the "tricks" feature is using question marks modore BASIC statements
that make BASIC programming in place of print statements. follows.
easy, fast, and versatile from a When these programs are LISTed, To clear a program from
programmer's point of view. the computer usually replaces memory, we know to type NEW.
(Those that missed the first in- the abbreviation with the full NEW is not really a statement as
stallment, can order a back copy word to ease reading and debugg- defined above, but is a command
of Commander's June issue.) ing. function . The task of clearing all
First a word about the Com- The instructions in a BASIC memory except for the program
modore BASICs. On all Com- version can be grouped according currently loaded is relegated to
modore machines I have seen, to function. Some control the the CLEAR function (sometimes
the ability to use full screen machine and its workings in a abbreviated as CLR). To under-
editing exists. That means that if physical sense, such as RUN/ stand what CLEAR does, it is first
an error is made in a line, the STOP, CLEAR, etc. These are necessary to realize that BASIC
operator (programmer) merely has command functions. Others are will assign a memory location for
to move the cursor to the error used to communicate with each variable defined in a pro-
and correct it on the screen. storage devices, screens, and gram. If ten variables are used,
Commander September 1983/45
there will be ten "slots" reserved memory wasting to type in the se- programs. When the program
in memory for the values of the quence wherever required. By runs out of lin~s, it is ENDed,
variables. These are updated defining the function "add ten, whether with the command END
throughout the execution of the divide by three" and calling it or not. END is only used in a pro-
program to new values. (Inciden- some name, whenever the func- gram when an END is part of the
tally, this is also involved in tion is required, we can call it by way through the program, with
memory saving: since each new name. This saves memory, time, code following it.
variable takes up memory, it and coding. Variables can be Mathematical routines are in-
makes sense to use as few dIf- passed into the function, and ex- cluded in BASIC for the standard
ferent variables as required when tracted. It can be repeated as functions such as sine (SIN),
memory is scarce. (More on that at many times as required, and cosine (COS), tangent (TAN), ex-
a later time.) If a subscripted array several functions can be access- ponent (EXP), logarithm (LOG),
was used (e.g. VA(10)) then the ed. absolute value (ABS), and others.
values of all ten VA variables will There are a few rules governing Note that Commodore BASIC and
be used. CLEAR will erase the the DEF FN function in Com- most others compute trigonomet-
values of the variables from modore BASIC. Most versions ric values (SIN, COS and TAN) in
memory, allowing full use of all allow only one letter to be used as radians, which will require con-
the available space. This may be the name of the function, such as version to degrees or gradiants,
required In programming from FNZ, or FNC. Also, in almost all as required. Also precision on the
time to time when the values of BASICs, the definition of the trigonometric functions varies
all variables up to a certain pOint function has to be declared widely depending on the version.
are no longer needed. If they were before it is used. Most program- Some hyperbolic and inverse
all set to zero with a LET state- mers define all the required func- trigonometric functions (ATN for
ment, they would still occupy tions at the start of the program, arctangent, etc.) are usually sup-
memory space, but the CLEAR instead of interspersed through- ported.
gets rid of them entirely. out. This aids in debugging, and The logarithm function (LOG)
While on the subject of makes it easy to locate functions requires a value greater than zero
memory, it is useful to examine as required. in order to avoid an error. The
the DIM statement. DIM will The FOR/NEXT (STEP) function LOG function computes the
dimension an array. An array Is a allows looping for a certain natural logarithm, usually refer-
number of variables with the number of times to be achieved in red to as 1n, instead of the base
same name, but different values a BASIC program. A variable is 10 logarithm. Similarly, the
according to an index. For exam- used as a counter in the loop, and square root function (SQR) re-
ple: A(1) is not the same variable is Incremented when the NEXT in- quires a value greater than zero to
as A(2) or A. Each is separate. So struction is encountered. The avoid an error.
loop is terminated after the FOR Some character manipulation
what good is the array? It allows
conditional is satisfied. The STEP instructions are included in most
fast access in loops, routines,
command allows control of the BASICs, including the Com-
and other repeated series to the
variables without a lot of coding. way the variable is counted. It can modore version. For a character
For a full explanation, consult a be incremented or decremented string, the length of the string can
good BASIC instruction book. by any number of steps as re- be found using the LEN com-
The DIM statement will set the quired by the programmer. The mand. The left most series of
number of array elements re- STEP can be a function in some characters can be accessed us-
quired by the program. If the in- versions of BASIC. ing LEFT$, while RIGHT$ will ac-
struction DIM A(10) is used, then cess the right most number of
While on the IF/THEN loop, it
ten variables A(1) through A(10) digits required. If a sequence is
can be pointed out that some ad- required out of the middle of the
are ~et up. The default value for vanced Versions of BASIC allow
an array is ten, if not otherwise string, the MID$ command is
variations on the theme. Loops of used. With most of these, the
declared by a DIM statement. the DO WHILE or REPEAT UNTIL starting position for the search,
Probably the least understood conditionals can be encountered, and the length <;>f the string to be
BASIC Instruction is the DEF FN but these are not usually included recovered, can be specified.
sequence. DEF FN represents the in home computer versions. These commands allow great
command DEFine a FuNction. A Some commands don't have to flexibility in program design us-
function is a series of instruc- be written at all. BASIC has the ing character string variables. A
tions that have to be executed. LET command to assign a value great deal of information can be
For example, if we wanted to add to a variable, but almost all BASIC stored in a string, and accessed
ten to a number, then divide by versions do not require the LET to chunk by chunk as required.
three to get the answer, and the be explicitly stated. Also, the A couple of commands allow
sequence was to be repeated at END statement, which is in most conversion from character string
several locations throughout the BASICs, doesn't have to be in- to number variable, and vice ver-
program, it would be tedious and cluded at the conclusion of most sa. These are VAL and STR$, and
46/commander September 1983


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manager. With capabilities reaching into alphabetizing upon entry, sorting and searching on all fields, printing labels and printing
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Currently there are four versions to cover anybodies needs.

These are:
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The mailing list 64 tape $27.95
The mailing list 64 Disk $29.95

To order, send check or money order to:

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P.O. Box 10516
San Jose, CA 95157

or phone (408) 247-4434 for COD


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see your local dealer
dealer inquiries invited

'VIC-20 and 64 are trade marks of Commodore Business Machines.

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PEEK and POKE are two very
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Circle ~o. 69

481Commander September 1983

by Colin F. Thompson

I love surprises. Recently I re- sional programmers. Now I know the power of SVK. This is how you
ceived a mystery cassette tape in better. usually load a program from the
the mail. No explanation of its PA's are available from several disk:
contents was indicated, save for companies, including Commo- LOAD"PROGRAM NAME",8
the name M. Pascali Software on dore, Skyles and UMI. Their SVK does it like this:
the labeL I popped it into my cob- primary function is to add some DLOAD"PROGRAM NAME
web covered datasette and load- extra BASIC commands that the Notice the ",8 is missing. The
ed it. The tape proved to be a mas- VIC doesn't have. All of the var- syntax for DSAVE is the same. All
terstroke of advertising genius. It ious PA's have some common disk commands are simplified.
was a catalog! A program sampler commands. Renumber, Append, You don't have to OPEN 1,8,15 to
would be a more accurate des- Delete and Decimal to Hex con- send commands. SEND does it
cription. It took 30 minutes to version are typical of these extra for you, and then CLOSE's the
completely review the tape. 21 commands. Each PA, however, channel automatically.
VIC programs are previewed. has its own unique commands, One feature I like is the Space
Games and other home entertain- which means you should examine Bar/Pause option. When lines are
ment seem to make up the bulk of each user's manual before you scrolling on the screen from the
the product line, with some pro- buy. The price for each of the LIST, DLlST, FIND, CATALOG and
gramming charts and dust covers three PA's listed above is $60 and hex dump commands, you can
added at the end. I liked the high up. pause the listing by pressing the
resolution color graphi'cs and They are all quality products, space bar. Scrolling continues
sound. Novice programmers can and I recommend them, but they when it's hit again. SVK won't
find some good programming tips now have some stiff competition scroll backwards, though. All of
in the program listings. Although from a PA with a $25 price tag. the commands can be typed in
I haven't seen any of the com- the abbreviated style like the
plete programs, I highly recom- But What Does It Mean? standard VIC commands. Type
mend the catalog, which I dis- It means more BASIC com- the first letter and shift the sec-
covered costs one dollar. It's cer- mands for your use. All VICs have ond letter.
tainly worth a buck. M. Pascali commands like PRINT, GOTO and Another useful feature is also a
Software, Box 1143, Santee, CA RND. Super VIC-Kit (SVK) adds 22 form of abbreviation . By entering
92017. more commands and several "KEY", your keyboard comes
Super VIC·Kit useful features. Take a moment alive. 24 alphabet keys are now
For a year I toyed with the idea to read the new commands listed pre-programmed function keys.
of buying a Programmer's Aid. I in Figure 1. Type a shifted C, for example, and
think the name (PA) intimidated Experienced VIC users should the word CHR$ appears on the
me. Since I rarely write programs, notice two commands imme- screen. Figure 2 lists the Automa-
I really don't consider myself a diately: DLOAD and DSAVE. tic Keywords. This speeds up pro-
programmer. Usually I modify These are BASIC 4.0 disk com- gram writing and really helps
commercial programs to match mands, not normally useable on when you are copying a program
my hardware. I always thought a the BASIC 2.0 VIC. These com- from a magazine into the compu-
PA was useful only to profes- mands illustrate as well as any, ter. I suggest you label each key,
Commander September 1983/49
rather than looking up the proper automatically relocate to the top work with the device. The Con-
key from a table. The keyword of available memory. No zero nection plugs into the serial (disk)
function is not active when you page locations are altered. Al- port on the VIC. It can be daisy-
are keying inside quotes. though no warranty is stated in chained as the last device on the
The British pound sign will let the manual , I found that the disk bus and can be aSSigned any valid
you escape from the dreaded will be replaced to a registered device number. Device 4 is stan-
"quotes mode" without frustra- owner at any time. Super VIC-Kit dard .
tion. RENUMBER will not only re- was written by Thomas Henry and The Connection performs many
number your program nne num- is available on disk only for $25, other functions, besides graphics
bers but will renumber all the from Mantronics Software De- emulation. There are nine modes
GOTO and GOSUB's as well. If a signs, 360 Pierce Avenue Suite of operation, selected by a sec-
bad target line is found, it wiH be 210, No. Mankato, MN 56001, (507) ondary address. For example, the
annotated for easy repair. A 16K 345-7048. The C-64 version will be "Emulate Cursor Up Mode" can
program takes about 45 seconds available in August. be entered by typing OPEN4,4 or
to renumber. That is slow by OPEN4,4,1. The " ,1" is the sec-
some standards, but it seems fast ~~I 111.".+1 ... )(--- H.L.T
ondary address. This mode will
enough for me. • ~!) .... iI=iliI!:: »111 r"\ .... .J r,. print upper case letters an·d gra-
Dessert phics. VIC 1525 users will already
I've left my favorites for last. The Connection- be familiar with this concept.
CATALOG will bring in the disk A Parallel Printer Interface Figure 3 shows the secondary ad-
directory and scroll it onto the You can have your cake and eat dresses required to use the dif-
screen without disturbing the pro- it too. In this world of technologi- ferent modes.
gram in memory. You can't print cal trade-offs, it's good to see a
Secondary addresses 0, 2, 4
the directory with the CATALOG product that does it all, with no
and 7 will automatically send a
command, but seeing it on the compromises. line feed following a carriage
screen is usually sufficient. While shopping for a printer for return. Addresses 0, 3, 5, 6 and 8
DUST works just like CATALOG, my VIC, I discovered that all dot will not generate a line feed. The
except it lists a program on the matrix printers fall into one of two secondary address scheme is us-
disk while another program is in classes: slow printers with Com- ed by many other parallel inter-
the memory. modore graphics and fast printers faces, but this is the first one that
Machine Language, without Commodore graphics. Of will generate Commodore gra-
Anyone? course I wanted speed and gra- phics. The reason for this is quite
Super VIC-Kit has a built in phics, but since I couldn 't have simple: The Connection is intelli-
machine language monitor, both, I chose speed and bought gent. It is "powered" by a 6502
MACH-20, for the advanced user. an N EC 8023A. The performance microprocessor. The 6502 inter-
It is activated by the BREAK com- and reliability of the NEC has
cepts all data sent to the printer
mand. A separate user's manual never disappointed me. The lack
and acts on it according to the
for the monitor comes with SVK. of graphics has been a burr under
secondary address it received
If you are not already proficient in my saddle for a year.
previously. The 6502 is aided in
machine coding, the monitor The N EC will print graphic sym-
this task by a ROM chip which
won't be of much use to you. On bols from its ROM, but the pro-
has been preprogrammed with all
the other hand, it does allow me cess is overly complex and
the instructions necessary to
to keep up with Eric Giguere's ex- beyond the abilities of novice pro-
communicate with your printer.
cellent series "An Introduction to grammers. One reason for the ROMs are available for a wide
Assembly Language" found every complexity is the user's manual. range of printers. My NEC uses
month in Commander. The moni- It is vague, incomplete, inac- the ROM programmed for the C.
tor supports L,S,M,R,X,G,; and : curate, and was written by some- Itoh Prowriter.
commands. one who does not have a good
Now that I've used a Program- grasp of the English .Ianguage. The Emulate mode also allows
mer's Aid, I would recommend it Given all that, you can see why you access to several functions
to anyone who uses BASIC. The I've been looking for a device that unique to the VIC 1515/1525.
new commands are not difficult would emulate the VIC 1525 Figure 4 lists these useful func-
to learn or use, and are especially printer at 120 Characters Per Sec- tions. Coupled wHh the graphics
useful for program writing and ond. abilities, they allow me to key in
disk operations. The user's man- Electronic Nirvana and run programs written for the
ual is short, clear and to the point. The device responsible for this VIC printers. The Connection also
miracle is called The Connection. has its own set of unique com-
Specifications It will allow communication bet- mands which are implemented
SVK is written entirely in mach- ween the VIC/64 and any printer from the Emulate mode. They let
ine language. It requires a mini- using the Centronics (parallel) in- you reassign the device number,
mum of 8K and when loaded will terface. Letter quality printers will define the number of columns to
SO/Commander September 1983

The O NLV MEMORY your VIC-20® will need
• A full 27k bytes of RAM
(added to VICs 5k
equals 32k.)
• Fully switchable in sections:
BlK 1 switches 8k
(Adr. 8192 to 16383)
BlK 2 switches 8k
(Adr. 16384 to 24575)
BlK 3 switches 8k
(Adr. 24576 to 32767)
BlK 5 allows/disallows your
8k ROM (games)
(Adr. 40960 to 49152)
RAM switches 3k (Adr. 1024 to 4095)
• May be used with Super Expander®
games or ANY other VIC-20
compatible cartridge.
• Built in RESET switch.
• Fuse protected.
• Totally self-contained.
• 2 duplicate extension connectors for any device SOFTWARE
normally plugged into the expansion port. DR. FLOYD
(BlK 5 is switched to connectors) Psychoanalysis by computer? - well, not quite, but Dr. Floyd will
• Very low power usage. (.150 amp max.) carry on a conversation with you using psychoanalytic techniques
• High reliability gold plated connectors. giving the appearance of artificial intelligence. Requires 16k RAM
• 6 month parts and labor warranty. or more.
• Factory service. - Extended service always available. $14.95 shipping included.


REAL POWER AND EXPANDABILITY " WORDPLAY" is a collection of programs which allow the user to
make original stories, write a form of Japanese poetry, play the fun
FOR ONLY $124.95 Shipping included game of Animal (children love this one), and create jargon. A
bonus secret message (cypher) program is also included. In a
word , "WORDPLAY" is a bargain .
Already own an 8k Expander? The new 19k RAM AX Requires 16k RAM or more.
JR.TM allows you to use your 8k Expander as BLK 3 to $14.95 shipping included.
get the full compliment of memory. Complete instruc- TYPE FOR YOUR LIFE
tions included. Only $109.95, includes shipping. With more challenge than an arcade game, learn to type up to 75 +
WE SERVICE WHAT WE SELL words/min. (User selectable, but no FOOLING AROUND allowed).
PROGRAM TAPE . Action color graphics with sound fix your eyes
Send Check or Money Order For the Total to the screen (away from your fingers - clever!) Your man rows
Calif. residents add 6% tax. your boat up stream as fast as you can type. Maintain speed and
destroy the Sea Monster; slow down and he will get you . Runs on
Phone orders: CAll (805) 482-3604 24 HRS. the unexpanded VIC.
For credit card orders, mclude all information on card. $14.95 shipping included.

or contact your local dealer. All software is on high quality cassettes
and is replacement guaranteed .
Foreign orders, add $15.00.
VIC-20 &SUPER EXPANDER are registered M
All items shipped from stock. trademarKs of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. ~
350 N. Lantana Ave., Suite 821 Ii
_APROPOS TECHNOLOGy _ _ca_ma_rill_o,c_A_930_10_ _ _ 0. .
print, set a TAB and check printer OPEN 128,4. Since The Connec- just mentioned and several more I
status. tion already knows this, it auto- use, including PractiCalc and
All of The Connection's com- matically adds the line feed. Quick Brown Fox operate on the
mands may be sent from a BASIC Two LED indicator lights ref- VIC and the 64 with no reduction
program . Program listings look lect the status of the device, and in computing power for the VIC
sharp and clear with the graphic a push button reset will clear the version. They are the same pro-
characters printed by my N EC. 1.3K buffer. The push button will grams.
Listings may be enhanced by us· also send a printer test to check Double Vision
ing the "Total Text Mode" with the operation of the interface and This fall, I'll be adding some-
secondary address 2 or 3. This the printer. thing new to the column. I will be
will print keyboard control keys Is it worth the price? Definitely. reviewing the Data 20 Corpora-
as an abbreviation between Now I have a printer that lists and tion's 40/80 column card with 64K
brackets like this: (CLR), (HOM), performs like the VIC printer, but of bank selected memory. To date
(RED), (DWN) and (166). The 166 is with clarity, h,igh speed, and I've found few programs are
an example of a graphic symbol's some added formatting com- directly compatible with this
CHR$ code. By using this mode mands. The user's manual is well device. What I mean is many pro-
for program listings, all the written and illustrated. A novice grams will work but few take ad-
guesswork is taken out of your in· user would have no trouble under- vantage of the extra screen size.
terpretation of the various standing it. The Connection is No programs will use the paged
graphic symbols. Figure 5 lists available from Micro-Ware Distri- memory. Data 20 has collected
these mnemonic representations. buting, P.O. Box 113, Pompton the names of several programs
Software? Plains, NJ 07444. $119.00 for the that are compatible with the
I've tried using The Connection VIC and C-64. device. I will print that list here
with many pieces of software, next month. I will also report
and found it to be compatible In the Queue which software I've used that
with just about everything. The In the coming months some works or doesn't. Each month a
only thing that gave me trouble very powerful software will be ex- small space in the column will be
was Quick Brown Fox. To print a amined in these pages. TOTL devoted to news on the 40/80 col-
QBF file, I have to answer the Software is on the verge of releas- umn front. In some applications I
question "Commodore?" with a ing its long awaited TOTL.BUSI- like to use 40 columns on my VIC.
"Y". Printer control codes sent NESS package for the VIC and TOTL.LABEL is easier to use this
from the body of the text must C-64. I've been using it for a way. Some new 40/80 column de-
have two escape codes (#n027 month and believe it will make a vices are on the market now, at af-
#n027) before the letter com- lot of small business owners very fordable prices. Perhaps more
mand. happy. Michael Riley has already software writers will take note of
The Connection solved one big released his ultimate database for this expansion explosion and pro-
problem for me immediately. My the VIC-64-Pet called Flex File. vide us with expandable software.
N EC printer is one of those rare I've had it under review for 6 Maybe-just maybe-this will
ones that require a line feed sent weeks now and I'm convinced it's delay the inevitable demis~ of the
after a carriage return. This the most powerful database yet VIC. If you use the Data 20 card
means I must open a logical file for the two smaller Commodores. with commercial software, please
number greater than 127. Most If you have a VIC and are con- write and let me know how well it
commercial software uses LPN 4, s'i dering "upgrading" to a C-64, performs. I'll mention any new
requiring me to change the OPEN let me give you something to "finds" each month. The latest
statement from OPEN4,4 to thin\< about. The two programs revision of TOTL.LABEL 2.1-6 will
work. QBF will work, but will need
a short transfer program to be run
ENTHUSED WITH YOUR VIC??? first. Call QBF for the details.
QBF is directly compatible if you
lIembers ot' the National VIC ASSOCl. .. tlOn receIve: use Cardco's 3 slot expansion
board and thei'r 16K RAM card.
- an informative bimonthly newsletter SVK and PractiCalc do not work
- access to our larp;e li.Lrary ot' on 40/80 columns.
public do_in 60t'
\\ - hUlI:e member Iliscounts Next month we will look atFlex
- free classified ade In newsletter File and, as they say around
••• und much more!
Christmas time, "some sur-
114 for one-year membership. prises".D
Send check or money order to:
National VIC A~sociation
9 Cn.bapple Lane
Nanuet, NY 109'4
Circle No. 23

521Commander September 1983

Figure 1
Summary of Commands for
Super VIC·Kit
# followed by a decimal
number, gives the hexadecimal
Join the
$ followed by a hexadecimal
number, gives the decimal equiv-
APPEND followed by the pro-
gram name, appends a program
from disk onto a program in mem-
AUTO followed by an incre-
ment number, generates automa-
tic line numbers when keying in a
BREAK breaks to the machine
language monitor.
CATALOG lists the disk direc-
tory to the screen, but leaves the
current program in memory in-
DELETE followed by range
numbers, deletes blocks of pro-
gram lines specified by the range.
DLiST followed by a program
name, lists that program from
disk directly to the screen, leav-
ing the program in memory intact.
PLOAD followed by a program
name loads that BASIC program
from the disk.
DSAVE followed by a program
name saves that BASIC Program
to the disk.
FIND followed by a start de-
limiter, string, end delimiter and
optional range, finds any oc-
curence of the string within range
and prints that line to the screen.
H EADER followed by disk
name, comma, I and a two charac-
ter ID NEW's the disk with the
given name and 10.
INIT initializes the disk drive.
KEY toggles the automatic key-
word option. Send for free catalogs
KILL resets the computer to a Specify: Pet • VIC
cold start. • Commodore 64
LIST same as normal I ist, but
may be paused by the space bar. telephone
NUMBER renumbers the entire us at
program according to your incre-
ment and default values. 612-926-2292
OFF disables Super VIC-Kit.
OLD restores a program lost by
inadvertent use of the NEW com- Micro-Ed Inc.
mand. P_O_ Box 24156
RENAME followed by an old Minneapolis, MN 55424
name, TO and new name, re-
Circle No 26
Commander September 1983/53
names a disk program.
, SCRATCH scratches (erases) a
program from the disk.
Quick Brown Fox Tip
. . SEND followed by a commarid
string, sends that string to the
disk drive via the command chan- Are you tired of white on black? Try this: from the main menu, type a
nel. shifted period. The characters on the screeh will change color.
SIZE returns the size of the pro- Shifted comma and question mark yields two different colors. This
gram in memory, exclusive of should ease your eyestrain.
variables. This is not the same as
STATUS gives a disk error mes-
sage, or gives nothing if the disk
is OK.

Figure 2 Figure 3
Automatic Keywords for ADDRESS FUNCTIONAL MODE
Super VIC·Klt o(or null) ······..·······..·EMULATE MODE. Same as Commodore's Cur·
A = ASC sor Up mode. Prints uppercase and graphics
B = STEP symbols. Automatic linefeed at end of each
C = CHRS line.
o = DIM 1 ............·..............·.... EMULATE MODE. Same as 0 except that there
E = END is no automatic linefeed at the end of each line.
F = GET 2 ........................·.... ·..TOTAL TEXT MODE. Prints uppercase letters
H = STOP and prints gtaphics symbols as either com·
I = INPUT mand mnemonics. or decimal value. Automatic
J = GOTO linefeed at end of each line.
K = GOSUB 3 ....·..........................·TOTAL TEXT MODE. Same as 2 except that
L = LEFTS there is no automatic linefeed at the end of
M = MIDS each line.
iii = NEXT 4·..··............·...... ·......·TOTAL TEXT MODE. Prints both lower and up·
o = OPEN percase letters. Otherwise same as 2.
P = POKE 5-·..·........·............ -TOTAL TEXT MODE. Same as 4 except that
a -= PEEK there Is no automatic linefeed at the end of
R = RIGHTS each line.
S = STRS 6·..........·....·..............·TRANSPARENT MODE. Sends all data directly
T = TAB( from the computer to the printer without any in·
U = USR tervention.
V = VAL 7 ..........·..............·..·..·EMULATE MODE. Same as Commodore's Cur·
W = DATA sor Down Mode. Prints both lower and upper·
X = READ case letters and graphics. Automatic IInefeed
Y = RESTORE at the end of each line.
Z = SYS 8 ..............·....·............ EMULATE MODE. Same as 7 except that there
Is no automatic IInefeed at the end of each line.

Figure 4
Commodore Commands In The Emulate Mode Figure 5
There are a number of special commands which are unique to the (HOM) = HOME (RON) = REV ON
Commodore 1515 and 1525 printers. The EMULATE MODE ( UP) = UP (INS) = INSERT
duplicates all of these functions except one, Inverse alpha· ( F1) = F1 (LFT) = LEFT
numerics. All other functions, however, are supported . ( F5) = F5 ( F3) = F3
Command Code Description (BLK) = BLACK ( F7) = F7
BS CHRS(8) Turn on graphics mode (PUR) = PURPLE (RED) = RED
NL CHRS(10) Scroll paper up orie line (STP) = STOP (BLU) = BLUE
CR CHRS(13) Print iine and scrolls one line (CLR) = CLEAR (ROF) = REV OFF
SO CHRS(14) Turn on doubie width printing (OWN) = DOWN (DEL) = DELETE
SI CHRS(15) Turn off double width & graphics ( F2) = F2 (RHn = RIGHT
POS CHRS(16) Dot and column TAB ( F6) = F6 ( F4) = F4
CURSOR OWN CHRS(17) Shift to lower/upper case letters (WHn =WHITE ( F8) = F8
RVS ON CHRS(18) Print characters In reverse (GRN) = GREEN (CYN) =CYAN
SUB CHRS(26) Repeat graphics (YEL) = YELLOW
ESC CHRS(27) Used with POS for dot tabbing
CURSOR UP CHRS(145) Shift to upper case letters
RVS OFF CHRS(146) Print normal characters

541Commander September 1983

VIC-20 & C64
Exclusive needs ... Exclusive source!
~_ _ _ Southwest Micro Systems Inc
Hardware. Peripherals: VIC·20 Software Products:
VIC-20 Color Computer 1 5145.00 VTE/CTE Terminal Program for VIC & C64
Commodore 64 1 395.00 Cassette 8.95
Commodore B128 Computer 1 (128K) 895.00 Diskette 12.95
MSD Single Disk Drive 7 VT-40 VIC 40 Col Terminal Communicator
(VIC 1541 Compatible) 395.00 Cartridge with Downloading 45.00
Star Gemini - 10 Printer VIC Super Expander1 49.95
w/cable interfaceB 399.00 VIC Programmers Aid Cartridge 1 45.00
Star Gemini - 15 Printer VIC Intro to Basic Part I & 111 45.00
w/cable interfaceB 575.00 Home Inventory2 Cassette 12.00 Disk 15.00
Amdex Color I Monitor w/cable 9 340.00 Household Finance2Cassette 25.00 Disk 30.00
CIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for C64) 95.00 Logic Games 2 . Cassette 10.95
VIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for VIC-20) 75.00 Action Games2 Cassette 15.00
RS-232R Interface for VIC or C64 45.00 City Bomber & Minefield 2 Cassette 15.00
SPI Parallel Interface for VIC or C64 65.00 Black Hole Game2 Cartridge 29.95
VPI VIC Parallel Interface 45.00 Trashman Game2 Cartridge 29.95
VEX-3 Expander for VIC 29.95 Astroblitz Game2 Cartridge 29.95
VEX-6 Expander for VIC 85.00 Chopllfter Game2 Cartridge 29.95
4 Slot Expander for C64 75.00 Serpentine Game2 Cartridge 29.95
V3K Static RAM Expansion 35.00 Apple Panic Game2 Cartridge 29.95
V8K Static RAM Expansion 45.00 Terraguard Game2 Cartridge 29.95
V16K Static RAM Expansion 85.00 Videomania Game2 Cartridge 29.95
V24K Static RAM Expansion 115.00 Spills & Fills2 Cartridge 29.95
40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/16K10 175.00 Pipes 2 Cartridge 29.95
40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/64K10 350.00 EPYX-Invasion of Orion
80 Col C64 Video Expander 10 149.00 (16K Extrap Cassette 24.95
Z80 Video Pak for C64 10 250.00 EPYX-Datestones of Ryn
Light Pen for VIC or C64 25.00 (16K Extrap Cassette 19.95
VAC Audio Cassette Interface 29.95 EPYX-Rescue at Rigel
VMC/CMC VIC & C64 Monitor Cables 15.00 (16K Extrap Cassette 29.95
Joy Stick (Arcade Quality) 25.00 EPYX-Crush, Crumble & Chomp
Atari VCS 2600 Game Adapter 79.95 (16K Extrap Cassette 29.95
EPYX-Plattermania 3 Cartridge 39.95
C64 Software Products: Heswriter for VIC-204 Cartridge 39.95
EPYX-Temple of ApshaiJ Disk 39.95 HES-MON for VIC-2Q4 Cartridge 39.95
EPYX-Upper Reaches of ApshaP Disk 19.95 HES-Turtle Graphics4 Cartridge 39.95
EPYX-Curse of RaJ Disk 19.95 VIC-20 Data Base 75.00
EPYX-Sword of FargoaP Disk 29.95 Wordprocessing for VIC-20 49.95
EPYX-Crush, Crumble & Chomp3 Disk 29.95 Quick Brown Fox VIC-20 12 55.00
Word pro 3 + Wordprocessing 5 75.00
Immediate delivery on all Items.
Info Designs Soft Pack (G/L.NR,NP)6 475.00
Dealer inquiries invited.
Data Base for C64 95.00
FinanCial Spreadsheet for C64 135.00 'Commodore Int. 'Professional Software 9Amdex Corp.
Super Sprite Cassette 35.00 Disk 35.00 2Creative Software ·'nfo Designs Software 'OData 20 Corp.
Ultra Mail 64 Cassette 20.00 Disk 25.00
Personal Finance C64 75.00 'EPYX Software 'MSD Inc. "Geneva Tech. Corp.
Tax Qwik/Personal Tqx Program for C64 11 75.00 'Human Engineered 'Star Micronlcs. Inc. "Quick Brown Fox Inc.
Quick Brown Fox C64 12 55.00 . Software

f!es, Plec;;e -;;;,~-:- - - - - - - - y;;-;;~ - - - - - - - - -:l

I Address I
I City State Zip I
payment method Check Cord-ExpoDote I
I Master Cord # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Visa # I
I American Express # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
lJ ____ ~n~e-- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :=1
Southwest Micro stems Inc.-2554 Southwell-Dallas Texas 75229- 214 484-7836
Circle No. 54
by Tony Lamartina

This is part 3 of a three part tempt remedial maintenance 2. If the fault is not peripheral
series. We've looked at warranty yourself. If your equipment is related, use the backup copy of
service and non-warranty service. under warranty and you attempt your software. Also, if the fault
This month we'll examine some the repair yourself, you will in all seems to be associated with sev-
maintenance plans and some likelihood, void the warranty. If eral peripheral devices, then sus-
maintenance steps that you can your unit is out of warranty, it's pect the software. For ihstance, a
perform without fear of voiding your choice. I have seen users at- contaminated program diskette
your warranty or causing damage tempt repairs and ultimately wind may suddenly cause the printer to
to your equipment. up with a much larger repair bill spew garbage, the drive to run
Basically, there are two types than if they had left the repair to continuously and the computer it-
of maintenance: preventive main- the experts. self to hang indefinitely. If a fresh
tenance and remedial mainte- Preventive maintenance can be copy of the software resumes nor-
nance. Preventive maintenance is accomplished, however, by a mal operation, make a fresh back-
corrective action prior to a failure, careful user or through an agree- up and get rid of the offending
or a "prevention" of failure. It's ment with one of the service orga- diskette. Don't try to renew the
just like preventive medicine. By nizations mentioned previously. diskette by bulk erasing. While it
performing certain maintenance Before we get into the preventive may appear to be OK, someday
steps periodically throughout the maintenance steps that you can that very diskette will come back
life of your equipment, you avoid perform, let's assume for a mom- to haunt you!
lengthy down times. Remedial ent that your system is not func- 3. If problems become intermit-
maintenance on the other hand, is tioning correctly. There are a few tent in nature (they come and go),
the corrective action taken after a steps that you should go through check your line voltage. While
failure. prior to lugging your entire sys- computers and computer periph-
As discussed last month, reme- tem in for service. erals have excellent filtering in
dial maintenance is available thru 1. Isolate the fault-disconnect their power supplies, a very noisy
the manufacturer, dealer, third all peripherals (Le. tape drive, disc line can cause random and inter-
party service company and na- drive and printer). If the computer mittent problems to occur. Many
tional dealer service organiza- resumes normal operation, then computerists may have their set
tions. These organizations are add the peripherals one at a time up in the basement, where the
prepared for and in the business u nti I the fau It reoccu rs. The pe- washing machine or some other
of providing service as a product. ripheral that causes the fault to such appliance may be on the
Unless you are electronically and reappear is probably the one that same circuit. Appliance motors
technically capable, never at- caused the fault to begin with. turning off and on can place large
56/Commander September 1983
- - - - - - - --_..- - -- - - - -- - - --

spikes on the line and wreak
havoc with your computer.
4. Check all interconnecting
cables for tightness of fit and
plug orientation. One case in· IMPROVE THINKING SKILLS.
volves a person who could not get All programs self-explanatory Easy to use.
the disc drive to respond. A Learn at your own pace at home or at school

"device not present error" kept GRAMMAR: 3 or 4 complete programs

MATH: 4 or 5 programs
occurring. ~verything was check- PHONICS: 12 programs
ed and checked again. The end FUN PACKS: 3 or 4 programs
result was that the PET to IEEE
cable was upside down at the
computer end. Commodore does GRAMMAR PROGRAMS MATH PROGRAMS
not mark which end is up! G1 Parts of Speech I ...... $19.95 M1 Number Theory ........ $19.95
Nouns Place Value
5. Check all switches and Adjectives Reading Large Numoers
switch positions. This may sound Personal Pronouns Rounding Off
Indefinite Pronouns Math Drills
odd but every now and then,
someone brings a unit in and the G2 Parts of Speech 11. .•... $19.95 M2 Conversions ........ $19.95
Veros Inches to Feet to Yards
switch was in off position! By the Helping Veros Pints to Quarts to Gallons
Adveros Roman to Arabit Numerals
same token, check the fuse. A Metrics 1.2
fuse of the same type and rating G3 Parts of Speech 111 ..... $19.95
Prepositions M3 Fractions 1 ............. $19.95
can easily be installed by the Conjunctions Fractions to Percent Conversion
user. Sometimes fuses may open Interjections Adding Fractions (with carrying)
Suotracting Fractions (with oorrowing)
due to a one time line surge (light- G4 Sentence Structure .... $19.95 Sequence Patterns
ing) or simply open with age. Suojects
Predicates M4 Fractions II/Decimals .... $19.95
If the replacement fuse does OOjects Multiplying Fractions
not open right away, chances are G5 Capitalization
Reducing Fractions
Adding and Suofracting Decimals
everything is OK. If, however, the and Punctuation ........ $19.95 Multiplying Decimals
fuse immediately opens again or Punctuation. Apostrophes and
consistently fails about once a FUN PACKS
Quotation Marks
Punctuation II. End Marks Fun Pack I. ............. $19.95
day or once a week, the unit is in F1
Quarter Back Challenge
need of service. G6 Homonyms, Antonyms, Magic Cards
and Synonyms ........... $19.95
Besides checking and replac- Homonyms
Latin Magic
Haunted Mansion
ing fuses, there are several more Antonyms
Synonyms F2 FunPackll ............. $19.95
preventive measures that will Amazing Craze
help cut those repair bills down. G7 Phrases, Prefixes, Missile Attack
and Suffixes •.....••..... $19.95 Roaring Cycle
One step that you can take is not Phrases
to wear wool clothing while oper- Prefixes F3 Fun Pack III .....•• . .•.. $19.95
Suffixes Magic Spell
ating your computer. Wool cloth- States and Capitals
ing builds up static electricity COMPUTER PHONICS Choice Hangman

rather quickly. If you become $49.95

"statically charged" and touch a Long and Short Vowels (10 programs) DISKETIE OR CASSETIE.
metal switch post on your compu-
ter or peripheral, you may trans- Grammar. Math and Fun Pack Series are $19.95 each. Computer Phonics i. $49.95.
To Order. Indicate program number and name. quantity desired. and whether diskette
mit several hundred to a thousand or cassette. Send check or money order plus $1.50 postage and handling. California
volts of static charge directly to residents add 6% sales tax. VISA and MasterCard are accepted Give Account number
and expiration date. and add3% service charge. Mail to: REES Software Laboratories.
your unit causing chip and com- Post Office Box 763. Cucamonga California 91 730.
ponent failures. For phone orders: Call the Distributor Software tnternational. (714) 981-5925.
Never smoke around your com-
puter. Nicotine and tar, being by-
products of smoking, will be de-
posited on internal as well as ex-
ternal surfaces of the computer,
printer or drive. A particle of
SUBTOTAL t - - - -
smoke looks like a boulder sized Postage & handling 1-_ __
rock to the drive head as it speeds !'lEES SOFTWARE LABORATORIES, INC.
3% (VISA/MC)
across the disk surface. A particle Post Office Box 763 CA residents 6% tax
Cucamonga CA 91730 1----
of smoke can physically jar the TOTAL
drive head causing loss of data or
Circle No. 77 Commander September 1983/57
a read or write error. Also, the Tape and disk drives basically vents and clean the filters in mild
sticky substance of tar and nico- require the same conSiderations, soap and water. In depth preven-
tine can readily gum up the me- although the disk drive is much tive maintenance should be per-
chanical action of keyboard keys, more sensitive to these consider- formed by qualified service per-
printer mechanisms and print ations. The tape drive, being sonnel each 6 months or 500
head action. mechanical in nature, depends on hours usage.
One particular instance comes proper alignment of i,t s read/write Some preventive steps you can
to mind in relation to smoking head for accurate operation. take are: keep it clean, change the
and computers. A customer Smoke, dust and foreign objects ribbon when print becomes light,
brought his computer in for can eventually ruin the internal do not print reverse characters
repair. The complaint was the dis- workings of a tape unit. You can too long, (reverse character print·
play was very dim. After checking clean the heads of the tape unit ing causes extreme printhead
all the power supply voltages and with a soft swab and denatured heat and eventual failure) and
circuitry, the problem persisted. alcohol. Be very careful and swab check for proper carriage align-
A careful visual perusal of the the head of the tape drive. Allow ment.
problem revealed a display tube to air dry. Disk drives are the most trou-
face so coated with tar and nico- Proper alignment of the head blesome of all computer equip-
tine, it was a wonder one could should be attempted only by ment. Disk drives are not very tol-
see anything! Cleaning the glass qualified service people. One in- erant of dust, dirt and mis-align-
picture tube face cured the prob- dication that your tape drive is in ment. Under ideal conditions, a
lem, maximum brightness and need of head alignment is when a disk drive would run 8,000 hours
clarity! tape recorded on your tape drive on the average between repairs!
Let's look at your computer will not load properly from ano- Ideally, a disk would last for sev-
system's components box by ther drive. One of the two drives is eral million passes over the same
box. The computer itself, or CPU out of alignment. Usually a third track without any degradation in
as it's sometimes called, is pro- drive is needed to determine data integrity!
bably the most troublefree com- which is at fault. In practice, however, condi-
ponent. There are no moving Contaminated tapes are ano- tions are far from ideal. The disk
parts to wear out and the elec- ther source of trouble. Finger- drive should have preventive
tronics as a whole are very relia- prints on the recorded tape can maintenance performed every 40
ble. About the only maintenance cause contamination. The skin hours of operation by a qualified
that you can perform on the CPU oils from your fingertips can service technician. As a user,
itself is fuse replacement and cause disruption of the recorded however, you could purchase s
keeping the exterior surfaces data. One sure fire prevention commerCially available head
clean. Use dust covers and avoid method when saving any data, be cleaning disk and use it every 20
dusty environments. it on tape drive or disk drive, is to hours of operation or about once
Also, never open your compu- make use of the verify command. every two to four weeks. Tandon,
ter, especially the video display You'll always know that the just Shugart and Micropolis have all
cover. Within the display tube recorded data is exactly the same stated through memorandum that
compartment, there are voltages as the data in memory. the "proper" use of head cleaning
in excess of 12,000 volts. Contact- Printers can be either very relia- kits will not void the warranty.
ing these voltages can calise ser- ble or very unreliable. Printers are Thi,s simple preventive mainte-
ious injury. Opening the lower very mechanical and not very well nance step can greatly expand
computer compartment has its protected from outside dust and the life of your drive and disk
hazards too. While only low volt- dirt. The print mechanisms are media.
ages are present, it's very easy for within reach of falling objects, The 8050 and 8250 drives, by
the top display section of the curious hands, fingers and spilled virtue of their format (77 track),
computer case (which is hinged fluids. The best preventive medi- are more senSitive to proper drive
to the upper box) to get away from cine here is the use of dust alignment than the 4040, 2031 or
you and rock backward jarring the covers. In fact, the use of dust 1540/41 disk drives (40 track).
display tube, possibly oausing a covers for all your equipment is Periodically, you should run the
crack in the tube and the display highly recommended. performance test for your drive in-
cover will certainly break off. Sim- As a user, you should be able to cluded on the test/demo diskette
ply put, for safety reasons and clean the exterior and the print supplied when you purchased
warranty considerations, don't mechanism. There are several your equipment. These tests will
open the computer unless you good printer cleaning kits on the verify belt tension, motor speed
have the training and are techni- market. Minor lubrication can be and error detection circuits and
cally capable of performing re- accomplished by the user, also. components of the drive unit.
pairs. Clean and dust the air intake Avoid vibration and shock when
581Commander September 1983
transporting disk drives.
Inspect diskettes frequently. If
there is any doubt, throw it out
and make a fresh backup. Disk-
ette life depends on several fac-
tors: the environment, condition
of the disk drive and quality of the
disk itself. Sometimes, it's a vic-
ious circle. A contaminated disk
can cause problems for the disk
drive, and a dirty disk drive can
contaminate and ruin a disk!
Basic preventive measures,
then, for disk drives include head
Panasonic Technics
cleaning disks, clean environ-
ment, periodic performance tests
and a dust cover.
So, now you have had a look at
computer maintenance, who's in
the business, what they can and
can't do for you and what you can
do for yourself. The ever changing LOWEST PRICES ON:· Computers· Video Recorders • Software
computer maintenance market is • Televisions • Stereos • Phone Answering • VCR'S and more ..
highly competitive. Do what you Rush S5 check or M.D. for hu~e catalog of values and all
can to keep your equipment up sales detai ls . . . refunded with your first order.

and running, through good pre- SOUTHERN AUDIO VIDEO ELECTRONICS, INC.
ventive maintenance practices 1782 Marietta Blvd, NW, Atlanta, GA 30318 (404) 351-8459
and when you do need service, Circle No, 59
consider your options and shop
around .O

Music,,"!! N •

It's like no other music program . .. EVER!

__~I..-:~ With Musicomp. you can compose for three
different instruments at the same time. You
~~-""'""'" can also adjust accents. pitch. and timbre Commodore 64 and VIC-20
.......+--IIfor any song you want, Take full control of all
special effects. You can even sing along to Stock HELPER is a tool to maintain a history of stock
the rinted lyrics. prices and market indicators on diskette; to display
The critics rave about Musicomp - charts, and to calculate moving averages. Stock
" I wish I had Musicomp': HELPER was designed and written by a "weekend
WA. Mozart. Salzburg. Austria investor" for other weekend investors.
" It makes composing an exhilarating Stock HELPER is available on diskette for:
experience." L von B.. Bonn, Germany Commodore 64 $30.00 ($37.00 Canadian)
"The graphics are so clear. Musicomp is the VIC-20 (16K) $27.00 ($33.25 Canadian)
most amazing musical program I have ever
plus $1.25 shipping ($1 .55 Canadian)
seen." WS. Bach. Eisenach. Germany
" How do they do that?" The VIC-20 version only charts 26 bi-weekly periods rather than
52 weekly periods.

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Only $39.95 (M)agreeable software, inc. g:
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Chatsworth. California 91311 (213) 368-4089 Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd .

Commander September 1983/59

O•rectof'l: · \ S
Phone \ \at\\le f\ e
t\\\z\ng Re
U by Howard Rotenberg

The following program is a per-

10 GOT070
sonal phone directory using rela-
tive files. It is not very com-
20 SAVE II @0:PHONE #1611~8:STOP
plicated, but does show how to
use relative files in an application 40 RESTORE PHONES BACKUp TO "PHONES"

that may be useful to many peo- 50 READ PHONES TO "PHONES BACKUP"


ple. In this example, I chose to 60 STOP

use only two fields, the person's 70 REM ******************************
name and phone number. It may 80 REM * PHONE #16 *
be expanded upon if you wish.
There is one prerequisite to using
this program, and that is to initial-
ly open the relative file that we 120 REM ******************************
will be using. The name of the file 130 PRINTII[CLEARJ II
used in this program is called 140 SP$=II
phones. For those who are not .
familiar with the opening of th is 150 DW$= II [ Hot1E J [DOWt~] [DOWN J [ DOWN] [DOWN]
type of files, the following is a [DOWNJ [DOWN] [DOWN] [DOWNJ [DOWN] [DO~JN] [DO
quick example. WNJ [DOWN] [DOWN] II

160 FOR# 1 ~ PHOt~ES"II

Opening the File: 170 I FDSTHEt~PR I NTDS$ : PR I NT II PLEASE CHEC

150 190 INPUT#LNR
20 REM BASIC 4 OPEN 200 DIM SlS(NR+50»)S2$(NR+50)
220 REM******************************
55 REM LENGTH OF EACH 240 REt1******************************
250 REM

60 RECORD#1,100,40
270 PRINTTAB(31)" II


RECORD J" To be continued on page 62

60/commander September 1983





Bp·4 Programming in BASIC VIC-20

LYNN Computer Service presehts a new concept for

computer users - The Video Instruction Series. A "REAL
TIME" learning aid where the user is shown step by step FN LET RND END ABS AND THEN LIST STOP PRINT RESTORE
how to program in basic for the VIC-20 or C-64. IF NEW RUN EXP ASC ATN OPEN CHR$ STR$ GOSUB RETURN



010-2 DISK I/O VIC-20
MASTERCARD-VISA and C.O.D. Orders accepted
add $3.00 per order for shipping and handling. Telephone Includes RANDOM, RELATIVE, SEQUENTIAL disk read and write.
orders taken 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. Central Time. Also explains load, save, new, copy, scratch, initialize, validate,
Specify either VHS or BETA Tape Format error channel, command channel, and rename in both the standard
and wedge syntax. Explains the verify, open, print #, input #, get #,
status BAM commands. Lesson includes several programs and
C.O.D. Orders add $3.00 a large checkbook program.




6831 West 159th Street Tinley Park, Illinois 60477
(312) 429-1915
Circle No. 70

Commander September 1983/61

85 PRINT#,CHR$(255) Continued from page eo
You may, of course, choose to ECORD[DOWt-Il lI
make the record size larger or 310 PRINTTAB(31)"[REVlD[OFFlELETE RECOR
smaller depending upon your D[DOWNJ"
needs. After opening this file we 320 PRINTTAB(31)II[REVJE[OFFJDIT A RECOR
are now ready to use the program. D[DOWNl"
The program when first run ORDS[DOWNl ll

comes up with a main menu with 340 PRINTTAB(31)II[REVJQ[OFFlUIT II

six selections. These are: 350 PRINT


Each of these selections has its
own subsection which we will
discuss as we get into the pro-
430 REM
440 REM******************************
Input a Number: 450 REM* NEW RECORD INPUT *
This section allows the user to 460 REM******************************
470 REM
enter the names and phone num-
bers of their choosing. When this 480 PRINTII[CLEARl II TAB(31)IINEW RECORD IN
and any subsection is used the
current number of records is 490 PRItHTAB(31) 11--------"
always displayed for your infor- 500 DATAllJl
mation. I chose to use the very 510 INPUTll .. NR
first record in the file to hold this 520 PRINTTAB(20)IINUMBER OF RECORDS =IINR
number. This section is divided II (END) FOR MENU"
into three subsections as follows: 530 PR I NT II [DOWN 1 [ DOWN 1 [DOWN 1 [DOWt~ J II
When you add a record to the RECORDStDOWNl"
list as in option #1, you simply
add the new record to the e.nd of
your current phone list. Option

#2, however, allows you to fill in

any empty records that might THEN570
have been left over from deleting 580 IFA$="F"THEN2940
names. The way this is done is as 590 IFA$=IIB II THEN260
follows: if you have previously 600 PRINT
deleted a record and chose to 610 INPUT II NAME lIiNS
leave the record open as opposed 620 IFN$="END II THEN260
to updating all records, then this 630 I t~PUT PHONE "; P$

record is flagged with a chr$(1). 640 PRINT

When attempting to fill in these 650 PR I NT "NA~1E t~$ II
records, the record numbers are ;P$
checked for this flag and dis- 660 PRINT
played at the same time. If an 670 I NPUT II CORRECT (Y OR N) [RIGHTltRIGH
empty record is found, then it is TltRIGHTlYtLEFTl[LEFTltLEFTl"iC$
filled with your current name and 680 IFC$="N"THEN480
number you are about to enter. If
no empty records are found, then
690 DATAllJ(NR+2)
you are informed and you go back 700 PRINTll . N$ To be continued on page 84

621commander September 1983




on disk adds POWER . on disk the

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volts A.C.). Brownout and dropout protection shutting system down
POWER 64 and PAL 64..••• SI79. 95
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Five slot expansion interface for the C 64
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Word processor on a cartridge for the C 64 TO ORDER :
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Mail Now 39.95 WICHITA. KS 67201
Mailing list program on disk works with Write Now / C 64
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• ®
Sixteen numerical key pad with software for the VIC & C 64 Prices subject to change
into the menu. At this point you Continued from page 62
may either add it to the end of the 7110 DATA#lJ(NR+2)J35
list or go back to the main menu. 72t1 F'RnH#L P$
Before any recorq is entered, the 730 REt1
information you have entered is
redisplayed for your confirmation
before writing it to the file.
7410 REM*******************************
Retrieve a Record: 7610 REM*******************************
7710 RE~l
This section allows the user to 780 IFERTHENER=0:GOT0810:REM*EMPTY RECO
recall any or all records on file. It RD FILLED SO DONT INCREMENT COUNTER**
is split up into the following sub-
790 DATA#lJl
sections: 800 PRINT#l·JNR+l
8110 F'R I tHTAB (29) " (DOWt4 J RECORD Et·HERED"
3) ALL RECORDS 820 FORJ=lT02e00:NEXT:I=0:GOT0480
4) BACK TO MENU 8310 REt'1
From the selections, it is ob- 8410 REM******************************
vious how you may choose to 8510 REM* RETRIEVE RECORDS *
recall a record. You may enter the 8610 REM******************************
name of the person, the phone 87~3 REt'l
number (for those of us that 880 PR I tH " [CLEAR J " TAB (31 ) " F.:ETR I EVE RECO
remember a phone number but · RDS" : LIt4E=1
forget to whom it belongs) or 8910 PRINTTAB(31)" II
choose to see all records present. 91010 PR I tHTAB ( 29) t4R II RECORDS PF~ESEtH II
The third choice is by far the most 910 PRINT
versatile. It allows you to display 92L3 PR I tH II (DO~JN J [DOWt4 J [DOWt4 J (DOWN J [DOWt4
all records present or get a hard ]11
copy of the names and phone
numbers on hand. It has a special

feature that allows you to use pat-

9410 PR I tHTAB (31 ) REV J P ( OFF J HOt4E t4UMBER
II (

tern matching. For those of you (DOWNJ"

not familiar with this term, it 9510 PR I ~nTAB (31 ) II [RE'",' J A(OFF J LL RECORDS [
simply means that you may DmJNJ II
choose to display all names that 9610 PRItHTAB(31)" (RE'",'JB(OFFJACK TO t1Et4U
start with a D or any names that
start with any pattern you chose. 9710 GETA$: I FA$=" "THEt497e
For example, if you chose the pat- 9810 I FA$() II t4" ANDA$(>" P" ANDA$() II A" At~DA$<
tern DA you would see the num- )IIB"THEN970
bers of people as such: Danny 990 IFA$=IIB"THENGOT0260
Smith, Daffy Duck, Dandy Candy 1000 I FA$= " t4 II THHHM$=" NAt1E" : GOTO 13610
and not to forget Dear old DAD. 1010 I FA$=" P II THENTt'1$=" PHONE #": GOTO 1360
1020 REt'1
PROTECT THE INNOCENT.) If 1030 REM******************************
you choose to display all or some 1040 REM* ALL RECORDS *
of the names, only twenty at a 10510 REM******************************
time will be on the screen at any 110610 REM
one time to prevent scrolling. You 110710 PRltHII [CLEARJ I I :
may then move on by pressing 110810 INPUTIIPRINTER OR CRT (RIGHTJ[RIGHT
Delete Record: (CLEARJ II
This command like the others 10910 INPUT"PATTERN ~1ATCHlt4G 'r(LEFTJ EL
is spread out into other subsec- EFTJELEFTJ";A$
tions. These are: 111010 I FA$=" 'Till THEt4 INPUT" rHER PATTERN
1) NAME *[LEFTJ (LEFTJ (LEFT] II; PM$: pr1=1
2) PHONE NUMBER 11110 I FPt'1$= II *" THEN 131010
3) SCAN 1120 LN=LEN (P~1$) : V$=" Z II
Once again, you may choose to 1140 OPEN2/3
delete a record by the person's 11510 PRltH#2J" NAME"TAB(40) "NUMBER"
name or by the phone number if To be continued on page 66

641Commander September 1983

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you recall it. If the record chosen
Continued from page 64
to be deleted is present, then you
are asked to confirm it before it is 1160 PRINTI2J II --IITAB(40) II---[DOW
\ • actually deleted. If you decide to NJ"
delete the record then you are 1170 FORT=2TONR+1
given two more choices on the 1180 DATAIL (T)
method of deletion. This is the 1190 IHPUTI1JN$
part that was discussed earlier 1200 IFN$=CHR$(1)ORN$=CHR$e25S)THENPRIN
during the input record when it TTAB (20) .. RECORD # .. 1+111 Et1PTY": GOTO 1270
came to adding to the list or fill- 1210 DATA#lJeT)J35
ing in empty records. Your two 1220 It~PUTIL P$
choices are:
1230 1FDV$=" P" THENC%=45-LEN et~$) : GO TO 125
If you choose to update all the 1240 C%=38-LENCN$)
records this is what happens. If 1250 IFPMTHENIFLEFT$(N$JLN)=PM$THENPRIN
you have 20 records and you are TI2J ~~$; SPC(C~~); P$" II 1+1 : V$=N$: GOT01270
deleting number 10, then each 1260 IFPt1=0THEt~PRINTI2J N$; SPC(C~'~); P$II II

successive record is put in its 1+1

predecessor's place. This means 1270 1=1+1: K=K+1 : IFDV$= IIC "THEtHFK=20THE
record number 11 is now in record NI FP~1=0THEN 1590
10's old position, record 12 is in 1280 IFPMTHENIFN$)V$THENT=T+1000
11's and so on down to the last 1290 NEXTT
record. If you choose number 2 1300 N=0:I=0:K=0:PM=0:CLOSE2:GOTOI560
then the records remain intact 1310 RE~l
and that record is flagged with
the chr$(1) and remains open to 1320 REM******************************
be filled in at a later time.
Choice number 2 is much 1340 REM******************************
quicker, especially if you have a
1350 REt1
large number of records. The third 1360 PR 1NT [DOWN J "Tt1$;

choice· is to scan the records. By 1370 INPUTRS$

this statement I mean we will se- 1380 1FTM$=" NAt1E "THENP= 1 : X=35 : t4= 1
quentially display each record 1390 1FTt1$=" PHONE I" THENP=35 : X= 1 : N=0
and ask if it is the record you want 1400 FORT=2TONR+1
to delete until we find it or reach 1410 DATAIIJ(T)Jep)
the end of the file. The current 1420 INPUTIIJPR$
record number is always being 1430 IFPR$=RS$THENG=T:T=NR+1000
updated by any of our actions. 1440 NEXTT
Before we go on to the next com- 1450 IFT=NR+2THENGOTOI620:REM**NOT FOUN
mand in the menu, I would just
like to backtrack and mention
1460 DATA#lJ(G)J(X)
that you may not update all 1470 PRUn
records if the record chosen to 1480 INPUTIIJPN$
delete was the last record.
Edit a Record: 1500 IFN=0THENPRIHTPH$TAB(30)PR$
The phone directory or any file 1510 REt1
system would not be complete
without the capability to edit your 15213 REM******************************
records. The section on editing
records has 4 subsections once 1540 RE~l******************************
more. These sections are as fol- 1550 RE~1
2) PHONE 1570 GETAS:IFA$(>CHR$(13)THEN1570
3) SCAN 1580 N=0:0NLINEGOT0880J1680J3320J260
4) BACK TO MENU 1590 POKE158/0: PRItHTAB(22)" [DOWN] [REV]
These sections work just the PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE LISTING[DOWH][
same as the preceding one on OFF]"
deleting records. Once again, you 1600 GETA':IFA'(>CHR'(13)THEN1600
may choose to search for a record To be continued on page 68

66/Commander September 1983

Vanilla Pilot?
Yes, Vanilla Pilot!
What is Vanilla Pilot?

Vanilla Pilot is a full-featured pilot

language interpreter including TURTLE
GRAPHICS for the PET or CBM 4000,
80CO, 9000 and CBM-64 series computers. ~

At last! A Pilot interpreter for the '1

Commodore computers. This Pilot in- "
cludes some powerful extensions to
the screen editor of the computer.
Things like FIND /CHANGE , TRACE
and DUMP enhance the programming

The TURTLE has a very powerful set

of graphics commands. You can set the
Turtle's DIRECTION and turn him LEFT
or RIGHT. The pen he carries can be
set to any of the 16 colors in the CBM -
64. He can DRAW or ERASE a Line.

What else? Vanilla Pilot is all this and

much, much more. In fact, we can't
tell you about all of the features of
the language in this small ad. So
rush down to your local Commodore
computer dealer and ask him to show
you Vanilla Pilot in action.

Tamarack Software
Darby, MT. 59829

Circle No. 42

Commander September 1983/67

to edit by a name, phone number
or sequential scan of all present Continued from page 66
records. As with all changes that 1610 K=0:GOT01290
will be reflected in your file, you 16210 PRINTTAB(29)"[DOWNJRECORD NOT PRES
are given a chance to abort fhe EtH" : 1=0: 00T0156e
change before it is written to disk. 16310 RE~l
When you have finished editing a
record you are informed that the
16410 RE~l******************************
record has been updated.
Sort All Records: 166121 REM******************************
16710 REM
This selection unlike the other 1680II PRIHT"[CLEARJ II TAB(31)"DELETE RECOR
commands has no subsections. DS : LIt~E=2
When the command is invoked, 16910 PRItHTAB(31) 11------11
the first thing that is done is the
reading of the current file into
17010 PRltH
memory. You are informed of all


operations as they are being per-
formed. If any empty record is R[DOWNJ II
found, then you are informed that 17310 PRINTTAB(31)II[REVJS[OFFJCAN[DOWNJ"
the records cannot be sorted until 17410 PRltHTAB(31) II [REVJB[OFFJACK TO r1EN
all records are updated. At this UII
point you must update all of your 175121 OETA$:IFA$=IIIITHEN1750
records. Only when this is done 17610 I FA$() II N" At~DA$<} "P ANDA$(} S ANDA$

will you have an accurate count of ()IIBIITHEN1750

your records and the sorting will 17710 I FA$= II N" THENTM$= II NAME " : P= 1 : ~<=35 : N=
be allowed. If a record is empty 1:00T01860
then the record count is not 1780 I FA$= II P" THEt~n1$= II PHONE #": P=35 : X= 1
decremented. If all was well or :N=0:GOT0186e
you have updated your records 1790 IFA$=IIS"THEN2720
then the sorting procedure 1800 GOT0260
begins. While the records are be-
ing sorted I chose to print out
181&21 RE~l
dashes to let the user know that 18210 REM******************************
the computer is indeed working. 183&21 REM*SEARCH FOR RECORDS TO DELETE*
When the sorting procedure is 18410 REM******************************
finished, you are once again in- 18510 REt1
formed and the new file is written 18610 PR I HT II [DOWt~ J II TMS; : REM**LOOK FOR RE
to the disk. CORDS**
Quit: 18710 IHPUTRSS
This is not a hard command to 188121 FORT=2TOHR+l
figure out. It simply closes the 18910 DATA#ll(T)I(P)
relative file (which incidentally is 1910121 IHPUT#l/PRS
open during the whole program) 19110 IFPRS=RSSTHENG=T:T=NR+le0e
and then ends the program. 19210 I=I+l:REM**COUNTER FOR RECORD NO.*
In this phone directory, I chose
to allow 35 characters for the
name, and 15 for the phone
19310 t~EXT T
IFT=t~R+2THEtH62e: REM**t~OT FOUND**
number. This should allow for the 1950 REr1
longest of names and any phone
number along with the area code 19610 REM*****************************
to be entered. If you anticipate
197&21 REM* PR I t~T OUT RECORD At·m *
needing larger fields for your file
then you must consider this when 19910 REM*****************************
you first open your file and also 2&21&21&21 REt1
change all the record positions at 210110 DATA#ll(O)I(X)
35 to your new position. 210210 PRIHT
Conclusion: 210310 INPUT#l/PNS
As I had mentioned at the
beginning of this article, I have 2&21510 PR ItHTAB (31 ) " II
only touched upon the use of 210610 IFHTHEHPRIHTPRSTAB(3e)PHS:GOT02080
To be continued on page 70
relative files. The way they are be-
6S/Commander September 1983
CBM 64™
Newly designed unit
with solid-state switch·
Ing on the GAME and
XROM lines lor
universal compatibility
with all cartridges.
Normal compuler
operation IS
unaffecled by
cartridges lell
plugged In,
PIN C-64

VIC 20™
Toggles , PI N Y·23
fuse and reset
PIN Y-36
'69.9$ 4-SLOT
6·SLOT wilh Toggles, luse
3-11. ribbon cable and reset
PI N Y·46 PI N Y·24
'89.95 '59.95

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some features TM- Trademark of Commodore Electronics limited

Menu driven, Easy to use - Available on tape or disk - Com~

patible With Most Column Expansion Hardware - Built-
in ASCII Translation for Non Commodore Hardware - Color
Variables for Easy Modification - Machine language speed for
Word Processing and Mailing List & Label software.
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1. WORD PROCESSING has the speed and versatility to produce
documents, forms and letters in a straightforward approach that
is easily and Quickly learned . MAIUNG LIST
2. MAILING LIST AND LABEL lets you organize your mailing
lists, collection catalogs, menus, recipes and anything that de- PROGRAM
mands listing or sorting.
TOTL TIME MANAGER helps you plan schedules and analyze
events and activities by persons, proiect catagory and date . COM MODO
Ideal for project planning in the home or business.
4. RESEARCH ASSISTANT turns your computer into an ad- THESE FEATURES: .....
vanced, automated indexing and cross reference system . ci
• fast file definition z
A must for the student. educator or the research professional. Q)

• 'easy. updating ~
5. SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUII!TING is a set of straightforward <3
accounting programs . Frees the salesman, entrepreneur • ~ printing with total
~ormat and lTecord selection

or service professi o nal from time consuming record keeping


~ ........
0iTI\ "'fJl'rL
• WORDPRO compatible
• ~ to .ao
records on 1541
• ~ . V •
Ask yo ur aealer abour TOrt sofrware
or sena in rne coupon for furtner aerailS
• MAILPR0M •.••• 5129 95
• . ... SOFTWARE, INC. and oraef/ng InformaCIon • Also aval~ for COMMODORE 1032 ... $179 95
• - ~. QIJJ/lry you can afford • 1'a1'"_ in U.S , .......... order or nWjor"c_ card •.
: 1555 Third Avenue, Walnut Creek, CA 94596 :




• Name :

(416) 273-6350

• Address :


• •••••••••••••••••••••••

Circle NO. 46

ing used here is not really direct Continued from page 68
access since we usually have to 2070 PR I NTPN$TAB (30) PR$
search for the name or number.
Only when we are editing records
2080 PRINT
etc. do we really use direct ac- . . 2090 INPUT"DELETE THIS RECORD [RIGHTJ[R
cess to replace the old record. IGHTJ [RIGHTJ'TI[LEFTJ [LEFTJ [LEFTJ II; DR$
The real effectiveness of relative 2100 I FDR${:> THEN I =0 : GOTO 1680

files comes into play when you 2110 INPUTIIARE YOU SURE [RIGHTJ[RIGHTJ[
know the record number or can RIGHTJY'[LEFTJ[LEFTJ[LEFTJII;DR$
calculate it easily. When this is 2120 I FDR$() "THENI=0 : GOT01680
II 1-1

the case, then you can say get 2130 RE~1

record number 55 and it will be 2140 REM******************************
done. An example of an applica- 2150 REM* MINI MENU FOR DELETION *
tion that needs this type of direct 2160 REM******************************
access would be an inventory 2170 REM
package. If you want to know the 2180 PRIt~TTAB(29)" [REVJU[OFFJPDATE ALL
price of a certain number, you RECORDS[DOWNJ"
enter the code and it immediately 2190 PRINTTAB(29)II[REVJD[OFFJELETE PRES
gets it. In a future article I will in-
clude a direct access inventory
package that will do this. I have
2200 GETA$: I FA$() II UII At~DA$() II D THEt~22~30

not mentioned anything about

2210 IFA$=IIU THEN2410 II

side sectors that relative files use 2220 PR I tHTAB ( 29) [DOWN JDELET I t~G PRESEN

since this was just a taste of what T RECORD II

they can do. If there is interest in 2230 DATA#1J(I+1)

how files sLich as these or any 2240 PRINT#1JCHR$(1)
other type (including programs) 2250 DATA#1J(I+1),35
are stored on disk then please 2260 PRINT#1JCHR$(1)
feel free to contact me through 2270 I=0:FORJ=1T02000:NEXT:GOT01680
Commander. Until next time, Hap- 2280 RE~1
py computing.O 2290 REM*****************************
Five Slot Expansion Interface
for the C64 T. 2320 REM* RECORDS BY READING THE *
The CARDBOARD/5 (CB/5) is an enclosed 2330 REM* NEXT ONE INTO THE DELETED *
five Slot, fully switch selectable, expansion
interface for the Commodore 64 'W . This qual-
2340 REM* RECORD *
ity product alloWs the user to switch select 2350 REM*****************************
any cartridge slot or combination of car-
tridge slots. There are twenty-two color
2360 REt'1
coded light emitting diodes to give status in- 2370 REM*****************************
dication. Each slot has four LEDs and two
toggle switches for indication and control.
The CARDBOARD/ 5 is fully fused and a 2390 REM*****************************
reset button is provided. 2400 RE~1
• high quality glass/epoxy circuit board
• gold plated contacts
• logic lines are switched by solid state Ie CORDS"
• full LED status indication
2420 I F I =NRTHENPR I NTTAB ( 18) CAt·~t~o.T UPD

• convenient toggle switches ATE! TH I S ~JAS THE LAST RECORD 11

• full support under the board to prevent
• full plastic enclosure to insure safety T01680
• fused to protect your computer
• convenient reset" button
2440 FORT=I+2TONR+1
• CARDCO, Inc.·s exclusive Lifetime 2450 DATAI1J(T)
Guarantee 2460 INPUT#1JDN$
2470 DATA#1J(T-1)
2480 PRINT#1JDN$
P.O. BOX 768 2490 REt'1
WICHITA . KS 67201
(316) 263-1095 2500 REM*****************************
Handling charges $3_00 2510 REM* REPLACE PHONE NUMBER *
C .O .D . (Add $2.00)
Personal checks allow 3 week delivery 2520 REM*****************************
Commodore 64 r .. is a registered trademark of
Commodore BUSiness Systems. Inc.
2530 REM
Prices subject 10 change Continued from page 72

70/Commander September 1983

: : :
: :
, . . ::

SEND FOR OUR CATALOG OF CBM 64 SOFTWARE. Over 150 different pieces of software and
accessories for the CBM 64. With full descriptions and screen pictures. Send $2.00 postage and

DATA BASE MGR. .... ..... ..... . . .. $49.95 HES WRITER .............................. $ 3 1.95 TOTAL
HOME INVENTORY .... . ... . .... . . . . .... . 15.95 6502 PROF. DEV. SYS . . .... 26.95 TIME MANAGEMENT. . . ....... ... .. .... $24.95
CHECKBOOK MANAGER . ... . 39.95 GRIDRUNNER .. . 31.95 MAILING LIST & LABELS . . . . . 17.95
DATA MANAGER .. .... ..... ..... . • . . . ... . .... 17.95 SHAMUS . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... 31.95 RESEARCH ASST. . . ... 24.95

CALC RESULT ........ ... ......... $139 .95 GAMES
SPELLMASTER ... ... . . . . . . . .... .. . $89.95
3 Dimensional Electronic Spreadsheet with: built· in Proofread ing software for the C-64 ! Now with the INFOCOM
graphics, or>-line help menus. full arithmetic funclions. PaperClip and SPELL MASTER you can have it all in STARCROSS. . .$31.95
Boolean ,operations. and split screenl split window word processing convenience and power. Expand- ZORK I .. ........ .... . . . . . ........ .. 31.95
features Hiet allow you to view up to 4 different pages able and easy. ZORK II .. ... 31.95
at the same time - EXCELLENT- ZORK 111. ......... . .. .. . .. . ... 3 1.95
DEADLINE .. .. .... 41.95
DATA 20 VIDEO PAK80 ......... $164.95 SUSPE'NDED ..
SYSRES .......... . . . .. ... . ......... $79.95 . .......... . ........... 41.95
Gives you a full 80 column screen display. plus
Programme(s utilit y package gives you AUTO-NUM- EPYX/AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS
terminal emulation software (use with monochrome
mon itor only). Compatible with PaperC lip WP.
nor>-destructive disk directory CURSE OF RA . .. 17.95
VISICALC .. ... $219.95 FROGGER. . .. ...... $29.95
PAPERCliP ..... .. _. . _.......... .. $125.00 JAWBREAKER.. . .. 21 .95
Professional Word Processor. Full Screen Editing.
line length up to 126 char. using horizontal scrolling,
MICRO SPEC CHECKBOOK . . 39.95 NEUTRAL ZONE . . ... .. $29.95
supports any printer. even works on80-column board. SPRITE MASTER .. .28.95
This program does so much we can't list it - call for
more information
MICRO SPEC GEN/ LEDGER. .. .. 79.95 WALL STREET. . .. $21.95
MICRO SPEC PAYROLL .. .. . 79.95 ROBBERS OF THE LOST TOMB . . ... . 21.95
M-FllE ...... ...... .. .. ........ ... .. $99.95 MICRO SPEC DATA BASE MGR. ... 74.95 COMM' DATA
A trul y relational data base manager. Up to 1200 MINI JINI DATA BASE (CART.) . . 79.95 CETROPODS (DIG) . . ..... $16.95
records in a file. all arithmetic operations. and super BUSICALC . . .. 69.95 PAKACUDA (D/C) . . .... . 16.95
report generation using search and sort '64 TERMINAL ... .. . ..... . .. 24.95 SKETCH & PAINT . ... 13.95


G E M IN I 1 OX $399 •
95* COMMODORE 64 ... . . . . ..... ... . $249.95·
COMMODORE 1541 DISK DRIVE. " .259.95'
1701 COLOR MONITOR. . . 279.95 •
1520 4 COLOR PLOTTER . . .. . 199.95
1600 MODEM . . ............ ......... 99.95
1530 DATASETTE. . .. ... ... .... 60.00
FOR VIC-20 GEMINI 10 PRINTER .. . ........... ...... 349.95 •
OR COMMODORE 64 SCM TPI PRINTER . . ... ..... .... 599.95 •
ADDRESSABLE GRAPHICS, ITALICS, CARDCO LIGHT PEN . . ....... .. .... ..... . 24.95

. . ..
. . . . ,'

560 N, Mountain Ave., Suite L • Upland, CA 91786 • (714) 981·5925

TO ORDER: Send check or money order plus $3.00 ($8.00 on indicated items) postage and handling. California
residents add 6% sales tax. VISA and MasterCard are accepted. Give account number and expiration date. All orders
shipped UPS Ground. Next-Day and Second-Day Service available. Call for prices.
: : : : .'" : : : :: :
: :
, '.
: : : : :
:' : : ; : : : : : :
Continued from page 70
2540 DATAI1. <T) :35


2550 INPUTll.DP$
2560 DATAI1 . (T-1).35
,..., 22
()49 15 . 2570 PRINT#1.DPS
Software & Accessories for the VIC·20 2580 t~EXTT: 1=0
CAROBOAROI6: 6 $Iot Expansion . . .... VIC . $79 ."
2590 REM
CAADPRINT : Parallel Printer Interface lor VIC 01 6d ... ..... $64 ."
2600 REM*****************************
CARDRrTER : Ugh! Pen lNI,h 6 good programs. VIC or 64 . . . $l1 ."
CARDADAPTER: Play Alari VC S Games on your VIC..
CARDBOARO/3S : slol e)[P.·fused-swl!ched ·reset bunon . VIC
S14 ."
$3\ ,"
CARDETTE/1: Use standard cassette recorders on VI( / 64 . . $31."
2620 REM*****************************
NOW. A PRINTER THAT YOU CAN AFFORO . 60 CPS; FtM;l ion feed : 2640 DATAI1.l
Block Grophiu : Bi DOc1~ Print Head; ASCii + EI.rOPIO" chonxltr1.
ONLY $179.99 "us
18 .00 lII;ppng ond Hondling
2650 PRINTll.NR-l
GEMINI·10 PRINTER ONLY S329.99 " ' II'O .OOS + H 2660 NR=NR-l :GOT01680
Inferloce coble for prin, ...) oboYt S' 4.qq
n'.99 2680 REM******************************
GI:UD RUNNER : Avoid Oroids Weapons and Annihilate them .
AGGRESSOR: Space Battle - Nille Levels
TURTLE GRAPI1tCS: Easy 10 Leam Computer Lang
VIC $n ."
Vic / 64 SU."
OOEEN'S BEDROOM : Look for Aoyallreasure - AvOO Guards . St9 ." 2700 REM******************************
ROBOT PANtC : Banle your way through the Cosmos . . YK .. S29 .99
PIRATES PERIL : Advenlure - Sensational Sound & Animarion Stt.99 2710 REM
HES MON : Mad'l Language Manllor - Assembler . VIC/64 $29 ."
HES WRITER ' Surprisingly Comp:ele Word Processing Cart . S29 ." 2720 PR 1NT DOWN l [DO~Jt·~] [Dm~N]


ONLY S9 .99/ DISK . SEND S2 .00 FOR 18 PAGE CATALOG. 2740 DATAI1.(T)
: AYOIdl(Om(Jil.;nosl& .na Lo$' reokn. Vic/ 64 . S29."
SUIYIYOI : Muhi · Ploy ... Coopoerot;yt Spat:e Adventu.... Yre J64 . ... $29 ."
SHAMUS: Four levels of 32 Rooms, Ad't«rturt Gome. Vic / 64 .. .. $29 .99
2760IFN$=CHR$ ( 1)THENT=T+l:I=I+l:GOT027
n. APOCALTPSI.! Fly HelicOClI'" & Cogture fuel & WfOt)Ons . YIC / 64 . S29 .'9 40
'IOnCTOIII; Get Ywr P.opIe 10 SAf.,y os Volcorroes &\lilt . Vic / 64S29 ."
L - TRONIX- I 2770 DATAI1.(T),35
61'ION: Prfdatory World 01 klher Wonns. &bgon$. Trap$. Vic ... ill ...
D£lDL' SillS: Guld. H.licopt ... tlYu SItW)M Bcwnb, . Anli·Aircroh . Vic Sll."
GOLD flYII : A Fortune AwoilS . But So [)oM ~e Donger . Vic. .... SU ."
SIDE WINOII: Fast ACTion Artode Type Gome. Req. 8K Exp .. Vic .... U4 ."
2790 1=1+1
SWUM: The fast.,1 Arcade Game YOlIY. SHo. Con . Vic .. .. .... 124. 99
GALAenC Ilm : IS Different EMmy Poff tm~. Con. Vic. SI' .99
2800 PRINT"RECORDI"I;" ";N$.SPC(10)P$
TAPE ., - Ca-ooo [MI- B<uI<oot - F\Jna<o\Tod - _ - Space
TAPE #2- Targel PIs1o'-SpaceI>.Je< - B29 - Tari<-_
TAPE .3- Slob Hunt- Bkld<a:le - Indy 500 - UFO -~ Dri_
$9.99 EACi1
~ ALL 15 GAMES ON ONE TAPE .. $25.00
NIWI COMMOOOll64 UIII.&I'l-DtSa ONLY .. . • • • $29 ,99 2820 1FDRS() Illy THEN2850 II
BOM8!R - POI<ER - Bl.lOOACX - 30 MAZE - nustJRE
FtiGIITSIMUlATOR - 3 Mill ~l.lNO
''''CUDA : hit Small ... Fish. Watch 4 Octopi . YIC / 64 Cos .... . . . $22.99
2840 IFDR$=IIY"THENT=NR+1000:GOT02180
lOGGII : Moye lumberlock Aeros, Trails & Riy.... 64 Ca15.. ,, $22..99
API Cl.ASE: J""'f' or Climb Voriou' StructlA'"'s . A'IOid Bomb$, 64 ,. $22.99
ISCA'I MCP: Roce 1m MOl• • Ayotd Main Control Pn>grarn, 64 ... S22."
OMTlOroDS: Oelend Against Pods . Buutn. Minilts. Souc:ers, 64 S22.99
BROWN FOX: ProIessicnaJ Won:! ~ c..r V1C16' " '.99
TOTl TEXT 2.0 : Cass. - 8asic WO((J Processor . Vt( S19.99 LE"
TOn TEXT 2.5: Cass.-Mvanced_dP<ooossor-Req. 8KE>!> .. \27 .99
1011. LABEL: Casso- Mailing lJs! . V1C / 64 . . ...•. ... S16.99
2870 FORJ=1T02000:NEXT
RESeARaiASSISTAHT: Cass._eeorglo"T_f>aIIers. eIC. . $24.99
ROAD TOAD: Cass. - LJke .'ower . .
.VIC . . .. \16 ."
2880 I=0:GOT016S0
MILUPEOE: Cass. - like CentioeOe . .. . . . . .. . . ' . . Vic ... , $16 .99
SOICIIII"S "NINTICE: Suptr-· Grophiu Utility Kil , Disk 64 .. , , . SI'. 99
2890 REM
Wltnl'S ASSl$TAWT: Powerful Disk Bo$td Word Proc-euor .64 . 199.99
PILING ASSISTAJlTl DolO ~ t tor all y04X need" . 64 .. .. S99.99 2900 REM******************************
SP'IIADSIIln lUISTANT: Visi.type softwar. for The 6 • ... .....• S99 . 99
COMMOOOI( lOGO , Simikw 10 Awl. kI9a .64 .. , ... ...... . S".99 2910 REM* SCAN FOR OPEN RECORD *
VANilLA PILOT: (asy to uselO1'lglJC9t, VIC or 64 ... , , .. ... .... S27 .99
,n lMULATOI: Run many P(T prognwns on 64 .... ... _. . . .. . $27 .99 2920 REM******************************
IUSINIS$U. ITCMS: G.ntf'OIltdger. Runs on 1 Disk .. 64 ..... SI 09 .99
Illl "'II IT~ : Ac;COIIIts Poyobl., AQiI'lQ RtPON$, PrinT ChecksS 109.99
2930 REM
IIU COUICTOI IfCMS: Account$ Rece;'IObIe. Print SIa'etnenlS ... S109 .99
,UMASTlIIYCMS: Payroll Syslem. PrinT t.hec:k" Payroll regiuer S109 .99
2940 FORT=2TONR+l
GALACTIC CONQUEST: Req. BK Exp. - S" ategy Game - 1106 \ '.99
MARTIAN RAIDER : Intergalactic shiPS n attack on Mars Vic .. 116.99
2950 DATA#l.(T)
SHARK lRAP: Snare the SharkS WIth atomic net or die . Vic :. S16, 99 2960 INPUT#l,BLS
MUL n-SOUND SYNTHESfSER: Compose)'OUr own kind of rTUSIC S16. 99
I VICTORY - I 2970 1=1+1 .
"HUAlat6i. [.k. oefe. Vle164 . .
lOIlGO lONG: Ljk. Donk.y Kong VIC/ 64
. .. .. .. 117.99
. S17 .'9
ADYIMTUIE Pia I; S Adyeft'urH VIC! 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sl7 . 99
ADYINTUII 'Aa II; S AdYentures VICJ64 . . . .. , " SI7 .99
Q GlAYlloalllS: Graphic Adventure VI.C/ 64 . , . . , .. .. . . .. .. S1 •.99
2990 PRINTTAB(31)"
ti AOO$2.00FOR ~'~ 3000 IFBL$=CHRSCl)THENT=NR+1000:GOT0307
~~ 1!~ I~~ I ~j
....->-;...=.r;:~~ o
Continued from page 74
SE"'Os , .oo FOACOUPlrn UST ( ~OI''''''~'
0V(FI 200 ITEMS - SP£:CIF'r VlC-20 OR c:cNo1OOORE Sol

721Commander September 1983

----- -~ --~- - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - -


-,,~ Jf/U:~l;": ': 4i\'.~j,
): . :'~" !;" .~ ~"' -::--
o~t~ \~
i i
;:J7;- ~/?'~'
~/z:: -~~~?~
L ' ,~~FN0 -~- >-"-:"::.~?:'"''''
~ __"''''''
- -'
]r t .;: .,J ;Uil- ...."" ..
~rtlff' ~-
.:.: 0
\ '- ~. ~-J

ZEUS - It's fast and furious as you become

the WIZARD fighting off the Thurderbolts
of an angry ZEUS. Your Cone of Cold will
destroy a thunderbolt and your shield will SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In
protect you - for a while. This is the best this high speed arcade game, you layout
and highest speed arcade action we have patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking
ever done. Difficulty increases in wave after PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k
QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE wave, providing hours of challenging fun RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and
GAMES! Different from all the others. and a game that you may never completely Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20,
Quest is played on a computer generated master. Commodore 64, Vic20 (16k ex- Commodore 64, and TRS-SO Color. NOTE:
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men pander), and 16k TRS-80 Color Computer. tape will not transfer to diskl
and supplies by combat, bargain ing, explor- (ALL MACHINE CODE!) $24.95 Tape - $29.95 Disk.
atiOn of ruins and temples and outright $24.95 tape $29.95 disk. (Tape will not
banditry. When your force is strong enough, transfer to disk.)
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a
life or death battle to the finish. Playable
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every
time. TRS-SO Color, and Sinclair, 13K VIC-
20. Extended BASIC required for TR5-S0
Color and T199/A. $19_95 each_
32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $29.95_
Adds a second level with dungeons and
more Ouesting.

The Adventures below are written in BASIC,
are full featured, fast action. full plotted ad-
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad-
~ ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like
Dungeons of Death - This is the first D&D
reading a book except that you are the main
Wtzardfi character as you give the computer, com-
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and "Light
type game good enough to qualify at Aard-
vark. This is serious D&D that allows 1 to 6
players to go on a Dragon Hunting, Monster
the torch.")
Tome Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair,
and TRS-80 Color. They require Sk on OSI
Killing, Dungeon Exploring Quest. Played
on an on-screen map, you get a choice of
race and character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier,
and 13k on VIC-20. Now available for T199.
WIZARDS TOWER - This is very similar to Wizard, etc.). a chance to grow from game
Any Commodore 64.
Quest (see above). We added wizards. magic. to game, and a 15 page manual. 16k Ex-
dragons. and dungeons to come up with a $19.95 Tape - $24.95 Disk. tended TRS-SO Color. 13k V IC, Commo-
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k ESCAPE FROM MARS dore 64. At the normal price for an Adven-
extended color BASIC. 13k VIC. Commo- (by Rodger Olsen) ture ($19.95 tape, $24.95 diSk), this is a
dore 64, TRS-SO 16k Extended BASIC, This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED give-away.
T199/A extended BASIC. $19.95 Tape, PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian
Dealers - We have a line of about 100 origi-
$24.95 Disk. city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to
nal programs for the machines listed here.
survive this one. A good first adventure.
Authors - Aardvark pays the highest com- We have High speed Arcades, Ouality Ad-
missions in the industry and gives programs PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) ventures, Word processors and Business
the widest possible advertising coverage. This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. Software for Small machines. Better yet,
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of we have excellent Dealer support. Phone for
for our Authors Information Package. problems. Exciting and tough I information.

Send $1.00 for Complete Catalogue - Please specify system on all orders - $2.00 Shipping Charge on each order

• VI~. AARDVARK L.T.D.1-800-624-4327 .
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, MI48088 / (313) 669-3110 -"
, Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. I•
• •••••••• COntinued from page 72
Show us how you command your
3020 NEXTT
30413 PR I ~n II [DOWN J II TAB (29) II ~m EMPTY REeO
favorite computer game. We want 3050 FORJ=lT03000:NEXT
you to put your best effort on 3060 GOT04813
record in the COMMAND- 30713 REM
BOARD. To show the Com- 3080 REM******************************
modore world your best score 3090 REM* FILL IN EMPTY RECORDS *
send your entries to: 3100 REM******************************
3110 RE~l
P.O. Box 98827 PLACED INTO RECORD 1111
Tacoma, WA 98498 3130 PRINTTAB(22)
All entries must be received by the 3140 INPUTIINAMEII;N$
first of the month to be eligible for 31513 IFN$=IIEt~DIITHENI=0: GOT02613
the following month . :31613 I t~PUT II PHONE II ; P$
3170 PRItH
74,798 *
Darrell Eastman, Tacoma. WA 3190 PRINT
24,962 Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, 32013 INPUT"CORRECT (',.. OR N) [RIGHTJ [RIO
10,164,437 *
Richard Seemayer, Fresh 32213 DATAllJ(I+l)
Meadows, N.Y.
Darrell Eastman. Tacoma, WA
3230 PRI~n#ll t'~$
3240 DATA#lJ(I+1)/35
45.678 *
Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, CA
3250 PRINT#1JP$
3260 ER=1:GOT0780
65.425 *
Keith Floyd, Belt, MT 3270 REM
32813 REM******************************
33130 REM******************************
3310 REM
3330 PRHHTAB(31)"------11
Game 3340 PRINT
Enter your original II
Recreational Listings to 3370 PRINTTAB(31)II[REVJS[OFFJCAN[DOWNJ It


BII THEt~3320
( ) /I

Enter as many games as you

3410 PRINT
3420 IFA$=IINIITHE~nr1$=IINAr1EII: P=l : X=35: N=
like: Submit your game(s) on 1:00T03460
cassette tape or disk to 3430IFA$=IIPIITHENTM$=IIPHOHE :P=35:X=1:N II

Games, Commander Maga- =0: GOT03460

zine, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, 34413 IFA$=IISIITHEN377a
WA 98498. 345121 GOT026a To be continued on page 78

741Commander September 1983

Just released for the Commodore 64~ Also available - Surf, and Particle Beam War.
See your local dealer, or order direct from:

r;> ~ IA ~V®AA Software

1116-A 8th St.• Suite 155 • Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 • (213) 379-8686
Send Check or Money Order.
Specify Tape or Disk. Add $2.00 for shipping. Calif. residents add 6.5% tax.
JtJ Continued from page 74


This adapter w ill allow you to connect most any
audio tape recorder to the VIC-20. COM -64 or any
~ 3460 REM
Commodore comouter with a cassette interface.
Although tI1e VIAe is a low cost allernative 10 the
3470 REM*****************************
Oalasene. you may want a VIAe even if you already
own a Datasene because it can be a powerful
enhancemenl to your system provid ing new and
3490 REM*****************************
exciting capabilities.
• Make backup copies of any tape direc tly with 3500 REM
another cassette that w ill be compatabte with the
Dalasene due 10 our untque polarity switching 3510 PRINT"CDOWNJ"TM$;
fealu re.
• rd verba l rema rk s direcUy on program tape 3520 INPUTRS$
and playback under program contro l.
• Has aud io earpho ne jack and LED data Indicator. 3530 FORT=2TONR+l
• Can be used as an externa l contro li er lor lo w
vo ltage / current switching applicati Ons. 3540 DATA#ll(T»)(P)
Emulates all lhe leatures of the Oatasene but C3n
do so mu c h more! You can pay more or less for 3550 INPUT#lIPR$
other cassene adapters but you can not buy
another unit w ith all the fealuresa nd capabili ties of
3560 IFPR$=RS$THENO=T:T=NR+1000
the VIAC. Full money ba ck guarantee if not
completely satisfied. The VIAC is only available lui·
3570 1=1+1
Iy assembled for $44.95.
3580 NEXTT
Provides easy access to Video / Aud io Din Jac k of
3590 IFT=NR+2THEN1620
the VIC-20. COM-64. TI99 / 4 and Alan 800 even
w ith 1V modulator plugged In.
3600 DATA#ll(G)I(X)
• Record & playback audi o/ video directly from
computer to external audi o or video recorder.
3610 INPUT#lIPN$
• Provide easy connec 1io n to monitor w ith
standard RCA plugs eliminatin g need lor ex -
pensive video adapter cable. 3630 PRINTTAB(3l)" 11
• When used In conjun c tion with th e VIAe. you
can playba ck yo ur own voice recorded on your
program tapes throug h the TV spe~ker .
You Will lind many more innovallve appl icat ions 3650 PRINTPNSTAB(30)PR$
for th is versatile device.
The VAAB i. only S24.95, KH: SI 5.95, Plan. only: 3660 PRINT
S5.95. Combo Special VIAC/VAAB S64.95
Include $2.50 Sh ipping per order. Chec k, M oney 3670 INPUT"EDIT THIS RECORDCRIGHTJCRIGH
Order, COD (+2.00), Visa / MC (+4%), Calil (+6% lax)
(714) 641-0181
Deater InqU iries InVited
3680 I FERS() If THEN I =0 : 00T03320
Circle No. 87
3700 IFER$()IY"THENI=0:GOT03320
3710 OOT03990
OWNERS ONLY 3730 REM*****************************
-SHARE-LEARN-ENJOY- 3750 REM*****************************
3760 RE~1

• Monthly Newsletter 3780 FORT=2TONR+l

• Public Domain Software
• Reports of Recent 64 Articles 3790 DATA#ll(T)
• Local Chapter Meetings 3800 INPUT#lINS
• Product Discounts 3810IFH'=CHR$(1)THENT=T+l:I=I+l:GOT037
• Service Advice 90
• BI-Monthly Magazine 3820 DATA#11(T)135
• Advice on Training
• Annual Convention
3830 INPUTlllPS
• Member Bulletin Board 3840 1=1+1
phone no. and annual )[RIGHTJNCLEFTJCLEFTJCLEFT)";ER$
dues ($25) to: 3870 I FER$() II 'Tl II THEN3900
The Commodore 64 Users Group
Suite 100, Corporate West
4200 Commerce Court
Lisle, Illinois 60532
Or Call:
(312) 369-6525 (Weekdays
9:00am-5:00pm-Central Time)


"An Independent not-tor-proflt org8nlzetlon".
Circle NO. 8

76/Commander September 1983

-- --------------------------------------------------------------

c~ commodore
LEFT][LEFT][LEFTJ"iER$ Richardson Texas 75081
3890 IFER$="'r'''THEtH=t~R+1000: 00T03990 TO ORDER CALL (214)
3900 PRIt~TDW$: PRItHSP$: PRINT" [UP] [UP]" : 231-2645 UN TEXASI
t·4EXTT 800-527-1738 [OUTSIOE TEXASI
3910 IFT=t~R+2THENPRItHTAB(31) "END OF FI MasterCard & Visa accepted
LEI! add 3% surcharge for credit cards
3920 FORJ=1T02000:NEXT: F.O B . Dallas . Texas

3930 I=0:GOT03320 930 a.m. - 630 pm (m-f)

1030 a m. - 230 p m sat
3940 REt'1
3950 REM***************************** COMM0l10RE COMPUTERS
3960 REM* EDIT RECORD * B-500-128k $777.20
PET 64 $627.50
3970 REM***************************** 8032 $627.50
3980 RE~1 8096 $876.25
3990 INPUT" NAME j t~$ II 9000 Super Pet $1071.25
4000 I FN$= II Et~D THEN I =0 : GOT03320
II c-64 $233.00
4010 I t~PUT II PHONE i P$ II
Executive 64 portable CALL
4030 I t·4PUT "CORRECT ('r' OR N) [R I GHT ] [ RI GH 1541 (170k) $250.50
T]'T'[LEFT] [LEFT] [LEFT] II i C$ 2031 $311.00
4040 I FC$() 1I'r''' THEt~ I =0 : GOT03320 4040
$981 .90
4050 PRINTTAB(31) IIRECOF~D UPDATED" 8250 (2mg) $1226.50
4060 FORJ=1T02000:NEXTJ 9060 hard disk (5mg) $2040.00
4070 DATA#1J(I+1) 9090 hard disk (7 .5mg) $2290.00
4090 DATA#1,(I+1),35 1525 (30cps) $238.75
4100 PR1NT#L P$ 1526 (100cps) $343.95
4110 1=0:GOT03320 4023 CBM (1 OOcps) $330.95
4120 REM 8023
daisy wheel CBM
4130 REM******************************
4140 REM* READ IN RECORDS FOR SORT * newl 1520 plotter printer


4150 REM****************************** PERIPHERALS

4160 RE~1
4170 PR ItH II [CLEARl II : PRINTTAB(32) [UP] (U
II 1701 color monitor $249.95
c1600 modem $59.30
P][REVlREADING FILE[OFF]II c1650 automatic modem $94.50
4180 C=1 :FORT=2TONR+1 Datasette 1530 $58.50
4190 DATA#L (T) CBM 64k memory board $246.95
4200 INPUTI1,N$:S1$(C)=N$ Super Pet upgrade board
Cables PET -IEEE
4210 IFN$=CHR$(1)THENPR1NTTAB(20)"RECOR Cables IEEE-IEEE $42.95
D I" 1+1" Et1PT'r''': E~1=1 : T=NR+1000: GOT04240
4240 I=I+l:C=C+l Word pro4 t or 5; $305.00
Visicalc (Expanded)
4250 NEXTT BPI GIL AIR AlP Inv. etc
$320 ea.
4260 N=0:I=0:K=0 MANAGER (database) $195.00
FF]II Easy mail
Wordlname machine
Logo $99.95
Pilot $99.95 q

To be continued on page 80 Music machine $29.95 z
Music composer $29.95 Ii'"
Continued from page 77

4280 IFEMTHENEM=0:GOT01560
4290 REM
4300 REM******************************
4320 REM******************************
4330 RE~1



4360 FORJ=1TOC-1
4370 FORK=J+1TOC
4380 IFS1S(J){S1$(K)GOT04420
4390 T1$=S1$(J):T2$=S2$(J):REM SAVE TWO
4400 S1$(J)=S1$(K):S2$(J)=S2$(K): REM S
4410 S1$(K)=Tl$ :S2$(K)=T2$: REM RESTORE
4420 NEXTK
443121 PR ItH j : t·~E~-<T J : K=0
II _ "

4440 REt'1
4450 REM*******************************
4470 REM*******************************
4480 REM
4500 FORT=2TONR+1
4510 DATA#L (T)
4520 PRINT#1JS1$(T-1)
4530 DAT.A#1J(T)135
4540 PRINT#1JS2$(T-1)
4550 NEXTT
4560 PR I NTTAB (21 ) [Dm~N J [DOWN J [REV J-ECO


t~ J "
4570 00T01560

aD/Commander September 1983

We couldn't either. At least, not until 1978 when we
began connecting RS-232 devices to IEEE-488
computers with our family of serial interfaces. Three
units available for use with Commodore's PET/CBM,
the HP-85, Osborne-1 and others , plus our auto-
answer/auto-dial 103 Modem, automatic calling unit
(Operator) , and data communications software. All with
cabinet, one-year warranty, documentation. Priced
from $129-389. Details from George Masters:

Depl. c.. 3444 Hancock SI., San Diego, CA 92110

(6 19) 296-2 115' TWX 910-335-1194
VISNMasterCard • Dealer Inquiries Welcome

Circle No. 93 Circle No. 73


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TO ORDER PHONE C.O.D. Orders add $3.00


6831 West 157th Street Tinley Park, Illinois 60477
(312) 429-1915 Circle No . 70
• " • t '
., ,:iUIl'1-.
Commander September 1983/81
Memorial light is on (the power indicator), is InCidentally, I have one of the
We at Commander would like badly written throughout and latest mother boards that has
to dedicate our September issue ends with contradictory descrip- holes for one or two (future?)
to the memory of Mr. Neil tions of the directory header lay- chips so I am sure the "white
Omvedt. Neil was one of our first out. flashes" are not restricted only to
writers on staff and made many My advice is to read all of the older boards.
valuable contributions to Com- user submitted articles you can Sincerely, Toshiro KatsuraD
mander Magazine. His experience get your hands on, starting with Dear Editor,
and knowledge will be missed by "So You Bought a Disk Drive!?" In your June issue, two letters
many. To save some confusion, al- were published stating that my
1541 Disk Drive though the article mentioned the problem with white flashes on the
Dear Sir: ability to perform a directory com- C-64 screen should be referred
The article in your July 1983 mand with only "$" or "$0", I've back to the dealer. I did just that
issue (page 40) about the Com- found that, at least with the 64, I and was given a new C-64, pre-
modore 1540/1541 disk drive writ- must prefix it with the ">" or the tested by the dealer in 5 days.
ten by R. G. Partner of Federal "@". Also the article states that There was no exchange fee of any
Way, Washington was well writ- in loading a machine code pro- sort-just sympathy and prompt
ten and very welcome reading gram at its original address, one handling of the problem.
material for a lot of us frustrated must use the LOAD "program My dealer was Professional
name",8,1 command. USing "@" Micro Service of Baltimore, MD,
owners. I hope that the expres-
or" %" will perform the function who also introduced me to Com-
sion of possible follow-on articles
nicely, e.g., %program name. mander Magazine.
comes true. Thank you!
I have been using the 1541 with While that command may be used
Vincent J. Mooney, Jr.
my Commodore 64 constantly with the DOS shorthand, I have
not found an equivalent for Recorded Phone Messages
since the beginning of the year Give VlC-20 Advice
and am quite pleased with it. VERIFY "program name",8. You can get help for your Commodore
Your readers should be aware Sincerely, VIC-20 by dialing a series of recorded
that the Commodore 1541 User's David Campbell 0 voice messages at (206) 935-7032. Twenty
different messages are available. Each
Manual ranks as one of the worst White Flashes time you hang up and redial you get a dif-
computer technical publications I Dear Commander, ferent message. In addition, the entire
have seen. It is full of typos, er- In regards to the "white flash- series Is changed every week.
rors and just plain confusion. My In addition to advice, space Is available
es" in the C-64, I found the for your own personal messages on this
recommendation is that it be read answer to my problem in the hotline. If you have a Computer product or
for some rather good ideas but schematic of the Programmer's service to sell, mall a cassette recording
that it should be taken with a Guide. After studying the video of your own message to Gazaway, VIC-20
grain of salt. It starts in the begin- circuit, I bought a 220 pf capacitor Computer Club, 7906 34th Ave. S. W., Seat-
tle, WA 98126 and the club will try to in-
ning of the manual with the state- from Radio Shack (2/39¢) and in- clude your message on the recorded
ment that one should never serted it. My "white flashes" are message hotline. There is no charge for
remove the disk when the green gone forever. this service. 0
82Jcommander September 1983 '
MicroComputers: How They Will
Affect Our Homes Today
And In the Future
by Arthur J. Dudley

With the advent of the micro- make learning less tedious and Data Retrieval
processor, we have been thrust more enjoyable. In addition, the Huge integrated data bases
into a technological revolution. teacher's needs are also the con- and artificial intelligence (a pro-
Within the next few years, we will cern of software developers. cess by which computers will
witness advances in the micro- Teachers will be able to purchase simulate human reasoning) are
computing industry which will software packages which will around the corner. These two
Significantly affect not only our assist them in areas of exam areas are receiving large amounts
work environment but our lives at preparation, student evaluation, of attention from computer spe-
home. I believe computers will and curriculum development all cialists and government officials.
cause significant changes in at a touch of a few buttons. One reason for their interest is
three general areas relating to the the realization that the Japanese
home environment. They are 1) If you have children and are are also making significant gains
education, 2) data retrieval, and 3) wondering what to do with your in the same two areas. The in-
financial transactions. Commodore computer, the an- volvement of the Japanese and
Current predictions forecast swer is simple. Use it as a learn- United States in computer
that by 1985, approximately 85% ing tool. For some strange and in- technology fu rther demonstrates
of the homeowners will own explicable reason, the younger the intense competition charac-
some brand of microcomputer. generation seems to have a teristic of the computer industry.
Using price and product quality strong affinity for the computer. Integrated data bases and arti-
as a basis, it seems highly pro- They can relate to it, they accept ficial intelligence will affect our
bable that this prediction will it, and by all means they will use lives in many ways. To name a
come true. Prices are dropping at it. So as a parent, here is your few ...
a staggering rate with little or no chance to teach your child
without all the pain and anguish. 1) We will be able to research
sacrifice in quality. Hardware and
One word of caution. Before you topics and collect data at our
software companies are coming
purchase educational software, home in a matter of minutes. No
into being on a daily basis, and
gather all the information you can longer will visiting the library and
many are meeting with success. searching through endless card
This demonstrates a truly com- on the product to insure it meets
your needs. This rule of thumb files be necessary.
petitive market; a market that will 2) High level programming lan-
continue to grow and prosper in should be applied to all your soft-
ware purchases whether for per- guages based on our own English
the years to come.
sonal or business applications. language will be available. Users
Education will not have to learn how to pro-
Microcomputers will continue We are gOing to see the day gram to develop custom applica-
to playa major role in education, when a student can take an exam, tions; all that will be necessary is
both in school and at home. Soft- research a term paper, or attend literally to tell the computer what
ware presently on the market will class in the comfort of his home. is needed in everyday ter-
Commander September 1983/83
minology and the program will be marily because of cost. A conver- 4. Sophisticated and effective
created automatically. sion from our present system to a financial management packages
3) We will see advanced speech computerized system will be will be made available to help the
understanding systems. This in- done gradually over a period of consumer stay within their bud-
cludes voice input, speaker iden- time. get.
tification, and speech response. Let us take a look at some of 5. Businesses will not lose
The keyboard will become obso- the advantages and disadvan- money because of bad credit, bad
lete. tages of "electronic money". checks, or non payment of bills.
4) Applied picture and image Disadvantages: 6. Consumers will not have to
understanding systems will be 1. Since all transactions will be be concerned with the payment of
available. We will be able to store done electronically, access to our bills-this will be done auto-
and retrieve images of three financial affairs can be more easi- matically.
dimensional objects with a com- ly obtained by individuals or With any newfound concept or
puterized system. organizations. Regulations will idea, there are advantages and
5) Access to an endless wealth need to be established defining disadvantages. From an overall
of information such as travel in- guidelines and restrictions, but standpoint, computers do pose
formation , federal and local news, consumers will still experience a problems. But their ability to help
weather reports, sports informa- loss of privacy from a financial with everyday tasks and make
tion, job opportunities, scientific perspective. lives easier far outweigh any
data .. . Newspapers as we know 2. Sophisticated computerized disadvantages. A computer is a
them today will become a thing of fraud is extremely difficult to tool, a bit complex maybe, but
the past. detect. Complex computer sys- still a tool. As long as it is
When will all this come into tems will be understood only by a remembered that we are the con-
play? It is happening now. There few; therefore, crimes dealing trolling force, problems will be
are services currently available with money transactions will be minimized and our living stan-
such as CompuServe, Omnet, committed only by a few of those dards will be improved. If you
NewsNet, Dow Jones News/Ret- individuals who understand the have just purchased a Commo-
rieval Service .. . that allow us ac- system. The Federal Government dore computer, you will soon
cess to large data bases for a realizes the significance of this realize its applications are end-
reasonable fee. Even as impres- problem and is currently taking less, and as a result, life a little
sive as these services are, they positive steps towards its preven- easier. 0
are still in their infancy. I believe
by the late 1990's we will reach a
stage that accessing huge data
3. Detecting and correcting IntelUgent Software For
transaction errors may be dif-
bases will be as common place as ficult. This is evident in our pre-
Commodore Computers
using the telephone is today. Fur- sent day systems. However, with Copycalc Is an affordable electronic
thermore, as telecommunication spread·sheet which tums your video screen
proper planning and systems Into a window on a matrix of numbers, Cur·
methods improve and as com- design , this can be avoided. sor around the matrix. enter numbers; t!'1e
puters become more common in 4. Since all transactions will be totals reflect the changes , You can save the
the home, a gradual shift in the matrix to disk or tape. or print It or your
recorded, we may lose more pri- printer. For 520 (515 with another program),
workplace will occur. Profes- vacy than realized. You can gain this program might justify the cost of your
sionals will be able to perform large amounts of information on computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version
available for a standard VIC.
their routine and everyday tasks an individual by knowing what Word ProcNIOr Plua was not designed
at the breakfast table via their ter- he/she purchases. Strict federal to be an expensive toy; It was designed
minal. As a result, we as a society solely to facilitate, correspondence. for a
controls must be established on wide range of personal and business uses.
will have greater flexibility, will this matter. quickly and easily, wtth a minimum of train-
become more efficient, and will Ing and frustration on the port of Its user,
be able to accomplish a great Advantages and at the least possible cost. both In hard-
ware and software. The most thoroughly
deal more in our profession and 1. Since paper money will tested. useable word processor available
daily activities. become obsolete and products at anywhere near the price, 525; 10k RAM,
coded, theft, robbery, and burg- printer req'd.; RS-232C version available for
Financial Transactions lary will be reduced considerably.
VIC and 64.
Also available: Bo.. ball Manager. a
Of all the various computer ap- 2. Federal and local lawen- sports-documentat1on program; ancllnven-
plications, this is the most con- forcement agencies will easily be tory. a perpetual Inventory control program
for a small retail business (various reports,
troversial. Imagine a society in able to apprehend fugitives by multiple vendors); 530 each; 10k RAM
which all transactions are done gaining access to their com- req'd., printer suggested.
electronically without the need All programs will ·Ioad and run on any
puterized transaction records. Commodore computer; all support tape,
for paper money and checks. To 3. Consumers will be able to disk, and printer.
some people this is disturbing; to obtain loans faster and easier. Prices Include documentation and ship-
ping; Collf. residents add 6% , Please
others, a convenience. This ap- Major purchases such as buying a specify hardware configuration when
plication is downstream a bit , not car or home could be accomplish- ordering. Sorry, no games available,
because of technology but pri- WIIam IObblna, lox 3746. san 1IOfaeI. CA 9.9i2
ed in a fraction of the time.
Coccle No , 2 1
84/Commande r Se ptember 1983
- - - - - - - - - -- - -

~e1ieve it or not...
GOLDEN ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS - for the Commodore 8032

Start with one Commodore 8032, one 8050 disk drive, and one
printer, and grow to sixteen Computers, six floppy or
winchester (mix or match) disk drives, and two printers.

• 99 locations (or funds) Corporate & Funded Versions

General ledger
• 99 departments Accounts Receivable
12 digit account numbers Accounts Payable
• No account predefined Purchase Order
• Open year accounting system Utility Billing
• Full year detail may be on line Corporate only
Full detail postings Inventory (lot based)
Point of Sale
• ~ll modules interlock Client Write up
• All files user defined Job Costing
Time Account i ng
• Fill in the blanks screens Route Sales Inventory
• Operator instructions on screen
• On screen curser control B.E.B. Systems, Inc.
• Job Queing 11430 Bissonnet, C-7
• Output spooling Houston Texas, 77099
713 - 530 - 2515
Dealprs inquiries invited
by Eric Giguere
Part IX

In many ways an assembly lan- Uses of Subroutines table at the top of memory in all
guage program may resemble a When is a subroutine useful? Commodore machines that ac-
BASIC program. ' Probably the Usually when a routine is ex- cesses certain functions in the
most prevalent is their use of ecuted more than once or twice. computers, mostly input/output.
subroutines. Subroutines are fre- At this time it may be advan- A JSR to any of these locations
quently used blocks of code set tageous to move the routine will execute that function and
off from and called by the main somewhere else in memory and then return to the calling pro-
code of the program. When it is call it as a subroutine. For exam- gram . For example, one of the
finished executing it returns to ple, say you wanted to display the most used rbutines is the one at
the part of the program that called message "Hit any Key to Con- $FFD2 (65490 decimal). This
it. Subroutines are used to save tinue" on the screen and wait for routine prints the ASCII value of
memory and clarify the program . the user to hit a key. If you didn't the accumulator to the screen at
In BASIC a subroutine is called by use a subroutine you might end the present cursor location. This
the instruction GOSUB (for GOto up with a couple of hundred bytes means that if the accumulator
SUBroutine) and a line number. In of identical code spread through- holds $41 (65) and you do a JSR
assembly language it is called by out the program. Executing it as a $FFD2 the character 'A' will be
the instruction subroutine saves memory and printed to the screen, just as if
JSR address makes your program more effi- you did a PRINT ASC(65) from
JSR stands for Jump to Subrou- cient. Each time you needed the BASIC. All of these locations are
tine and 'address' represents the message displayed you simply the same in every Commodore
memory location the subroutine use a JSR to the proper location . computer to provide compatibility
starts at. Upon encountering the It sure saves a lot of hassle. between machines. Several of the
JSR the computer would start ex- Subroutines may also call other most useful routines you can call
ecuting the code at 'address' until subroutines to execute other are:
it was told to return to where it functions. Our previous example CHROUT ($FFD2)-outputs the
came from . In BASIC we use the of a message-displaying subrou- ASCII value of the accumulator to
statement RETURN whereas tine could perhaps call another the screen
assembly language uses subroutine to display the CLOSE ($FFC3)-close a
RTS message and would only do the specified logical file (number of
or Return from Subroutine . This is other half itself (wait for a key to file in accumulator,)
basically all you need to know on be pressed). It's all up to the pro- GETIN ($FFE4)-get the next
how to call and return from a grammer to decide how the sub- character in the keyboard buffer
subroutine-just use a JSR and routines should work. OPEN ($FFCO)-open a logical
end the subroutine with an RTS. The KERNAL file
Let's explore some uses for No, we're not talking about READST ($FFB7)-read the
subroutines. fried chicken. The K~RNAL is a status variable ST
Commander September 1963187
STOP ($FFE1)-check to see if sage. How would you accomplish The stack pOinter is a register
STOP key is pressed this? Try and figure out a way, used by the computer to point to
There are a whole bunch more then examine the following exam- the next free memory location on
. routines but these require detail- ple: the stack. Strangely enough, the
ed explanations (check the VIC-20 PRM ESG LOX #0 stack starts at $01 FF and goes
or C64 Programmer's Reference N EXT LOA M ESSG E,X down to $0100. This means that
Guide). The routines given above BEQ EXIT any data placed on the stack is
are the most common. PRINT JSR CHROUT placed beginning at the top ?f
Examples of Subroutines ;CHROUT = $FFD2 page 1 and going down. For thiS
Let's say we wanted to keep a INX reason incrementing the stack
numeric counter of some kind in JMP NEXT pOinter decreases the amount of
memory-we won't define any EXIT RTS information on the stack (see
specific use for it. We could code figure 1). Decrementing the
it as such: MESSGE ACS 'HIT ANY KEY pointer actually adds to the data
INCR INC COUNTR TO CONTINUE' already on the stack. This is a fact
BNE EXIT BYT 0 . you cannot forget when dealing
This example might seem a trifle with the stack.
complicated but it does work. To know where to return after a
PRM ESG is the start of the sub- JSR statement the computer
In this subroutine COUNTR is the
routine and here we initialize the uses the stack in this way: it
low byte of the counter and
X-register by loading it with zero. places its present location in
COUNTR + 1 is the high byte. A
N EXT gets the next character memory plus 2 (to point to the
JSR to INCR would increase the
from location MESSGE plus the next instruction following the
low byte by one. It would then
X-register. If the character is zero JSR) onto the stack and then
check to see if the byte has rolled
the subroutine returns via EXIT. jumps to the subroutine. Upon
over to zero. If it isn 't zero yet it
Otherwise the character is sent to hitting an RTS it takes the loca-
simply branches to the RTS
CHROUT which prints it to the tion back off the stack and starts
which returns the computer to the
screen. After returning from this execution from there. It's not too
main program. But if COUNTR
subroutine we increment the complicated when you think
has rolled over this means that we
X-register to point it to the next about it.
should also add one to the high
character and JuMP (go) to NEXT
byte, lest our counter be inac- PHA and PLA
to continue until we reach a zero.
curate. The INC COl,JNTR + 1 ac- Remember I said the stack was
This routine shows some of the
complishes this. It then returns to a temporary storage area. We can
advantages of using the KERNAL
the calling program . Nothing place and retrieve information on
table at the top of memory. Again,
spectacular about this code, but it in the same manner the
another useful application for a
it does the job. JSR/RTS pair does. The two in-
You've probably noticed the structions to accomplish this are
The Stack
three labels in our example. INCR Remember back in February PHA (Push Accumulator onto
is the entry point of the sub- when we talked about registers stack) and PLA (Pull contents of
routine and EXIT indicates the ex- and I mentioned something call- Accumulator from staCk). PHA
it point. But what is INCRHI there ed the stack? I skimmed the sub- will place the current value of the
for? Suppose we suddenly ject because it was over our accumulator onto the next
wanted to increase our counter by heads, unnecessary at the time. available stack location. PLA
256. We could call INCR 256 But in reality it is a very useful does the opposite, retrieving that
times OR we could Simply call IN- part of the computer. Think about value and placing it back into the
CRHI instead of INCR. INCRHI this: how does the computer accumulator. These instructions
would automatically increment know where to return to after ex- are needed only when you have to
the high byte by one and return . ecuting a subroutine and encoun- store data temporarily. But care
Each increment of the high byte tering an RTS? That information must be taken when using them.
adds 256 to the whole counter has to be kept somewhere. This is If you don't push or pull the cor-
(remember our discussions about what the stack is for. It serves as rect amount of bytes off the stack
high and low bytes?). This shows a temporary storage area for the you could cause havoc when the
us that a subroutine does not computer. It is always located on computer encounters an RTS. Ex-
need to be called from its beginn- page 1 ($0100-$01FF) of memory, ample:
ing. You can jump only to what- so never place any data here SUBRTN PHA
ever part of the subroutine you unless you're absolutely sure of PHA
need. what you are dOing, because you
Another example would be a could mess things up pretty bad-
subroutine to print out a mes- ly. PLA
88/Commander September 1983 RTS
the Financial Assistant

Any home finance package will allow you to balance your checkbook. To be better than other packages
you must have something special.

The Financial Assistant does. It allows you to print not only a net worth but also a personalized finance
statement. This allows you to know exactly where you stand financially everyday of the year. Not only that,
The Financial Assistant allows you to catagorize every transaction . I magi ne sitting down to do your taxes
and havin g every pen ny you've earned and spent listed neatly by catagory. What an incredi ble time-saver.

Wait , there's more!

Lets say you write a check to pay your MasterCharge. The financial Assistant automatically decreases
your checking account and decreases the amount you owe to MasterCharge.

Here are a few of the many features of The Financial Assistant

1 ... 3200 entries per diskette 5 ... searching on any field for an entry
2 ... 100 Catagory titles (user definable) 6 ... sorting on any field of data
3 ... 50 Account titles (user definable) 7 ... continuous search and print option
4 ... customized printouts 8 ... supports a wide variety of printers

All documentation, and program are packaged in a three-ring binder for easy storage, and the media is
guaranteed for life . Check into the Financial Assistant soon . You will find it does a lot more than simply
manage money.

It manages your money simply

Commodore 64 diskette $49.95

Also available are:

The Smartslot - the intelligent expansion bus for the 64 $ 99 .95

The Autoclock - the intelligent controller for the 64 and VIC-20 $129.95
Moses - the assembler of the ages for the 64 on disk $ 39.95
Cyberworld - the newest in adventure arcade games for the 64 on disk $ 49.95

GALACTIC SOFTWARE • P.O . Box10516. SanJose,CA95157. (408)247-4434

Circle No. 18
Register onto the stack. Caution

RTS then the high byte of the correct
If you call SUBRTN via a JSR it location, effectively sending it should again be used with these.
will execute normally but the RTS where it shouldn't go. Caution is Next Month
won 't jump back to the proper needed here. Next month we're taking a look
location in memory. Why? Be- PHP and PLP at the masking instructions-
cause we did two PHA's but in the These two instructions are AND, EOR and ORA . Until then
end we only did one PLA. When identical to PHA and PLA except have fun applying what you learn-
the RTS is encountered the com- that they push or pull the Status ed today in your own programs. D
puter will first see your value and

~ ~ by

2.1 ~


NEW FOR VIC-20, C64, PET/CBM Figure 1: The Stack
FLEX FILE 2.1 is the lost versatile and powerful ca!cu- add to stack:
lating data-base lanager and report writer you can get
for the VIC-20. It perlits up to 3800 short records $01FF ~....",.......".
per disk, up to 1000 if record is less than 128 charac-
ters. Records are autolatically ordered by as lany as $01FF
Stack pointer
lany as 10 keys Nhich can be nested 5 deep. Record 01 FE
search tile is 3 seconds or less by any key. ~uItiple $FE $01FE $FE
select ion by all fields with 9 tests. 5upp~rts all lath 01FD
functions, subtotals, averages! ratios, bargraphs. Has $01FD
extensive control over report printout: rounding, just- $FD
ification, printer cOlllands, pagination, headers; lIail $01FC
labels to your forlat. Frol the laster randol file
you can create, or load irol, sequential files.
$110. 00 + t3.50 S~H.
Dealer enquiries invited. $0100
By C. 5. Webber. Teaches progralling on all COllodore
co'puters. 8.5 X II", 90 PPM SI4.~S postpaid. taking from stack is
the exact oppOSite
BOX 9, Southeastern PA 19399
(215) 687-5607 Circle No. 74

A publication that shares your
enthusiasm for the V1C-20. *
Published every two weeks for
$12 per year, JOURNAL/20 has
up-to-date news, reviews, and
practical tips on hardware and
software. Send check or money-
order to:
PO Box 1149
Van Alstyne, TX 75095

90/Commander September 1963

--------- - --- . ~ ~- -- - - ----..,

Write For FREE Catalog NEW

PARATROOPER a High Resolution game that doesn't let you make any
mistakes. You are in your command. Helicopters fill the sky, (and we mean fill Let the COMPVTERMA T
the sky!), dropping paratroopers. Your mission is to keep 3 paratroopers from turn your 64 into a home arcade!
hitting the ground on either side of your gun. But that's just the beginning. You
score by hitting the helicopters or the paratroopers, but if you miss a shot it
subtracts from your score. Therefore, you must make every shot count to COLOR. GRAPHICS. SOUND
TIiE BEST PLAYER. The High Resolution graphics helicoptors are fantastic.
They look exactly like helicopters! The paratroopers are super realistic. Their (Disk Versions Available - Add $5.(0)
chutes open and then they drift down to earth. It this weren't enough the ARCADE PAK - $24. 95 EDUCATION PAK - $24.95
sounds are fantastic. There are helicopter blades whirring and you can hear the
howitzer pumping shells. This game really show off the sound and graphic 3 Programs 4 Programs
capabilities of your VlC. PARATROOPER IS OUR #1 SELUNG ARCADE Head On Geography Match
GAME, you've got to see this game to believe it. $19.95 Alien Invasion Math Adventure
SPACE PAK Can you survive? 3 space games with the sights and sounds of
an arcade. The excitement builds as the action is un· ending. IBlast away at Target Command Ruler & Micro
everything in sight. The alien attacks will stop at nothing to destroy you.
Prepare for battle, there is no escape, only you can help. Can you survive? Hi-
Res, color, graphics and sound. Joystick or keyboard. 3 Games - Rocket
TREASURE PAK - $14.95 GAME PAK - $14.95
Race, Fence·A-Tron and Raiders. $19.95 3 Programs 3 Programs
COSMIC CRUZER Hot action and 3 challenging scenarios. Move your Adventure Dragon Chase
cruzer into the tunnel· fire missiles and drop bombs. Hit the fuel dumps to get
more fuel. Move as quick as you dare to hit the surface·to·air missiles. It you are Caves of Silver Deflect
good enough you will make it to the asteroidz field and then try to destroy the Shuttle Voyage Flip It
base. No one has destroyed the base yet. Will you be the first. $19.95
Joystick and Keyboard versions included.
VIC ALL STARS We took the best selling VlC programs and put them in a
package to save you $35. It purchased seperately it would cost you $85. You get
Paratrooper, Target Command, Head On, Cattle Round-up, Snake
Out, Trapper, Double Snake Out and Artillery. All eight games for $49.95. Box 1664 • Dept. M • Lake Havasu City, Az. 86403
Hurry because at this price they won't last long. Limited quantity. 8 (602) 855-3357

Commander September 1983/91

by Arthur J. Dudley

The listed program will demon- crement by five minutes. If the be based on 1/12th of an hour (Le.
strate some of the strengths and SPACE BAR is held down, the 1 :00, 4:50, 12:05, 4:35, 6:30,
weaknesses of the Super Ex- hands will continue to rotate until 7:25 ... )
pander cartridge and at the same the SPACE BAR is released. ·7· END This will end the pro-
time help teach first and second DRILLS Times will be selected gram.
graders how to tell time. If you do at random and displayed on the
not have a Super Expander cart- clock face. The operator will then
enter the time he feels is
1. To enter a section, enter the
ridge and are interested in runn-
displayed on the clock in the appropriate SECTION NUMBER
ing this program, try borrowing
same fashion as in section one. If and press RETURN.
one from a friend. It may prove
2. To exit a section and return
worthwhile. the entered time is correct, an
to the menu, press an X (no need
Instructions alarm will sound with the entered
to hit retu rn).
time displayed in the upper right
The first display you will see 3. When exiting a problem sec-
hand corner. A new problem will
after entering RUN is a user tion, the number of problems
then be displayed. If the entered
menu. Below is a breakdown of answered correctly and incorrect-
time is incorrect, a buzzer will
each section: ly will be displayed prior to return-
sound. You have one more
·1· SELECT The clock will in- ing to the menu.
chance to answer correctly
d icate any time you input as long 4. All entered times must be
before the correct time is dis-
as it is an increment of five (Le. four characters long and be in-
played in digital format. Even
1:05,12:05,10:15,3:45 ... ). Times crements of five. If this format is
after the correct time is
such as 1:03, 3:42, 12:06, etc., can- not followed the program will not
displayed, it must be entered via
not be entered. After the entry is accept your entry.
keyboard for the program to con-
made, there is no need to hit 5. The dot below the digital
tinue. The four problem sections
RETURN; however, each entry time in the upper right hand cor-
are as follows:
must be four characters long. If ner is a place keeper. Since you
the time consists of three digits, ·3· HR Times displayed will be cannot see your entered time un-
the first must be a SPACE. For ex- based on the hour (Le. 1:00, 3:00, til after all four characters are
ampl1e: To enter 1:15, press 12:00, 4:00 ... ) entered, this is a handy way of
SPACE, 1, 1, and 5 (Do not enter ·4· 1/2 HR Times displayed will keeping track of where you are .
the colon). After you have made be based on the half-hour (Le. The following is a guide you
your entries the correct time will 1 :00, 3:30, 4:00, 5:30 ... ) may follow to teach your child to
be displayed in the upper right ·5· 114 HR Times displayed will tell time. Remember, progress to
hand corner of the screen. be based on the quarter-hour (Le. higher levels only after the child
·2· BY 5 Each time the SPACE 1:00, 2:45, 3:15, 5:30 ... ) becomes proficient at the current
BAR is pressed the clock will in- ·6· 5 MIN Times displayed will level.
921Commander September 1983
VIC 20 Printers/Etc. COMMODORE
1541 DISK DRIVE ......... $239
1701 Color Monllor .. S255 1530 Roeord.r ... .... S59
GEMINI10X .. 5289
GORILLA .... 5199
1"'., CBM 64 .......... CALL
1525 Printer ....... S239 1600 Modlm ..... ... S59
' - . 1541 DISK DRIVE . . . $239
152DColorPlr ...... S159 1550Au'oModim . S158 Prowrller . . . $359 QUME '1/40 + . . $1299 1701 Color Monhor . S255 1530 Rtcordlr . S59
Has card .. ... . ..... S23 Mlcrolak 15K Ram . S82 Prowrlter II ... $639 OKI·DATA 1525 Printlr ...... . S239 1600 Modlm .. . S59
HIS Sound Box . . S13 UMI3K Ram .. S55 Starwriler . . . . . $1149 MicroHne82A · $398
Printmasler ...... . $1448 MicrolineB3A ... $638 1520 Color PI< .. .. S159 1550 Auto Modlm . S158
Data 20 Exp. Chassis ' . S55
NEe Microllne 8'P · $958 Card? (Infe) . S50 CMB til Rlf GuidI ..... S18
8023 A·C $409 Microline 92 ,, ' $488 Llghl Pon .. S29 Tho Conneedon (Infe) .. $85
3510 . . ........ ... $1375 Microline93 · S658 C....n.,nfe . . .... S29 MSD DI.k Drive .. .. . $339
3530 . .. $1579 DIABLO
Large Selection 3550 .....
7710r7730 .
620R " " " " .. S939
630A . . ... $1719
Cord? Softwar. . .... S15 PTI45lolBOIrd . .. S59

of Vic 20 Software MONITORS Large Selection of


at Great Prices! Color I

V300 .
" " .. $289
" ... $139
GAN (JBI260) . $115
GAN (JBI201) .... $155
64 Software at
..... $149
. .. $449
Color Composite . $298
ROB Color . . $598 Gteat Prices
Smanmodem 1200 $498
J·Cal . $99 64 SOFTWARE 64
NumberGulper(C) ' . . $17
NumberChasef(C) " . $17
Prof. Word . Proc . . $48
Micromodem II . 5259 ~~6'~~ ~at, 1,1 ::" .. :~;~ ACCESS SOFTWARE
Neulral Zone (C/O) ... 526
Payroll Syslem (0) .. $73
SIRIUS ANCHOR AUTOMATION Sprite Masler(C/o) .. . 527 Inventory Pkg (D) . . $73
BROD~RBUND Snake Byte (AJ '" . 127
Martian Aaider(C) . . . $14 Mark I or II Modem $78 AVALON HILL Genefalledger (D) , .. $73
Fly Wars (A) , ... . $27 Disk Data Mgr (D) " . 162
Mullisound Synth . (C) $14 Type Altack (AI . . . $27 B·' Nuc. BombeqC) . 512
Shari< Trap (CI ' . .. $14 Nukewaf(C) .. S12 Mail list Mgr (D) . . .. $41
Sky Blazer (RI . ..... $27
Sealo, (AI .... . .. . . . $27
FaSI Eddy (R) , . ,
Deadly Duck (R )
$ Z7 . ..,-<:- Planet Miners (e) . .
Androm . ConQuest (e)
Checkl>OOk ... gl (D) . . .
$27 IS
Turmo!1(R) .
... ·FiI.(D) . . $69
AE (R) . . . $27 Plasmania (RI $2 ~
CBS Spider City (AI . $27 II ON ·LINE
j~~:~~r (oj' ...... ~~~
K·Razy Palrol tR) .. .. . $29 SQUiSh 'Em (Rl , 527 Q Comp. Slcks/Bnds(C) $15
K·Razy Anliks (R) . .. . $29 FlOal Orbit (R) .. . 527 Computer Football IC) $12
Telengard (C) . $16 PACIFIC COAST SOFT.

COMM·DATA Bumper Bash (A) .... S27
Pakacuda (C) , .. ..... 513 SPECTRA VISION BAnERIES INCLUDED PeS (80 Col Bo, WOfCl Proc,
Sketch and Paint IC) .. $13 Cave In (Rl . . _. . . . .. $27 Paper Clip (D) . . SS9 0 ..8ase,Spreadsheet) CAll
Account PAC (C/O) ... $25
Eight Ba'Hc) , , ... , . . $13
Invader Educ . Series
Number CrunCh tA) .. . $2 7
Aeaga nomics (R) ... $'2 7 II cJ BRODERBUND File PAC (D) ...... . .. $30
. ... ..• ,3 GOld Mme (D) ... 527
Ape Escape (0) . . ... $27
Q:- ~=~t::~I\~~~~) :. ::~~
Sea fox (A) " ...... . . $27
Fn~~~;::;d?6)' :::::: ~;~
Happy Tulor Typng (D) $18
Paratroopers (C) S15 STARTECH David's Midnight (D) .. $23
Bug BiaS I (e) . .. $12 Aslerolds (e) . s, 8 PROFESS. SOFTWARE
Cricket (C) ... .. $12 Backgammon {C) , . . $18 COMMODORE Word pro 3 + ISA (D) . S68
Ski Aun (C) .. .... .. $12 Easy File \0) . $75 QUICK BROWN FOX
Meleor (C) ....... . .. . $9 Easy Finance (D) . . S38 Prot .Word Proc . (A) ... $50
Black Hole (R) . ..... $36
v' c Men (C) . .. .... S 18 Easy Mall (D) .. .. $38 RAINBOW
Trashman (A) .. $36
Vic Panic (e) .. S 18 Easy Script (D) .... .. $75 W,i,ers Assistant .... $95
Astroblitz (A) .. .. .... $36
City Bomber (A) . . . . $20 SYNAPSE Easy ScheOule (D) . . $59 Spreadsheet Assist. .. $95
Apple Panic (A) . , , SJ6 Harrier (C) . Logo (A) . .. $75 ~ile Assistant .. $95
S23 Pilol (D) . , $75
~=~~~t't~re(~A) :~
Squeeze (C) .... S23 SIRIUS
,::::.: Astro Palrol (e) . Assembler (D) .. . ... $38
S2 3 BlaCle/Blackpoodle (D) $27
MUSIC Machine (D) ... $25
Videomania (A) . . $36 TAYLORMADE Type Attack (0) . $27
~usic Composer (0) .. $25
~~i~i~~ ~~ss (0)' : .. : : ~~~
Tenaguard (R) .... $36 Fun Fractions (C) .. $18 Meza Music (0) ... .. . $75
EPYX Vic Lemonade (C) . . . $ 12 Video/Music SUpl. (0) $38
Mona1er Maze (Rl $27 TchTYPlngTuIOr(C) .. S13 SPECIALS Jupiter Lander (A). .. $25
Snake Byte (0) .... S23
Way OuI(O) . . .. . ... $27
SWOrd of Fargoal (C) . $20 T&F SOFTWARE Radar Aal Aace fA) . $25
Ricochet (e) .. $14 Gemini"lOX Printer ... $289 Fast Eddie (D) . '" . $23
Word Searcn (e) s 14 Se. Wolf (AI .... ... $25
Rescue al Rigel (C). $20 SportsSea rCh {C) .. .. $14 Prowriter °rinler . ...... . . .. ..... .. 5359 Turmoil (D) , , , . .. $23
Kickman (R) . . . . . .. . $25
Temple of Apshai (0) . $27 Arcade SearCh Ie) $14 Spider City (0) , . . . $27
Gorilla Banana Printer ........ . . • .... $199 COMM·DATA SQulSh 'Em (D) . . .. 523
HES TOTL Card? Pnnter Interface
Gridrunner (A) . .. .... 527 Mailing Ll s t(C) ... $14
. 560 PakacuOa . 'C) $14(0) $18 FinallOrbiliD) . . $27
The Connection Prinler Interface Escp. "'CP . (C)$14(DI$18 Alpha Shield (D) .. . .. S27
=~~~~I:~~;cA~). : . . . . :1; Time Manageme nt tC) $22
Aesearch Ass!. (C) $22 1541 Disk Drtve
... 585
.. . 5239
CenlropodS (C)$14(0)$18 SKYLES ELEC. WORKS
BUSlcalc (C/O) . . ..... $52
Protector (R) . . . . .. . . $29 THORN EMI COMPUTER MAT
Shamus (A) . " .... 527
Koala Graph,cs Tablel .. 569 ArcaCle·Pak te) . . 518 BUS lwriler (0) ..... $72
River Rescue (R) $29 Flip N ' File D,skelte Box
Predator (Al . . , , . ... , $27 ..... 521 Educalion·Pak(C) $18 SPINNAKER
VIC MUSIC Comp o(Rl $29
Syn The Sounc::J (A) . S39 Submarine Comm . IR) $29 Elephanl Disks (10) ..... . 521 Snooper Troops 1 (D) . $29
Aggressor (R) . .. 527 CREATIVE SOFTWARE Facemaker (D). . $23
Heswr!ter (A) . .... .. 527
Mulant Herd (Rl " , , $29 The Boss Joysllck (Wico) ... 515 Moondust tAl .. . $25 Kindercomp (D) . 520
Fourlh Encounter (Rl $29 WI CO Joystick Traa'h man (A) ., ..... 525
.... $23
~~~~~r~~tl.c.s. (.~), : : : ~~~
Hey Diddle (D) .. ..... 520
TRONIX Save New York (A) ". 525 Most Amaz. Thing (D) . 527
Galactic 81ItZ(C) . . $17
W,co Trackball ... $49
Vic Fonh (A) $39 Astroblltz (Al .. . . . $25
Swarm (C) .... . . .. $20 Household Fin. (D) . $25 SYNAPSE

6502 Prof .0ev.Sys. (C) $20
Torg (C) . $13 Sidewinder (e)
Scorpion (R)
. $20
. ..... $27 DATA 20 ~~~~~~loFS~,(~/~! . ~~3
Concenlratlon (C). .. $12 VideoPak80 , . $139 orelbs (C/O) . . .. $23
GOld Fever (Rl .... 527
Fuel Pirate's (C) ...... $12 Z80 VIdeo Pak . $229 Pharon ' sCUrSe(Cfo ) . $23
Deadly Skies (R) .... 527

Slmon(C) .. . ... $12
EN·TECH Protector !I (0) . . .. $23
VicTrek (C) . . . . .... $13 UMI
Video Vermin (R) . $27 Finance Calc 64 $56 "'orgal(D) ... $23
Co Co II (e /O) . . . $27 Shamus (0) $23
Amok (C/A) $20 Data Base 64 . . ..... $56
IMAGIC Invoice Ease 6-( . . . $34 TAYLORMADE
Out world (AI ' ... . . . S27 UNLI ... ITED
Demon Attack (R) .. . . $25 Touch Typing Tulor
Satellites & Mel. (AI $27 EPYX
Atlantis (R) $25 3.0(0) ....... ... .. $21
Subchase (C) . .. . . $1 7
KosmlC KamikClze (C) . $17
727 BREA CANYON RD., SUITE 16 Temple of APS (0) $27
Pro Football (C) ...... $15 Upper Aeach . APS(ol $14
Cosmic Crusader (e) . $12
Meteor Shower (C) , . 511 WALNUT, CA 91789 Jumpman (0) . $27 Abbrs/lost Tomb (C/O) $21
Wall Street (C/O) ..... $21
LOGISTIC ~~Fde:r~~~~~~;(~) ... ~~; ORDER LINES OPEN MON-SAT 8 am - 6 pm HES Money Manager (C/O) $2 I
X·AaleO (C) .. . $9 Meleor Run (A) .. $27 HES MOdem . ....... $59 Data Masler (C/O) . . . $2 I
Algebra WIZ (C) ...... . $9 Vicalc (C) .. . S11 6502 ProI.Oev .Sys.(C) . $22 Dungeons 01 Alg .
Profess. Journal (C) .. $35
Viccalc (e) ....... . .. $36

~~~~~~~ ~1~ly~~l:~~?l ~;~

ViTe rmA(C)
V.Che c k (C) ... ..
... $14
$17 (714) 861-1265 Hesmon 64 (A) .......
Turlle Grap lcs II (AI ..
Heswriter 64. (A)
Gridrunner (A) ..... ..
Dragons (C fo) . . ... $2 I
T.,,2 .6 ... (C) $32(0) $34

~~;~~~j~~b~'~). :::::: ~~~

Lab.'2 .S .. (C)$15(0)$17
Mad Bomber (C) . $10 Add $2.00 Shipping per software o rder in continental ReHoball (A) . $27 Time Manager 2.6(C) . $24

~i:S~c~~~~Y:t. ~'.~ ~~) : :~~

MIS Space DiVision (e) $11 U.S, Add 15.00 Shipping per software order 10' AK. HI. INFOCOM
Vic Vango(C) ....... $10 The Alien (Cl .. .... $ 17 FPO·APO . Add $10.00 or 15% (whichever is greater) per Zork I. II or III (0) ... $27
Galactic Crossfire (C) $11 Grand Master (C) . $27 soHware order lor non·U.S. Call lor c ost of hardware Deadline (D) ... $.35 Aesrch Assisi . 2.0(0) $27
Checkbook(C) ... $14 Renaissance (A) .. $33 Stare ross (D) , . $27 UMI
Shipping . Calif. residents add 6'1,% sales lu. CaShiers
~;~~~'~~;~er (ei ..•• .. ~ ~ ~
Cloud Burst (A) .... 520 Motor Mania (C) .. . $20
Skibbereen (A) $20 checks or money orders filled within '24 nours for items JIN SAM
Mlnj·Jinl (R) . . ...... $75 Aenaissance (C) ",. S27
Wordcrafl20(Ai . $65 in stock. Personal chec ks reQulle 4 weeks 10 clear .
MaSTerCard and Visa OK for software only within conli· LlnLE WIZARD
Krazy Kong Ie) '. $11 VICTORY Annlhllalor(Clo) $16
3·0 "'an (C) ...... ... $17 Adv. Pak I (C) ... . .. $14 nenlal U.S., add 3% surchar:le . Include card no .. e)(pira· Pro .... aII,Lisl (C)$22 ,O)$25 Kongo Kong (C/O) .... $16
Exterminator (C) .. ... $20 lion date and signalU re. Due to our lOW prices, all sales Sioc kmaster
ON LINE :~~' i~i~:tg:fd)'.. ... ~~~ are final. All defect ive returns mUSI have a return (In,enloryl (C)$25(01$28 l~v~ ~C~~~.l (C'O) .. : : :~~
Crossfire (C; ..... .. . 520 Grave Aobbers (C) ... $12 aulhorlzation number Please call 10 obtain one before LOGISTIC Adv. Pack _2 (C/O) ... $16
ultIma (Cl ... .. . $14 Kongo Kong (C) .... $18 returning goods for replacemenl or repair. Prices & Oalacalc 64 (C) $55(0) $59 Grave Aobbers (C/O) .. $13
Trek(C) ...... $12 availability subject 10 change, Home Journal (D) .... $55 Chomper Man (CtO) .. $18

Circle No. 49

Commander September 1983/93

1. Show the different hours on
the clock face and guide your
child through by explaihing the 1 POKE36879, 60 :AC=e :W=0
functions of the long and short 2 PR I NT [CLEAF~]( BLACK J -1- SELECT": PF~ ItH

hand. This is a good time to ex- "-2- BY 5"

plain clockwise. Use section 1
5 PR I t·n PROBLEr-1S

7 PRINT"-3- HR" : PRINT"-4- 1/2 HF:.": PRItH

when explaining the above con- "-5- 1/4 HR" : PRINT"-6- 5 t-1It-l": PRINT
cepts and section 2 to 8 PRINT"-7- END" ; MM=00: H=12: mpUTCH$: IF
demonstrate how t.he small hand CH$(" 1 "ORCH$)"7"THEN2
moves in relation to the big hand. 9 IFCH$="7"THEN9999
Allow your child to practice in 20 GRAPHIC2 :COLOR3,4 , (1,4
30 CIRCLE1 , 511,511 , 400,500
section 3. 40 CHAR1 , 9,"12":CHAR3,13,"1" : CHAR6, 15 . "
2. Utilizing section 2, count by 2" : CHARlO, 16, "3" : CHAR14 , 15, "4" : CHt":lR17, 1
fives from 12 to 6. Do this as many 3, "5"
times as necessary until the child 100 CHAR18, 10, "6" : CHAR1?, 6, "7" : CHAR 14, 4
can do this on his/her own. Ex- ,"8":CHAR10 . 3,"9":CHAR6,3, "1 0":CHAR3,51
plain to your child that each "11"
155 A=1:X=511:Y=1 60:Xl=X :Y1=Y
number on the clock face repre- 160 GOSUB1000
sents five minutes. 165 A=1:X=511:Y=300 :X2=X:Y2=Y
3. Explain to your child the 170 GOSUB2000:CHAR0,15 / "12:00" : IFCH$)"2
meaning of half-past. Show ex- "THEN:CHAR0, 15,"XX:XX"
amples using section 1. Allow 171 IFCH$= "2"THENGOSUB7000:GOT0182
your child to practice in section 4. 172 IFCH$)"2"THENGOSUB8000 :GOT0185
173 CHAR!. 15 , " . " : GETH1$ : IFH1$=" "TH
4. Using section 2, count by EN173
fives from 12 to 3, from 3 to 6, 174 IFHl$=")<:"THEN9930
from 6 to 9, and from 9 to 12. 175 CHAR!. 15,". " : GETH2$: IFH2$="ITHE
Again do this as many times as N175
necessary until the child can do 176 CHAR 1.' 15 I II • II

this on his own. 177 GETfoll$: IFt11 $= " "THEN176

178 CHAR 1, 15 I " • II
5. Explain the meaning of 179 GETM2$: I FM2$=I, "THEN 178
quarter-past and quarter-to using 181 H$=H 1$+H2$ : M$=M 1$+t'12$ ; H=VAL (H$) : M=V
section 1. Allow your child to AUt1$)
practice In section 5. 182 I FCH$) "2" At·mF=0THENGOSUB6000
6. Cou nt by fives from 12 back 183 IFCH$) "2 "AND(HR$=H$ANDMR$=M$)THENGO
to 12 using section 2. Insure the T09500
184 I FCH$)" 2" AND(HR$()·H$ORMR$(>t"$) THENG
child understands each number OT097e0
on the clock face represents five 185 D=INT ( M/5)*30: IFCH$< "3"At-lD(H)120RH(
minutes. Provide examples of dif- 1)THEN9700
ferent times using section 1. 186 I FCH$(" 3" A~m (M/5() I NT(MIS) OR~1)55) TH
Allow your child to practice in EN971210
section 6.
187 IFCH$("3"THENGOSUB6000
190 A=0: X=Xl:Y=Yl:GOSUB 1000
Note: It will be beneficial at 200 C=351 :GOSUB3000 :GOSUB1000 :Xl =X :Y1=Y
times to review sections already : D=H*30+~1/60*30 : A=0 : X=X2 : 1T'='r'2 : GOSUB2eJ00
accomplished. 230 C=211:GOSUB3000 :GOSUB2000:X2=X : Y2=Y
A big advantage of the Super ; X=X 1 : 'T'='~ 1 : GOSUB113130
Expander cartridge is it provides 3913 IFCH$) "2"AHDF=1 THE~~F =0: GOT0173
users with additional instructions
400 GOT0171
999 END
devoted to graphics. Without the 1000 DRAW.A,511 , 511 TOX/Y:DRAWA,500/5 11T
Super Expander, one can still OX-10/Y :RETURN .
work with graphics using CBM 200121 MAWA, 511, 5 11 TaX, 'T': DRAWA, 511/511 TO
BASIC or machine language. But X Y: RETURN'

CBM BASIC when applied to 301210 A=l: IFD<=90T HEt~3080

graphics is cumbersome and
3040 IFD( =90THEN3080
3121513 IFD( =1 8eJTHEND=180-D:GOT03120
slow; machine language, which is 3136121 IFD( =270THEND=D- 180:GOT03160
by far more efficient, is difficult to 30713 I FD( =360THEND'= 36e-D: GOT032el2l
use. The Super Expander is a 3080 GOSUE4000
good compromise. It will not pro- 313913 GOSUB5IZ1e0:RETURN
vide the smooth animation of To be continued on page 96
machine language but is much
94/Commander September 1983
VIC ™ Software TM
CRICKET - From the company that brought you Asteroidz, Munchman and a host of other
blockbusters. We now present CRICKET. This is a challenging game with a cast of characters you
will love and hate . All you have to do is get Cherp from one side of the road to the river and then
across the river. Not so fast though. First you have to figure out how to dodge the traffic and get to
the center. Then how are you going to get across the river? Look here comes a log - even a turtle.
Hitch a ride across the river and jump from one to the other. Keep a sharp eye out for Ade the Gator.
He loves to have crickets for lunch. How many times can you get across the road and river. You will
have to work as fast as you can. Time limit and bonus. You will find this game addictive and
challenging and it will entertain you with hours of fun and enjoyment. $14.95
BUG BLAST -If you think Centipede was fun - look out for BUG BLAST. A new and fast action
arcade game with realistic smooth action, quality hi·res graphics and trouble . Its very calm as the I-~~~:-~~~ ___
""""_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....-! first wave attacks . Only a few bugs to kill. Just shoot thru the cactus and wipe them out. After a few
attacks you feel you have everything under control. Now the attacks really start. Those protection
areas hav" to go . Blast away. Will they ever stop? OK - the BUGS got me this time. NO\.II its my
tum , Just one more time - BUG BLAST - Now its your turn to ge~even. $14.95
BOMB'S AWAY - Can you stop him? The crazy bomber drops the bombs from the top of the
screen. You get 3 buckets to catch them. Before you know it bombs are falling so fast you wonder
when he will stop. Just when you think you have him under control your bucket gets smaller. Is your
hand quicker than your eye? Special $9.95
PARATROOPER - You are the only one left to stop them. The sky is full of enemy choppers.
Paratroopers keep dropping into your area with non·stop barrage of enemy troops. They are out to
destroy you. This new game is an unbeatable blend of arcade action and quick thinking strategy.
You must make every shot count - don': be to fast on the trigger. Every time you hit a chopper or+---";";;"';';;";;';";;;;";'='--
~---------I paratrooper you get extra points. Wait until you see the climax of this game - you won't believe it!
This is a multiple skill level game with razor·sharp graphics and sound. $19.95
MOW - Get ready for the fast and furious action of the craziest mower you have ever seen. How
much grass can you cut? Joystick moves your mower around as fast as you dare. Watch out for
granny's dafodils and grandpa's radio antenna. $14.95
COSMIC CRUZER - Bring the coin·op game into your ViC. 3 Scenarios. Your Cruzer moves over
a mountainous landscape & into a tunnel of surface · to . air misslc, silos and ground · to . air
weapons . If you can make it in and out of the tunnel you fly into the asteroid field . Drop bombs and
fire missiles at the fuel dumps to keep your fuel supply up. If you are really good you can get to the
base and try, to destroy it. We don't know of any one that has hit the base yet . Maybe you will be the
1st. Cosmic Cruzer is a fun filled magnificently rendered home video game that will last for months 1---,;;...-;;..;;-----
of challenge. Highly addicting. Hi·Res Graphics, Color & Sound. SPECIAL PRICE· $14.95
SPACE PAK - Can you survive? 3 space games with the sights and sounds of arcade games. The
~ ________-I excitement builds as the action is un·ending. Blast away at everything in sight. The alien attacks will
stop at nothing to destroy you. Prepare for battle, there is no escape, unless you can help. Can you
survive? Hi·Res, Color, GraphiC & Sound. Joystick or keyboard. . $19.95
ALIEN INVASION - Invaders from space are attacking your home planet. Hurry and man your
lasers and prepare your robot forces for the inevitable attack of the Alien Invaders. The excitment
builds as you command a battery of missile bases in a bunker. Each invader has a laser aimed right at
you. Will they ever stop. Only you can save the Galaxy. You can compete with 4 people in the solar
system. There are 20 levels of play. If you destroy the Aliens in the correct order you will receive
bonus points. Can you get the top score? . $14.95
TARGET COMMAND - The whole West Coast is being bombarded and only you can save it. You
are at the controls of the missile launcher and hold the destiny of our country in your hands. It takes
a cool head, not hand and fast reflexes to zap those missiles right out of the air. Get ready to
pulverize - atomize and vaporize them. Oh, my God, those warheads are heading right for our
ALIEN ammo dumps. They are everywhere. NO ONE CAN SAVE US - EXCEPT YOU. You must move
INVASION your laser into position and fire as fast as you dare. Time limit with arcade style excitement. Protect
_________----1 your ammo at all costs. 10 levels of play. $14.95
SNAKE OUT - Slip your snake into position and score by chomping the blotks. Watch the way you ~---------­
slither because your escape routes get smaller. 2 Bonus games included. $14.95
HEAD-ON - Please do not buy this game if you are the type that says I'll play it just one more time".
Players have been known to start playing HEAD ON at 8:30 p.m. and at 2 a.m., wonder where the
time went? Have you ever tried to explain to someone why you played a game for five and a half
hours . We know of no remedy for the addiction to HEAD ON except to beat the VIC on ievel9. No
one has done it, YET, will you? We think not. Move your cor as fast as you can dare around the
tracks. You get 3 cars and MUST avoid the computer car. Points for the most dots covered. Bonus I ''''-~'_';''
cars , nine levels of play. $14.95

Commander September 1983/95

faster and requires fewer instruc- Continued 1rom page 94
tions for 9'raphic representations
than CBM BASIC. Try the circle
program listed in your program-
mer's reference manual and com - 3120 GOSUB4000:YY=YY*-1
3130 GOSUB5000 : RETURN
pare it to the CIRCLE instruction
31613 GOSUB4000: Y'r'=YY*-l : .>~X=~":::-':* -·1
used by the Super Expander to 31713 GOSUB50GG:RETURN
see what I mean. 32013 GOSUB4000: ;<~<=:~X * - l
Some disadvantages of the 3210 GOSUB5000 : RETURN
Super Expander are you cannot 4000 XX=(SIN(D!57 .3)*C)/1.3
pri nt string or numeric variables 40113 'r"r'=COS ( D/57 . 3)*C
4£120 RETURt·~
when in the graphics mode. How-
513013 X=511+;<X
ever, string constants can be 513 10 Y=511-'r'Y: RETURr~
displayed in the high resolution 60013 Ra1
mode only. This is why lines 6000 6001 IFt1ID$ ( H$ .. 1, 1 )="O"A~mCH$ {" 3 "T HEt~17
to 6900 are structured the way 1
they are. Using the INPUT state- 6003 IFH$="12"THE~~ ; CHARO .. 15 , " 12 "
613113 IFH$=" 1" THEH:CHARG , 15," 1 "
ment while in the graphics mode 61320 IFH$=" 2"THEN : CHAFtG, 15 ," 2"
can cause strange and inconsist- 6030 IFH$=" 3"THEH: CHAF;0, 15," :3"
ent things to happen. After work- 612140 IFH$=" 4 "THEt~ : CHARe, 15 .• " 4"
ing with the INPUT statement for 60513 I FH$= " 5" THEt4 : CHARG) 15 ," 5 "
a while and getting nowhere, I 6060 IFH$=" 6 " THn~ : CHAR O , 15, " 6 "
finally reverted to using the GET 6070 IFH$=" 7"THEN : CHAR0 , l ei , " 7"
6080 I FH$=" <3" THE ~~ : CHARtl , 15," 8 "
statement. This explains why you 60913 IFH$=" 9"THE t~:CHAF:0 / 1 5, " 51"
must enter four characters when 6100 IFH$=" le"THEW CHAR0, 15, " 10"
inputting time. If anybody has 6110 IFH$=" 11"THEt~: CHARe , 15 , " 11"
successfully used the INPUT 62GOIFM$="f10 " THEN : CHARG , 18,"eo"
statement in the graphics mode , 62135 I Ffol$=" 05" THEt~ : CHARO, 18 "05" I

please write and tell me how you 62113 IH1$=" lf1"THn~: CHARO, 18, "10"
6215 rHl$="15"THEr~: CHAR~), 1:::, "15"
did it. 62213 IH1$= " 20"THEN : CHAR~3 , 18 .. " 213 "
Even with the disadvantages I 6225 I F~l$=" 25" T HEt~ : CHAR~1, 18, "25 "
mentioned, the ease with which 62313 IFr'1$="30"THEW CHARG, 18, ":313 "
one can create graphic displays 6235 I F~l$=" 35 " THEN: CHARO, 1:::, "35"
and the additional 3K of memory 624121 I FN$=" 413" THEW CHARG, 18, "40 "
6245 I Hl$= " 45" THEti : CHARG , 18, 11 45"
more than justifies having one. If
62513 I Fl'1$= " 5D " THEN : CHAR~) , 18, " 50 iI
you have any comments on this 6255 IH1$=" 55 " THE t·~ : C HAR ~1 .. 18 , "5~; "
program or suggestions for future 6800 CHAR0 , 17 .. " : I'

articles, do not hesitate to write. I 6900 RETURt·j

will be glad to hear from you. 700121 GET ~-::::'; $ : I FX;X;$= " " THEt-f?000
Address all correspondence to : 7001 IFXXS="X " THEN993G
71302 M=M+S : IFM) 55THENM=0 : GOT07G3 0
Art Dudley, c/o Commander, P.O. 71310 GOT071338
Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498 . 7030 IFH=12THENH=1: GOT07')3 8
If you desire a copy of the 7035 IFH(12THENH=H+ l
listed program, please send me a 7038 GOSUB913G0
blank cassette and $2.00 to cover 713513 RETURN
shipping and duplicating.D 81300 H=ItH(RND ( 1 )*13 )
813 10 M=INT ( RND(1)*12)* 5
8011 IFH=GTHENGOT080el1
81312 IFCH$ = "3 " THEW'1=OG
80 13 IFCH$="4 " THE~H'1=ItH (I"V JG " I * 30
8015 I FCH$= " 5 "THENI'l= I ~n ( rl./ l S) :+: 15
813213 GO!3UB913G0
8030 HRS=H$ : MR$=MS:F=l
81 013 RETURN
9000 M'=MID$( STR$ ( M),2 ,2):I FLEN( M$ ) =lTH
ENM$= "13 "+~l$
9010 HS=MIDS(STR$( H) , 2 . 2): I FLEN (HS)=l TH

96/Commander September 1983

Continued from page 94

.. ENH$=II II+H$
91212121 RETURt4
9121410 Et·m
9512110 POKE36878,15:FORL=1T015:FORM=IT03t21
95105 POKE36876,0:NEXTM
951121 GOTOe, 15 II X::-:: : ~<~< AC=AC+ 1
J II :

9512 GOT0172
971010 POKE36878, 15:POKE36874, 165:FORJ=IT
971121 W=W+1:W1=W1+1:IFW1)lTHENH$=HR$:M$=
MR$:GOSUB6IZle0 :Wl=t21
972121 GOT0173
993121 FOR0: I FCH$) II 211 THENPR I ~nAC i RIGHT" II

: PRINT~J; ~JRONG": FORJJ=1 T011Z1t210: NE>::TJ.J


9940 RUN
9999 PRINT"[CLEARJ :POKE36879/27 II



In the age of the computer, everyone
from the school child to the Chairman of
the Board should be at home at the
computer keyboard. Soon there will be
COMMODORE 64'M ••• $21.95 (Tape)
$24.95 (Disk)
All of the features of the VIC 20'M Version and more

a computer terminal on every desk and
-=-;-:.:=:' --
in every home. Learn how to use it right by Dr. Lee T. Hill ~
... and have some fun at the same time l
Rated THE BEST educational program for the VIC 20™ $16.95 (Tape) $21.95 (DiSk)' ~~!j; I
by Creative Computing Magazine Create and then transform sprites automatically. We
have the other sprite making programs, but this is the
TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS-$21.95 one we use to make sprites The automatic transfor-
mations are great l
(2 programs on one cassette tape for the un expanded VIC 20TM)
_ Shipping and handling $1.00 per
Typing Tutor plus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun I
VIS(order. California residents add 6% ~
Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard In easy steps . Word Invaders makes typing
- sales tax . VISA and Mastercard ~
practice an entertaining game . Highty praised by customers: orders must include full name as shownon card, card
"Typing Tutor is great' ", "Fantastic ", " Excellent ", High quality", "A source of number, and expiration date. Free catalog sent with
great joy and learning for our Children " , " Even my little sister likes it", "Word order and on request.
Invaders is sensational! "

Customer comment says it all ...

" ... and it was everything you advertised it would be. In three 'weeks , my 13 year
old son, who had never typed before, was typing 35 w.p.m I had improved my .,
typmg speed 15 wpm and my husband was able to keep up with his college l'
typmg class by practicing at home . " P.o. Box 9403, San Rafael, CA 94912(415)499·0850 (j

Commander September 1983/97

DoVln toess Man
Gett\n9 lus\n
Y4\th the
Part One
by Kirk G. Anderson

My first experience with performing accounting functions. relatively inexpensive. Compared

business came with the lemon- More people are now realizing to outlays you would be facing for
ade stand and continued on that personal computers can some of the more expensive per-
through my college days when I bring to their fingertips the ser- sonal computer systems you
found myself holding, instead of vices of a myriad of accounting simply cannot afford to overlook
a pitcher of lemonade, a degree in clerks and financial analysts the amazing things that can be
business administration. Need- diligently recording and for- done with a Commodore 64. If
less to say, it was good to get mating information for accurate you're an individual user like me
away from the old lemonade out- analysis and interpretation. When you probably wouldn't mind hav-
fit and into something more the time to prepare tax returns ar- ing a high quality business
stable. After a few years as a pro- rives, some of the more fortunate oriented accounting system at
fessional managerial type, and personal computer users need your disposal. This being the
having acquired a personal com- only spend a half hour or so with case, you should be prepared to
puter, I started noticing the their computers and the dirty pay much more than the going
business programs for personal work is done. But even the less rate for the home accounting
computers are a desirable pro- fortunate users have an oppor- packages that are presently on
duct for more than just business tunity to increase the efficiency the shelf. Both individuals and
organizations and MBA's. Every- and accuracy of their bookkeep- organizations should consider
one wants to be more profitable. ing and gain a much more in- that even if you purchase some of
Whether it's an organization or an timate understanding of how to the top line business accounting
individual, improving one's finan- manipulate their finances. programs you are still paying far
cial security and position is just Beginning to emerge into the less than someone who has the
plain smart. The only problems software marketplace are a more expensive, personal com-
for many seem to be "how do I get notably diversified array of puter, and getting just as much (if
the expertise to answer my finan- business related program pack- not more) in capability. If you own
cial questions and where do I find ages. Some of these are quite im- a Commodore 64 or VIC 20 you
the time?". Not everyone cares to pressive, performing a number of have the most affordable and yet
know how answers to certain valuable analytical functions and one of the most powerful per-
financial questions are arrived at, offering bookkeeping systems as sonal computers on the market
but only how to put the answers an integral part of the program. A today. If you find it difficult
to work in order to become more definite advantage for any locating business software for
profitable. This is where the per- organization is the business ap- your Commodore that satisfies
sonal computer is revolutionaliz- plication software for the Com- your palate, just hang tight.
ing the way individuals and modore 64 which is beginning to There's plenty about to come
organizations are viewing and become more available and your way and this portion of Com-
98/Commander September 1983
----- -------- -- ~ ---- - -- ~ ~ -- -- -~ -------------------;----



COMSTARFIT mable form length up to 127 lines, useful for Double
PRINTER - $259.00 short or over·slzed preprinted forms. Immediate Replacement
The Comstar Is an excellent addition to any • FRICTION AND TRACTOR FEED: will accept Warranty
mlcro·computer system. (Interfaces are single sIleet paper.
We have doubled the normal 90 day warranty
available for Apple, VIC·2O, Commodore-64,
to 180 days. Therefore If your printer falls
Pet, Atarl 400 and BOO, and Hewlett Packard). • 224TOTALCHARACTERS
within "180 days" from the date of purchase
At only $259 the Com star gives you print quail.
• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER you simply send your printer to us via United
ty and featuers foundl only on printers costing
Parcel Service, prepaid. We will IMMEDIATELY
twice as much. Compare these features. If you want more try _
send you a replacement printer at no charge
• BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC Premium Quality via United Parcel Service, prepaid. This warran·
SEEKING CARRIAGE CONTROL for higher COMSTAR FIT SUPER·10" ty, once again, proves that WE LOVE OUR
through·put In actual text printing. 80 PRINTER - $299.00 CUSTOMERSI
characters per second.
More Features Than MX-ao
• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 98 ASCII For $299 you get ali of the features of the
character set plus block graphics and Intern. Comstar plus 10" carriage 120 cps, 9x9 dot OTHER OPTIONS
tiona I scripts. An EPROM character generator matrix with double strike capability for 18 x 18 Extra Ribbons ....................... $ 5.95
Includes up to 224 characters. Roll Paper Holder ......••...•......... 32.95
dotmatrlx. High resolution bit Image (120 x 144
dot matrix), underlining, backspacing, 2.3K Roll Paper. . . • . • . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . • . . . . .. 4.95
• INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics Is 5000 Labels .............••........... 19.95
standard. Options Include EIA RS232C, 20mA buffer, left and right margin settings, true
1100 Sheets Fan Fold Paper ............. 13.95
Current Loop. (Add $20.00 for RS232) lower descenders, with super and subscripts,
and prints standard, italic, Block Graphics, Add $20.00 shipping, handling and Insurance.
• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAD: 100 million special characters, plus 2K of user definable illinois residents please add 8% tax. Add
character life expectancy. characters. For the ultimate In price per· S40.00 for CANADA, PUERfO RICO, HAWAII,
formance the Comstart FfT Super 10" leads OTHER COUNTRIES. Enclose cashiers check,
PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch. money order or j)8rsonal check. Allow 14 days
132 columns maximum. Double-width font also for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1
Is standard for each character pitch. 80 COLUMN PRINTER $189 day expreaa mall available I I Canada orders
must be In U.S. dollars.
• THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINGS: 6, 8 Super silent operation, 80 CPS, prints HI·
resolution graphics and block graphics, ex·
or 12 lines per Inch.
panded character set, exceptionally clear
characters, fantastic print quality, uses Inex·
mabie length from 11144 to 2551144 Inches. pensive thermal roll paper I ENTERPRIZES ,WoL ... OurCuOlom ....
Phone 3121312·52" to order
1~n ~PQr~tu~~XYZ 1234567B90
ABCDEFGHJJI<U1NDPGlRBTUYWXVl 1 :2::S 4:S . . '7 a 9 0 Circle No~ 34
mander will be dedicated to infor- then you may do well to consider tion on transactions. The process
ming you of these new programs, The Business Man™. of inputting transaction related
as well as some older ones and data is called "journalizing" or
their potential uses. '
Getting Started
"posting". This posted or record-
The Business Man™ is an ac-
One company that is working ed information is then classified
counting program designed for
h~rd ~t developing business ap- into specified categories or
use on the Commodore 64 with a
plications software is Southern groupings and then summarized
variety of peripheral equipment.
Solutions located in McKinney in financial reports. This entire
Texas (address and telephone ar~
The program is an actual general
series of operations is what is
ledger bookkeeping system, but
noted at the end of this article). known as the Accounting Pro-
does not allow designation or use
Southern Solutions has devel- cess. In other words, the whole
of individual subsidiary ledgers
oped ~ program we'll be looking purpose of any and all accounting
as one may have in manual
at entitled The Business Man™ system(s) is to perform the follow-
general ledger systems. Before
written by Chuck Stuart of ing three basic functions or
proceeding I should mention that
Southern Solutions. The program steps.
The Business Man™ does
retails for $99.95. In a nutshell 1). Recording information
the program is a general ledge~
assume a working knowledge of
2). Classifying information
some basic accounting prin-
recordkeeping system and does a 3). Summarizing information
Ciples. For those of you with little
good job at what it's designed to These three steps are all part of
?r no accounting background, or,
do. It's menu driven and totally creating accounting information
If you have little or no experience
self-contained. If you are looking which can then be use8 to better
with computers, please don't
for a general ledger accounting understand your financial posi-
paniC. If I can learn these basics
system for your 64 you may find tion. Once you have a ibetter pic-
then so can you. Besides, I am
The Business Man™ relatively ture of your financial pOsition and
not going to use exotic ter-
flexible and "user-friendly" (to structure, more profitable deci-
minology or address important
use an old phrase). The program sions concerning where to use
concepts unless somewhere in
does have a budgeting capability the money you've earned can be
the article I plan on explaining
that impressed me due to its flex- confidently made.
t~em to you. As previously men-
ibility and simplicity. It provides
tioned, this is the first article of Defining Some Terms
you monthly, quarterly, or year to
two that will be devoted to review-
date options for reporting and . For us to proceed in any mean-
ing The Business Man™ by Ingful and expeditious fashion we
comparison for all financial
Southern Solutions. In this first need at this time to consider
statements, and prints individual-
article we are going to spend some new terms. Some of them
ly formated reports. Without
some time becoming a little I'm certain you may have heard
jumping rudely ahead in our
familiar with some of the basic before, but as related to accoun-
review of the program, I think I
accounting rules, terminology,
can safely wrap up our nutshell ting you may well find the term
and concepts that are necessary has a whole different meaning.
preview by saying that the pro-
and/or helpful for us to better Therefore, it may well be best to
gram is a quality product, pro-
evaluate and use The Business assimilate information just as if
bably not the best on the market
but presumably better than ~
Man™. For those of you already you've never heard the term
familiar with accounting before. This helps prevent any
good portion of it. If you want to
methods, and using a general headaches over wondering why
use a real live accounting system
I~dger system, you may wish to
for your personal finances and the accounting definition of a cer-
lightly breeze over this month's tain term may differ from that of
would like to know how, stay tun-
article as a refresher before we
ed because that's what this first some other discipline, or for that
explore The Business Man™ matter, even common sense.
article is going to address. If
more fully in next month's issue.
y~u're an individual looking for a An ASSET is defined as an eco-
For those of you who would like
slick way to computerize your nomic resource that has value
to have just a small peek at what
bookwork, or, simply looking for and is owned by an individual a
an analytical tool to aid in finan-
can be done using a general business, or some form oforga~i­
ledger system, please, read on. zation, whereby, the asset is ex-
cial decisions, I don't think the
program would interest you. Accounting 101 pected to contribute to and
However, if you're an organization A general ledger system of benefit future and/or present
or an individual that desires a ~ecordkeeping, or bookkeeping, operations. The first most logical
high quality format for accoun- IS a means whereby your financial example of an asset is cash.
ting information and wishes to data is input and handled within a Whether in a savings account
use, or learn to use, a general series of journals and ledgers checking account, stocks o~
ledger record keeping system, that accumulate related informa- other marketable securities it rep-
100lCommander September 1983
resents what is often called the than the automobile . For this time for you to convert those
most "liquid" asset. The concept reason, the cash in the savings earned dollars into income
of liquidity is very important in account would be called a "cur- generating dollars and back into
that assets are classified in order rent asset". A current asset is an earned dollars as a return on your
of liquidity. To illustrate briefly, asset that can be converted into initial investment. The process
cash in your savings account is cash ready for use within a that you may designate to
fairly liquid because all you must relatively short period of time achieve that return and generate
do to obtain the usable cash is go without disrupting normal opera- your operating cycle could well
into your bank and ask for the tions. In most accounting opera- be defined as your cycle of "nor-
funds in your account. Depending tion that segregate current assets mal operations".
on the proximity of your bank from other assets, the period of
(which also affects liquidity) you time designated for this conver- Moving Right Along
can typically have your cash im- sion into cash is dependent upon Now we have an example of a
mediately, or at least at the end of what is called "the operating cy- framework within which to iden-
the same business day in which cle" of the organization. The tify those of your assets that
you requested the funds. Now, operating cycle is simply the would qualify as current assets.
compare this to attempting to average (mean) amount of time Other assets might be insurance
cash in your automobile which between the acquisition of policies, retirement and pension
has a blue book value of, let's say goods, or merchandise, and the plans, real property such as your
$6000.00. Typically, unless you transformation of these goods house or any rental property, and
wanted to take less than your back into cash. An operating cy- maybe even accounts receivable.
established base value (blue cle is often a basis for determin- For an organization that extends
book) it would take you much ing efficiency in the use of funds. loans and credit on merchandise
longer to convert your automobile As an individual you may not ac- purchased, or has outstanding in-
into cash available for your use. tually go out and purchase goods voices that are unpaid, accounts
Both the automobile and the for resale, per se', but you do pur- receivable represents a
money in your savings account chase dollars with your time. Your somewhat liquid asset; often
are assets, but the savings ac- "operating cycle" may well be times classified as a current
count is a far more liquid asset defined as the average amount of asset. For an individual the same


Circle No.9
Commander September 1983/101
may be true. If you had a rental Liabilities are also classified in- tremendollsly cumbersome and
house and your tenant was two to current and noncurrent cate- one usually will find that
months behind in paying the rent, gories. A current liability is a debt organizations jealously guard
you would show an accounts re- that must be pa1id usually within their access to trade credit.
c:eivable for the amount in ar- one (1) year or the operating cy- Examples of long term liabili-
rears. The accounts receivable for cle, whichever is longer. Obliga- ties for an organization would be
an individual, though, would be tions that are of a longer term called "notes payable". These are
considered somewhat less liquid than current liabilities are often different from accounts payable
than those of an organization due called "long term liabilities". An in ~hat this is not just extended
to the ability of organizations to example of a current liability for credit against purchases but a
take their "high quality" receiv- an individual would be a gas com- formal arrangement to use a
ables to a bank and either sell pany credit card billing. These given amount of borrowed funds
them to the bank (which is called obligations are usually required for a specified period of time
"factoring") or putting them up as to be paid in full each month or which is usually greater than one
collateral for a loan. An individual you incur substantial service year. A note payable is often
can rarely claim receivables of charges and fees. If you con- represented by a formal written
high enough quality to use these tinually fail to pay the balance promise to pay and includes a
options. (By the way, "high quali- upon demand the company may fee, paid by the organization bor-
ty" receivables are those that well decide against granting you rowing the funds, called interest.
have a very good chance of ac- credit and take away your ability An example of an individual's
tually being paid back in full.) to use the credit card. A current long term liability would be the
The next category that we are liability for an organization might mortgage on your house or the
going to take a brief look at con- be something · called "accounts loan on your automobile .
tains what are called "LIABILI- payable". Accounts payable are
TIES". These are plainly the debts usually short term or current debt Equity Funds
of an organ ization or an indivi- obligations that the company has The last basic category of ac-
dual. These debts, or obligations, incurred by purchasing goods or counting information is called
are classified in much the same services on credit. The unique "Equity". Equity is the guts of any
fashion as the assets we just thing about corporate accounts operation because it represents
discussed. The important thing to payable is that the credit extend- the available resources that have
remember about a liability is it is ed on the purchase usually bears been invested by the principals
a claim, held by the person to no interest charges or fees. This (or owners) of the organization. A
whom you owe money, who is is sometimes liberally referred to company has a couple of ways in
called a "creditor", against the as "trade credit". This type of which to raise funds, or capital,
assets that you hold. A creditor credit is often negotiated and it is for planned operations. It could
may have a claim not only against important to pay the obligation in borrow the funds, using debt
the asset you owe them money on a timely fashion. If an organiza- (notes payable). It could ac-
(such as your car), but against all tion loses its trade credit then it cumulate reserves from opera-
your assets, if need be, in order to becomes extremely difficult to tions (thiS would usually take too
satisfy an amount you may owe to purchase needed goods and ser- much time to rely upon fully). Or,
them plus any fees they had to in- vices any other way except "cash it could sell shares of ownership
cur in collecting it. over the counter". This can be interest in the company to the
public. This is called a stock
issue and is the most common
way that American business
raises capital. For an organization
..' "\t~~ e24K MEMORY EXPANSION 1$12.,2381 this paid-in capital received from
Give your PET/CBM a boosllo 32K ! the sale of stock becomes the
Loaded with nifty·fealures. Low, low power.
equity share of the business. The
e ffReal World" SOFTWARE ($17 - $25/ more stock you own in a company
Word Proceasor. Mailing Lilt , Catalog , Ham "Radio , Frequency Counter.
"OLD" 8K PETs the more of its assets you own.
r---------------------------------, But, your claim to those assets ,
iI e2114-TO-8550RAMADAPTER
Replace 6550 RAMs with low coat 21145 . Hundreds Sold!
1$12-5251 II should anything go wrong, is not
before the claims of the creditors
1 •. ~~O~:~~~~~~~~~!~~~~;~b~~~:~~~j of the organization. You would be
entitled to whatever was left after
.' . . ' OPTi'Miz'E'liODATA'SYSCTEMS fiiL
• . 0,
Dept . -a
P.O. Box 595 - Placentia, CA 92670
OIS/(·Q-WATE "adem ark Oplimlzttd O.t. Systems ·· PET/ CBM ',ademark CommodOre
the claims of creditors were
satisfied. This is why you find in-
Circle No. 31 vestors always watching the debt
1 02lCommander September 1983
composition of the firms they term note payable. The house you The definition and difference bet-
hold stock in. Too much debt is just purchased represents a ween DEBIT and CREDIT.
unstable and erodes the claim$ of $100,000 asset. The inter-
stockholders against the assets relationship of these factors is Learning Left and Right
that their invested dollars helped expressed in a very short cardinal Those in the accounting world
purchase. For an individual, equi- rule of accounting: EQUITY = have thought of new names for
ty would represent the amount of TOTAL ASSETS - TOTAL LIA- left and right. I suppose the first
any asset that you hold that is ac- BILITIES. Thus, in the preceeding accountants thought the words
tually "owned" or financed by you example, the equation would be "right" and "left" seemed a bit
personally. For example, you pur- represented as such: simplistic so they called left
chase a house, and let's assume $30,000 (equity) = $100,000 "debit" and right "credit". So
that the total purchase price is (asset) - $70,000 (liability) began the horrors of many an ac-
$100,000. You have been saving The following equation il- counting student.
for this day for quite some time lustrates the summarization of Actually, if you remember debit
and have $30,000 in cash to give these three accounting classifi- and credit represent left and
the seller. You talk to your banker cations into a single accounting right, you should have no trouble
friend who agrees to loan you the report called a balance sheet. It's understanding how to post to the
remaining $70,000 at a 12% an- called a balance sheet because different journals and accounts in
nual interest rate for 30 years. the accounting equation of EQUI- a general ledger accounting
You close the deal and go home TY = TOTAL ASSETS - TOTAL system.
to post the transaction on your LIABILITIES must always be true. Putting It All Together
computeriied bookkeeping sys- If it isn't then the books are out of Now let's see if we can record
tem. The $30,000 cash you paid to balance and there is an error something in a general ledger
the seller represents your "equi- somewhere. Before we take a system. Each basic classification
ty" while the $70,000 represents look at a balance sheet we need of accounts, asset, liability, and
your "liability" which is a long to touch on one more concept. equity, has either a debit or a

Figure 1


Cash 6,000 Notes Payable 70,000

Automobi1. e 5,000
House 100,000

Owner equity 41,000


ASSETS 111,000 g, LIABILITIES 111,000

Figure 2


1000 *
* 200
50 *

Commander September 1983/103

credit balance. This is actually sure that all of your debits equal dream house. You have borrowed
determined by the logic of the ac- all of your credits. If they don't, t he remain li ng $70,000 and closed
counting equation we discussed then your books are out of t he deal. Now, at home, you're
earlier. As we also discussed, balance and you've most likely entering the transaction into your
these three main classifications made a posting or addition error. computer. You prop'e rly credit
are summarized in a financial Your debits must equal your (decrease) your cash account by
report called a balance sheet. In credits because a general ledger $30,000 and then you debit (in-
looking at a balance sheet one accounting system uses what is crease) a new asset account call-
will notice the assets on the left termed the "double entry ed "house" for $100,000. Wait,
hand side of the report while the method" of entering transac- you're not done. Your debits of
liabilities and equity are listed on tional data. The basic rational is $100,000 do not equal your
the right hand side (refer to that every transaction that takes credits of $30,000. You must
Figure #1). Notice the total of the place affects at least two or more come up with a $70,000 credit to
assets equal the total of the accounts. If qnly two accounts make your books balance. You do
liabilities and equity. This is ex- are affected then one is debited this by crediting (increasing) the
actly what our accounting equa- and one is credited. If more than LIABILITY account" called "notes
tion tells us should happen when two accounts are involved the payable". Remember, you had to
everything is correct and in sum of the debits must equal the borrow that $70,000 and the credit
balance. Now, the accounts listed sum of the credits. For example, to notes payable accounts for
on the balance sheet (automobile, let's use our home purchase il- that debt and balances your
etc ... ) have the account balance lustration again. Instead of hav- books! In applying this back to
listed on the report. The account ing to go for a loan of your house our accounting equation, you
balance is arrived at through purchase you just happen to have now have a $100,000 asset for
posting transaction data to the $100,000 on hand from last year's which you paid $30,000, which
account ledger from a journal. sale of mineral rights on some becomes your equity, and is
(We will talk about journals later raw land that you own in Saudi represented by the $100,000 asset
in the article.) Arabia. Therefore, you walk in and less the $70,000 Ii-ability.
Each account that appears on place the entire amount in the So, now you should be able to
the balance sheet has either a seller's hand and, after he understand what is meant when
debit or credit balance depending recovers, you go home and enter we say that your debits must
upon whether it is an asset, the transaction on your computer- equal your credits. It is all based
liability, or equity account. When ized bookkeeping system. You upon one simple equation and the
entries are made to an account call up your cash journal and trial balance is just the check
you either debit or credit the ac- enter a $100,000 credit to your pOint in a general ledger system
count. In other words, you either cash account and create a new to make certain that you have
record the amount of the transac- asset of $100,000 called "house", posted all your credits and debits.
tion on the left or the right hand which you appropriately debit for
side of the account ledger. A sim- $100,000. At the end of the
ple account ledger can be repre- posting, your credits equal Definitions . .. Again!
sented by the "T account" in $100,000 and your debits equal You undoubtedly noticed that I
Figure #2. If an account is an $100,000. This transaction result- previously have made mention of
ass~t account, then it has a debit ed in no net change to your total a "journal". Well, I do believe an
balance. Any entries to increase assets because your already had explanation is in order. A journal
the balance of the account would the cash on hand of $100,000 is what accountants call an origi-
be recorded on the left hand side (previously recorded from the nal book of entry. It's a daily
of the ledger account. Therefore, sale of mineral rights), and you record showing the various debit
to increase (add to) an asset ac- "exchanged" that $100,000 cash and credit changes which affect
count you debit it. To decrease an asset for a $100,000 house asset. the several ledger accounts. It is
asset account you would do the Therefore, if you remember our quite standard for a journal to in-
opposite of increasing it. This balance sheet, no entry to equity cl ude a description or explana-
means that you would credit the is called for because the asset tion of the transaction. If you are
account ledger by entering the base was not increased. But, let's confused about the distinction
amount on the right hand side of look at a second example. One in between a journal and a ledger ac-
the ledger. To arrive at an account which the transaction involves count, the easiest way to remem-
balance that would be transferred more than two accounts. ber the difference is to think of
to the balance sheet you would You are back in your original the journal as organized
first prove your debit and credit situation where you have been specifically for recording and
entries by using a "trial balance". able to scrape up $30,000 for a maintaining a record of transac-
A trial balance is a way to make down payment on that $100,000 tions. The ledger, instead, is
104/Commander September 1983
organized to maintain the ac- for that amount. Likewise, you counts in the ledger. At the end of
counts themselves. At periodic would post the debit to the food the accounting period the ac-
intervals (for example, once per account. counts are "closed" and the
month) the transactions recorded The journal provides a link be- balances used to prepare the
in the journal(s) are posted to the tween several debit and credit en- financial reports. This is the fun-
ledger and the appropriate ac- tries in the various accounts, damental operation of the pro-
counts are debited and credited. showing which are related to gram that we will be reviewing in
The journal also has debit and which transaction. As in our food part two of this series. Remem-
credit entries that are made when example, if you were to look at the bering this process will help you
transactions are recorded. In a accounts "cash" or "food" you tremendously not to lose per-
manual journal there is a column would have some difficulty con- spective when we start talking
for debits as well as credits. If you necting the given cash expen- about what The Business Man™
were recording a trip to the diture with food, unless you had a can do.
grocery store you would, after very good memory. Therefore, the The Business Man™ has two
entering the date, enter your tran- journal is a vitally important tool journals (original books of entry).
saction information using the in an accounting system. One is called the "general jour-
same rules for debit and credit nal" and the other the "cash jour-
that we have already discussed. nal" .
Food is an expense and expenses
The General Ledger
have debit balances because they The Business ManTM, by
decrease equity. The cash you Southern Solutions, is a "general The General Journal
used to buy the food evidences a ledger record keeping system". In This is often called the easiest
decrease in cash which would be other words, the basis for the pro- journal to work with, so, it is a
a credit. In entering transactions gram's accounting system and good place to begin. A manual
to a journal it is customary to processing of financial informa- general journal has a column for
always enter the debit first, then tion is a general ledger. debits, credits, account titles, ex-
the credit, with the explanation of A general ledger is defined as planations, and the date. You will
the transaction following. When an accumulation register for all also find a thin reference column
you go to post from the journal, types of accounts. Transactions with the heading "LP". This
you would pick up the credit to are entered in the journal(s) and stands for "ledger page" and
cash and credit the cash account then posted to the various ac- helps provide that link we talked
r---------------------------------~ r------------~~----------------,
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Commander September 19831105

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40x25 Terminal Emulator VIC 40.95 Disk 17.95 15.95
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VIC-20'· & Commodore 64'· are registered trade~arks of Commodore BUSiness Syslem. Inc:
about earlier. When you post to with either receipts of cash or nue. This is not proper. Not every
the ledger from the journal you disbursements. The net result is receipt of cash is revenue. For in-
would normally place the page of the same. Transactions represen- stance, when we borrowed
the ledger that contains the ting receipts of cash are segrega- $70,000 to purchase the dream
posted account in the "LP" col- ted from those of disbursements. house earlier, the $70,000 was
umn next to the debit or credit For most individuals, a general brought into our "operation" but
you are posting. This leaves what journal serving as the original it is not revenue. The distinction
accountants like to call "tracks". book of entry would do just fine. here is that the equity did not
This way you can later follow For business organizations, more change (increase) due to the bor-
where you've been and what detail in recording transactions rowing transaction itself which
you've been doing. This step is affecting either the balance sheet brought the funds into the organi-
absolutely necessary for a proper accounts or the income state- zation. A second example would
audit trail. Any computerized ment accounts (to be defined deal with collection of an outstan-
system that doesn't have some later) is often required. Subsidiary ding debt (account receivable)
way to trace the journal entry to journals and ledgers provide this you may have. The revenue is pro-
the ledger has failed a very impor- detail which is an important justi- perly recorded at the time the
tant test. There is absolutely no fication of the general ledger ac- receivable is created so when the
value in using a "full-blown" ac- count balance. As discussed, the funds are collected and received,
counting system that doesn't general ledger contains all asset, it simply results in the decrease
leave a proper audit trail. If your liability, equity, revenue, and ex- of the asset "accounts receiv-
books are ever looked at by some- pense accounts. These general able" and an increase in the asset
one else (say the I RS) and they ledger accounts are often called "cash". The net effect is no
run into this kind of trouble you "control accounts", because they change in the total asset/equity
will have a difficult time explain- contain the sum of all the related position.
ing yourself. (If this ever happens subsidiary ledger accounts. For The most important concept
to you, what good did all that example, in your general ledger behind the income statement is
money you spent on the program you would have an accounts that it shows revenue over certain
do you?) Be very careful to watch payable control account. The periods of time. If I were to tell
for this before you buy any ac- balance of this control account you I made $200,000, that
counting software. I cannot would be comprised of the in- WOUldn't give you much informa-
stress this point enough. dividual balances of all your sub- tion. But if I told you I made
sidiary, or, individual accounts $200,000 over the last ten years,
payable. Therefore, posting then you have an idea as to my
Subsidiary Journals would occur from the journal to financial position. This is the im-
The general journal is for all the subsidiary ledger to the portance of relating income and
types of transactions and can general ledger; each one pro- expense data to time.
reference any account; that's why viding a check upon the other. I'm sure you've heard of a
it's called a general journal. But if "fiscal year". This represents a
you want to segregate your cash period of time used to accumu-
transactions into one place, for late, segregate, and identify
whatever reason, you would use a
The Income Statement financial data. An "accounting
"cash journal". We're going to wrap up this period" is the length of time
In manual ledger systems there first article with a look at the so covered by the income statement.
are two cash journals. One is call- called "bottom line" and the ac- It is also a peniod of time by which
ed the "cash receipts journal" counting statement that provides you schedule your financial
and the other the "cash payments the perspective for that look. reporting. This can be monthly,
journal". Obviously their respec- The balance sheet that we look- quarterly, semiannually, or an-
tive purposes are quite clear. The ed at earlier shows us the overall nually. Within this period you
former records all receipts of financial position of the person or would usually perform your final
cash while the latter records all firm we're looking at. In contrast, postings and close out your
transactions resulting in dis- the income statement shows us books.
bursement of cash. The Business the actual revenue from opera- The actual definition of a fiscal
Man™, by Southern Solutions, tions. Revenue is the gross year now becomes meaningful.
uses the cash journal as both a amount of asset value received Any period of time adopted by a
cash receipts and payments jour- through operations. It would in- business or individual that covers
nal. When you call up the cash clude both cash and accounts twelve (12) full months is known
journal from the program menu receivable (credit sales). There is as a "fiscal year". An accounting
the first thing asked is if you are often a tendency to call all cash period, therefore, is defined
recording transactions dealing brought into the operation reve- within your fiscal year.
108/Commander September 1983
The Business Man™ has dif- and credit logic we d iscussed the first part of our review you
ferent opt ions for accounting before. Equity accounts have a should have no trouble under·
periods. It allows you to choose credit balance because they are standing and working with most
between monthly, quarterly and listed on the right hand side of general ledger accounting
annually. In using the system you the balance sheet. To increase an systems including The Business
can generate full accounting account with a credit balance you Man™. As you work with them ,
reports by accounting period . The credit it, while debiting the ac- your knowledge and understan·
Business Man™ also has a count decreases it. Revenue ac- ding will continue to grow and
budget feature. The budget can counts increase the equity, before long you'll be an expert.
be compared by accounting therefore, a reven ue accou nt For our purposes of evaluating
period to your actual performance would have a credit balance. Ex- The Business Man™ th i s
so that you may evaluate where pense accounts, on the other background w ill help us in part
you stand as compared to where hand, decrease the equity. Conse- two of this series to concentrate
you wanted to be. quently, an expense account on the capabilities of the program
Revenue Vs. Expense would have a debit balance. instead of " accounting ". I
The accounts which adorn the Account ledgers are kept for sincerely hope that you find this
income statement are called revenue and expense accounts information helpful and useful in
either revenue or expense ac- just as for asset, liability, and other areas besides evaluating
counts. The difference is so sim - equity accounts. Transactions are software. I look forward to next
ple it will surprise you. Revenue recorded and postings made to month when we will scrutinize
accounts increase the equity the accounts in the same fashion. Southern Solutions' Business
(remember the balance sheet) I'm sure that you can see ac-
while expenses decrease the counting in a general ledger
equity. The convention for the system is fai rly straig htforward
debit and credit balances of these and consistent. After all this in-
accounts follows the same debit formation we've gone through in

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Part II

WEDG E/DOS 5.1, check with your DRIVE BOOK is of little help ; in
local Commodore dealer. He may fact one Disk Drive Book I have
A primer for the Commodore
be able to help you out. Now let's makes no mention of it at all .
1540/1541 Disk Drive
see what new things we can learn Many of the same commands that
by R. G. Partner
about the 1540/1541 disk drive. were available with the VIC
I have included in this article WEDGE are the same on the C-64
two programs. These programs WEDGE. There are, however,
In the July issue of COM- should help out those of you who many new commands which
MANDER MAGAZINE I covered may have need to change the make the C-64 WEDGE much
the use of a program on the TESTI NAME (or HEADER) on your disk more powerful and versatile.
DEMO DISK enclosed with the (see figure 1 & 2) and a program to The following is a description
1540/1541 disk drives titled: VIC- allow you to change the disk ID of the C-64 WEDGE commands:
WEDGE. This program 'WEDGES' number (see figure 3 & 4). A good The '@' and '>' symbols are us-
into memory above user basic, friend, Jack Marx, did some trans- ed interchangeably. I find the '>'
allowing the user to access most lating and re-writing so they (greater than symbol) easier to
of the DISK COMMANDS. Since it would work on the VIC. Ire-wrote use many times. The main disad-
does 'WEDGE' above basic you those sections that were appl ica- vantage is that the shift key must
are able to load BASIC programs ble to the C-64. I include both ver- be pressed to access it. The '@ '
Into the computer without losing sions at the end of this article and (commercial at symbol) does not
the ability to perform disk com- hope that they may be of hel p for require a shift to reach it but it is
mands at the touch of a key (or those of you needing to make not a key I am used to hitting
two). While monitoring informa- some changes on your disks. when typing . Use whichever one
tion on the new 1541 disk drives I C·64 WEDGE is comfortable to you .
discovered that Commodore was This 'WEDGE ' has many @-This symbol used alone
not including the 'WEDGE' pro- features that the VIC-20 'WEDG E' will provide the user with the cur-
gram on some of the new TESTI does not have. It supports all the rent disk status . It performs the
DEMO disks. A short time later disk commands found in the Disk same function as typing in the
they began including two pro- Operating System and in BASIC. following BASIC code:
grams titled: C-64 WEDGE and This makes it an extremely 10 OPEN 15,8,15
DOS 5.1. C-64 WEDGE is a powerful tool to have in place 20INPUT#15,A,B$,C,D
LOADER program, i.e., it loads when operating the disk. Unlike 30 PRINT A;B$;C;D
the prog ram DOS 5.1. the VIC 20 WEDGE the C-64 gives I am sure you can see a slight
If you have a 1540 disk drive or no hints about use after loading. time savings using this com-
the 1541 disk drive and find the It simply gives a title line and a mand.
TEST/DEMO disk does not in- credit line to the writer and a @$ or $- This is the 'READ
clude VIC-WEDGE or the C-64 READY indication. The DISK DISK DIRECTORY COMMAND'. It
110/Commander September 1983
To be continued on page 112
will NOT overwrite a program in
memory. This is the same com-
mand that is used for obtaining a
Figure 1 directory with the VIC-WEDGE e x - ·
I cept that the commercial '@'
1 REM---------------------------------- symbol is used Instead of the '>'
symbol. You may add a semicolon
2 REM 20.NEW ID and then specify a file you are
3 REM REVISED BY JACK MARX searching for. Another bonus is
4 REM WRAPPED BY R.G.PARTHER that you may add an '*' after the
5 REM-------------------------------~~ FILENAME. You may then add a
second command which I will call
10 OPEN 91010:0PEN 1518115 RECORD.
15 POKE 368791233 This allows you to set up files
20 REM POKE 594681 12:REMSCREEN MEM with a RECORD numberl charac-
30 ~1D$= [HOME J " ; FOR I = 1 TO 32 : MD$=MD$+" t
II ter and search for ONLY those
DOWNJII:NEXT files with a specific RECORD
49 FORI =l TO 39: BL$=BL$+" " :HEXT number.
~ P0$="[CLEAR1 [DOWHltDOWHl[DOWNltRIGHT Here is an example:
80 READ A:DIM EM$(A):FORI=l TO R:IEA - This command has remained
M$(!) :NEXT the same. It will scratch the file
99 GOTOl000 specified by the FILENAME. You
100 INPUTi15"ER:IF ER=e THEN RETURN may specify a particular RECORD
118 INPUTI15" ER"EMf,ETf"ES$ within a particular FILE if you use
120 PR INTI'1DS"[REV1DISK ERROR!tOFF] .. Eft the second example.
.. "EMS" IIETS" " "ESS
130 END FILENAME-This command
200 INPUT'9 I Q$:PRINT:Ql$=LEFT$(Q$/l) ' ~ RENAMES an existing disk file.
TURN You must specify the NEW FILE-
300 CLOSE 2: CLOSE l3:POKE 59468,PK :P NAM E first then the' =' anQ OLD
T"[CLEARJII:PRINT"[RIGHTltRIGHT][ltl FILENAME remains the same as
QU1- This command resets
the Disk Drive DOS.
ta PRINT LEFT$(MD$,MD);:RETURH @1,0- This command updates
50B MD=21:GOSUB4e~ the Directory and BAM (Block
510 PRINT"CREYlUHACCEPTABLE: EHTRY -- Availability Map) In the disk drive.
*(EM) If you should find yourself with
520 PRINT RE$:GOSUB 200: GOSUB 488 two diskettes having Identical 10
538 RETURN numbers or characters this com-
1000 F=0:PRINTP0$ mand can be used to update the
1028 Dv=a Disk Directory and the BAM
1040 PRINT P0' :PRINT"[DOWNlPLACE DISK (Block Availability Map).
N DRIVE "DV"CDOWNJ II @Q-Use this command if you
1041 REM [CDlCCDl wish to quit using the 'WEDGE'.
1050 PRINT RE. :GOSUB 20e IFILENAME-This will load the
1168 PRINT.15, I "+STR$(DV) :GOSUI 100
program specified by 'FILE-
1870 OPEN 2,,8,, 2,,"I": PRINTI15,"Ul:2"iDYi NAME' into the computer. It will
programs to the proper address. It
will load all programs at the start
of C-S4 Basic. On the C-S4 this
will be at $0800 or decimal 2048.
The VIC loads at $1200 or decimal
409S/4S0S). It will also load pro-
grams that Boot from Basic.
Commander September 1983/111
%FILENAME-This is one of Continued from page 111
the new commands added to the
.' wedge. With this command you
can load machine code programs
at their OWN LOAD ADDRESS. If 1080 PRItH#151 "B-P: 21162" : GOSUB 11210: Dt4$
you were doing this from BASIC it ="11
would look like this: 1090 FOR 1=1 TO 16:GET#2IA$:DN$=DN$+A$:
LOAD"FILENAME",8,1; press ~~EXT
(up arrow) FILENAME-This 111121 PRItH [BLUE]THE DISK ID # IS[BLACK

is what I call the AUTO RUN com- ]11

mand. It will load a BASIC pro- 1120 PRINT TAB(5) CHR$(34) DN$ CHR$(34)
gram and once loaded automati- 113121 t1D=13
cally run it without you typing the 1170 ~1D=16
command RUN. I must stress 1175 PRINT"[RED] ENTERII
again that this will ONLY WORK 1180 PRINT" [BLACKJt-~E~J DISK ID #11: PRHn ll


FROM BASIC. UB 500:MD=18:GOSUB 400:GOTO 119121
As you can see this has greatly 1200 NDN$=LEFT$(Q$+BL$12)
enhanced the value of the 121121 MD=21:GOSUB 41210
'WEDGE' particularly in loading 1220 PR I NT "SHALL I SEND [REV)" t·mt·~$
and saving programs from the 1230 PRINT"TO THE DISKETTE O~~ DRIVEIIDVII
'WEDGE'. One of my pet com- ? (YIN) [REV]";
plaints about the VIC-WEDGE 1231 INPUT E$
was that I could not load Machine 1232 IF E$=IIN"THE~Be0
Code programs from the 124121 GOTO 1270
'WEDGE'. 1250 IFQ1$()"N"THEN GOSUE 400:MD=18:GOT
Advanced Disk Commands o 1170
As I promised, we are going in-
1260 GOTO 1210
to some of the more advanced
1270 MD=21: PRHn"BE PATIENT •••
disk commands. Those of you
1280 PRItH#151 "B-P: 21 162 11 : GOSUB 10121
who are more adventurous can
1290 PRINT#2INDN$; : GOSUE 100
type in the accompanying code
1300 PRHn#151 "U2: 211; DV; ".,1810 GOSUB 1

and have some fun learning more 00

about your disk drive operation. I 131121 PRINT#151"I"+STR$(DV):GOSUB 10e:CL
would highly recommend that you aSE 2
DO NOT USE a good disk (i.e., a 132121 F=l:PRINT P0$:GOSUB 106e:F=0
disk with good programs on it) for 133121 PRI~nIlTHE NE~J DISK NAME IS:
your experimentation: 1340 PRINT CHR$(34) DN$ CHR$(34)
mand has been replaced by the U ~JISH TO DO
This command allows you to )"
read any block on a normally for- 1369 INPUT US
matted disk. This disk must have 1370 IFU$=IIY"THEN 1040
been formatted in the same way 1380 IFU$="N"THEN 3121121
that the drive reads it. An example 1390 GOTO 1361
of different formatting is trying to Figure 2
read a disk formatted on an 8050
drive using your 1541 drive. The 1 REM----------------------------------
tracks are formatted differently
and you will be unable to read 2 REM 20.NEW NAME
those disks. U1 or B-R may some- 3 REM REV I SED BIt JACK MARX
times be used to recover informa- 4 REM WRAPPED BY R.G. PARTNER
tion stored on a disk which may 5 REM ---------------------------------
have been destroyed during the
save operation. Sometimes this To be continued on page 114

1121commander September 1983

Commodore 64


Now, you can create high-resolution pictures LAUNCH xx
on-screen with your joystick as a "pen." Design critters,
objects, pie-charts - whatever your imagination wishes! 2031 A.D.!
SAVE your creations to tape or disk, and PRINT USing keys or the joy-stitl:, A-
them on a VIC printer. Educational and funl try and maneuver your n
Draw narrow or wide lines, curvy or straight; set points;
spaceship from your home planet (Zentar) through the
add captions; create background patterns; change
picture. background, and border colors; reverse colors for dangerous asteriod belt. known as the Kiiptamon zone to
a negative; even connect dots with straight lines reach the other side. Dazzling colours and graphics
automaticallyl You control every dot on the screen, combined with the speed of machine language makes this a
A large " Picture Library" is included to get you started. great game. - $17 .95
plus a 20-page instruction manual. Joys tick required. VIC
printer and disk drive optional. On cassette. TELEGAMES SOFTWARE
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Six flexible print modes: GRAPHICS, TRANSLATE.
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Circle No. 82
command can be used to re- Continued from page 112
construct a partially destroyed
sector. 1121 OPEN9JeJe:OPEN15/8J 15:POKE36879J 127
Here is an example of the syn- 2121 POKES9468J12
tax: 3121 t1D$=" [HOME J " : FOR I =1T020 : t1D$=t1D$+ [DO II
PRINT#15,"U1 ";Channel WN1" : NEXT
. number;drive;track;sector 40 FORI=lT039:BL$=BL$+1I ":NEXT
PRINT#15,"U1":a string of four K NAME CHANGER
characters which represent Chan- 6121 RES= II PRESS [REV J [BLUE 1RETURt~ [OFF J
nel; Drive; Track; Sector. 7121 DATA2JOUT OF RANGEJTOO LONG
mand is encountered in the pro- : NEXT
gram the command is read into 99 80TOleelZl
the buffer and the buffer pointer 11Z10 ,INPUTI15/ER:IFER=eTHENRETURN
is set to the beginning bit of the
buffer. This is so that the first bit
of information may be read from
the beginning. The buffer pointer

may be set to read at any Byte by

13121 END
using the B-P Command.
2121121 INPUTI9/Q$:PRINT:Q1$=LEFT$(Q$11):RE
Here is a short Basic routine to TURN
read 256 characters from any sec-

tor and display it to the screen: CLEARJII:END

15,8,15 410 PRINTLEFT$(MD$I MD) j': RETURN
20 IN PUT "ORIVE, TRACK, 5121121 MD=21:GOSUB400
30 PRINT#15,"U1";2;D;T;S M$(EM)
40 GET#1;X$:IF ST= 64 52121 PRINTRE$:GOSUB21Z10:GOSUB4elZl
50 PRINT X$;: GOT040 100121 F=0:PRINTP0$
With a slight modification this 112105 PRINT" [DO~JNJON WHICH DRIVE FOR CHA
could allow you to daisy chain NGES? (ell) [REVJII; :INPUTQ$
sectors together. 11212121 DV=VAL(Q$): REM I FDv<eORDV) 1THEt~EM=
mand: 11213121 I FDV=0ANDQ 1$<)" 12111 THEt~EM= 1
This command controls the 112140 PRINTPIZI$: PRINT II [DOW~~JPLACE DISK IN
pointer position to a buffer which DRIVEIIDV"[DOWNl"
is used by the BLOCK com- 112150 PRINTRE$:GOSUB2e0
mands. This command must be 1060 PRINTI15/"I"+STR$(DV):GOSUB100
used when PRINTING data to a 10700PEN2/812/"1":PRINTI15J U1:2 jDV;" II I1

buffer and when reading data I 1810":GOSUB100

from a buffer. Here is an example 1080 PRINT#lSI IIB-P: 2/14411 : GOSUB100: Dt~$=
of the syntax: 1111

There are only two parameters 1090 FORI=1T016:GET#2/A$:DN$=DN$+A$:NEX

needed for BLOCK POINTER to T
work. 1100 MD= 10 : GOSUB4ee : IFF THEN RETURt~
(1) The buffer channel number 1110 PRINTIITHE PRESENT DISK NAME ISII:PR
(2) Byte position which is usual- INTII[BLACKl"
ly a number between 1 and 255. 1120 PRINTTAB(S)II[BLACKl"CHR$(34)DN$CHR
Thus we have the command:
number; byte position
1130 MD=13
With this information and the fact 114121 PRINT"[BLUElDO YOU WISH TO CHANGE
that each file's data occupies 32
IT? (YIN) [REVl"; : GOSUB20e
bytes we should be able to write a 1150 IFQ1$="N"THEN13S0
program that will read any sector
To be continued on page 116
from the directory so here we go:
114/Commander September 1983
64K bOlt VIC 20™

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Circle No. 89
Continued from page 114
IS = 18 SECTORS = 19
20 OPEN 1,8,2,"#": OPEN 1170 ND=16
15,8,15 1180 PRINT"EtHER t~EW DISK ~~ANEII: PRI~n"L
40 PRINT#15,"U1",2,D,18,S B500:MD=18: GOSUB400: GOT01190
50 INPUT"WHICH FILE ";F 1200 NDN$=LEFT$(Q$+BL$,16)
60 PRINT#15,"B-P";2;32*F-31 1210 MD=21:GOSUB4013
MULTIPLE OF 32. 1240 GO T0127e
70 PRINT CHR$(34); 12513 IFQ1$()"N THENGOSUB400:MD=18:GOTOl

80 FOR J = 1 TO 32 1713
90 GET#1,X$: PRINT X$ 12613 GOT01210
100 NEXT J 1270 ~1D=21: PRItHIIBE PATIEtH •••
110 GOTO 50 1280 PRINTI15)IIB-P :2J144":GOSUB 1013
1290 PRINT#2,NDN$; :OOSUB11313
These two short programs 131313 PRINT#15J"U2 :2";DV;",18J0 :GOSUB113

together with NAME DOCTOR

and 10 DOCTOR should keep you
busy exploring some of the more
advanced features of your disk
1320 F=1:PRINTP0$ :GOSUBl1360:F=0
There are some additional ad-
vanced commands available for
1340 PR I NT " [BLUE] "CHR$ (34) Dt4$CHR$ ( 34 )
disk use; however, I think until
1350 CLOSE2 :MD=21:GOSUB40e
you master the use of these it
would be best to avoid their use.
One command will allow you to
13713 IFF$=IIYIITHEN1040
write directly to a block on the
13813 IFF$=IIN"THEN3130
disk; this is the BLOCK-WRITE 13913 GOTOl13413
(replaced by U2) command. There
is a BLOCK-ALLOCATE com- Figure 3
mand which when used prevents
a sector on the disk from being 1 REM----------------------------------
overwritten by data or program.
There is a BLOCK-EXECUTE com- 2 REM 64.NEW ID
mand which is like the LOAD- 3 REM REVISED BY JACK MARX
RUN feature of Basic. It loads a 4 REM WRAPPED BY R.G. PARTNER
specified sector into the buffer 5 REM
then in machine language jumps 6 REM----------------------------------
to the start of the buffer and ex-
ecutes the program until it en- 113 OPEN9,13,0:0PEN15,8,15
counters a RTS command (that's 15 POKE5328e,14:REM BORDER COLOR
like a GOSUB and RETURN com- 16 POKE 53281/1:REM SCREEN COLOR
mand in Basic). When it finds the 313 MD$="[HOME]II:FORI=lT032:MD$=MD$+"CDO
RTS command it returns to the WN]U : NEXT
Basic program using the B-E com- 413 FORI=lT039 :BL$=BL$+1I II:NEXT
mand. You will find this command 513 pe$=II[CLEAR][DOWN][DOWN][DOWN1[RIGHT
seldom used as it requires a very 1[RIGHT][REV1[RED]DISK I D • CHANGER:
detailed knowledge of the Disk
Operating System ROM. Few pro-
grammers have that detailed
knowledge and that is one bit of
information Commodore has not
shared with us yet. As you can To be continued on page 118
see what you bought as a simple
116/commander September 1983
Join the largest, active Commodore users group. OR BEAT ANY
Benefit from: .
Access to hundreds of public domain PRICE.*
programs on tape and disk for your
Commodore 64, VIC 20 and PET/CBM.

Informative monthly club magazine

THE TORPET. Catalog available for $3.00
Please specify computer
Send $1.00 for Program & Information Catalogue.
(Free with membership).
Membership Canada $20 Can. 3. _ _
Fees for U.S.A. $20 U.S. 4._
12 Months Overseas $30 U.S. SUBTOTAL

c~ . ~
Toronto Pet Users Group Inc. TOTAL
Fo, Fasl Delivery, tend certified or

Department "0" cashier checks, nion.y orders, or di-

reel bank wire tranllers. Persona'
check. allow 2 10 3 weeks to c'e.r.
Prices relilet • Clsn dllcount only
1912A Avenue Road, Suite 1 P. O. Box 1075 ~d~~~w:~:i(i~ ,~ ~'~~~~m)~hl~~ir~~
Glendlle, CA 91209 ($5.00 Min imum) , Calilornla
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5M 4A 1 Phone (213) 247.()484

~~;~S.~~dM~~~~~C~RD Acce.led

Circle No . 80 'Thai is nol below our cosl.




19 Keys. each of which may have 3 sep-

erate definitionsl

Complete doc~mp.ntation including pro-

gram listings'
Works on the VIC20 (Expanded) and C-64

Compatible with most existing software'

Great for use with business programs and

electronic spread sheets l

Ideal for machine language programmer'

VISA & MASTERCARD WELCOME Dealer Inquires Invited - (316) 265-9858

GOSUB International- 501 E. Pawnee - Suite 430
Prices subject 10 change Wichita . Kansas 67211
'C-64 and VIC 20 are registered trademarks of Commodore Internat,onal Circle No. 84

Commander September 19B3/111

disk drive has far greater capabili-
ty than you may have expected.
You can spend many interesting
hours looking into the internal
workings of your disk drive.
Those of you who have a 1540 i"ER
and are contemplating the pur-
chase of a C-64 need not despair.
an UP-GRADE ROM has been

manufactured but not released
yet. I have been attempting to
confirm this with Commodore
i' PI(:PR J
directly. To date they have been
reluctant to confirm or deny the
ROM. The 1540 disk drive will
work with the C-64. The one hitch
is not really a hitch at all. You
simply need to turn off the screen
while loading in a program.
This is acc9mplished as
POKE 53265,11
(or ,8 for disk drive)
You are addressing the VIC
(Video Interface Chip) control
register with this POKE. The
screen will blank out while the
program loads. Once the loading
process has been completed you
will need to type in the following
command : (you will be typing
'blind', i.e., with no lettering on
the screen, so be careful)
POKE 53265,27
That completes the process. I
am sure you can write a short rou-
tine to reside in protected mem-
ory. Once that is done you can for-
get about typing it in each time.
Perhaps you could use the func-
tion keys to perform the com-

1238 PRINT DV"
? (YIN) [ 1t!IIf!'&:iI'...,....:,i0r2
1231 BETES:
1232 IF£S= IllIJ4
1240 GOTO
1250 IFQ1*~~,~ii:'niilili
1260 GOT01218
1270 MD=21: PRIHTP PAT1QJT •••
1280 PR INT.1SI") 2~ 62·'· BOSUBlee
To be continued on PI8e 1.

118/Commander September 1983

If you like adventure
you will love
Gothrnog's Lair

Journey through forests, a swamp, the haunted mansion GOTHMOG'S LAIR features full-color animated
and its dungeon in your quest for the fabulous Arkenstone graphics, sound effects, and two selectable levels of
diamond, one of many treasures hidden in Gothmog's play - for the novice and the seasoned veteran. It's a
vast world. Battle with the dreaded Giant Spider and "real-time" adventure ... the longer you take to find
Baron Ahriman's undead army ... can your gnome the treasures, the more time you allow the Thief and
friend help you outwit the Old Man or recover the chest Cutthroat to get them before youl
of antique coins from a shark-infested lake? You may
A thoroughly illustrated manual with a fold-out map is
even find the enchanted elven sword and slay Gothmog
provided to explain the wide variety of options available
himself I But don't let the Thief and Cutthroat get to the
to you during play. Your success in GOTHMOG'S LAIR
treasures before you dol
will depend on your skill and resourcefulness. NOT on
your luck at guessing the right words to say.
Prepare for one of the most challenging adventures you
will ever undertake as your enter ...

For the Commodore 64. Suggested Retail Price is $39.95.
To order, send check or money order to: Galactic Software, P.O. Box 10516, San Jose, CA 95157
or phone (408) 2'47-4434 for COD
or see your local dealer (dealer inquiries invited) Cir cle No 18
Continued from page 118
1290 PRINT#2,NDNS; : GOSUB100
130121 PRItH#15 . "U2: 2",; DV j ",18,0" : GOSUB10
eL I ST 300-35~j
131121 PRHHI15, I u+STRS(DV) : GOSUB1oe: CLO

132121 F=I:PRINTP0':GOSUBI060 :F=0
1340 PRINTCHR'(34)DN$CHR$(34)
1350 CLOSE2: ~1D=21 : GOSUB40e : PR I tH "DO 'T'OU
136121 PR I NT" At~OTHER DISKETTE? ('i /t·~) [REV
1361 GETUS: I FU'=" "THEtH 361
137121 I FU'= "'i" THE~~ 11214121
138121 I FU'= "t~" THEt~3ee
139121 GOT01361
Figure 4

1 REM----------------------------------
5 REM----------------------------------
Ie OPEN9,e,e:OPEN15,8.15:POKE5328I21,14:P
OKE 53281. 15
2121 POKE59468,12
3121 ~1D'=" [HOME] " : FOR I =1T020 : ~1D'=MD'+ " [ DO
4121 FOR I =1T039 : BL$=BL'+" ": NE:X:T
5121 P0'=" [CLEAR] [DOL~t~] [DOWNJ [BLUE] DISK
99 GOTOle00
13121 ENP
2121121 INPUTI9,Q':PRINT:Ql'=LEFT$(Q$,l):RE
CLEAR] " : Et~D
51210 MD=21:GOSUB400
To be continued on page 122 530 RETURt·~
120/Commander September 1983
King of the
Workhorse solutions
for tough questions.
When Southern SOlutions acquired the exclusive marketing
rights for the CMS Accounting System, the first (and the best)
accounting system for the Commodore computer. we offered
dealers who were dissatisfied with their rurrent accounting
software the opportlJnity to swap ... ours for anj(lne elses.
WOW! We were covered with the others ... MAS, BPI,
EBS, etc ... all trading for CMS. We prCNide the only
complete cOJerage of real software for Commodore
llIE PREMIER ... SYS1'EM Iv. Real
accounting. More like a mini. yet priced for the
Commodore. SuperMath" gives precision to
$1 billion. No one else comes cia;e.
General ledger. accounts receivable,
accounts payable. payroll, inventory,
mailing list Plus important vertical
products: oil accounting, pharmacy
management enrumbrance
accounting. church records and
11iE 5rANDARD ...
SYS1'EM III. Similar to
System IV but lONer priced.
G'l.., AIR. AlP, PIR, mailing list
Commodore 64"'.
Complete line of I:x:>okkeeping
record keeping. personal and
household management
Usually sells for under $100.
Uses one or two drives. just about
any printer.
Peripherals. Monitors, monitor
cables. blank cassettes.
All software has FileGuard n' . Never
la;e data files, EVEN IF YOU LOSE
ELEcrRICI1Y1 Compatible with almost any
computer. disk drive and printer
combination. User-definable reports. Fast
file aocess.
Sold only through professional
computer dealers.
To become a Southern SOlutions
dealer. or for the name of your nearest
retailer. call or write our General
Manager. Bill Swingler.

Dealer Hotline: 1-800-527-4548

'Commodore 64 is a registered
trademark of Commodore
Continued from page 120
1121121121 F=I2I:PRINTP0$
112105 PI-(: I tH " [ DOL·JN] O~4 WH I CH Df;,: I VE FO~: CHA
HGE:3? (121/1) [REV] II .; : I HPUTQ$
1 : GOT010m3
11213121 I FD ...·'=0F1HDQ 1${)" 121" THEt4Et1= 1
104[:1 PRItHPI2I$: PRUH" [DO~Jt4]PLACE DISI< It4
DR I . .·'E" D'·,," [Dm.Jt·~] II

1~16~) P~:ltH#15~" I "+STR$<:DV) : GOSUBlel2l
1(17121 OPEt·Q .. :3~2~ "#" :PRHn#15~ "Ul :2";DV;"
~ 18,121" : GOSUB1~~12I
UJ8'.3 PRItH#15, "B-P: 2,144" : GOSUBU3121: Dt·~$=

11219121 FORI=1TOI6:GET#2,A$:DN$=DN$+A$:HEX
11121121 MD=le:GOSUB4e0:IF F THEN RETURN
1120 PR I tHTAB <: 5) " (BLACK] "CHR$ C34) Dt·~$CHR
11:3121 t'1D= 13
IT? ('T' /t-D [j;~EV]";: GOSUB200
1150 IFQ1$="t4"THEtH350
116121 REI'l I FQ 1$() "'Til' THEN 1130
11 7121 t'1D= 16
118121 PR I tH" ENTEF:: t·~EL·J DISK NAME": PR I NT" L
B51210: MD=18: GOSUB4121121: GOT01190
12121121 HDN$=LEFT$(Q$+BL$,16)
121121 MD=21:GOSUB4a0
122121 PR I NT II SHALL I :3Et·m ( REV] II t·iDt4$
? <: ',.' /t·~) (REV]";: GOSUB2e0
124121 GO T0127121
125121 IFQ1$()"N"THENGOSUB40121:MD=18:GOT01
126121 GOTOI21121
127121 t1II=21: PR I tH "BE PAT I EtH •••
128121 PRItH#15, "B-P:2, 144" : GOSUB100
129121 PRINT#2,NDN$; : GOSUB100
130121 PRItH#15~ "U2:2";DV; ", 18,121" : GOSUBle
131121 PRHH#15," I " +STR$(D'·... ) : GOSUB100: CLO
132121 F=1:PRINTP0$:GOSUB1060:F=0
133121 PRltH"THE NEW DISK ~~A~lE IS:
1:34121 PR I tH " (BLUE] " CHR$ ( 34 ) Dt~$CHR$ ( 34 )
1350 CLOSE2:MD=21:GOSUB400
t~) (REV]";: It~PUTF$
137121 IFF$="',.'''THEtH040
1380 I FF$=" t·~" THEN30e
1390 GOT0104121
1221Commander September 1983
(Ad vertisement)

Growing computer industry


SOFTWARE FOR 8032 WITH 2031 OR 8050

The rapidly expanding personal computer industry
offers greater opportunities for the software pro- General Ledger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5129.95
grammer and author in search of a publisher. 300 Chart Accounts • 700 JIE • Detail GIL &
Yet the growth poses its own problem - the choice of Income Statement· Budget Variance Stmt. • Trial
a publisher. Bal. • Cash Flow Analysis • Bal. Sheet Journals •
Here is a list of questions to consider when looking
for the publisher best-suited for your product :
Payroll System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5129.95
-How large is the publisher 's distribution network? 300 Employees YTD • Emp. Wage Analysis • Emp.
A publisher with international connections can offer Time Card Lists • W-2 Forms • 941 Reports • Pre-
more exposure than companies limited to regional or Payment Register • Labels Work. CompoReport &
national sales. C heck Register • Payroll checks • 50 Hourly
-How will your product be marketed and advertised? Employees·
No matter how good the program is, if people don't Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5129.95
know about it, it won't sell. Look for a publisher with Open invoices (300) • Vendor Report • Pur-
a marketing budget large enough to give individual chases Journal • Pre-Payment Register • Cash
attention to the program. Need Projection •
-Does the publisher market programs for more than
Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . 5129.95
one computer? The days of limited selection in
Customer List (300) • Sales Journals • Customer
hardware are long gone. Limiting programs to one or
Sales History • Statements • Labels • Open In-
two computers can limit sales and profits. Authors can
voice (300) • Invoice Income Projection •
increase their share of the marketplace by looking for
a publisher devoted to converting programs to a Client Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5199.95
variety of popular computers. Everything a bookkeeper needs to keep books for
-Does the publishing house lend technical support to a typical small business client. Includes all features
authors? Some publishers only accept programs ready on GIL plus the ability to produce disbursement
for the marketplace. A lot of good ideas are lost in the registers, 941-B Forms and W-2 Forms.
long run. The publisher that offers assistance invests a
greater stake in the product, the author and the success Each module includes the logic to allow posting to
of the product. the GIL. Each module may be used as a stand alone
-Does the publisher offer complete product support system or a total system. These systems will operate
to consumers? In these times of consumer awareness, on a 4032 or 8032 with 2031. 4040 or 8050. Please
the company that has established a network to answer specify format.
customer questions about its products fares better 8032 Business Computer . . . . . . . . . .. 5595
than those who do not offer this support.
B-128-80 (128k) Computer 5795
Each of these services leads to greater sales which in
B-256-80 (256k) Computer . . . .. . 5995
turn lead to greater profits for the individual
2031 IEEE Single Disk . . . .. . 5295
Sierra On-Line, Inc. is committed to paving the way
8050 IEEE Dual Disk 1 mg . . . . .. . 5995
for an author's success. 8250 IEEE Dual Disk 2 mg . . . . . . . . . 51.245
Sierra On-Line's product line is distributed 1701 Color Monitor with sound . . . . . , . . . 5259
worldwide with produ ction facilities in the United 6400 Letter Quality Printer . . . . , . . . . . . 51.395
States, Japan, Australia , the United Kingdom and 8023 P 150 cps Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5585
South Africa. 4023 P 80 cps Printer . . . . . . . . 5379
Sierra On-Line employs a well-financed, in-house Typewriter interface to allow 64 or Vic-20 to be used
marketing and advertising staff with a knack for with TEC TW 1000, Swintec-all models, Olivetti series
creating tailor-made campaigns for products . 30, 35, 40, Olympia Compac and Royal
Each program is evaluated by experts, who may P~e . . . . . . . . ~n
suggest enhancements to improve the product and to
increase its appeal to customers.
Further, Sierra On-Line isn't limited to a single TO ORDER CALL (713) 530-2515
computer. The company closely monitors computer M.C. or Visa Add 3%
trends and makes existing products available for the BEB SYSTEMS, INC.
most popular lines - all to the author's benefit. 11430 Bissonnet C-7, Houston, TX 77099
A packet for authors with more information about DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED
the software submission process and our company is
available by writing Sierra On-Line, Inc., Sierra On-
Line Building, Coarsegold, CA 93614, or by Circle No. 68
contacting David Siri or Howard Luthy by phone at
(209) 683-6858. Circle No. 39
Commander September 1983/123
The Lost Tomb of Egypt has
finally been uncovered! As senior
member of the archeological
team, you, Dr. P. Ramid, have
been chosen to explore the tomb. You hear the hiss of a snake from marauders you must watch out
Your mission is to find and return one of the adjoining rooms. Not for snakes, ghosts, mummies and
four sacred golden tablets hidden sure where it comes from you bottomless pits while trying to
within the tomb. After making a again pick a room at random. As find the four sacred tablets. The
few changes to your will and say- you enter room 2 you realize this use of graphics and real-time ac-
ing goodbye to your friends you wasn't such a good choice: a tion makes Robbers of the Lost
head for the tomb, determined to snake attacks you. Whipping out Tomb more enjoyable than regu-
succeed. one of your magic knives you lar, non-graphical adventure
You enter the tomb armed only move back and throw it at the games. It's impressed Comman-
with a supply of magic knives. snake. Got it! The snake falls der enough to use it for the
While descending a ladder to the dead on the floor, one less thing SeptemberlOctober game con-
first level you notice that the en- to worry about. You then notice a test. See the Game Contest col-
tryway has been sealed off. A draft coming from one of the adja- umn on page 152 for details.
brief message tells you the only cent rooms, indicating a pit in one
way out now is to find the four of them. It can't be from room 9, Description
golden tablets and bring them you just came from there. Feeling As was previously mentioned,
back to this room. Each tablet has adventurous you choose room 17 your objective in Robbers of the
a magic word inscribed upon it, and then wish you hadn't. You fell Lost Tomb is to retrieve four
and saying these words will do wn the pit and landed on the sacred tablets found within the
reopen the entrance. Until then second level. Luckily, you were tomb and to achieve this in the
YQuare trapped inside the tomb. only a bit dazed by the fall. You least time possible. The tomb has
Upon taking a look around you continue your search. Where are five levels of 20 rooms, giving you
notice that there are three doors those tablets? a total of 100 rooms to explore.
leading to other rooms. Floating Robbers of the Lost Tomb Using the keyboard or a joystick
inside each doorway is the num- The above is a typical scene you must move your on-screen
ber of the room the door leads to, from the game Robbers of the character throughout the tomb in
to aid you in finding your way. Lost Tomb. Produced by Time- search of the treasures. Each
Helpful, these ancient Egyptians. works, Inc., for the Commodore room you enter has three doors
Not sure where to go you pick a 64 on both cassette and disk, leading to other rooms: one on
door at random and find yourself Robbers of the Lost Tomb (no the left, one in the middle and one
in room 9. This room has a ladder si m i1arity to Raiders of the Lost on the right. The rooms are de-
going down to the next level so Ark) offers a change of pace for signed to give a 3D perspective,
you make a 'mental note of this those tired of arcade-style games. as if you were looking from one of
and continue your explorations. Instead of fighting off alien the walls into the center of the
1241commander September 1983
Now you can rely on PACE for ONE STOP shopping forall your Micro Computer needs. We have picked out the
BEST 2000 Books, Programs and Accessories-covering all the major brands and put them Into one friendly
store. And, this Is backed up by THOUSANDS of additional Items we stock In our central warehouse, ready for
overnight shipping to our stores. Magazines? You betl We carry almost 60 different Micro Magazines on ourracksl
Plan to visit us soon. Can'hlslt? Then you can order from our gigantic catalog. Justwrlte for your personal copy
today, Just S 3.00 per copy.


RIVER RESCUE Thorn·EMI. Save the ex·
plorers from the jungle as you dodge a var-
best. fun way for the novice to Jearn pro-
iety 01 hazards. 2 variations for 1 or 2 players. gramming. Easy-to-use language w/over FROGGEE tt 's eas~ Just get your Froggeetrom I he botto m of the
4325-022001 Certrldge SALE $31.g5 30 commands. (ManY9amesare written in screen to the top. Avoid the cars and trucks, hop on the logs and the
this programmIng system.). leaves. Eight levels. with crocodiles. snakes and other neat stuN
GRIDRUNNER HES. Avoid a variety of out to do you in! Uses JOyStiCk. Needs no memory expansion
4428·000303 Cartrldg. $39.95
alien weapons while destroying the advan· 4180·020001 For 3K VIC'20' (C $29.95
cing legions. Multiple level. SYNTHESOUND- HES. State·ol·the·art 4180-064001 ForCommodor.~ 64 P (C •••• tt.) 529.95
4428-000312 Certrldge SALE $31.g5 technical musical ability and special effects
SPIDERS OF MARS UMI. You are the Mar· for the VIC-20~ user. Make it a synthesizer!
4428-000306 Cartrldge $59.95
~i~~~6i~~ ~~~I ~~~~Fbdu~~~~~~~~ig~~~!~~~~ ~~~~~j~i!7~obkOeuen~
tian Space Fly protecting your home from alive l Uses Joystick. No memory expansion needed.
Web-throwing Martian spiders andSaturian 6502 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 4180·020002 for 3K VtC·20· (C $29.95
bats. Pluto~~~~ d,-rE~osn:il;~~e~~?s~ovlan her- SYSTE M HES. A cassette based assembler MOTOR MOUSE Up and down the grandfather ClOCk. plckmg-up
package offering a one or two pass 6502 the cheese But. watch out! There are cats hiding in the cheese l 7
4850-001 &04 Cartridge SALE $31 .g5 assembler that uses standard MOS mne- progressively harder levels and a time factor to beat. Very fast paced
monIcs and operand functions. arcade Quality game. Uses Joystick. No memory expansion needed.
UMI. Four levels of treacherous pass-
4428-000101 Cassette $29.95 41aO'02ooo3 for3KVtC·20' (C ....tta) $29.95
ages laced with deadly robots. Save the
humans, if you're fast enough l For: COMMODORE 64·
4850'001811 Cartridge SAL E $23.95 QUICK BROWN FOX- Oneof the quickest EASYMAIL 64 Commodore BUSiness TINY BASIC COMPILER Abacus. Gives
RESSOR HES. Fast paced arcade' easiest to learn, user friendly word pro- Machines. Fullyfeatured name and address the benefit of a high· speed compiled Ian·
cessors available. Full screen editIng, sup- program for business, club or organization.
~'!l8.~ ~t~u~"8~s~E~\~o~g~~~+::~ ~~:
style action in the 'Avf!'nger' vein.
4428-000305 Cartridge SALE $31.g5 ports most80-column boards, auto reform- 4100·064204 Disk $49.95
ating of edited terxt, single-key operation. REM. RETURN, STOP. USA. PEEK and 1QO<!b
INTRUDER SCRAMBLER Amencan Per· text moving. botlerplating, tab and margins.
Ipherals. Avoid the mountains, bomb the right justification, proportional spacing & 6502/6510 PROFESSIONAL DEVEL· of Iloating point math and functions. Written
targets and avoid the missile s. Multilevel. OPMENT SYSTEM HES.Acassette based In BASIC It IS easily modifiable by user.
more. assembler package. With a one or two pass Generates pure 6502
412S·000428 C . . . . tt. SALE $15.95 4702·000100 For VIC'20' $65.00 assembler using standard MOS mnemonics. co~~.. Ca~ be t~sted, a.nd has listing capa-
GAM E 6 PAC American Peripherals. A set
For: COMMODORE 64 · 4428-000102 Ca.sett. $29.95 48<:'1tl'~ld;~"g?.:-v'th use(s m:~~ai>o
of 6 games for your VIC': GalaxyWars: Cat
Has9 Lives; Maze of Dragons; Othello; Am- TURTLE GRAPHICS II HES. Advanced _
T HE ELEMEN T ARYM f rom verSion of David Malmberg's program. de' QUICK BROWN FOX Word pr,?cessor.
bulance: and Barric ade. Datamosl. Probably TH E BEST SIgned for the C·64~ graphIcs system. See full deSCription underVIC-20 ,thIS ad.
125·100006 Cas •. (6) SALE $31.95 book available to date on this sup-
DEVELOP-20 French Silk Smooth Ware. erb new computer. Easy to under- 4428-000503 Cartrldge . . $59.95 4702'~~~r1d~~ra~d6~:ssette) $65.00
The game programmer's tool kit Includes: stand and master. For Commodore HESWRITER 64 HES. SOPhlstlcate~ lime- DEVELOp·64 French Silk Smooth Ware.
Book. Decoder. Editor. Assembler. Loader 64 c owners everywhere~ savIng word proce~s.or for th,e C-~4 . Incl- Game programmer's toolkit. See full de-
and Monitor. Requires minimum 5K memory. 4560-000034 224 Pege. $14.95 ud~S full screen edItIng. Justlftca~lon. cen- scription under VIC-20 in this ad.
4385-004020 Cae.ette/Book $49.95 HES WRITER 64 HES. Word processing te"-ng. page headers and numbenng. Com· 4365-064013 Cas•• tt./Book $34.95
patlble With all Commodore pnnters or any 4365-064014 Di.k/Book $39.95
MASTERING THE VIC·20 Wiley & Sons. cartrtdge for the Commodore 54!!: computer.
With little knowledge of BASIC. book will Easy editing, preview output and word wrap- IEEE compatible pnnter. NEW PACE COMPUTERWARE CATALOG
around. Save on tape or disk.. 4428·000504 Cartrld9. $44.95 0009'19830~ue Su~
teach you to wnte programs, make music.
create pictures and learn to communIcate 4428·000504 Cartridge
with 6502 machine language WORD MACHfNE/NAME MACHINE Com·
4925·088892 Book. 178 Pgs $14.95 modore Business Machines. Perfect easy-
_jijt1e,t.il1*'~" __
We want you to have confidence in buying from PACE, so, we think that it is im-
VIC·20' USER GUIDE OsbornelMcGraw' to-understand word processing product portant to take this opportunity to explain something about our company.
Hill. How to operate, including peripherals. designed as an entry level item for home. Drawing from our more than 25 years of merchandising experience, our aim is
programming, color graphics and sound. For notes to kids. letters to friendS, etc. to provide microcomputer users with a ON E STOP Software Source for all your needs:
plus more! 4100·064210 Disk $29.95
4665·000086 BOOk. 388 Pgs $14.95 PEr EMULATOR- Commodore Business ~u~Fa~uAn~~oB2it~~:,;~~~:~II~~~~~10~S~~~;0~~';~ ~~i~l~gee~lfii~1 '6°,:;t~~:c~
TYPING TUTOR Academy Software. Teach Machines. An emulator that will allow a high your local PACE Micro Software C.nter.
yourself to type with thIS easy to us~. four level of existing PEr software to be exec- By the time that you read this ad, ourtirst PACE store in theWestern Suburbs of
level program. uted on the CommOdore 64'. especially
4005·000001 Cassette $12.95 educatior1al materials.
4100·064107 Disk $29.95
~~~~~gi~: I~~~ ~eyno~g~rndti~ebc~ :~~~~he~tAc~~~~:r~r~a~en~~~:"A;;t~ ~~~~g"p~;:'
DATA MANAGER Micro Spec Create. where we stock over 6,000 products.
write and read files. You can 'browse' PACE has been founded by businessmen with impeccable reputations built on
search and maintain WIth thIS data manager TYPE-'N- TALK" Votrax. Text to speech syn- over 25 years of experience in the business community and we would be most will-
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room . Consequently you can quickly to grab it, for if you enter ever, with no end in sight. You are
move the character away from or another room and then return , it effectively dead and will be asked
towards you, as well as left and will have disappeared. To grab it if you want to play again. Too bad .
right. And each time you move simply pass over it and it will be Note: If you enter a room with a
your character a measure of included with your present arsen- pit nearby the message "I FEEL A
music is played. These things al, though you won't see it being DRAFT" will flash on the screen,
make the game far more interest- carried. Another useful object is warning you of any potential
ing than a simple text adventure the blue ruby. If picked up it will perils. Unfortunately, it doesn't
with no graphics. immediately kill the mummies in say in which room (none of the
Of course, there are other any room you enter. The last messages do) ~o be careful and
features to the game. To go up or useful items you will find are the use your judgement in deciding
down a level simply find a room golden tablets themselves. They which room is safe.
with a ladder in the proper direc- are scattered throughout the
tion (a down ladder is indicated maze, with no clues as to their Mummies also walk about the
by an opening in the floor) and locations. They don 't have any tomb. They're probably the most
walk over to it. The program takes special powers but they do bring dangerous creatures you can
over and automatically moves you you that much closer to your goal face. If you enter a room and spot
up or down as the case may be. It of finding all four. the mummy fast enough you can
should be noted that once start- So things aren't too easy, either throw a magic knife at it or
ed, you cannot stop your ascent several perils may be found in the flee. But most of the time you're
or descent until you are back on rooms. Pits are probably the most too close to do either and you get
the floor. If there are any hazards vexing. Entering a room with a pit killed. The warning "I SMELL A
in the room above or below, you causes you to fall to the next level MUMMY" will be displayed if a
had better be prepared to face down . They don't really do you mummy is in a room nearby. Of
them. any harm, just frustrate you- course, if you have the blue ruby
Aside from ladders you may unless you happen to fall in a pit then you don't have to worry
find other helpful items in the on level 5. Pits here are bot- about the mummies· at all-
rooms. Once in a while a magic tomless and you will find yourself they're killed the instant you set
knife will appear in a room. Move falling and falling forever and foot in the room. Pretty good, eh?
Snakes can also be deadly, but
rarely so. If you enter a room with
a snake a simple press of the fire
WALLBANGER - Blast your way through the dodge'm, blast'm, button (or the space bar) will
and attack modes. If you destroy the bouncing balls before they destroy
you, the walls close in for the next round . WALLBANGER is written in
launch a knife and kill the snake
machine language, has great sound, and encourages complex strategies. -providing it's not too close,
CA88/I1KNIC 20 otherwise you have to run. Most
AU 40180 COLUMN PET8 Ii C8M8 . . (Include. Shipping/Handling) 119.95
(CALIF. RES. ADD S% SALES TAX) of the time you can easily outrun
CHICKEN CHASE - Help your hapless hen avoid hungry it. The warning message for
chicken hawks, sneaky coyotes, and fiendish zompys . If your chicken gets
into trouble, "hyper-hen" to a new spot on the maze . If your chicken snakes is "I HEAR SNAKES".
travels the entire maze, you advance to the next level where the action is
faster and the predators more numerous . Hi-res graphics, great sounds, Last and least of the hazards
and machine language help make CHICKEN CHASE a hilarious fun-filled
game for the whole family . are the ghosts. More of an an-
C-84/CA88IIIKlVIC 20 . . .... (Include. Shipping/Handling) 119.95 noyance than a threat, these
mischievous creatures spirit you
ROADTOAD - Hop your toad across 5 lanes of traffic, avoid away to another room on the
deadly snakes, and dodge the dreaded toad-eaters. Cross a raging river
full of logs , turtles, alligators, and park your toad in the safety of a harbor. same level. Usually it is harmless,
Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous . ROAD TOAD is written in
but sometimes they can deposit
machine language and uses high resolution graphics . The sound effects are you in a room with a mummy.
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. Even if it doesn't you still have to
C-84/CA88IIIKMC 20 . (Include. Shipping/Handling) 119.95
(CALIF. RES. ADD S % SALES TAX) retrace your steps-sometimes
NIBBLES & BITS. INC. across other ghosts. A ghosts
Write For Write For supersedes mummies and
Catalog ORCUn. CA 93455 Catalog snakes. Entering a room with a
ghost automatically freezes you
WARNING! These games cause high panic levels! and the other creatures until it
carries you off to another room.
The message "GHOSTS N EAR-
BY" warns you of the presence of
126/Commander September 1983
Other Features also makes it easy to " cheat " : if pherable. Apart from this there is
SKILL LEVELS: Upon loading you mess up in a game you simp- really no other spec if ic advice on
the game (a couple of minutes ly reload the saved part and con- strategy that I can give you .
with disk, 15-16 minutes with tinue from there, sort of like hav-
tape) you will be asked what skill ing a backup. Useful. Finishing the Game
level you want to play at (1-10). Once you've found the fourth
Levels 1 to 9 are all preprogramm- Documentation tablet you must make your way as
ed with differing numbers of The program comes with an quickly as possible to the en-
hazards but level 10 lets you eight-page manual that explains trance on the first level and climb
choose how many of each you how to load and play the game out. You will then see yourself
want. After deciding, you will be and gives a bit of strategy on how walk out of the tomb at night,
asked if you want moving mum- to finish. It is quite sufficient and jumping for joy. Congratulations
mies. A yes here means that any I cannot see anything else that are given, your time in hoUrs,
mummies in the maze will con- could have been included in it. (In minutes and seconds is dis-
tinually wander throughout the case you're wondering, both disk played, and you are asked if you
rooms and you won't know where and cassette come with a backup want to play again. It's a proud
they will show up next. It makes copy of the program.) feeling when you make it out, but
the game harder, but also a bit I guess you always feel that you
more exciting. Strategy can do It better, in less time. Time
SAVING A GAME: In my opin- The best strategy for Robbers to try again .
ion this is one of the best features of the Lost Tomb is to scour every
of the game. Having the ability to room and keep a map of each Recommendations
stop and save the game on disk or level. The latter is very important. Robbers of the Lost Tomb is a
tape to contin ue later on where Keeping maps allow you to avoid game I heartily recommend for
you left off is a great feature. It is hazards, know where you've been any Commodore 64 owner. Time-
useful in case something unex- and find the quickest w~y out works Inc. has produced a piece
pected comes up or the game when you have the last tablet. It of quality software and I hope
takes longer than you thought doesn't matter how you keep your they continue to do so. I give this
and you simply have to stop. It maps as long as they are deci- game a 10 out of 10 rating.O

M' FILE is a powerful data management program designed specifically for the Commodore 64 Computer. The package is extremely
powerful yet friendly enough for the first time user. Menu driven operation eliminates the need for continuous reference to the printed
documentation .
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: • Commodore 64 • Commodore 1541 • Commodore 1525 or 1515 Printers • Most Properly Inter-
faced Parallel Printers
PRODUCT OF: Double E Electronics, Inc., 12027 Pacifit Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68144, Phone 402-334-7870.
Suggested Retail $109 .95 . For more information contact your local Commodore dealer.

Circle No. 67

Commander September 1983/127

Count Lines: A Utility
You an Count On
=by Howard Rotenberg~===========================~

The program count lines is a The Line Number: The BASIC equivalent to this rou-
fairly simple one that may only be The next two bytes that are tine is as follows:
needed once in a blue moon. I picked up in line 330 are the line 400 get#1,a$: if st 64 and
have had the need for many number. In this line we print out asc(a$ + n$) 0 then 400
reasons to use it quite often the line number just to show that If you substitute this for line 400
though, so I thought that I might the program is working. We also you will see a significant de-
pass it on to others who might count the lines at this point. I crease in speed.
find it useful. The title of the pro- have always added N$ which was The Finishing Touch:
gram explains - exactly what it defined as CHR$(O) at the beginn- The last part of the program
does, COUNT LINES. It is used to ing of the program for the follow- just displays the program name,
count the number of lines in one ing reason: if you try to print out number of lines in each program
or a series of BASIC programs. It an ASC value that is zero, you will and the time it took to count the
counts the lines from the pro- get an illegal quantity error. Since lines. If you wanted to you could
grams on disk. I will briefly ex- there are very likely to be many put an additional counter in line
plain how the program works. zeros in the line numbers or links, 440 to keep track of the total lines
Initialization: the CH R$(O) allows us to display of all the program lines you have
Line 70 pokes a small machine them. counted.
language subroutine into the first Machine Language: Conclusion:
cassette buffer that will scan The small machine language As mentioned earlier, this pro-
through a program line after its subroutine in line 400 is used to gram may not be needed very
number has been picked up. quickly get through the rest of the often but it beats counting the
Lines 80 through 190 get the line. The actual code used is: lines by hand if this information is
number of programs to work on, LDX #$01 ; GET THE FILE needed. If you are programming
their names, drive number, and NUMBER for somebody and part of your
output device. A few strings are JSR $FFC6 ; SET THE INPUT remuneration is a result of the
set up and the files are opened. DEVICE number of lines of code that you
The Load Address: GETCH JSR $FFE4 ; GET A write, then this program will
When the file is opened suc- CHARACTER come in very handy. Even if you
cessfully, line 200 checks the ad- PHA; SAVE IT do not use it as such, it shows
dress that the program starts at. LDX $96 ; GET THE STATUS how a program is stored on disk
This is the first two bytes that are BNE OUT; IF NOT 0 THEN and will allow you to do some of
stored on a disk for a program. If GET OUT your own experimenting .D
it is not 1025 on any CBM com- PLA ; RESTORE CHARACTER
puter that preceeds the VIC then BNE GETCH ; NOT END OF
it is not a BASIC program. At this LINE-GET ANOTHER
pOint it closes that file and in- OUT HTS ; RETURN TO BASIC
forms you that the program is not
in BASIC, so no lines are counted.
10 REM
The Link Address:
20 REM ***********'*************
The next two bytes are the link
address to the next line. This is
30 REM
40 REM
picked up in line 270. If this num-
ber is zero then we know that we 50 REM ***********•••••, ••******
have come to the end of the pro-
60 REM
gram and we close the file and 70 FOR J-eT017:READA:POKE634+J,A:HEXT
put the number of lines counted 80 INPUT"HOW MANY PRGS TO WORK OH";P:DI
into an array. This information MF'(P),L2(P)
will be displayed or printed at the To be continued on page 130
end of the program.
128/Commander September 1983
Stop playing games and start programming your
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Circ le No. 81


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Raleigh, N.C. 27619

Circle No. 61 Commander September 1983/129

Continued from page 128
NEXT: 1=1
100 INPUT"DRIVE" i D : N$=CHRS(0) : ~~=0: R1$=
120 IFLEFT$(DV$/1)="P"THENDV=4 ..
130 TIS="000000 :FORll/(F$(I»,D(D):IFD

140 REM
150 REM **************************
180 REM **************************
190 REM
200 GET#l,A$,BS:K=ASC(A$+NS)+ASC(B$+NS)
210 REM
220 REM **************************
250 REM **************************
260 REM
270 GETll,Af,Bf:IFASC(A$+NS)+ASC(B$+N$)
280 REM
290 REM **************************
310 REM **************************
320 REM
340 REM
350 REM **************************
380 REM **************************
390 REM
400 SYS634
410 REM
420 GOTO 270

450 OPEH4,DV
S;SPC(17-LEN(FS(K»)" HAS"L2(K)"LINESll j
490 DATA162/1,32/198/255,32,228,255,72,
130/Commander September 1983

a divisiQn
OES-Dala Equipment Supply Corp .

By Steven Prentiss

Destined to be one of the best arcade style games

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Joystick required
Vic-20 cassette 9.95
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Subterranean Encounter
By Michael Koberstein
Inner Earth has invaded the surface world _The
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Vic-20 & 8K Expander,-Joystick-cass 9.95

By Cory Christensen
You the Adventurous Explorer are looking for
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Circle No. 13

Commander September 1983/131

Introduction Games Mixed With
Summer vacation Is over. Programming
September is here and another The two cassettes are accom-
school year is just around the cor- panied by a full color forty two
ner. Whether you are a veteran page book. Intertwined in the
with the computer or you are just story are directions for using the
taking the plunge into the murky computer and programming in
waters of computer learning you BASIC. The student begins by
will find some useful software in
MICROCHIPS reading a few pages in the manual
this month 's column . then is prompted to load from the
At the beginning of the year COMMODORE 64 cassette a game that reinforces
students will be starting to pro- Cassette skills presented in the text. An ex-
gram in BASIC. For the young Commodore ample of the game is ANNIHILA-
elementary student there is COM- $24.95 TION. The student attempts to
MODORE'S GORTEK AND THE wipe out all of the letters the
MICROCHIPS. For the more When you think of kids and Zitrons are firing. ANNIHILATION
mature person I have THE computers, what is the first thing is a good keyboard familiarization
ELEMENTARY COMMODORE 64 that comes to mind? Space drill. Another game is called
by William B. Sanders from DATA- games of course! With this in BOXES. To play this the student
MOST. mind COMMODORE deSigned a Q1ust be able to sort strings and
For those preparing lesson space adventure game for ten to variables.
, plans for the new year I have from thirteen year olds called GORTEK
ESIS, a computer assisted author- is a robot that trains a cadet corps Introductory Knowledge
ing program. To keep track of the known as Microchips to program After a student has finished
lessons and to aid in doing a computer called Creativity. The GORTEK AND THE MICROCHIPS
research I have TOTL'S RE- Microchips must program Crea- he will be able to wear the "I PRO-
SEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 which tivity in order to save the planet GRAM WITH GORTEK" badge.
turns your computer into an ad- Syntax from Zitrons who are in- He will also be able to use the
vanced automated index for "3 x tent on destroying every planet computer and have an introduc-
5" filing cards. Then last of all I but their own. tory knowledge of BASIC. Some
will comment on a products Coincidentally while the of the concepts learned include:
resource guide for the COMMO- planets are being saved the list, writing input and output
DORE 64 called WHAT'S FOR youngsters are being introduced statement, introduction to string
THE '64 by Richard V. Mucci. to programming. variables, goto and for next loops.
132Jcommander September 1983
I would recommend GORTEK with rectangles. Written within memory. ASCII values, CHR$
AND THE MICROCHIPS for the the rectangles are hints and tips functions, POKES and PEEKS are
younger students. I am fascinated on programming and common er- introduced in a way that people
by the novel approach that the rors that beginners most often who are afraid of math are not in-
authors, Heather Scott, Stuart make. These tips are written in a timidated by binary numbers and
Alexander and Gary Bowie, used very light manner that is often algorithms.
to design GORTEK AND THE humorous. For example, "The Another chapter introduces
MICROCHIPS for introducing Parentheses Dungeon" is the title screen and sprite graph ics. The
children to the computer. of one block Sanders uses to ex- user is given some simple ap-
plain how math operations are plications and there are sugges-
performed within the paren- tions for exploring more difficult
theses. In the analogy the animation and creating some ori-
THE ELEMENTARY prisoners are the math opera- ginal demonstrations and saving
COMMODORE 64 tions. The parentheses are the them.
William B. Sanders cells. The prisoners must break Hints and Helps
DATAMOST out of the inner most cells first. The final chapter in the book
$14.95 All math operations are ex- presents some hints and helps. It
Chalk up another winner for ecuted-so the prisoners die covers user groups, publications,
Datamost. ELEMENTARY COM- while escaping. Sanders also cau- languages, and programming
MODORE 64 introduces in plain tions the reader to watch out for tricks not previously covered.
English the Commodore 64 com- "Rundy". "Rundy" occurs when Sanders also discusses some of
puter. The book is written for the run is typed over the ready pro- the ways the Commodore 64 can
beginner. I knew I liked William mpt. "Rundy" is a common error be used-word proceSSing, data
Sanders when I read his philoso- of people who are familiar with base programming and business
phy in the preface. He feels that other computers. applications.
to use computers you don't need The illustrations in the book are ELEMENTARY COMMODORE
to know everything about how cartoons with a style very similar 64 is an excellent choice for
they work. After all, how many to the political cartoons found on someone that is thinking of buy-
people learn how to drive a car the editorial pages of newspa- ing a Commodore 64 or has
and do so for a lifetime without pers. The cartoons are very clever recently bought one and is having
understanding the internal com- and emphasize either a point or a difficulty using it. Even though
bustion principle of the common misconception. the book was written for adults,
automobile. With this in mind the style is straightforward and
Sanders has written a book for Computer Does simple enough that the book
the person that wants to learn Not Bite could be used by students as
how to work their Commodore 64 The first chapter starts out young as junior high school.
computer and to program in assuring you that the computer
BASIC, not build a computer. will not "bite". It is to be used the GENESIS
Terms Are Defined same as any other piece of elec- PET, 8032
The ten chapters each start tronic equipment "with care but Commodore 64
with an introduction followed by without fear". Sanders really
starts at the very beginning by
8K VIC 20
the text and then a summary.
Before a computer term is used in describing hardware, then telling 5K VIC 20 (Abbreviated)
the text it is defined. The author the user how to hook it up and Disk or Cassette
does not assume that the reader then turn it on. $20
knows anything about compu- The chapters and materials Greenwood Software
ters. I think having the terms following are arranged in sequen-
defined is an asset because it tial order so that the user does GENESIS is a computer
eliminates doing one of two not have to skip around in the assisted instruction (CAl) author-
things. Reading and thinking that book or refer to another section ing system that allows parents or
you understand the technical for special applications or more teachers to prepare their own
terms when you don't or sitting information. lessons for drills or evaluation. It
with a dictionary or reference can be used to create any instruc-
guide and looking up each new
For Those Afraid of Math tional program that asks ques-
Since a lot of people think they tions where there are one or two
would not be able to program word definite answers.
Beware of Rundy because their math skills are GENESIS is well documented
Interspersed throughout the undeveloped, one chapter is and user friendly. The program is
book are paragraphs outlined devoted to the Commodore 64 menu driven. Lessons are pre-
Commander September 1983/133
pared by choosing options on a Utilization creates a cross reference list in
master menu. Upon loading I feel that GENESIS would be sorted keyword order. With RA.
GENESIS the instructor is given beneficial to parents and teach- XAEF BUILD inquiries can be
the choice of: title, instructions, ers that want to create unique and done on combinations of key-
questions, edit, new, format, run individualized lessons. The les- words, dates, or information can
and save. sons could be tailored to a par- be saved to disk or tape to be
ticular remedial need or they printed later.
Format Options could be presented sequentially
After preparing the lesson to gradually introduce new mate-
there are several choices for the rial. Lessons requiring drill or rote RA. BUilD
format of the lesson to be pre- memory would be particularly RA. BUILD is menu driven. The
sented. The questions may be suited to GENESIS especially choices given on the main menu
presented in random order with a with the questions presented in are: new file, update/append file,
time iimit for the exercise or se- random order. change 110, print RA. file, print
quential order with the questions RAX. file and quit.
presented in sequence. The ques- When you first choose new file
tions may be presented in lower- RESEARCH ASSISTANT you will be able to build reference
case, capitals or uppercase. COMMODORE 64 records. Each reference record is
Another feature-of the format sec- Cassette or Disk like a"3 x 5" card. Each card is
tion is the capability of formatting given a reference number from 1
TOTl to 9999. The next item on the card
the lesson so it will allow the
students to type their name at the $35.00 Tape is pages. Pages accepts free form
beginning of the lesson. The com- $39.00 Disk data of any notation up to 40
puter then records the number of With September here and characters in length. Next we see
questions attempted, number school starting there are new comments, which is the body of
correct and the percentile. The beginnings and papers to be writ- the notes. In this section, data up
computer will accept a class list ten. If you own a computer you no to 1020 characters may be
of up to thirty names. longer need to file your informa- entered. The last section is key-
GENESIS is designed so that tion on those bulky "3 x 5" cards words. Each reference may have
the students do not see the which tend to get dog-eared, up to twelve keywords forty
master menu nor do they have ac- smudged, or even worse, the rub- characters long. If the data is time
cess to the scores of other ber band breaks or the box spills sensitive a beginning and ending
members of the class. If the and you have instant chaos. date may be entered.
students do learn how to enter SpeCialized Data Base Update/append file can only be
the menu the code words can be RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 by used if a disk drive is used for in-
changed. TOTL is a speciaiized data base put and output. Existing records
Complete Documentation system. It takes the place of the may be updated or new files may
The manual accompanying "3 x 5" file cards and stores infor- be inserted.
mation from books, journals, Another option allows you to
GENESIS is complete and even
gives examples of lessons that magazines and newspapers on change your input/output option
tape or disk. It sorts and searches (110). This is for changing devices
can be prepared. The program can
on the basis of keywords and data from disc to tape. The main menu
be used by people that have no
also allows printing the RA. files
previous programming experi- ranges. Then, it will print out
and the RAX. files.
ence. For the more experienced detailed source and reference
programmer, technical informa- data. A printer is required to take
tion containing the program full advantage of all the features RA. XREF BUilD
outline and a list of the string of the program. The RA. XREF BUILD program
variables are contained in the Contains Two Programs is also menu driven. The options
manual. This allows the program RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 available are: set dates/new
to be modified and fit unique contains two programs: RA. XREF. BUILD, save XREF. load
situations or individual needs. BUILD AND RA. XREF BUILD. RA. XREF. inquiry arid quit.
Lessons prepared with the pro- BUILD allows the user to enter Set dates/new XREF. is design-
gram are pure CAL There are no reference data and to print both ed to clear all keyboard data cur-
graphics involved. There is a reference and cross reference rently in memory and to allow the
positive reinforcement consisting data files in order to produce a user to do the necessary setup
of the word "correct" flashing on permanent copy for easy refer- before building the cross refer-
the screen accompanied by ence. ence table. Up to twenty date
sound when the proper response RA. XREF BUILD reads data periods, each defined by its end-
is entered. files created by RA. BUILD and ing date may be entered.
134/commander September 1983
[tcornrnodore Parallel Interlace (Epson, Okidata,
IDS, NEC) .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 70
CBM MemolY Expansion, 64K. . . . . . . 259
CBM 8050, 1 mg. Dual Drive . . . . . . . 995
NIEW CO.... ODORE PRODUCTS Programmers Relerence Guide . . . . . . 18 CBM 8250, 2 mg. Dual Drive. . . . . . . 1295
The Executive 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coli Verbatim Diskettes (10 per box). . . . . 26 CBM D9060, 5 mg. Hard Disk . . . . .. 1995
CBM CI28-80 . . . . . ....... .... ... $ 795 Hes Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 CBM D9090, 7.5 mg. Hard Disk . . . . 2250
CBM BX700. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2990 ADA 1450. . ... . .. . .... . ..... ... 149 CBM 2031 , 170K Single Drive (New) 395
B Series Software . . . . . . . . • . . .. . . . . Coli ADA 1800 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 DC Hayes Smart Modem. . . . . . . . . . . 220
CBM 1520 Plotter. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 169 Numeric Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 BUSINESS SOFTWARE-8032
CBM 1526 Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 WordPro 4+ or 5+ . .. ........ . .... $ 309
SOFTWARE FOR CB .. t$4:: 8K RAM Memory Expansion Cortridge . . . $ 40 InIoPro . .. . . .. . ....... ... ...... . 219
Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
BUSINESS 16K RAM .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 70
24K RAM ....... . ....... ... .. ... . 105 V1sICoIc (expanded) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Word Processing (Word Pro 3+) . . . .. $ 69
VIC 3 $lot Expander. . . . . . . . . .. • . . . . 27 BPI AIR, G/L, Job Cost, InventolY,
Quick Brown Fox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
VIC 6 Slot Expander. . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . 70 Payroll ... . ............ . . .. . ... eo.325
Writers Assistant " .. .. .. • .. .. . .. .. 99
Spell Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Cossette Interface . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 30 MasterCard, Visa,
Calc Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Gorf (64 also) .. '....... , . . . . . . . . . . 30 Money Order, Bank Check
Busicolc II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Omega Race .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 30 COD (add $5) accepted .
Spread Sheet Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Arcade Joystick - Heavy duty w/2 firing Add 3% surcharge lor credit cords.
Data Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 buttons! Great lor the VIC or 64 . . . . . 25 In stock items shipped within 48 hours.
M File (merge with WordPro) . . . . . . . 89 Auto Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 F.O.B, Dallas, Texas
Inlo Mast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ..ONITORS • GREAT All products shipped with manufacturer's warranty .
64 Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 RESOLUTION (84 OR VIC, Prices are subject to change without notice.
The Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 CBM 1701 Color Monitor .......... $ 249 TO ORDER
Home Accountant (continental) . . . . . 75 Amdek Color Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 CALL TOLL FREE
Panasonic TR-120 (w/speaker) . . . . . 155
Finance Assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 800-527-4883
Stock (Investment analysis) . . . . . . . . 80 PonasonicCT-160 ................ 279
BMC (green screen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 800-442-1048
Agricultural Management . . . . . . . . . . . Coli (WIthin Texas)
Transtar 20 (high resolution
General Ledger, AIR, AlP, P/R, Inv . . . Coli Business Hours
green phosphor) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 129
RECREATION Mon.- Frl. 8 to 6, Sat. 10-2
Assembler Package (cossette or disk, Video/Audio Coble . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 15
compiled, includes editar, loader,
PRINTERS· LETTBR QUALITY ~ lor tree catalog.
CBM 6400, 40 cps . . ............ . $1450
disassembler) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Diablo 620, 25 cps. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 949
Sprite Master (access). . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Transtor 140 (serial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395
Neutral Zone (access) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 GAME OF THE MONTH
Transtar 130, 16 cps (auto load,
Space Bett .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 19 Adventu-Writer (make your
Pet Emulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
wp features!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
NEC 3500 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1600 own adventure games) Join the
Coco II (build your own games) . . . . . 40 AdVentu-Writer Club . . . .. ... ..... $ 49
NEC 7700 Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2350
Vic Tree (programmers utilities) . . . . . 75
Micro-Term (save to printer,disk) . . . . 39 CBM 8023, 150 cps/graphics ...... $ 545 PRODUCT OF THE MO"TH
Hesmon . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . 35. CBM 4023 Printer .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. 395 INTERPOD (intelligent IEEE
Synt1lesound . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . 45 Epson FX Printer, 160 cps . . . . . . . . . . 549 RS232, serial interfoce
Gothmogs Lair . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 30 Epson MX-80 FT w/groltrax . . . . . . . . . Coli lor VIC or C64) . . ... .... . . .. .. .. $ 179
Road Toad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 EPson FX-l00 ........... .. .... .. 859
Commodore Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coli Okidata 82A, 120 cps (serial
INTERFACES & ACCESSORIES and parallel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
80 Column Expander . ... . .... . ... $159 NEC 8023A (parallel) . . . .. .. . . . . .. 429
VIC 1600 Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Okidata 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 559
VIC 1650 (auto answer, auto dial). . . 150 Star Gemini, 10. . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . 329
VIC 1525 Graphic Printer . . . . . . . . . . 225 Star Gemini, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 499
VIC 1530 Datasette Recorder . . . . . . . 65 Transtar 315 (hi-res, color). ...... . . 575
VIC 1541 Disk Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 COMMODORE BUSINESS
VIC SWitch (connect 8 64's or Vics SERIES SJB DISTRIBUTORS INC.
to printer, <ld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 SuperPet (5 languages, 10520 Plano Rood, Suite 206
PET-IEEE cable. . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 33 2 processors) . . .. .. . ........... $1059 Dallas, Texas 75238
IEEE-IEEE cable (2m). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 CBM 8032 Computer, 80 Column . . . 595 (214) 343-1328
Circle No. 60
BUILD XREF. adds data to the mation. As a teacher I would find
cross reference table in memory RESEARCH ASSISTANT particu-
from the RA. file. The only limit to larly useful in indexing materials
size is the amount of memory left used when preparing new units or
Micro Management in the computer. organizing suppiies.
Systems, Inc. Inquiry allows the user to inter-
2803 Thomasville Road East rogate the cross reference table
Cairo. Georgia 31728
19121 377-7120 in memory. One or several key- WHAT'S FOR THE 64
words or dates are entered and Richard V. Mucci
then the source number and Commodore 64
reference number of any refer- $15.00
ence which contains all the key-
words and date periods will be WHAT'S FOR THE 64 is a pro-
(I: commodore displayed. ducts resource guide for the
COMPUTER Documentation
COMMODORE 64 computer. With
the sale of computers by the
VIC 20 .......•.......... SCALL RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 is mass merchants there are quite a
VIC 1541 DRiVE .......... SCALL very well documented. Prior com- few people with a COMMODORE
VIC 1530 DATASEHE ..... SCALL puter knowledge is not neces- 64 and no idea of the support of-
VIC 1525 PRINTER ........ SCALL sary. This program could be the fered or software and peripherals
VIC 1600 ................ SCALL
VIC 1701 MONITOR ....... SCALL
user's first experience with the available. Richard Mucci was in
AND MORE .............. SCALL COMMODORE 64 and there this predicament a short while
would be little difficulty en- back. He decided to gather all the
EPSON OI(ID\TA countered. The manual even ex- diverse and nebulous information
PRINTERS PRINTERS plains how to format and initialize into an ordered and meaningful
MX·80 ....... S365 Complete line disks and how to use the program file for the COMMODORE 64.
FX·80 ....... SCALL DISCOUNT with a printer other than the COM- After compiling all the informa-
MX-100 ..... SCALL
'337 MODORE printer. The programs tion, Mucci decided that he would
are written in BASIC; therefore share these resources with
~~@If(( /If~.
backups and modifications can others in the form of a book.
PRINTERS be made without difficulty. The
GEMINI· lOX manual suggests some modifica- What's In The Book
tions that the user might want to In the book WHAT'S FOR THE
'309 make to suit his individual needs. 64 you will find listings of: soft-
ware; enablers (compilers, emula-
F FRANKLIN C.ltoh TOTl Support tors, interfaces, etc.); peripherals;
ACE 1000 PRINTERS One quality that really impress- books, magazines and periodical
ed me in this software package articles; user groups and sources.
ACE 1200 FROM '375 was TOTL's support to the regis- If you are new to the COM-
'898 Gorilla / Banana'M tered owner of the package. If a MODORE 64 the index of periodi-
FROM $CALL problem is encountered or the cal articles written for the 64 and
user desires technical assistance the lists of magazines and books
TOTL offers to provide help with supporting the 64 would be par-
only $2.00 for postage and handl- ticularly useful. Both oldtimers
PORTABLE. SCALL ing required. If the user has made and newcomers will find the
PRINTERS SCALL modifications it is requested that directory of sources which con-
a disc/tape with the modifications tains addresses and phone
Verbatim" be enclosed. Having struggled numbers very helpful.
COMREX with programs that didn't work or

AMtEK .~ contained bugs, I really appreci- A Living Resource

ate a company that offers this Another interesting feature of
ALL PRODUCTS WE CARRY ARE BRAND NEW AND kind of service and actually adver- the WHAT'S FOR THE 64 is that
PRICES AND PRODUCTS SUBJECT TO CHANGE tises it in their manual. Richard Mucci envisions the book
WITHOUT NOTICE. RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 to be a living source which will
FREE UPON REQUEST could be used by those doing grow with the COMMODORE 64.
original research or writing Addends and supplements will be
:3 papers. It could also be used by
WRITE . published and readers are asked
MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ~ anyone that needs to catalog col- to participate with input and sug-
TElEMARKET DEPT. No·3 ~ 8 lections or cross reference infor- gestions.D
2B03 THOMASVILLE RD. E.• CAIRO. GA. 31728 i3

or t e C-6
Meteor Madness The screen begins to fill with faster with moving the laser can-
Rated **** METEORS, different colors and non on target and firing. My son
by R. G. Partner sizes moving in different direc- and I have gotten to level 8 and
tions. If you have a quick hand that has been a real challenge.
and a quick eye you can bring the This game created by SOFT-
Are you ready for many hours of cross-hair of your NUCLEAR PLUS in Lawrence, Kansas,
excitement? If you are, then POWERED LASER CANNON to should keep anyone who enjoys a
Meteor Madness is for you. Are bear on a meteor; there, it's challenge occupied. Be prepared
you ready for a real challenge? centered in the sight, NOW push to lose some games in the begin-
Then Meteor Madness is just the the fire button. The meteor is ning however. If you are patient
.g ame to keep you on the edge of destroyed! But look out, there is a and improve your skill you can ad-
your chair! Get a co-pilot or two; large one moving in on your ship! vance on to the next level. I don't
in fact up to FOUR people can Swing around quick! Fire! Fire! know how many levels there are
play this one. After loading this Wheeeewwww, almost missed so let us know how you are dOing.
DISK game, you find yourself in that one! There are more coming, Remember EARTH MUST BE
outer space, miles above earth. you must complete your mission! PRESERVED AT ALL COSTS . ..
Suddenly you are confronted with Life on earth depends on it! Good THE METEORS MUST BE
the absolute blackness of space, luck! DESTROYED!! 0
in front · of you is a gun sight This is just level ONE of many
cross-hair, your thumb rests gent- levels. Then there are the
lyon the fire button of your CHALLENGE levels. Each one
Nuclear Powered Laser. You are more difficult than the one
in control of robot drone ships. before. Points gained for blasting
All you can see in the blackness the meteors vary with the size of
of space is the light from hun- the meteor. Very small meteors
dreds of stars. Somewhere out count more than medium sized
there are huge clusters of deadly ones and very large ones count
meteors headed toward civiliza- almost as much as the very small.
tion. You wait, uneasy, knowing The large meteors (large enough Tyler's Dungeons
the danger you're confronting. to fill your laser sight) count
You MUST protect earth at all bonus points. That is because
Rated ****
costs. You scan the view screen, they are about to explode and if by R. G. Partner
nothing, nothing but stars, but you happen to have your laser
wait, as you watch several seem trained on one when it explodes From Creative Equipment in
to get larger and larger until you IT'S ALL OVER FOR YOU!! Miami, Florida comes the first
realize THIS is one of the As you go from level to level 3-dimensional graphic cartridge
METEORS which will destroy there are more meteors and they game. All machine language for
earth if you don't get it first! get larger Quicker so you must be fast action, this combines the fun
Commander September 1983/137
of the 'ADVENTURE TYPE you that a DOWN elevator will frog, though. The highway has a
GAMES' with the excellent transport you to the next lower steady stream of bulldozers, race
graphics of the C-64. level. There will not be an UP cars and trucks driving across,
Two hundred and fifty rooms elevator directly underneath or usually at high speeds. Careful
(that's right 250) to search vice versa. One more hint, make timing here is a must if Herbie
through while looking for eight sure you have thoroughly ex- (my nickname for the frog) is to
treasures. Now that sounds easy plored the level you are on before survive and attempt the river. If he
enough, right? Let me tell you entering an elevator. does sur.vive he may rest a while
that you're in for a surprise. While on the river bank, although watch
looking for this treasure you must * * Treasures * * Treasures out for roving snakes at higher
avoid surprise cave-ins! If you manage to evade the levels! Crossing the river is the
Yep, there you are hurrying dangers and acquire all eight hardest part of Herbie's act
through a room and all of a sud- treasures, A SPECIAL MESSAGE because, strangely enough, Her-
den it caves in and you find will appear on the screen. Follow- bie cannot swim in the river. I
yourself trapped in a little tiny ing those directions will make assume this is because the river
space with no place to go and run- you eligible for a random drawing is polluted with some poison
ning out of air. on April 1, 1984. The ONE winner deadly only to frogs. In any case,
If that's not enough to keep you will receive $500.00 for his or her Herbie must instead use the
from playing, how about SNAKE efforts. NOW THAT'S WHAT I floating logs and swimming
PITS! I thought that might do it!! CALL REAL TREASURE!! turtles, jumping from the back of
Yes, there are snake pits and Good luck with the game. one onto the back of another. He
worst of all you don't know where P.S. I'm still trying to find a way may then jump into one of his
they are or when they will appear! out of one of the snake pit rooms home bases, finishing (for awhile)
You cannot see them until sud- ...... they just don't want to let his ordeal.
denly you are confronted with a me through ...... and . . .... oh, Each time Herbie makes it to
SNAKE! Now I don't mean some no, here comes a LURK ........ . one of his home bases he leaves
dinky slithering snake. This is a hhhheeeeeeellllllppppppp! 0 behind an image of himself (his
BIG snake with fangs and every- way of saying "Herbie was here")
thing and it seems that you are FROGGER and starts all over again at the
his favorite attraction. Some by Eric Giguere bottom. If he succeeds in visiting
rooms have snake pits and you all five bases Herbie advances to
can enter the room and look Author: Chuck Benton the next level where there are five
around but trying to exit is a dif- Available from: Sierra On-Line, new, empty lairs and faster
ferent matter. Not easily done! Inc., 36576 Mudge Ranch Road, hazards. Ah, well! No one said
Oh, I didn't mention the Coarsegold, CA 93614 that being a frog was easy . . .
LURKS, did I? Let's see .... no, I For use with: Commodore 64
guess I didn't. Well, let me tell (disk or cassette) Loads of Features
you about LURKS! There is one If you're a person who likes to FROGGER could have probably
Lurk in each of the two hundred frequent arcades then you pro- been an average game if it didn't
fifty rooms . That's right, two hun- bably noticed the game FROG- have any special features. What
dred and fifty LURKS. They are GER a few months back. This makes it stand out from the
the keepers of the rooms and they "cute" game with its enchanting crowd are the options. You can
are indestructible! It does not graphics and catchy soundtrack select between a SLOW mode
matter what you do, there is is now available for the Com- and a FAST mode depending
always a - LURK following you, modore 64 as an official licensed upOn your skill. If you are using
always pursuing. The snakes version from Sega. Produced by the keyboard you can choose
don't stop him, the cave-ins don't Sierra On-Line, Inc., FROGGER is which keys you want to represent
stop him . Nothing stops him. A the best arcade game that I've up, down, left and right, a pretty
LURK'S touch is deadly, sO be seen for the C64. Smooth, colour- nice feature. Another option is
careful! ful graphics and a faithful repro- the ability to shut off the back-
I guess I didn't mention duction of the soundtrack make ground music, leaving Herbie's
elevators yet. The dungeon is this game a must for C64 owners. leaps as the only sound heard.
made up of four levels. To travel Description Something I really like is the
from level to level, you must find The basic idea behind FROG- pause feature which enables you
the elevators. An elevator looks G ER is very simple: jump your to freeze the game if you need to
like a small checkerboard sec- frog across the highway, through take a break or answer a phone
tion. Which one goes up and the river and into one of his call. This ensures you don't have
which one goes down? I will let "homes" before the clock runs to blow a perfect game because
you figure that one out. I will tell out. Life isn't easy for the poor of a useless distraction.
138/Commander September 1983


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(209)432-0633 Fresno CA 93726
Name _____________________________
(P..... chec:k) SUBSCRIBERS
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C~ _____________________________
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o Check enclosed
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o Mexico 25.
Signature Dllte _ __ o Foreign Surf 36 .
.... _ . , _ .......w_fer...-....... ~,... 0 Foreign Air 50. ·VlC20&C~N"'_'"

rates/yr/computer u.s. funds Cooio-. _ _ _ _ , -

.---------------------------------~ Circle No. 96

The graphics on FROGGER are the right title of a program on a be hooked up to as many as eight
what I would call superb. The disk, so that you can load it into disks at the same time numbered
background objects like the logs the computer. When you have from 8 to 15.)
are finely detailed, beautifully col- students who are unfamiliar with 4. They usually store their
oured and smooth-scrolling. The the workings of computers, and directory information as data
frog is a sprite (an albino-it's yet want to use those programs files, either within the program or
white) and there is absolutely no as well, it can turn into a night- as a sequential/relative file on the
flicker whatsoever when it moves. mare. disk. Both of these options take
Sometimes I just sit there and I teach Computer Science in a up disk space and require a
stare at what's passing on the high school in the Elk Grove periodic "updating" of the file to
screen, or I just sit there listen- School District (south of keep the directory accurate.
ing, I'm so impressed. The back- Sacramento). I have a lab of 20 The L. D. Menu program takes
ground music must be heard to Commodore 64's with both indivi- care of all those problems, plus
be believed. It makes full use of dual disk drives (VIC 1541s) for has some nice additional fea-
the SID chip inside the C64 and each computer as well as a net- tures. It is written in machine lan-
reminds me of the arcade version working system (Commodore guage, so it is fast (10 seconds to
itself, it's so good. Good music 8250). I have over 5000 programs, load a 200 program directory from
and charming graphics are ano- 700 of which I use with some the 2 megabyte floppy disk). It will
ther reason FROGGER is a super regularity. Because many of my work with every Commodore com-
deal. students are using computers for puter, including the VIC, except
CAl, it was necessary to put the for the original 1.0 rom PET. It will
Recommendations most used programs together on work with any Commodore floppy
If you like arcade-style games as few disks as possible (thus the disk drive, with the drive set to
then FROGGER is a definite must networked 8250). Commodore's any device n umber from 8 to 15. In
for your software library. The method of letting you get a direc- fact it will read all 8 drives at
quality of the game makes it a tory (or catalog) is to load the once, if you have such hooked up
sure winner for anyone. It's the directory as a program and then to your computer. It does not
best game I've seen so far for the list it. The list then scrolls down store the directory as a file on the
Commodore 64. My advice: get it. the screen the same way a pro- disk or in the program. Instead it
A Review of gram would. If you want to stop reads the disk directory directly
John F. Zacharias' the list before it finishes, you can, and stores it in a buffer in the
but you cannot back the list up. computer, displaying it in a 14
L. D. Menu Program For The user then has to load the pro- program page.
Commodore Computers gram by typing the load command The additional features include
by Lanny Hertzberg followed by an exact name of the the ability to "hide" programs
program. A missed space, com- (make them not appear on the
ma, colon, whatever will all result menu) by placing an exclamation
One of the more frustrating in a "FILE NOT FOUND" error. point as the first character in the
things for teachers who use A program that would list your name. The menu program itself is
microcomputers is trying to find disk directory one page (screen) unlistable, so you don't have peo-
at a time, let you go back and ple using the menu to load the
forth from page to page, and load menu ad nauseum. You can re-
a program by just typing the load the menu from within the
number in front of the program program (so that you could re-
would be a boon. Such programs place a disk and read the new
exist; they are called MENU pro- directory) by pressing the equal
grams, because they are similar sign. Programs may be booted
to restaurant menus . Unfortunate- (loaded and started running) or
ly, everyone I have seen has been just loaded. Machine code pro-
written in BASIC and suffers from grams can be loaded into their
four faults: proper memory location also from
1. They are slooowww. the menu .
2. They only work on one type The cost is a reasonable $20.00
of computer and/or disk drive. for the program and a very com-
3. They will not work for any prehensive manual. Further infor-
device number other than 8 (Com- mation can be obtained by writ-
modore uses "intelligent" disks ing: John Zacharias, 10004
that have device numbers, typi- Vanguard Drive, Sacramento, CA
cally number 8. The computer can 95827.0
140/Commander Se ptembe r 1983
computer Media Directory
A reference book for marketing Orders and additional publication school students through the use
communications and public rela· and free·lance listing can be plac· of computers and educational
tions personnel in the computer ed with Computer Media Direc· computer programs. 0
industry. tory, 2518 Grant Street, Houston,
Micro Software
The first section of the direc· Texas 77006. 0
tory includes listings of computer International to Distribute
media and allied publications Software Arts Products
such as those concerned with off· In England, Europe
ice automation, word processing, N.E.C.L. MicroSoftware International of
office equipment and data com· The National Educational Com·
Newton, Upper i=alls, Massachu·
munications. puter Library is calling for papers
setts, the marketing and distribut·
Included are the names of top on behalf of an educational com·
ing firm recently formed in the
editors, reporters or editors puter conference it Is sponsoring
U.S. by Robert Shapiro, has an·
responsible for specialited cate· on November 5,6 and 7 of 1983 at
nounced that it will be the exclu·
gories of subject matter, bureau the McCormick Inn in Chicago.
sive distributors for Software Arts
chiefs and correspondents in The conference proceedings and
programs in Great Britain, France,
other cities. Direct telephone papers will afterwards be publish·
Germany, and the Benelux coun·
numbers and addresses for off· ed and made available to any in·
ices outside the headquarters are terested party. All interested
The announcement comes
provided as available. speakers should submit a. brief
after several months of negotia'
Computer Media Directory also outline of their proposed presen·
tion between M icroSoftware
carries a section listing computer tation. For further information
I nternational and Software Arts.
editors or special reporters on contact the: National Educational
TK SolverTM-Software Arts'
major daily newspapers and Library, P.O. Box 293, New
highly acclaimed equation·
general and business magazines, Milford, CT 96776, Telephone
solving program for the IBM/PC,
as well as feature and news ser· 203·354·7760. will be the initial program
vices. In addition to the seminars this marketed overseas by MSI.
A third section, which will be major educational conference According to MSl's Executive
expanded in updates and future will feature exhibits, hands on Vice President Shapiro, "We fore·
editions, lists accredited free· demonstrations and workshops. see a bright future for Software
lance writers whose computer· The National Educational Com· Arts in the European business
related articles have appeared in puter Library is a non·profit market. We are augmenting the
established publications. educational organization which distribution with marketing and
Cost of the directory is $99.95, seeks to promote learning and advertising backu p, and project
or $149.95 with quarterly updates. education in grammar and high that the product will be on Euro·
Commander September 1983/141
pean store sh~lves by June 30, European inquiries can be Associates garnered an impres-
1983." directed to Marketing Micro Soft- sive "win" at the Summer Con-
In addition to Software Arts, ware Ltd., Goddard Road, White- sumer Electronics Show recently
M$I also is the worldwide distri- house Industrial Estate, Ipswich, held in Chicago. PractiCalc 64
butor for Computer Software Suffolk, England; telephone was singled out as the only pro-
Associates products. (0473) 462-721.0 gram in the Home Management
Additional information can be category in the CES Software
obtained by contacting Micro· PRACTICALC 64 WINS BrG Showcase to be worthy of cita·
Software International, Inc., The AT CONSUMER tion. The selection was made by a
Silk Mill, 44 Oak Street, Newton, ELECTRONICS SHOW panel of six judges, who are
Upper Falls, MA 02164; telephone PractiCalc 64, the spreadsheet editors in the computer industry.
(617) 527·7510. program from Computer Software In a"', there are nine software
categories: the aforementioned
home management, word pro·
cessing, education, adventure, ar-
COMPUTER BUGS cade, maze, space, strategy and
"other". A total of 6? prizes were
THE "PET" OF THE COMPUTER AGEl I awarded from over 180 entries.
The competition was open to

software written for all com·
puters, and only five other awards
were presented to publishers of
... Commodore 64 software.
"Although PractiCalc 64 is writ·
ten for the Commodore 64, its
'sister program', PractiCa:ic Plus
has clearly been reoognized as
the most powerful spreadsheet
program for the VIC," says Sandy
\£. M ",..
Ruby, author of the PractiCalc
series and President of Computer
Software ASSOCiates, "and the
REAL COMPUTER CHIPSII award for the '64' version con-
TIE TACKIDECORATlVE PIN firms that as well for '64' Qwners.
We're extremely pleased that our
You've had bug. in your pro- The.. computer pet. make industry colleagues were so im-
gram. and bug. in your aptem. great gUt•• And. when ordered pressed with the program."
!Jut, what happel1ll to the.e in famme. of 3 or more. you'll
eva.lve creatur.. when they .ave $1.00 each. So. when or- PractiCalc Plus and PractiCalc
are "worked out"? Some hang dering your Friendly Computer 64 are bpth spreadsheet pro-
around to pe.ter you again, but Bug. order one for each of your
a few are caught and taught friend. and..".1 grams that offer high· and low-
mannerl. resolution graphiCS, alpha-
TO ORDER numeric sort and search, as well
We proudly pre.ent the
FRIENDLY Computer Bug - I.C. SEND: as mathematical and trigona·
Mlte. Th..e once botheraome • 13.50 eac:h for 3 or more OR $4.50
metric functions. Both programs
pe.t. have been trmWormed each for Ie•• ·thcm 3. . are available in either cassette or
into friendly, talented pet. that • Check or Money Order. COD'. disk version. Suggested retail
you can train and with addSI.5O.
• Add S1.00 for postage cmd hem- prices are: PractiCalc 20 $39.95·
pride. You. the owner. are dUn . .
cassette, $44.95-disk; PractiCalc
IUpplled with a comprehen.ive • C~~mla orden add 6% aal..
Plus (for the VIC 20) $49.95·
Car. and TrCnnlng Manual that tax.
an.wen nch pre••ing que.-
tlOI1ll a.:
- What do I.C. ~
. W .
• Plea.e be .ure to lnc:lude your
Name. Addre.. , ZIp Code. cmd
hall payment with your order. .
• Have fun with your new pet.
cassette, $54,95·disk; PractlCalc
64 (for the Commodore 64) $54.95-
cassette, $59.95·disk.
Mlte. eat? ORDER TODAY I Additional information can be
- Can computer bug •• wlm? au ENTERPRISES obtained by writing to Micro Soft·
p.0; BOX 2272
- And. how fcut can they run? FULLERTON. CA 92633 ware International, Inc., 44 Oak
Street, The Silk Mill, Newton Up-
DEALER IIIQUoUI:S: (714) 525.8745/ (714) 992·2137 per Falls, MA 02164; (617)
Circle No. 85
1421Commander September 1983
Three NEW informative pro-
grams have just been made avail-
able nationally by TIMEWORKS,
INC., Deerfield, Illinois, indepen-
dent publisher of personal com-
puter software. Created specifi-
cally for the popular COM-
MODORE 64 computer, these
new programs are some of the
eleven new TIMEWORKS' Com-
modore 64 programs.
The programs include THE
check recording, sorting, and
balancing system; DUNGEON of
venture-in-Iearning game which
provides a challenging and en-
joyable way to develop algebra
skills; and PROGRAMMING KIT I,
a practical "How-to" learning ap-
proach to basic programming.
The package includes TIME-
WORKS' exclusive eight-step ap-
proach to program design, easily
and fully explained. WORKS' programs have proven of each program is $24.95.
The caliber of programming outstanding in these four cate- Each program is packaged in
(usually found in much more ex- gories: Entertainment, Education, attractive four-color boxes with
pensive programs) and the ease Programming and Home/Small an overview, and at-a-glance pro-
of understand i ng of TI M E- Business. Suggested retail price gram parameters. And a compre-
Commander September 1983/143
hensive, easy-to-understand PAL 64-PERSONAL Although PAL 64 is fast and
manual is included. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE compact, it also is loaded with
For further information write or big assembler features, in-
call TIMEWORKS, INC., 405 Lake
Cook Road, Building A, Deerfield, Written by BRAD TEMPLETON, 1. Relocatable output with re-
IL 60015, (312) 291-9200, TW author of POWER and other PET locating loader
#607. 0 products. 2. Conditional assembly
PAL 64 is a new program for the 3. Loading and saving symbol
Commodore 64 that allows you to tables from disk
NEW BOOK FOR THE 64 easily write machine language 4. User customization of out-
A book devoted just to pro- programs. With PAL 64, you can put, pseudo-ops and expressions
ducts available for the use of the type in machine language pro- 5. File chaining for large pro-
Commodore 64 Computer; NOT A grams in symbolic form and grams
MAIL ORDER COMPANY CATA- quickly assemble them into real You can express your values to
LOG! machine language for the com- PAL 64 in all kinds of handy ways.
Over 120 pages of PROGRAMS puter to run. It was the first, and is Expressions can be highly com-
& SOFTWARE, PERIPHERALS, still the fastest and most easy to plex, including parentheses.
INTERFACES, BOOK TITLES, use, assembler for your Commo- There are 7 different operators,
MAGAZINES catering to the 64, dore 64. and values can be given in
and 64 USER GROUPS. With PAL 64, you type your decimal, hexadecimal, binary and
Contains a DIRECTORY of assembler program in with the several other methods. Symbols
SOURCES strongly supporting
standard Basic program editor can be up to 8 characters long.
the COMMODORE 64 in all areas.
that is well known to all Com- One of the best features of PAL
modore 64 users. There is no 64 is the ability to produce pro-
CLE BIBLIOGRAPHY of literature
change of environment and there grams that are a combination of
and written programs since the
are no new tricks to learn. Tools Basic and machine language.
inception of the COMMODORE
like POWER can be used to help With PAL 64, you can write a
in this task if desired. PAL 64 can Basic program that calls machine
ONLY $15.00 plus $2.00 shipp-
ing. (Florida residents include 5% work entirely from memory, tak- language routines by their sym-
sales tax.) Send a Check or ing a "source" program from bolic name, and PAL 64 will figure
Money Order TO: What's? FOR RAM and assembling it into a run- out the addresses for you, creat-
TH E 64, 3494 Chickasaw Circle, ning program in another area of ing a program than can be LOAD-
Lake Worth, FL 33463. RAM. These two abilities allow ed and RUN. This is especially
REMEMBER TO INCLUDE YOUR PAL 64 to be used with a mini- good for beginners who wish to
NAME AND ADDRESS mum of fuss and a maximum of start with Basic and move slowly
PLEASE! 0 speed. to machine language, letting PAL
(Continued on page 146)


Computer Place introduces a
numeric keypad for Commo-
dore-64 and VIC-20. The keypad is
designed with top quality, low ..
profile key switches for smooth, "
reliable and low-cost data entry. It ~:
lets you zip through your numeric .
work sheet, input your numbers
and figures comfortably, quickly,
and more easily than ever before.
The keypad easily connects in
parallel with the existing key-
board connector. The setup is
simple. The usage is comfortable.
And the price is very affordable at
only $69.95.
Contact W. Huang of Computer
Place, 23914 Crenshaw Blvd., Tor-
rance, CA 90505/(213) 325-4754.0 '''1 J :;f:i,,:tl 'J.'" . - -1\

144/Commander September 1983

Take COMMAND by patronizing our advertisers who support the
A'd ~ertlS- I-n·9
wide selection of products for the Commodore computer line.
COMMANDER Magazine would appreciate you mentioning our
name when dealing with these organizations. .

Circle No. PagaNo. Circle No. Page No.

1 Aardvark .............................. 73 99 M'Agreeable ........................... 59

69 Abacus ............................... 48 26 MicroEd ........... .. ..... . ......... 35,53
2 Academy Software ...................... 97 100 Micro Management ..................... 136
89 Advanced Processor Systems ............ 115 28 Micro Spec ........................... 105
37 Apropos Technology ..................... 51 29 Micro Systems Development ....... . ... 36,37
68 Basic Electronic Business Systems, Inc.. 123,85 55 Microware Distributors ............... 33,156
3 Boston Educational Computing, Inc ......... 31 25 Midwest Micro ......... ........ ... . . . .. 113
50 Bytes and Pieces #1 ..................... 48 4 MirageConcepts ...................... 154
90 Bytes and Pieces #2 ...................... 9 56 Mystic Software ....... ......... ........ 24
5 Century Micro .......................... 29 23 National VIC Assoc ...................... 52
6 CGRS Micro Tech ...................... 151 30 Nibbles and Bits, Inc .................. . . 126
20 City Software ........................... 9 31 Optimized Data Systems ................ 102
43 Codeworks ............................ 31 71 PACE .............................. . . 125
7 Comm*DataSoftware ............... 1,78·79 57 Parr Programming ...................... 30
8 Commodore 64 Users Group .............. 76 32 Performance Micro Products ............. 105
Compu-sense ................. 106,107,63,70 75 Phantom Software ...................... 75
10 ComputerAlliance .................... 31,59 33 Precision Technology, Inc ................. 69
41 Computer learning Center ................ 65 58 Progressive Peripherals and Software ....... 22
11 Computer Marketing ................. 41,155 76 Proline ........................... .. 63, 69
12 Computer Mat ....................... 95,91 34 Protecto .............................. 99
27 Computer Outlet ........................ 25 35 Psycom Software ...................... 103
91 Computer Software ..................... 23 47 Public Domain ............ ........... .. 25
49 Cosmic Computers ...................... 93 24 Pug Software .................... . ... .. 109
44 Creative Software ....................... 86 36 Quantum Data ........... .. ............ 85
13 Data Equipment Supply Corp .............. 131 77 Rees Software lab................. ... ... 57
92 Data 20 Corp ............................ 17 59 SAVE ........................ .. . ...... 59
72 DC Circuits ............................ 31 39 Sierra On-Line .................. ....... 123
67 Double E Electronics ................... 127 60 SJB Distributors .............. . ..... ... 135
93 Dynamic Tech .......................... 81 38 Skylight Software ....................... 72
14 Eastern House ........................ 148 65 The Software Clearing House ............. 38
15 Electronic Specialists, Inc................. 24 78 Software International ....... ... . ........ 71
40 Fabtronics ............................ 22 9 Software International ...................101
51 Fox Fire Systems .................. ... .. 27 62 Southern Solutions ..................... 121
17 FrenchSilk .·............................ 2 55 Southwest Micro ....................... 55
18 Galactic ... ............... ... .... 89,47,119 Synapse Software ......... Inside Front Cover
19 GloucesterComputer, Inc................. 27 61 Systems Management Associates ........ 129
84 GOSUB .............................. 117 79 T & F Software ........................... 5
16 GOSU B of Slidell .................... 63, 129 42 Tamarack Software .. ........... ......... 67
85 H & H Enterprises ...................... 142 66 TelegamesSoftware .................... 113
94 Hanna Enterprises ............. . ........ 77 73 TNW ................................. 81
95 ICD Corporation ........................ 16 45 Toronto Pet Users Group ................. 117
52 Info Designs ............................ 3 46 TOTl Software ......................... 69
87 Integrated Controls ..................... 76 81 Texas Technical Services ................ 129
21 Intelligent Software ..................... 84 82 Tronic ................................ 113
96 J. H. Wheeler and Co .................... 139 80 Users Group Warehouse ................. 117
97 JMD .................................. 38 86 Video book ............................ . 19
53 JournaI/20 .. ........................... 90 48 Victory Software ........... Inside Back Cover
22 leading Edge ................... Back Cover 63 WAVE Computers, Inc. . .................. 91
70 lynn Computers ..................... 61,81 74 WebberSoftware ....................... 90
98 M & M Computer Systems ............... 140 88 What's?Forthe64 ...................... 38
64 take care of the nitty-gritty. NEW SCIENCE AND of nouns. This user-friendly, inter-
There's lots more the PAL 64, ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL active title is designed for high
including a complete manual. school English students. Its five
See your nearest Commodore Pet programs are: "Proper Nouns",
or software dealer for complete The Skeletal System, Word "Capitalization: Titles Are
details. Functions, and Classes of Nouns, Tricky", "Special Classes of
ALSO AVAILABLE FOR THE new science and English educa- Nouns", "Common Nouns", and
COMMODORE 8000 AND 9000 tional software programs design- a Review/Test. With extensive
SERIES.O ed to run on Commodore PE'f® documentation and Teacher
computers and supplement class- Guide, Classes of Nouns is
APPLICATION TEMPLATES room studies, are now available available for $60 and $22 each for
from BrainBank, Inc. All three back-ups on either disks or
FOR HAM RADIO cassettes.
titles, in 16K, represent Brain-
OPERATORS Bank's high-quality courseware. "The Skeletal System, Word
JINI MICRO-SYSTEMS, Inc. an- The Skeletal System contains Functions and Classes of Nouns
nounces the first of 24 MINI JINI five programs, each covering a have been designed to educate as
ready-to-use application pack- different part of the system. They well as offer fun and diversion"
ages. This premier package con- are entitled: "A Bone to Pick", said Ruth Landa, founder a~d
tains 12 templates for the ham "Major Skeletal Bones" "Joints president of BrainBank. "The pro-
radio operator plus easy-to-follow Ligaments and Cartilag~", and ~ grams contain lively graphics, in-
directions. The templates include Review/Test . This title is the first teractive features, and like all BBI
applications for contests like follow-up to the popular BBI title: BrainWare, are pedagogically
DXCC, WAC, WAS, SATELLITE The Human Body, An Overview, sound."
1000 plus templates for inventory, which has received rave reviews Additional. information on
logs, mail lists, magazines, pro- for its fine graphics and student these three new BrainBank titles
effectiveness. This follow-up title as well as BBl's other educational
jects, ham fest shopping and
is equally well-crafted and ex- courseware and games, is avail-
citing. The Skeletal System is able by writing to BrainBank, Inc.,
Most hamshack management
available on disk or cassette for 220 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY
systems consist of logbooks,
$70 and $32 each for back-up 10001, or by telephoning (212)
aSL cards stuffed in drawers or
copies, and includes an extensive 686-6565.0
on the wall, wrinkled bills and
warranties, tons of magazine documentation package with line
drawings and a Teacher Guide. POWER 64
modifications, shoe boxes of
Word Functions is available on A Commodore 64 program-
parts and slips of paper. Now
two disks or cassettes, contain- mer's utility package written by
ing a total of nine separate pro- Brad Templeton with a compre-
makes hamshack recordkeeping
grams in two parts. Part I on one hensive manual by Jim Butter-
a breeze.
disk includes "Homonyms", field.
Features: "Homonyms Matching Game", Why Power 64?
12 ready-to-use tem plates for "Synonyms", and "A Synonym -Power 64 produces a spec-
ham radio operator contests, Matching Game". Part II, on the tacular improvement in the ease
logs, magazines, aSL's, inven- second disk, includes "Anto- of Basic programming on the
tory, projects nyms", "More Antonyms", Commodore 64. It is easy to learn
Easy-to-follow directions for "Troublesome Words (to, too, and fast to use.
alphabetizing, calculations, print- two)", "Troublesome Words (it's,
ing labels, printing reports, its)", and a Review/Test. This title What Does Power 64 Do?
searching contains a matching game in a -Power 64's features include:
maze format, wherein a sentence -automatic line numbering
Requires: and re-numbering
appears missing one word which
VIC 20 or Commodore 64
the student has to find and cor- -complete tracing func-
Disk drive or tape player
rectly place. It can be played com- tions
MINI JINI Record Keeper
petitively between two players. -single stepping through
Optional Word Functions is available for programs
Printer (1515/1525, serial or $99 and $37 for each back-up set, - definition of keys as
parallel) and includes documentation and BASIC keywords
Price Teacher Guide. -de-bugging ease with a
$14.95 Classes of Nouns helps teach "Why" command
Contact Nancy Iscaro at (212) recognition of common nouns, -addition of auto repeat
796-6200 for further information. proper nouns and special classes function to cursor keys
146/commander September 1983
-text search and replace MUSIC AND SOUND durations of unlimited length, or
functions EFFECTS SYNTHESIS kept separate (staccato). Two-
-ability to merge basic pro- SOFTWARE WITH ALL hundred and fifty-four gradations
grams of tempo allow speeds ranging
GRAPHICS ENTRY from one to four-hundred and fifty
-listing and scrolling up
and down of BASIC programs in AND EDITING notes per second. ADSR, wave
memory shape, and filter settings can be
Two new programs, Note Pro I manipulated and saved. Best of
-hexadecimal and decimal
and Note Pro II, allow creation all, Note Pro II allows you to AR-
and play of music and sound ef- RANGE your music independent-
-and much, much more
fects on a treble clef musical ly of its actual sequence in
staff. A third new program, Note memory. You can repeat sections,
Pro Bridge is a package for the switch their order of occurrence,
How Does Power 64 Work? begi nner or experienced program- and even play music backwards!
-Power 64 contains a series of mer. It is a set of copyable Note Pro II was field tested in a
new commands and utilities MACHINE LANGUAGE Programs rock band which now uses it
which are added to the screen which play Note Pro music/sound along with the 64 in its regular
effect files and can be added to performances.
editor and BASIC interpreter. Us-
any program. End users can use Note Pro I offers one measure
ing only 4K of memory, Power
Note Pro I or Note Pro II to enter of treble clef per screeen, two-
64's collection of special editing,
and play music and sound ef- hundred and fifty-five gradations
programming and software de-
fects. Programmers can use Note of tempo, and control of ADSR
bugging tools are not found in
and wave shape. Each voice is
any other microcomputer BASIC. Pro Bridge to add music and
given a two octave range, pro-
sound effects to their entertain-
viding you with bass, tenor, and
ment or educational programs.
soprano melody lines.
How Much Does Note Pro II is loaded with uses Note Pro Bridge provides the
Power 64 Cost? and features. It allows you to beginner or expert programmer
enter or edit an eight measure with control over the SID chip that
-Only $99.95; from your Com-
section of music on each screen isn't possible in BASIC. Note Pro
modore Dealer.
using a special five line musical Bridge actually makes music and
staff. Each voice has a full eight sound effects part of your com-
WORTH?! O octave range. Notes can be puter's operating system. The
strung together to create note programmer controls Note Pro

The Microperipheral Corp. has
just announced a low cost
modem for the VIC-20 and Com-
modore 64. The unit features both
an autodial and autoanswer capa-
bility. In addition, it has a built in
Centronics compatible parallel
printer port.
The new product, called an
Aut 0 P r in t - M i c ro con n e c t ion,
retails for $149.94 and is enclosed
in a professional quality extruded
aluminum case. It operates at 300
baud (Bell 103) in either originate The printer port permits con- text to the printer via the modem.
or answer mode and is FCC Type necting conventional parallel The unit measures 5" x 6" x 2"
Accepted. The combination printers such as the Epson and and weighs 2 pounds. For addi-
modem and printer interface Oki. With the modem connected tional information, contact
plugs directly into the computer to the phone line, the printer will Norene Scott, Director of Sales,
without the need for additional in- simultaneously provide hard copy The Microperipheral Corp., 2565
terface devices. Telecommunica- of whatever appears on the 152nd Ave. N.E., Redmond, WA
tions software is provided in the screen. Word processing soft- 98052. Telephone (206) 881-7544.
user manual. ware is available which routes

Commander September 1983/147

Massachusetts Illinois Arizona
Microcron Software Center The Book Baazare Copperstate Cash Register Co.
Woburn Mall Eastland Shopping Center 3125 E. McDowell
Woburn, MA 01801 Bloomington, IL 6i701 Phoenix, AZ 85008
LCA Computer Clinic California
679 Washington St. 560 N. St. #203 Kens Computer & Video
Norwood, MA 02062 Springfield, IL 61704 263 S. Western Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90004
New Jersey Texas
Software City Microbase Software Center
102 Cranford Road 8525 Stella Link Rd. #5 8324 Wilshire Blvd.
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003 Houston, TX 77025 Beverly Hills, CA 90211
Software Center Video Rama Access To Software
372 Hwy 18 2425 Bay Area Blvd. 4720 Geary Blvd.
East Brunswick, NJ 08816 Houston, TX 77058 San Francisco, CA 94118
New York Computers Plus + Oregon
Software City 2350 E. Southcross Blvd. 80 Plus
187 Main St. San Antonio, TX 78223 4535 SE Soodstock
Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 Idaho Portland, OR 97206
Florida Friendly Computers
Rainy Day Bookshop
3655 Gov't Way Suite 5 643 SE Jackson St.
Sunshine Software Cour D'Alene, 1083814
956 N E 62nd St. Roseburg, OR 97470
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334 Utah
Alabama Interactive Computer Systems
1700 N. State #21
Software City 554 Queen Street
Provo, UT 84603
7771 E. Wood Mall Fredericton, New Brunswick
Birmingham, AL 35210 Canada E3B 1W9

0.\0'" \'ft.8
"\o( ,,(;
at STep - 30011200 Baud ..\(y~ VIC RABBIT CARTRIDGE More than just an Assembler/Edltorl
,-.. AND CBM 64 RABBIT CARTRIDGE Now for the "64"
Standard Terminal Communications Package
'PFO'IOD OOA CP<OI>02 BELL 0 12:30:00 10:14:36

Don'l senls tor non-standard CommunicaUons Protocol!

DATA FILESI/'-' .....
"High Speed &'-.1.'
f~:~e~~ed Save!" - '-.I
J It's a
Access Micro Net. Source. Bulletin Boards, Local Main-
frame, etc. . $39.95 Software ATARI
• Complete Package -Includes RS232 Inter- (inC~~~e~~~~li~ge 10r VIC Development ~
face Board and software (does not include Don't waste your Life away waiting to LOAD System New
• Communicates In Industry Standard ASCII
and SAVE programs on Cassette Dec~. Price
\ • Upload/Download tolfrom Dis~ Load or Save 8K in approximately 30 seconds! $99.95
Try it-your Un-Rabbitized VIC or 64 takes
• Automatic File Translation
• Can be controlled ~om ~eyboard or ustr sup-
almost 3 minutes. It's not only fast but VERY Blast off with the software used on the space
RELIABLE. shuttle project!
plied basic or machine language program
Almost as fast as 1541 Disk Drive! Don't be fool-
• Designed 10 Impr0Y8 Programmer Productivily.
3.0 or 4.0 ROMS or 8032 Commodore Computer ish - Why buy the disk when you can get the
• Similar syntax and commands - No need 10 relearn
4040 or 8050 or PEDISK II Disk or CBM64 on 1541_ Rabbit for much., mUCh less! peculiar synlaxes and commands when you go
AII9wS one to APPEND Basic Programs! lrom PET 10 APPLE 10 ATARI.
Price: $129.95 Easy to install - just plugs in. • Coresident Assembler/Editor -- No need 10 load
Expansion Connector on rear of the VIC Rabbit. the Edilor then Ihe Assembler then Ihe Edilor, etc.
Works with or without Expansion Memory. • Also Includes Word Processor, Re~ating Loader,
ATARI AND PET Works with VIC or 64 Cassette Deci<. end much more.
• Options: EPROM Programmer, unimplemented
EPROM PROGRAMMER 12 Commands provide other neat features.
Fast Data Files - two data file modes. opcode circuitry.
- £I' Also Available for 2001, 4001, and 8032. • STILL NOT CONVINCED: Send for 'ree spec sheet!
Programs 2716 and 2532 I;;:;:";';;;~:':':
EPROMs. Indudes hardware TRAP 65 5% INCH SOFT
TRAP 65 is a hardware device that
and software. PET = $75.111- plugs into your 6502's socket. Prevents SECTORED DISKmES
AlAR I iindudes sophisticated I execution of unimplemented opcedes
and prOvides capability 10 eXlend the
machine language monitor) = machines' instruction set.
$119.95 : Reduced from $149.95 to $69.95

148/Commander September 1983

User Clubs
Massachusetts Kentucky Vic Users, Salem Commodore Interest Association
Masspef Commodore User Group The Commodore Connection 306 S. Marion clo Computer Data
P.O. Box 307 1010 Soulh Elm Salem, IL 62881 14660 La Paz Drive
East Taunton, MA 02718 Henderson, KY 42420 Contact- John McConnell Victorville, CA 92392
Contact-David A. Rogers Contact-Jim Kemp (618) 548-6~
(502) 827.a 153 Newsletter-Published in 20/64 Users Group
New Hampshire Interests-VIC, CBM 64, PET near future P.O. Box 18473
TBH VIC·NIC CLU B Interests-VIC software library San Jose, CA 95158
Ohio information exchange Contact-Dei>n Cracraft, President
P.O. Box 981
Central Ohio PET User's Group Membership-Thirty
Salem, NH 03079
Contact- J. Newman 107 South Westmoor Avenue Miss\>uri Founded-1983
Columbus, OH 43204 Meetings-First Sunday, 6 pm
Publ icatlon-VIC·NIC NEWS The Commodore Users Group
Contact-Philip H. Lynch 01 Sain t Louis Mercury Savings
,I nterests- VIC·20 Exclusively
(614) 274'()304 aox 6653 859 Blossom Hill Rd.
C·64 U.S.E.R.S. (User Software Interests-Support of all St. LOllis, MO 63 125.()653 San Jose, CA
Exchange Resources) Commodore Products Membership Director- Features-large library, with copy
P.O. Box 4022 Dan Weidman Iqcililies at local cOI1lPuter
Rochester, NH 03867 Commodore Youths of Ohio (314) 968-4409 (after 5 pm) store . Discounts of merchandise
Publication-Companion 9729 Lawndell In terests -For all Commodore and a swap/sell period after
Interests- All 64 uses. Navarre, OH 44662 Users alld Educators using each meeting.
Contact- Todd Archlnal microcomputers.
New Jersey (21 6) 767-3514 Amateurs and Artesian
Publication - Monthly 24·page P.O. Box 682
Somerset Commodore User's Club Interests-Commodore Users Magazine
6 Lilac Lane under 20 Cobb, CA 95426
Somerset, NJ 08873 Contact- B. Alexander KRSG
Contact-Marty Skoultchi SW Ohio VIC Users Club Commodore Users Group
President 659 Carthage Avenue Washington
01 Wichita Queen City Computer Club
(201) 846-2866 Cincinnati, OH 45215
Route 1, Box 115 P.O. Box 19597
Contact- Tom E. Harris Viola, Kansas 67149
New York 761-7510 Seattle, WA 98,109
JINSAM User's Group Contact-Dr. Ted Cooper
Nebraska (206) 282-3271
P.O. BOX 274 Indiana Greater Omaha Commodore 64
Riverdale, NY 10463 The VIC Indy Club
Users Group A.T.S. VIC·20 Computer Club
Contact-Nancy Iscaro P.O. Box 11543
2932 Leawood Drive 7906-34th Aveflue SW
(212) 796-6200 IndianapOlis, iN 46201 Omaha, NE 66123 Seattle, WA 98126
Publlcation-JINSAM Newsletter Contact- Linda Kropzer
Contact- Bob Qu isenberry Contact-Ken Gazaway
Interests-For users of JINSAM (317) 878·3342
(402) 292·2753 (206) 935-2897
Data Managers and the MINI JINI Publication-For VIC·20 only
series published by JINI MICRO Michigan
Systems, Inc. (for all Mlchigan'S Commodore-64 Whldbey Island
Users Club Mid Cities Commodore Club
CBMIVIC201C64) 413 Chisolm Trail Commodore Computer Club
14342 Stephens P.O. BOX 1471
Hurst, Texas 76053
National VIC ASSOCiation Warren. MI 48089 Contact-Garry Wordelman Oak Harbor, WA 98277
9 Crabapple Lane Contact-Doug Schwartz President Contact- Michael Clark
Nanuet, NY 10954 (313) 776·5835 or (206) 875-4815
Contact- Michael Kielnert Chuck Clesliga Commodore (Houstol1) Donald Sims
(914) 623-8929 (313) 773-6302 Users Group (206) 675.()301
Newsletter-Sprite 64 (monthly) 8738 Wildlorest Newsletter-Chips 'N Bits
North Carolina Interests- All uses of Houston. TX 77088
M lcro-Computer Users Club Co mmodore 64 CBM Users Group
P.O. Box 171 42 Colorado 803 Euclid Way
Bethabara Station South Dakota Computer Clubs o f America, Ceniralla, WA 98531
Winston-Sal em, NC 271 16 VIC-64 Users Club Denver Chapter 1 Contact-Rick Beaber
Contact-Joel D. Brqwn 608 West 5th 4979 W. 44th Ave. (206) 736-4085
Interests-VIC-20 & CBM 64 Pierre, SO 57501 Denver, CO 80212 Special Interests-Programming
Newsletter- The " VIC" Contact- Larry J. Lundeen Contact-Office: Jim McTaggart anq sharing Ideas.
Connection (605) 224·4863 (313) 455-4200 or
Library: Pat Cummings Central Washington Commodore
Georgia Illinois (303) 424·8841 User's Club
VIC-DATASWAPPERS The Fox Valley PET User'S Club 1222 South 1st Street
Newsletter-CCA Newsletter
1794 Alabama Ave. 833 Willow Street Yakima, WA 98902
Support for New Users-CISlises
Albany, GA 31 705 Lake in the HIII~, IL 60102 in Microsoft Basic, etc. Contact- Bob Wood or
Contact- David L. Via Contact-Art Dekneel Tim Mc'Eiroy
(912) 436-5596 (312) 658-7321 Callfomla
InterestS-Ali uses of the VIC·20 Commodore 64 Users
SFVCUG (San Fernando Valley West 1918 Boone Avenue
Chicagolafld C-64 Users Club Commodore U~ers Group)
Florida 190 Oakwood Drive Spokane, WA 99201
21208 Nashville Contact-Terry or Sara Voss
Miami 2064 Woodale, IL 60191
Chatsworth, CA 91311 (509) 327·7202
12911 SW 49th Street Con tact- Russ Hurlbut
Contact- Thomas Lynch
M iami, FL 33175 (312)860-2015
(President) Canada
Contact-Jim Luftman (213) 889-2211 X2015 Days Winnipeg PET Users
(305) 226· ' 185 (21 3) 7()9.4736 Nights 9-300 Ennis Killeo
Newsle tter- Mon thly Winnipeg, Manitoba
InterestS- Ali Commodore Canada R2V OH9
Products CQntact-Larry Nevfeld

Commander September 1983/149

Bridge by poking into its special With GradeCalc the teacher MASTER MATH
registers to control tempo , note has on file all the raw grades and
duration, wave shape and more. assignment information . This file PMI, Inc. of Buckfield, Maine
The package includes sample can then average grades using a has introduced a new software
programs written in easy to read variety of methods . These meth- package, MASTER MATH, that is
BASIC which shows you how to ods range from percentage a comprehensive program for
load and play Note Pro music and scores to symbolic (letter) grades. teaching high school level math .
tone setting files, or create music In addition to averaging, a number High resolution color graphics
and sound effects from w ithin of useful reports can be genera- and games are used to build in-
your programs. Note Pro Bridge is ted. For example , the teacher can terest and enthusiasm . MASTER
interrupt driven. This means that easily obtain a cumulative listing MATH is comprised of six inde-
you can add sound and music to of missing assignments . Other
pendent discs with 50 specific
existing programs without affect- reports include grade totals,
tutorial or problematic subjects
ing their execution. averages, grade book listings,
All three packages are docu- assignment summaries , and incl uding Algebra, Geometry,
mented in detail, and come with more . Trigonometry, Statistics and
sample compositions and tone Basic Accounting. The program is
GradeCalc also maintains at- self-paced and allows the student
settings . N.P. I and N.P. Bridge tendance records in the same
sell for $24.95 on tape and $27 .95 flexible manner as grade records. to determine the most comfort-
on diskette. N.P. II, the full func- The teacher can recover a variety able learning rate.
tion music editor, sells for $46.95 of reports based on the atten- MASTER MATH sells for $150
on tape and $49.95 on diskette. dance records. These reports in- (for the entire six disc or cassette
For information contact ELEC- clude cumulative totals of all at- package) or $30 per disc, and is
TRONIC LAB INDUSTRIES, 100 tendance records and problem accompanied by support mater-
W. 22nd st - box 7167 , Baltimore, reports based on excessive ials. It is currently compatible
MD 21218 or phone 301-366-8138 . absences or other problems . with the Commodore PET, Com-
modore 64 or CBM 8032.
The GradeCalc package is
Additionally, MASTER MATH 4
available on disk for Commo-
A GRADE & ATTENDANCE dore-64, the 40 or 80 column CBM and/or 5 (which consists of a com-
MANAGEMENT PACKAGE or PET computer. The price is prehensive exam package) are
available on cassette for the VIC
GradeCalc is a grade and atten- $29.95. 20.
dance management package de- Contact TAMARACK SOFT- For more information, contact:
signed to free the teacher from WARE , INC., Water St., Darby, PMI Inc., P.O. Box 87 , Buckfield ,
many of the time consuming Montana 59829, (406) 821-4596 for Maine 04220, (207) 336-2500. 0
tasks of record keeping. Grade fil- further information. O
ing and reporting are set up in a
flexible manner to accomodate
any teacher's existing gradebook

A NEW EXPANSION UNIT control switches which are ar-

FOR COMMODORE VIC·20 ranged for easy access and
PERSONAL COMPUTER designed with fingertip control
rather than pentip.
Computer Place has announc- * An external power supply
ed the release of a new VIC-20 Ex- hook-up provision with a two-way
pander. It differs from the others power source switch.
as it has such built-in quality * A fuse block for overload and
features as: short protection .
* Four high quality positively This VIC-20 Expander truly is
keyed connector slots for full the one all the VIC users have
memory expansion and utility car- been waiting for. It incorporates
tridges. all the features the users have
* Gold-plated contact fingers ever asked for. It enhances the
for solid, long-lasting connection. VIC-20 computer system for many
* An on-board RESET button various applications. It is priced
that allows the restart of the at $54.95.
VIC-20 without turning off the Contact W. Huang of Computer
computer. Place , 23914 Crenshaw Blvd ., Tor-
* Four individual slot ON·OFF rance , CA 90505/(213) 325-4754.0
150/Comma nde r Se pte mbe r 1983
VIC 20 (8K)
Commodore 64
Contained within the software
package are the most widely used
and popular business utility pro-
grams including: MASS STORAGE:
( ~~IQISK II )
*THE ACCOUNTANT-General High Performance FLOPPY DISK
Ledger, Income Statement and for Commodore 64
Balance Sheet PEDISK directly transfers data to computer memory, This and the
*ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLEI 250000 bps transfer rate means performance up to 10 times faster than
PAYABLE-Journal for current & a serial bus disk.
paid accounts Model C340-2 Dual 3', ,. $995.00 ModeIC877-1 Single8' , . . $1095.00
*THE EDITOR-Full feature Model C540-2 Dual 5', ,. $895.00 Model C877-2 Dual 8' ... $1695.00
word processor
Complete spread sheet! Screenmaker 80 column VIDEO BOARD" .. ""., .. $179,95
calculating program Give the 64 a screen full of characters. Screenmaker gives a complete
*BUSINESS INVENTORY-In- set of characters (80X24) in a 2K Video RAM, Software to link the system
ventory control system is included,
Checkbook maintenance and WORD PROCESSING:
writer COPY-WRITER Professional Word Processor .... . . $145.00
*THE MAILMAN-Address file The next logical step in the evolution of Word Processors. Copy-Writer
with sorting has the features found in the best and more, Double columns, shorthand,
Profit Margin Calculator;
Business Calendar & Data Base;
Program Evaluation Review CO M PAC K I ntelligent Terminal Package, , ... , , .. , .. , $129.95
Technique (PERT); Linear Regres- A complete communications control center - record/read to/from disk-
sion Analysis; Depreciation; and convert files ASCII , BASIC, BINARY, MAE - print incoming data. Complete
Amortization programs with software, port board and cable.
The software package has full
printer capabilities and comes
complete with a detailed fuIiFORTH+ enhanced fig ForthforCommodore64. ,. $100.00
reference manual including pro- Strings, floating point, editor, conditional assembler, interpreter, and
gram examples and a hard bound more are included in fuliFORTH +. Target Compiler is also available for
binder. Programming assistance $50,00
in utilizing the software is also of- KMMM PASCAL forCommodore 64 byWilserve .... $85.00
fered during specified hou'rs . One of the newest HL languages, KMMM PASCAL isa true compiler that
The entire package is now be- generates machine code from PASCAL source.,. FAST! Editor, Compiler,
ing offered on an introductory Translator included ,
basis of $100.00.
Information may be obtained by UTILITIES:
writing or calling SUPERBYTE Copymaker SINGLE DISK BACKUP ROUTINE" .. .. , $30,00
SOFTWARE at 2 Chipley Run, Copymaker allows a 1541 owner to quickly backup an entire floppy disk
West Berlin, New Jersey 08091, on ON E DRIVEl Simple swap prompting and full use of memory make this
Telephone (609) 346-3063.0 easy to use and essential for any disk owner.
MAE Macro Assembler Editor from EHS ."., .... ,',., .. , $ 99,95
MAE has become the standard of the 6502 industry by providing the
power and ease of use needed by the best assembly programmers. MAE
is a complete development system including a word processor and lots
Commander's Toll Free of source goodies.
Subscription Number is MICROTECH is your complete 64 center, Dealer inquiries invited.
P.o. BOX 102


215· 757 ·0284

Circle NO. 6

Commander September 19831151


Terms for
Game Contest
First prize will be awarded to
the person with the highest
score. The winning entry must
contain a photograph of the
highest score of the game along
TOMB package front and proof of
Entries must be mailed to Com-
mander, TlMEWORKS Contest,
P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, WA
98498. All entries must be mailed,
as postmarks are required to
determine the earliest winning
entry. In the event of a tie,
duplicate prizes will be awarded.
Employees of TIMEWORKS and
their families may not participate.
First prize will be $100, second
prize $50, third prize $25 in mer-
The contest will run until
November 30.
The Game Contest is a continuing feature of
Commander Magazine aimed at providing enter-
tainment for and promoting competition among
our readers. TIME WORKS has graciously
provided us with this Game Contest.


purchased from
405 Lake Cool Road
Building A
Deerfield, IL 60015
1-312-291-9200 inside Illinois
1-800-323-9755 toll free outside of Illinois
1521Commander September 1983

Only COMMANDER will do all this

Reports that give you hands-on, user oriented information on the entire range of
GUIDE Commodore Computers. More comparison charts, diagrams, instructional illustra-
tions, and how-to photos than any other publication in the field • Articles written
by the top working experts in the field.
Innovative ways to use your computer equipment-from self-improvement
INSTRUCT to home security • Valuable tricks and practical advice on how to get the most from
your investment in the high tech field of computers • In depth and unbiased analyses
of the latest in educational software.
Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of the computer future • Profiles of
ENTERTAIN the industry's most creative people • Provocative discussions on the impact com-
puters will have on you and your family.
Critical comparisons of the Commodore Computers • Exactly how your
SIMPLIFY computer equipment works • What those computer "buzz words" mean and ex-
pensive "special features" do • Useful trouble-shooting & maintenance advice.
An expanded directory of the latest programs on ROM-PAK, tape and disc
INFORM • New product previews of the latest and best equipment on the market • Exciting
technologies in development for tomorrow • Important applications of computers
for health, education, business, and the public good • New directions in computers
• Much More ...
Subscribe now and take advantage of our Limited Offer of $4 off the one year subscriptions

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TACOMA, WASHINGTON 98498 magazine dedicated to the
03 YR. $58
(Prices do not include $4 discount) HAVE YOU COT WHAT
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WashinglOn residenlS please add 7.8% sales tax
Allow S-6 weeks for delivery.

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101 ",C.20 ond COMMODORE bA

In'!Oducing \\"Ie fI!S'
e"e! a"allable on '\"Ie
\fIC-20\ Wlt\"l !ealistiC audIO-"lsual
effec's, 'IOU ellplO!e on old
deserted g!a"eVO!d and actuallV
~~o\lOD\e tot
see '\"Ie pa!ilS lie beVond.
",c.20 ond COMMODORE bA

1'v.,(ED WI~\-I KE'fB°ARD

...._ .....sIIII