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The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, such as pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, generating useful mechanical energy. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-strokeand two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water,pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in some kind of boiler. A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built, with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. Powered by an energy-dense fuel (which is very frequently gasoline, a liquid derived from fossil fuels). While there have been and still are many stationary applications, the real strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile applications and they dominate as a power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats, from the smallest to the largest.
Two stroke engine in operation.
Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy density. Generally using fossil fuel(mainly petroleum), these engines have appeared in transport in almost all
vehicles (automobiles,trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives). Where very high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of gas turbines. These applications include jet aircraft, helicopters, large ships and electric generators.
Types of internal combustion engine
Principles of operation
Reciprocating: Rotary: Wankel engine Two-stroke cycle Four-stroke cycle Six-stroke engine Diesel engine Atkinson cycle
Continuous combustion: Brayton cycle: Gas turbine Jet engine (including turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, Rocket etc..
Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. Most fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with different fuels.
A variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injectionatomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure. There are several competing objectives such as: power output fuel efficiency emissions performance ability to accommodate alternative fuels reliability driveability and smooth operation initial cost maintenance cost diagnostic capability range of environmental operation Engine tuning Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting. The fuel injector is only a nozzle and a valve: the power to inject the fuel comes from a pump or a pressure container farther back in the fuel supply Objectives The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives consistently than a carburetor. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. In practice. automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better Benefits Engine operation .Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream.
driveability. affect the emissions. fuel injection does away with the choke which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be operated when starting the engine from cold and then adjusted as the engine warms up. easier and more dependable engine starting. a mass airflow (MAF) or manifold absolute pressure (MAP)sensor. Grosser distribution problems eventually begin to reduce efficiency. Power output is asymmetrical with respect to air/fuel ratio. By optimizing the homogeneity of cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution. in that order. thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution. On a more basic level. less fuel is needed for the same power output.Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more dependable engine response during quick throttletransitions. however subtle. Fuel injection systems can react rapidly to changing inputs such as sudden throttle movements. and atmospheric pressure. Modern electronic fuel-injection systems meter fuel very accurately. a throttle position (TPS). burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean cylinders. engine temperature. and increased fuel efficiency. A multipoint fuel injection system generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to each cylinder than can a carburetor. When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal. and engine oil contamination. and fuel economy. by not letting the combustion events be at the chemically ideal (stoichiometric) air/fuel ratio. Increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution affects emissions. and because exhaust cleanup devices such as the catalytic convertercan be optimized to operate more efficiently since the exhaust is of consistent and predictable composition. emissions. engine wear. Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency. and use closed loop fuel-injection quantitycontrol based on a variety of feedback signals from an oxygen sensor. However. increased maintenance intervals. An engine's air/fuel ratio must be precisely controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance. and power. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution. Deviations from perfect air/fuel distribution. all . rich-running cylinders are undesirable from the standpoint of exhaust emissions. better operation at extremely high or low ambient temperatures. and control the amount of fuel injected to match the engine's dynamic needs across a wide range of operating conditions such as engine load. as is always the case to some degree with a carburetor or throttle body fuel injection. some cylinders receive excess fuel as a side effect of ensuring that all cylinders receive sufficient fuel. efficiency. ambient air temperature. and the grossest distribution issues finally affect power. and at least one sensor on the crankshaft and/or camshaft(s) to monitor the engine's rotational position. fuel efficiency. fuel octane level.
Control units on modern cars react to this and reduce or stop fuel flow to the engine reducing wear on the brakes Supersession of carburetors In the 1970s and 1980s in the US. the components of which allow more design freedom to improve the air's path into the engine. The opposite causes of . CO and HC result from incomplete combustion of fuel due to insufficient oxygen in the combustion chamber. the more complex carburetor systems installed on many engines beginning in the early 1970s did not usually have these advantages. However. While a simple carburetor system has certain advantages compared to the fuel injection systems that were available during the 1970s and 1980s (including lower manufacturing cost). furnished more of their gasoline-fueled engines with fuel injection systems. Furthermore. In a well-designed carburetor induction system. whether the fuel is supplied by fuel injectors or a carburetor. Fuel is saved while the car is coasting because the car's movement is helping to keep the engine rotating. the vast majority of gasoline-fueled automobile and light truck engines did not use fuel injection. it must be carefully oriented with respect to gravity. and fewer with complex carburetor systems. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy. Fuel injection alone does not necessarily increase an engine's maximum potential output. so less fuel is used for this purpose. A fuel-injected engine often produces more power than an equivalent carbureted engine. in contrast. In contrast. and it must be equidistant from each of the engine's cylinders to the maximum practicable degree. beginning in the late 1970s. and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). which forces the fuel into the air stream.the cylinders approach their maximum power potential and the engine's overall power output improves. automobile manufacturers. airflow is often improved with fuel injection. the federal government imposed increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations. automobile manufacturers often made extensive and complex modifications to the engine carburetor(s). These design constraints generally compromise airflow into the engine. Increased airflow is needed to burn more fuel. which in turn releases more energy and produces more power. During that time period. unburnt hydrocarbons (HC). is small compared to other flow losses in the induction system. To comply with the new regulations. the venturi is not a significant airflow restriction. however. NOx. So in order to more easily comply with government emissions control regulations. a carburetor relies on a restrictive venturi to create a local air pressure difference. The flow loss caused by the venturi. a carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger. results from excessive oxygen in the combustion chamber. There are three primary types of toxic emissions from an internal combustion engine: Carbon Monoxide (CO).
a fuel pressure regulator. The throttle body has a throttle position sensor mounted onto it. and enables the engine management computer to determine and adjust the air/fuel ratio precisely and quickly. Modern systems are nearly all electronic. catalytic treatment of these three main pollutants became necessary. which the engine uses to calculate the proper fuel ratio required. Once the permissible emission levels dropped below a certain point. The open loop fuel injection systems had already improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution and engine operation over a wide temperature range. or mechanical fuel injection). for simultaneous catalysis of all three pollutants requires that the fuel/air mixture be held within a very narrow range of stoichiometry. The last component is the oxygen sensor. fuel lines (composed of either high strength plastic. it uses the signal from the oxygen sensor to perform fine tuning of the fuel trim. The next component in line is the Throttle Body. The throttle position sensor (TPS) reports to the computer the position of the throttle butterfly valve. and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to inject the fuel. The mass airflow sensor does exactly what its name implies. or reinforced rubber). giving the computer an accurate idea of how much air is entering the engine. which the ECM uses to determine which fuel injector to fire. but did not offer sufficient fuel/air mixture control to enable effective exhaust catalysis. metal.these pollutants makes it difficult to control all three simultaneously. typically on the butterfly valve of the throttle body. a fuel rail that the injectors connect to. An electronic engine control unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject. Basic function The process of determining the necessary amount of fuel. After the vehicle has warmed up. which the ECM uses to calculate the load upon the engine. are known as fuel metering. Closed loop fuel injection systems improved the air/fuel mixture control with an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. or mounted directly to the throttle body itself. In sequential fuel injection systems there is a camshaft position sensor. This required a particularly large increase in fuel metering accuracy and precision. There is a coolant temperature sensor that reports the engine temperature to the ECM. Modern fuel injection schemes follow much the same setup. and the fuel injector(s). There is a mass airflow sensor or manifold absolute pressure sensor at the intake. . typically mounted either in the air tube feeding from the air filter box to the throttle body. The O2 sensor is mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalytic converter. it senses the mass of the air that flows past it. The fuel system consists of a fuel pump (typically mounted intank). and its delivery into the engine. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter fuel (non electronic.
and then acts as the force to push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle into the induction air stream. An EFI system requires several peripheral components in addition to the injector(s).The fuel injector acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. A single carburetor replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is malfunctioning. In almost all cases this requires an external pump. Detailed function Typical EFI components . EFI systems require little regular maintenance. A point worth noting during times of fuel metering repair is that early EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. something which isn't as simple to do with a carburetor. A carburetor is a selfcontained fuel metering system. in order to duplicate all the functions of a carburetor. In contrast to an EFI system. a carburetor directs the induction air through a venturi. and more fuel is metered into the engine. a carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or altitude adjustments. which generates a minute difference in air pressure. On the other hand. This gives the diagnosing technician realtime feedback as to the cause of the drivability concern. and is cost competitive when compared to a complete EFI system. As more air enters the engine. Newer EFI systems since the advent of OBD II diagnostic systems. a greater pressure difference is generated. can be very easy to diagnose due to the increased ability to monitor the realtime data streams from the individual sensors. It injects liquid fuel directly into the engine's air stream. The pump and injector are only two of several components in a complete fuel injection system. and can dramatically shorten the number of diagnostic steps required to ascertain the cause of failure. The minute air pressure differences both emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel.
Wiring Harness Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here. The electric pulse may be applied in closely-controlled sequence with the valve events on each individual cylinder (in a sequential fuel injection system). engine speed and workload. Injectors Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator ECM . The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such as engine and ambient temperatures.) Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor Airflow: MAF sensor. the ECU calculates fuel in discrete amounts. sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen: Oxygen sensor. UEGO sensor Functional description Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit(ECU). called the pulse width. and each injector receives a unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements. and opens to inject pressurized fuel as long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoidcoil. and exhaust gas composition. is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. is a separate fuel mass calculation. or in groups of less than the total number of injectors (in a batch fire system).Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector. and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel and/or air flow as well as other variables. of the entire engine. The duration of this operation. of every cylinder. among other tasks. In a sequential system. and since the nature of the 4-stroke engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events. The electronic fuel injector is normally closed. includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs. the injected fuel mass is tailored for each individual induction event. which monitors engine operating parameters via various sensors. The ECU interprets these parameters in order to calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected. . EGO sensor. Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts.Engine Control Module. Every induction event.
the mixture ratio can range from 10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline). The stoichiometric ratio changes as a function of the fuel. The induction mixture passes through the intake runners like a carburetor system. and MAP sensor. diesel. which is proportional to throttle position. intake manifold. This postponed the redesign . Many of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such as the air cleaner. with no undesirable polluting leftovers. and fuel line routing. To achieve stoichiometry. the air mass flow into the engine is measured and multiplied by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio 14. Various injection schemes Single-point injection Single-point injection. propane. and this can be determined using several methods. For example. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge". if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet). This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature. called Throttle-body injection (TBI) by General Motors and Central Fuel Injection (CFI) by Ford. The SPI system injects fuel at the throttle body (the same location where a carburetor introduced fuel). in which case. and is thus labelled a "wet manifold system". methanol.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's software. a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel. (See MAF sensor. methane (natural gas). Fuel pressure is usually specified to be in the area of 10-15 psi. air and ignition.) The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel. which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air. and the ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. The required fuel mass that must be injected into the engine is then translated to the required pulse width for the fuel injector.It is necessary to know the mass of air the engine "breathes" during each induction event. However. Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions such as heavy load. Fuel injectors are available in various sizes and spray characteristics as well. complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in the exact stoichiometric ratio. or hydrogen. ethanol. or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet). Pulse width is inversely related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and outlet. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. The justification for single-point injection was low cost. or cold operation. was introduced in the 1940s in large aircraft engines (then called the pressure carburetor) and in the 1980s in the automotive world. gasoline. In early fuel injection systems this was accomplished with a thermotime switch.
no diaphragms. the CPR may be used to compensate for altitude. In contrast to automotive fuel injection systems. and/or a cold engine. TBI was used extensively on American-made passenger cars and light trucks in the 1980-1995 timeframe and some transition-engined European cars throughout the early and mid-1990s. but at a variable rate. Gasoline is pumped from the fuel tank to a large control valve called a fuel distributor. which provide fuel during short pulses of varying duration. no pressure chambers. German for "continuous" — a. Continuous injection In a continuous injection system. the fuel mixture is adjusted by a device called the frequency valve. Continuous injection systems can be multi-point or single-point.k. which controls the discharge rate and evenly distributes the fuel to stainless steel injection lines which go to the intake ports of each cylinder. and even introduced an electronically controlled version called the EGI-S. The most common automotive continuous injection system is Bosch's K-Jetronic (K for kontinuierlich. continuous-flow fuel injection is the most common type. which is individual port injection. commonly known as MPFI or "multi-point fuel injection".and tooling costs of these components. fuel flows at all times from the fuel injectors. one for each injector. The TCM system is even more simple. aircraft continuous flow fuel injection is all mechanical. Most of these components were later redesigned for the next phase of fuel injection's evolution. and no discharge valve. with a constant rate of flow during each pulse. instead of having a discharge valve in the barrel. Inside the control . it uses a flow divider mounted on top of the engine. The injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles. Depending on the model. once fuel system pressure becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring. Two common types exist: the Bendix RSA system. Mazda called their system EGI. The control pressure is regulated with a mechanical device called the control pressure regulator (CPR) or the warm-up regulator (WUR). CIS — Continuous Injection System). and by the control pressure. which separates the single fuel supply pipe from the tank into smaller pipes. which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane. introduced in 1974. On cars equipped with an oxygen sensor. and theTCM system. but not direct. In piston aircraft engines. requiring no electricity to operate. It has no venturi. The control unit simply uses a butterfly valve for the air which is linked by a mechanical linkage to a rotary valve for the fuel. The Bendix system is a direct descendant of the pressure carburetor. This is in contrast to most fuel injection systems. The fuel distributor is mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must pass. The control unit is fed by a constant-pressure fuel pump. However. and the system works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of the air vane. full load. the injectors begin spraying.a.
Central port injection (CPI) General Motors implemented a system called "central port injection" (CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders. The fuel is sprayed with the help of a nozzle which is opened and closed with a needle valve. The pressure drop across the restrictions in the control unit controls the amount of fuel flowing. direct injection systems are beginning to replace sequential ones. most aircraft using the TCM fuel injection system feature a fuel flow gauge which is actually a pressure gauge that has been calibrated in gallons per hour or pounds per hour of fuel. the spring forces the needle valve into the nozzle passage and prevents the injection of fuel into the cylinder. and typical fuel pressure runs between 40-60 psi. and fuel under pressure is sent in the engine cylinder. The intake is only slightly wet. in newer gasoline engines. The header has a high pressure relief valve to maintain the pressure in the header and return the excess fuel to the fuel tank. operated with a solenoid. When the solenoid is not activated. CPFI is abatch-fire system. in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups. and CSFI from 1996 and on. the fuel from the fuel tank is supplied to the common header (called the accumulator). rather than at a central point within an intake manifold. so that fuel flow is directly proportional to the pressure at the flow divider. Multi-point fuel injection Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake ports just upstream of each cylinder's intake valve. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential. Pressure specifications typically mirror that of a TBI system. with fuel pressures up to 1. in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke.800 bar/26. Direct injection Direct fuel injection costs more than indirect injection systems: the injectors are exposed to more heat and pressure.000 psi. the entire intake is dry. so more costly materials and higher-precision electronic management systems are required. however. orsimultaneous. Many modern EFI systems utilize sequential MPFI. In a common rail system. The two variants were CPFI from 1992 to 1995. It uses tubes with poppet valves from a central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body. . However. making this a very clean system. The solenoid lifts the needle valve from the valve seat. without precise synchronization to any particular cylinder's intake stroke. Third-generation common rail diesels use piezoelectric injectors for increased precision. in which fuel is injected to all ports simultaneously.unit is another restriction which is used to control the fuel mixture. In fact. The 1996 and later CSFI system sprays fuel sequentially.batched. This fuel is then sent through tubing to the injectors which inject it into the combustion chamber.
Finally. the engine can operate with stratified (lean burn) mixtures. multiple injection events can occur during each cycle of each cylinder of the engine. feeding separate fuel lines and individual injectors. This is the next step in evolution from multi-point fuel injection. Diesel engines Diesel engines must use fuel injection. Earlier systems. this was known as indirect injection. the homogeneity of the fuel mixture allows for leaner air/fuel ratios. and it must be timed (unlike on petrol engines). With their extremely fast response time. However. Petrol/gasoline engines Modern petrol engines (gasoline engines) also utilise direct injection. often injected into a sub-chamber shaped to swirl the compressed air and improve combustion. Throughout the early history of diesels. the cylinder and piston are cooled. Along with this. which together with more precise ignition timing can improve fuel efficiency. Some direct-injection systems incorporate piezoelectronic fuel injectors. The first use of direct petrol injection was on the Hesselman engine. and offers another magnitude of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the induction system along the inlet tract. and hence avoid throttling losses at low and part engine load. Most such pumps were in-line. with resultant enhanced power output. . which is referred to as gasoline direct injection.Gasoline engines incorporate gasoline direct injection engine technology. By virtue of better dispersion and homogeneity of the directly injected fuel. invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Common rail Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. it was less thermally efficient than the now universal direct injection in which initiation of combustion takes place in a depression (often toroidal) in the crown of the piston. thereby permitting highercompression ratios and more aggressive ignition timing. they were always fed by a mechanical pump with a small separate cylinder for each cylinder. though some were rotary. relying on crude injectors. More precise management of the fuel injection event also enables better control of emissions.
800 bar/26.000 psi. it features a high-pressure (over 1. with fuel pressures up to 1. In gasoline engines. as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (Pumpe/Düse or pump nozzles).Common rail fuel injector On diesel engines.000 bar/15. Third-generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision. Principles Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make possible fine electronic control over the fuel injection time and quantity and the higher pressure that the common rail technology makes available provides better fuel atomisation. the engine's electronic control unit can .000 psi) fuel rail feeding individualsolenoid valves. it is utilised in gasoline direct injection engine technology. In order to lower engine noise.
When the fuel injectors are electrically activated. Some advanced common rail fuel systems perform as many as five injections per stroke. Diesel engines have historically used various forms of fuel injection. thus reducing its explosiveness and vibration. This characteristic resulted from "dummy" injectors in the cylinder head which opened and closed at pressures determined by the spring preload applied to the plunger in the injector. They were limited in the number and timing of injection events that could be commanded during a single combustion event. as well as optimising injection timing and quantity for variations in fuel quality. This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high pressure fuel. This typically meant that the highest injection pressure could only be achieved at the highest engine speed and the maximum achievable injection pressure decreased as engine speed decreased. Two common types include the unit injection system and the distributor/inline pump systems (See diesel engine and unit injector for more information). In common rail systems.inject a small amount of diesel just before the main injection event ("pilot" injection). even those used on common rail systems. While these older systems provided accurate fuel quantity and injection timing control. the start of injection occurred at a pre-determined pressure (often referred to as: pop pressure) and ended at a pre-determined pressure. Once the pressure in the injector reached a pre-determined level. This simplifies the purpose of the high pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). This relationship is true with all pumps. the injection pressure is tied to the instantaneous pressure of a single pumping event with no accumulator and thus the relationship is more prominent and troublesome. The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. a . While multiple injection events are possible with these older systems. For the typical distributor/inline system. Common rail engines require very short (< 1 s) or no heating up time at all and produce lower engine noise and emissions than older systems.000 psi).000 bars (29. with the unit or distributor systems. however. they were limited by several factors: They were cam driven and injection pressure was proportional to engine speed. cold starting and so on. a high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure — up to and above 2. the plunger would lift and injection would start. it is much more difficult and costly to achieve. The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled.
and amount control as in the common railsystem . thus producing a square injection rate. Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically actuated. the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail). Each injector has its own pumping element. The pump is usually driven by a shared camshaft. the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events. as well as allowing for much higher injection pressure to occur. Unit Injector Unit Injector (UI) is an integrated direct fuel injection system for diesel engines. where the fuel is supplied via integral ducts machined directly into the cylinder head. The fuel system is divided into the low pressure (<500 kPa) fuel supply system. combining the injectornozzle and the injection pump in a single component. The Unit Injector is fitted into the engine cylinder head. Early Lucas electronic dieselunit injector. If the accumulator. Design and technology Design of the Unit Injector eliminates the need for high pressure fuel pipes. and the high pressure injection system (<2000 bar). a fuel solenoid valve as well. . pump and plumbing are sized properly. and in the case of electronic control. and with that their associated failures. The unit injector system allows accurate injection timing.hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure.
Operation principle Delphi E1 UI on the Volvo D13A engine Delphi E1 UI parts The basic operation can be described as a sequence of four separate phases: the filling phase. Spill phase The pump element is on the way down. and the pressure reduction phase. A low pressure fuel delivery pump supplies filtered diesel fuel into the cylinder head fuel ducts. Fill phase The constant stroke pump element on the way up draws fuel from the supply duct in to the chamber. and as long as solenoid valve remains deenergized the fuel line is open and fuel flows in through into the return duct. and as long as electric solenoid valve remains de-energized fuel line is open. and into each injector fuel port of constant stroke pump plunger injector. the injection phase. which is overhead camshaftoperated. the solenoid is now energized and fuel line is now closed. the spill phase. The fuel can not pass back into return duct. Injection phase The pump element is still on the way down. and is now compressed by the .
switching off individual cylinders under part load for further reduction in emissions and fuel consumption. allowing fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber. and multi-pulse injection (more than one injection occurrence during one engine cycle). fuel can flow back into return duct. Summary The start of an injection is controlled by the solenoid closing point. hence no more fuel is injected. The solenoid operation is fully controlled by the engine ECU. and the injector nozzle needle lifts. developed and produced by Volkswagen Group. which feature turbochargingand cylinder-direct fuel injection. These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles produced by the company (particularly those sold in Europe). causing pressure drop. Additional functions The use of electronic control allows for special functions. Turbocharged Direct Injection TDI or Turbocharged Direct Injection is a design of turbodiesel engines. such as temperature controlled injection timing. and the injected fuel quantity is determined by the closing time. cylinder balancing (smooth idle). the fuel valve opens. TDI embossed on the engine cowl . which in turn causes the injector nozzle needle to shut. the engine ECU de-energizes the solenoid when required quantity of fuel is delivered. which is the length of time the solenoid remains closed. and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications.plunger until pressure exceeds specific "opening" pressure. Pressure reduction phase The plunger is still on its way down. They are also used in marine engine .Volkswagen Marine.
 and most TDI engines also feature an intercooler to lower the temperature (and therefore increase the density) of the 'charged'. The engine also uses forced induction by way of a turbocharger to increase the amount of air which is able to enter the engine cylinders. or compressed air from the turbo. rather than the pre-combustion chamber prevalent in older diesels which used indirect injection. Overview The TDI engine uses direct injection. allow for greater engine efficiency. The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation. If a high-pressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air. . Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injection-equipped engine has been shut down. at the expense of slightly increased combustion noise. Maintenance hazards Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used. where a fuel injector sprays atomised fuel directly into the main combustion chamber of each cylinder. while also decreasing emissions and providing more torque than its non-turbo and non-direct injection petrol engined counterpart. in combination. A direct injection engine is also easier to start when cold. due to more efficient placing and usage ofglowplugs. and if it is done so by external bleedoff. there is a risk to the operator of injury by hypodermic jet-injection. and thereby increases engine efficiency. The reduced material volume of the direct injection diesel engine reduces heat losses.Volkswagen Marine 3. even with only 100 psi (6.0 litre V6 TDI 265-6 Marine Engine.9 bar) pressure. the fuel must be safely contained. These. and therefore greater power outputs (from a more complete combustion process compared to indirect injection). thereby increasing the amount of fuel that can be injected and combusted. This residual pressure must be relieved.
and ships. It burns fuel oil instead of gasoline and is heavier and more powerful than the gasoline engine. A diesel fuel injector sprays an intermittent. the speed and power of the diesel are controlled. better fuel economy and engine performance and reduced polluting exhaust emissions. distributing the fuel throughout the air within. Computers are used in modern fuel injection systems to regulate the process. continuously operating pumps such as those used in oil pipelines. and the resulting mixture is delivered to the cylinder. . In gasoline engines the fuel is first mixed with air. This type of internal combustion engine was patented in 1892 by the German engineer Rudolph Diesel. the fuel injection system is that which delivers fuel or a fuel-air mixture to the cylinders by means of pressure from a pump. Industrial and municipal electric generators. By varying the amount of fuel injected in the cylinder. It was originally used in diesel engines because of diesel fuel's greater viscosity and the need to overcome the high pressure of the compressed air in the cylinders. locomotives.What is fuel injection? In an internal combustion engine. Diesel system. and other such automobiles widely use diesel to power. trucks. Fuel injection is also now used in gasoline engines in place of a carburetor. It differs from the gasoline engine in that the ignition of fuel is caused by compression of air in its cylinders instead of by a spark. metered quantity of fuel into a cylinder. The positive effects of fuel injection are that there is more efficient fuel combustion. timed.
Monitors engine speed. or even prevent them from operating. Engine Sensors In order to provide the correct amount of fuel for every operating condition. which is one of the factors used to calculate the pulse width How the PowerStroke injection system works? Older diesels used a hydraulic injection system in which fuel pressurized by the injection pump would actuate the injector.The Gasoline System. Engine speed sensor . the lower the manifold pressure.Allows the ECU to determine when the engine has reached its proper operating temperature Voltage sensor . the amount of fuel injected is dependent on the mechanical operation of the injection pump governor.Monitors the system voltage in the car so the ECU can raise the idle speed if voltage is dropping (which would indicate a high electrical load) Manifold absolute pressure sensor . so this reading is used to gauge how much power is being produced. Here are just a few: Mass airflow sensor .Tells the ECU the mass of air entering the engine Oxygen sensor(s) . Gasoline engines with electronic injection use a pressurized fuel system and the computer varies the actuation of the injector based on input from various . which adjusts volume based on engine load/RPM. and the more air that goes into the engine. the engine control unit (ECU) has to monitor a huge number of input sensors.Monitors the pressure of the air in the intake manifold The amount of air being drawn into the engine is a good indication of how much power it is producing. Also. increasing or decreasing the fuel rate as necessary Coolant temperature sensor .Monitors the throttle valve position (which determines how much air goes into the engine) so the ECU can respond quickly to changes. The drawback to this system is that any air which enters the fuel lines will affect the operation of the injectors.Monitors the amount of oxygen in the exhaust so the ECU can determine how rich or lean the fuel mixture is and make adjustments accordingly Throttle position sensor .
it causes the injector pintle to rise off its seat and fuel is injected into the cylinder from the nozzel. the spring which closes the poppet valve once the injector solenoid is deactivated has to be very strong--and because of this. it opens a poppet valve which allows high pressure oil to flow into the intensifier piston. but it also determines the pressure of the fuel being injected by controlling the pressure of the oil (IPR duty-cycle. When the injector solenoid is actuated. or the percentage of time on vs. The computer determines this based on engine load and driver demand by monitoring various sensors. fuel pressure only needs to be sufficient to supply the injectors and provide an adequate spray pattern to ensure efficient combustion. Fuel is supplied to the injectors through fuel rails inside the cylinder heads.sensors in order to control the amount of fuel to the cylinders. or time on in milliseconds). off--AKA dwell) in the cylinder heads. Due to the high oil system pressures. When fuel pressure inside the injector reaches approximatly 2700 psi. pressurizing the fuel inside the injector. The IDM sends a 110 volt pulse-width modulated signal to the injector solenoid. Once the poppet valve is closed. fuel will be injected. The intensifier piston is forced down. and this high compression requires high injection pressures. As long as the poppet valve is open and oil is flowing into the injector. Also supplied to the injectors is high pressure engine oil. What has been done on the PowerStroke is both of these systems are used in conjuntion with each other. fuel is injected at a pressure seven times that of the computer-controlled oil pressure--oil pressure 3000 psi = injected fuel pressure 21000 psi. The computer controls how long the injector solenoid is energized (pulsewidth. . Since the cavity at the top of the intensifier piston is seven times the size of the fuel cavity at the bottom. As the computer determines that a cylinder should fire it signals the Injector Driver Module. But a diesel engine uses heat from compression to ignite the air fuel mixture. spring pressure returns the injector to its normal state and the oil is exhausted into the valve cover area to return to the sump. Since gasoline engines have an ignition system to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the cylinders. the solenoid needs to be 110 volts.
Cut way of an injector.Injector. .
Split-Shot Operation Split-shot injectors were originally installed on 1996 and 97 model/year trucks with California emissions.Injector Installed in Head. Fuel is delivered to the injector (green) past a check valve in the same manner as in the standard injectors. Cut into the piston is a land (yellow) which receives fuel through bleed holes (red) as it is pressurized.5 on. pressure drops below the piston and the check ball reseats and injection is suspended. . and are used in engines from 98. the port in the injector is covered and fuel injection recommences. As the piston travels down the land aligns with a port in the injector. These injectors prolong the injection time to decrease emissions without reducing power. When this happens. As the piston travels further. As the intensifier piston is forced down the fuel is pressurized (orange) and the check ball (blue) is lifted off its seat and fuel injection begins.
6.0 PowerStroke works in much the same way as on the 7.0 PowerStroke Injection The injection system on the 6. The computer sends . The injectors are still computer-controlled and hydraulically operated.Split-Shot Injector.3. Split-Shot Details. Instead of an Injection Driver Module that only engergizes the solenoid on based on the commands of the engine control computer. it has a Fuel Injector Control Module (FICM) that is networked with the computer. but the design of the system does have differences.
0's had a function similar to the split shot injection of the 7. While technically the 7. it was classified differently due to the high pressure oil system used to actuate the injectors. Built into the high pressure pump are computer-controlled fuel pressure and volume control valves. The high pressure pump supplies the injectors fuel through fuel rails under the valve covers. Finally. which results in quieter injector operation and allows enough room for four valves per cylinder. The injector is actuated when the engine control module (ECM) sends a high-voltage signal to the piezo actuator at the top of the injector. Fuel pressure in the high . 6. The high pressure oil pump has been replaced by a high pressure (up to 26. the 6.0 has an oil rail that is attached to the tops of the injectors under the valve cover. which causes fuel pressure in the control chamber to bleed off. this programming caused timing problems on hot restarts.3 and 6. so the strategy was programmed out in later calibrations.sensor information to the FICM.4 PowerStroke is the high pressure common rail fuel injection system with piezo-electric injectors. The piezo-electric injectors are designed to provide more precise fuel control through multiple injection (up to 5 injections per combustion event) with reduced noise. This was to provide less engine noise and improved emissions. however. One solenoid shifts a spool valve to one side to allow oil into the top of the injector. Fuel is supplied to two chambers in each injector: the high pressure (delivery) chamber at the nozzle. resulting in rough running and loping.4 PowerStroke Injection New for the 6.0 PowerStrokes had a common rail system (all injectors fed from a common fuel rail and not individual lines). and the FICM itself makes the calculations on how long to turn on the injectors. The piezo discs in the actuator flex and press on a hydraulic check valve. instead of a high pressure oil passage machined in the heads. Fuel returns from the rails back to the tank through the same cooler used by the VGT actuator. In addition. and the control piston chamber.3's called pilot injection. Instead of being a hydro/mechanical action. The nozzle needle is held closed by a spring and by fuel pressure in the control chamber. turn the injector off. Early 6. This allows for a smaller injector that requires lower actuating voltage (48 volts maximum). the injector has two solenoids. then energize it again.000 PSI) fuel pump driven off the camshaft at the rear of the engine. then a second solenoid is energized to shift the valve the other direction to close the injector. on each compression stoke the FICM would energize the injector once to start combustion. But. instead of utilizing a spring to close the injector once the solenoid is turned off.
The ECM deactivates the injector by reversing polarity to the piezo discs. The ECM alone controls injector operation.0 PowerStrokes.3 and 6. with no extermal IDM/FICM as found on the 7.3 and 6. . ending injection.0 Injectors. This allows spring pressure to close the check valve. 7.pressure chamber causes the nozzle needle to lift off its seat and fuel passes through the spray holes at the nozzle tip. and the nozzle needle closes. fuel pressure builds in the control chanber.
6. .0 Injector Details.
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