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NAME 6098

TERM PROJECT

RAJESH KOPPARTHI

AVINASH KARRI

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 1

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 3

2. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 5

3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS................................................................................. 6

3.2 Design Loads................................................................................................................................6

3.3 Materials.......................................................................................................................................6

3.4 Geometrical Properties of the Model...........................................................................................7

3.5 Element Type...............................................................................................................................7

3.6 Finite Element Model...................................................................................................................8

3.7 Boundary Conditions..................................................................................................................10

4. STRENGTH ANALYSIS.....................................................................................12

4.2 Loading Condition # 2..............................................................................................................14

4.3 Loading Condition # 3..............................................................................................................15

4.4 Loading Condition # 4…………..............................................................................................16

4.5 Loading Condition # 5..............................................................................................................17

4.6 Loading Condition # 6..............................................................................................................18

4.7 Loading Condition # 7..............................................................................................................19

4.8 Summary of Results…..............................................................................................................19

5. REFERENCES…............................................................................................... 20

6. APPENDIX……….............................................................................................. 21

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 2

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

GENERAL CARGO SHIP

1. INTRODUCTION:

required to study and predicts the behavior of structures. The subjects of structural

analysis are engineering artifacts whose integrity is judged largely based upon their

ability to withstand loads; they commonly include buildings, bridges, aircraft, and ships.

Structural analysis incorporates the fields of mechanics and dynamics as well as the many

failure theories. From a theoretical perspective the primary goal of structural analysis is

the computation of deformations, internal forces, and stresses.

such information as structural loads, geometry, support conditions, and materials

properties. The results of such an analysis typically include support reactions, stresses

and displacements. This information is then compared to criteria that indicate the

conditions of failure.

approach (also known as strength of materials), the elasticity theory approach (which is

actually a special case of the more general field of continuum mechanics), and the finite

element approach. The first two make use of analytical formulations which apply mostly

to simple linear elastic models, lead to closed-form solutions, and can often be solved by

hand. The finite element approach is actually a numerical method for solving differential

equations generated by theories of mechanics such as elasticity theory and strength of

materials.

The finite element method is perhaps the most restrictive and most useful

at the same time. This method itself relies upon other structural theories (such as the other

two discussed here) for equations to solve. It does, however, make it generally possible to

solve these equations, even with highly complex geometry and loading conditions, with

the restriction that there is always some numerical error. Effective and reliable use of this

method requires a solid understanding of its limitations.

elements or components with various forms of connection between them. Thus, a

continuous system such as a plate or shell is modeled as a discrete system with a finite

number of elements interconnected at finite number of nodes. The behavior of individual

elements is characterized by the element's stiffness or flexibility relation, which

altogether leads to the system's stiffness or flexibility relation.

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 3

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

This report presents the details of Static Strength Analysis done to the

Midship Section of a General Cargo Carrier using ABAQUS. The design of Midship

Section is considered according to the ABS Rules which are shown in the Appendix.

Static Strength analysis is performed to ensure the stress levels in the structure are within

allowable limits as per ABS Rules and AISC 9th Edition.

Vessel Specifications:

The vessel which is considered is General Cargo Carrier with the following dimensions:

Length = 105 m (length of vessel)

Length of the midship section considered = 18 m

Half Breadth of the vessel = 13 m

Draft = 10 m (molded draft)

Depth = 15 m (molded depth)

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

2. METHODOLOGY:

shell S4 plate elements. For this purpose, the complete hull bottom, top and side shell top

plating with transverse and longitudinal stiffeners and frames have been considered in the

analytical model. The model used was of the hull structure for the Midship Section.

were taken by the combination of different loads on the structure like Hydrostatic

pressure, Deck Load and Cargo Load.

The material yield stresses and the allowable stresses are described in

Section 3. It will be checked for maximum Von Misses stresses to ensure it’s less than

Fy/1.45, where 1.45 is the Safety Factor. The maximum unity ratio for the plate and

support beams should not exceed 1.0. The structural analysis and design reported in this

document comply with the ABS Rules for Steel Vessels (2006) and AISC-ASD

(9thedition). Units used are Pressures in Mpa (Mega Pascal) and dimensions in mm for

ABAQUS model.

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 5

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS:

The design criteria and load conditions are described in the following sub-sections.

The Structure has been designed in accordance with the applicable design

criteria of the ABS Rules for Steel Vessels and the AISC-ASD (9th Edition).

When considering how our model should be loaded, the first step is to

consult the classification society rules. They all have very good sections dedicated to

calculating the loads expected for various locations on the ship. Following are the various

loads considered according to the ABS Steel Rules.

1 Hydrostatic Pressure Bottom Shell 0.01 External

2 Hydrostatic Pressure Side Shell 0.0075 External

3 Deck Load Main Deck 0.005 Internal

4 Cargo Load Tween Deck 0.0075 Internal

5 Cargo Load Tank Top 0.01 Internal

Double

6 Water Ballast Bottom 0.002 Internal

Once we have decided on which values to use, applying them to the model

is quite straightforward. Simply select the member to be loaded, assign the load value and

select the orientation of the load.

3.3 Materials:

material constants for steel are used. It is assumed that the steel does not go into the non

linear state and we stay in the elastic range. Further it is an isotropic material. All steel is

assumed to have minimum yield strength of 355 N/mm2 (=51 ksi) and Poison’s Ratio of

0.3. The allowable stress is determined from ABS Steel Rules, AISC and API RP 2A

which is given as

Where safety factor = 1.45

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 6

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Longitudinal and Transverse directions. Before running the analysis, we ensured that all

of the structural members are connected by common nodes. Two lines that intersect may

look graphically as if they are intersecting and connected, but if they don’t share a

common node, then they will not be mathematically connected. This is of vital

importance for FEA models.

Breadth of the Section = 26 m (Modeled as 13 m taking symmetry in X direction)

Depth of the Section = 15 m

Thickness of the Main Deck and Tween Deck plate = 12 mm

Thickness of the Tank top plate = 12 mm

Thickness of the Bottom Shell Plate = 16 mm

Section of the Stiffener = L 150x100x10

Beam Section = T 600x8+200x12

Section of the Girder = T 600x8+200x12

Since thin structures can be modeled efficiently as shells, we'll use shell

elements (S4) to build the finite-element model. Shell elements can support membrane

and bending loads consistent with classical shell theory. Shell elements are appropriate

when the thickness of the structure is small compared to the other dimensions.

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

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NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 8

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

View 2

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 9

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

View 3

daunting but be assured that it is very simple. All you have to do is consider how the

structure will be restrained and constrain the degrees of freedom to make the model

behave in a realistic manner. There are only six degrees of freedom to consider, 3

translation (tx,ty,tz) and three rotation, - the rotation about each axis (rx,ry,rz). One type

of boundary condition to consider is the symmetric boundary condition. If we could

model quarter of our structure and get an accurate result using symmetrical boundary

conditions, we can size quarter of the model and significantly reduce the time to build

and solve it. So for the 9m x 13m x 15 m model, symmetrical boundary conditions are

given in X and Z directions so that it represents the full Compartment of 18 m x26m x

15m size.

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 10

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

model is fixed at the end in Longitudinal Direction. A transverse floor is considered at

the mid of the compartment. So the double bottom is restrained in vertical (Y) direction at

the mid of the Compartment (at end of the Model in Long direction towards symmetrical

side). Pillars (Three in Long and Two in Tran directions which makes total of 5) are

considered to support the loading on Decks and Stiffeners. As Pillars are not modelled as

structure, it is taken as boundary condition which restrains the portion, where pillar

connects the deck, in vertical direction. Also, the model is restrained in the Longitudinal

direction (Z – axis).

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 11

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

4. STRENGTH ANALYSIS:

The following plots are of the finite element results, there were a total of 7 conditions run

as follows.

1 Lightship x

2 LS + Ballast x x

3 LS + MD x x

4 LS + Ballast + MD x x x

5 80 % cargo load x x x x

100% cargo without

6 Ballast x x x x

7 Full Loading x x x x x

To pass the strength Check, unity ratio at the critical location must be less

than or equal to 1.0.

Unity Ratio = (Von misses Stress * 1.45) / Fy

Where Yield Strenth, Fy = 355 N/mm2

4.1 Loading Condition # 1:

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 12

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

As there is only Hydrostatic Pressure, side shell and Bottom shell are bulged inwards.

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

1 117.7 0.480746479 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 13

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

2 116.5 0.47584507 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 14

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

3 118.9 0.485647887 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 15

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

4 117.7 0.480746479 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 16

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

5 115.8 0.472985915 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 17

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

6 134.2 0.548140845 Ok

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 18

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

7 134.1 0.547732394 Ok

Max Von misses Stress

LC No (Mpa) Unity Ratio Strength Check

1 117.7 0.480746479 Ok

2 116.5 0.47584507 Ok

3 118.9 0.485647887 Ok

4 117.7 0.480746479 Ok

5 115.8 0.472985915 Ok

6 134.2 0.548140845 Ok

7 134.1 0.547732394 Ok

Though the Structure passes the Strength check, it deflects more which

is not feasible design. So, more local stiffening is to be done to reduce the deformation of

the structure.

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 19

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

5. REFERENCES

2. ABS Rules for Steel Vessels 2006

3. AISC – Allowable Stress Design, 9th Edition

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 20

Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

6. APPENDIX

We examined ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessel 2007 to find

requirements that would apply to the bottom, side shell and deck plating, stiffeners design

for the vessel. We made the assumption that our designed plate will have thickness

greater than the minimum requirements of the specified ABS requirements below.

An additional requirement is a 15:1 (approximately) ratio for the stiffener length to

width/depth dimensions. This requirement was made based on the application of the

stiffened plate. In this problem we are considering the length to depth as 11

(approximately)

The minimum thickness, t, of the side shell plating throughout the amidship 0.4L,

for vessels having lengths not exceeding 427 m (1400 ft), is to be obtained from the

following equation:

t = ( s/645 ) (L − 15.2)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 305 m

where,

s = spacing of transverse frames or longitudinals, in mm

L = length of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1, in m

d = molded draft, as defined in 3-1-1/9, in m

Ds = molded depth, in m

The thickness, t, of the bottom plating amidships is not to be less than obtained from the

following equations or the thickness determined by 3-2-2/3.17, whichever is greater.

t = ( s/519 ) L − 19.8)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 183 m

t = ( s/671 ) (L −18.3)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 122 m

With Transverse Beams 1a and 1b (note 1)

t = 0.01sb + 2.3 mm for sb ≤ 760 mm

t = 0.0066sb + 4.9 mm for sb > 760 mm

Reference: ABS Rules for Steel Vessels 3-2-2 3.12 Page 69

NAME # 6098 Term Project Page 21

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