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# Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

NAME 6098

## FINITE ELEMENT METHODS

TERM PROJECT

RAJESH KOPPARTHI
AVINASH KARRI

NAME # 6098 Term Project  Page 1
Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 3

2. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 5

3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS................................................................................. 6

## 3.1 Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................6

3.3 Materials.......................................................................................................................................6
3.4 Geometrical Properties of the Model...........................................................................................7
3.5 Element Type...............................................................................................................................7
3.6 Finite Element Model...................................................................................................................8
3.7 Boundary Conditions..................................................................................................................10

4. STRENGTH ANALYSIS.....................................................................................12

4.8 Summary of Results…..............................................................................................................19

5. REFERENCES…............................................................................................... 20

6. APPENDIX……….............................................................................................. 21

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

## STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MIDSHIP SECTION OF A

GENERAL CARGO SHIP

1. INTRODUCTION:

## Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws and mathematics

required to study and predicts the behavior of structures. The subjects of structural
analysis are engineering artifacts whose integrity is judged largely based upon their
ability to withstand loads; they commonly include buildings, bridges, aircraft, and ships.
Structural analysis incorporates the fields of mechanics and dynamics as well as the many
failure theories. From a theoretical perspective the primary goal of structural analysis is
the computation of deformations, internal forces, and stresses.

## To perform an accurate analysis a structural engineer must determine

such information as structural loads, geometry, support conditions, and materials
properties. The results of such an analysis typically include support reactions, stresses
and displacements. This information is then compared to criteria that indicate the
conditions of failure.

## There are three approaches to the analysis: the mechanics of materials

approach (also known as strength of materials), the elasticity theory approach (which is
actually a special case of the more general field of continuum mechanics), and the finite
element approach. The first two make use of analytical formulations which apply mostly
to simple linear elastic models, lead to closed-form solutions, and can often be solved by
hand. The finite element approach is actually a numerical method for solving differential
equations generated by theories of mechanics such as elasticity theory and strength of
materials.
The finite element method is perhaps the most restrictive and most useful
at the same time. This method itself relies upon other structural theories (such as the other
two discussed here) for equations to solve. It does, however, make it generally possible to
solve these equations, even with highly complex geometry and loading conditions, with
the restriction that there is always some numerical error. Effective and reliable use of this
method requires a solid understanding of its limitations.

## The finite element method approximates a structure as an assembly of

elements or components with various forms of connection between them. Thus, a
continuous system such as a plate or shell is modeled as a discrete system with a finite
number of elements interconnected at finite number of nodes. The behavior of individual
elements is characterized by the element's stiffness or flexibility relation, which
altogether leads to the system's stiffness or flexibility relation.
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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

This report presents the details of Static Strength Analysis done to the
Midship Section of a General Cargo Carrier using ABAQUS. The design of Midship
Section is considered according to the ABS Rules which are shown in the Appendix.
Static Strength analysis is performed to ensure the stress levels in the structure are within
allowable limits as per ABS Rules and AISC 9th Edition.

Vessel Specifications:

The vessel which is considered is General Cargo Carrier with the following dimensions:

## Frame spacing = 1 m (spacing of transverse or longitudinal frames)

Length = 105 m (length of vessel)
Length of the midship section considered = 18 m
Half Breadth of the vessel = 13 m
Draft = 10 m (molded draft)
Depth = 15 m (molded depth)

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

2. METHODOLOGY:

## A 3-D comprehensive finite element model is created in ABAQUS using

shell S4 plate elements. For this purpose, the complete hull bottom, top and side shell top
plating with transverse and longitudinal stiffeners and frames have been considered in the
analytical model. The model used was of the hull structure for the Midship Section.

were taken by the combination of different loads on the structure like Hydrostatic

The material yield stresses and the allowable stresses are described in
Section 3. It will be checked for maximum Von Misses stresses to ensure it’s less than
Fy/1.45, where 1.45 is the Safety Factor. The maximum unity ratio for the plate and
support beams should not exceed 1.0. The structural analysis and design reported in this
document comply with the ABS Rules for Steel Vessels (2006) and AISC-ASD
(9thedition). Units used are Pressures in Mpa (Mega Pascal) and dimensions in mm for
ABAQUS model.

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS:

The design criteria and load conditions are described in the following sub-sections.

## 3.1 Design Criteria:

The Structure has been designed in accordance with the applicable design
criteria of the ABS Rules for Steel Vessels and the AISC-ASD (9th Edition).

When considering how our model should be loaded, the first step is to
consult the classification society rules. They all have very good sections dedicated to
calculating the loads expected for various locations on the ship. Following are the various
loads considered according to the ABS Steel Rules.

## S No  Load  Location  Magnitude (Mpa or N/mm2)  Type of Load

1  Hydrostatic Pressure  Bottom Shell  0.01  External
2  Hydrostatic Pressure  Side Shell  0.0075  External
3  Deck Load  Main Deck  0.005  Internal
4  Cargo Load  Tween Deck  0.0075  Internal
5  Cargo Load  Tank Top  0.01  Internal
Double
6  Water Ballast  Bottom  0.002  Internal

Once we have decided on which values to use, applying them to the model
is quite straightforward. Simply select the member to be loaded, assign the load value and
select the orientation of the load.

3.3 Materials:

## The material generally used in the construction of ships is steel. So the

material constants for steel are used. It is assumed that the steel does not go into the non
linear state and we stay in the elastic range. Further it is an isotropic material. All steel is
assumed to have minimum yield strength of 355 N/mm2 (=51 ksi) and Poison’s Ratio of
0.3. The allowable stress is determined from ABS Steel Rules, AISC and API RP 2A
which is given as

## Allowable Von Misses = Fy / 1.45,

Where safety factor = 1.45

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

## Only quarter of the midship section is used for analysis as it is symmetric in

Longitudinal and Transverse directions. Before running the analysis, we ensured that all
of the structural members are connected by common nodes. Two lines that intersect may
look graphically as if they are intersecting and connected, but if they don’t share a
common node, then they will not be mathematically connected. This is of vital
importance for FEA models.

## Length of the Section = 18 m (Modeled as 9 m taking symmetry in Z direction)

Breadth of the Section = 26 m (Modeled as 13 m taking symmetry in X direction)
Depth of the Section = 15 m
Thickness of the Main Deck and Tween Deck plate = 12 mm
Thickness of the Tank top plate = 12 mm
Thickness of the Bottom Shell Plate = 16 mm
Section of the Stiffener = L 150x100x10
Beam Section = T 600x8+200x12
Section of the Girder = T 600x8+200x12

## 3.5 Element Type:

Since thin structures can be modeled efficiently as shells, we'll use shell
elements (S4) to build the finite-element model. Shell elements can support membrane
and bending loads consistent with classical shell theory. Shell elements are appropriate
when the thickness of the structure is small compared to the other dimensions.

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

## 3.6 Finite Element Model:

View 1

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View 2

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View 3

## Many designers find the application of boundary conditions quite

daunting but be assured that it is very simple. All you have to do is consider how the
structure will be restrained and constrain the degrees of freedom to make the model
behave in a realistic manner. There are only six degrees of freedom to consider, 3
translation (tx,ty,tz) and three rotation, - the rotation about each axis (rx,ry,rz). One type
of boundary condition to consider is the symmetric boundary condition. If we could
model quarter of our structure and get an accurate result using symmetrical boundary
conditions, we can size quarter of the model and significantly reduce the time to build
and solve it. So for the 9m x 13m x 15 m model, symmetrical boundary conditions are
given in X and Z directions so that it represents the full Compartment of 18 m x26m x
15m size.

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

## As there will be a Transverse Bulkhead at the end of the compartment, the

model is fixed at the end in Longitudinal Direction. A transverse floor is considered at
the mid of the compartment. So the double bottom is restrained in vertical (Y) direction at
the mid of the Compartment (at end of the Model in Long direction towards symmetrical
side). Pillars (Three in Long and Two in Tran directions which makes total of 5) are
considered to support the loading on Decks and Stiffeners. As Pillars are not modelled as
structure, it is taken as boundary condition which restrains the portion, where pillar
connects the deck, in vertical direction. Also, the model is restrained in the Longitudinal
direction (Z – axis).

## Model with Loads and Boundary Conditions

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

4. STRENGTH ANALYSIS:

## Static strength analysis of the structure was performed using ABAQUS.

The following plots are of the finite element results, there were a total of 7 conditions run
as follows.

## S No  Loading Conditions  Main Deck  Tween Deck  Tank Top  DB  Hydrostatic

1  Lightship              x
2  LS + Ballast           x  x
3  LS + MD  x           x
4  LS + Ballast + MD  x        x  x
5  80 % cargo load  x     x  x  x
100% cargo without
6  Ballast  x  x  x     x

To pass the strength Check, unity ratio at the critical location must be less
than or equal to 1.0.
Unity Ratio = (Von misses Stress * 1.45) / Fy
Where Yield Strenth, Fy = 355 N/mm2

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

As there is only Hydrostatic Pressure, side shell and Bottom shell are bulged inwards.

Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
1  117.7  0.480746479 Ok

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Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
2  116.5  0.47584507  Ok

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
3  118.9  0.485647887 Ok

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
4  117.7  0.480746479 Ok

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Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
5  115.8  0.472985915 Ok

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Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
6  134.2  0.548140845 Ok

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Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
7  134.1  0.547732394 Ok

## 4.8 Summary of Results:

Max Von misses Stress
LC No  (Mpa)  Unity Ratio  Strength Check
1  117.7  0.480746479 Ok
2  116.5  0.47584507  Ok
3  118.9  0.485647887 Ok
4  117.7  0.480746479 Ok
5  115.8  0.472985915 Ok
6  134.2  0.548140845 Ok
7  134.1  0.547732394 Ok

Though the Structure passes the Strength check, it deflects more which
is not feasible design. So, more local stiffening is to be done to reduce the deformation of
the structure.

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

5. REFERENCES

## 1. NAME # 6098 Lecture Handouts by Dr. Pingsha Dong

2. ABS Rules for Steel Vessels 2006
3. AISC – Allowable Stress Design, 9th Edition

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Structural Analysis of Midship Section of General Cargo Ship

6. APPENDIX

## ABS REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS:

We examined ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessel 2007 to find
requirements that would apply to the bottom, side shell and deck plating, stiffeners design
for the vessel. We made the assumption that our designed plate will have thickness
greater than the minimum requirements of the specified ABS requirements below.
An additional requirement is a 15:1 (approximately) ratio for the stiffener length to
width/depth dimensions. This requirement was made based on the application of the
stiffened plate. In this problem we are considering the length to depth as 11
(approximately)

## 3.9 Side Shell Plating

The minimum thickness, t, of the side shell plating throughout the amidship 0.4L,
for vessels having lengths not exceeding 427 m (1400 ft), is to be obtained from the
following equation:
t = ( s/645 ) (L − 15.2)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 305 m
where,
s = spacing of transverse frames or longitudinals, in mm
L = length of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1, in m
d = molded draft, as defined in 3-1-1/9, in m
Ds = molded depth, in m

## 3.13.2 Bottom Shell Plating

The thickness, t, of the bottom plating amidships is not to be less than obtained from the
following equations or the thickness determined by 3-2-2/3.17, whichever is greater.

## 3.13.2(a) For Vessels with Transversely-framed Bottoms

t = ( s/519 ) L − 19.8)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 183 m

## 3.13.2(b) For Vessels with Longitudinally-framed Bottoms

t = ( s/671 ) (L −18.3)(d / Ds ) + 2.5 mm for L ≤ 122 m

## Strength Deck Outside Line of Openings

With Transverse Beams 1a and 1b (note 1)
t = 0.01sb + 2.3 mm for sb ≤ 760 mm
t = 0.0066sb + 4.9 mm for sb > 760 mm
Reference: ABS Rules for Steel Vessels 3-2-2 3.12 Page 69

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