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ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND JADDUS THE HIGH PRIEST ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS
SHAYE J.D. COHEN
the famous section thesecond ofJosephus's of half Jewish Perhaps most is thestory Alexander Great theJews 11.302-47). of the and (AJ Antiquities It consists three of strands: story aboutManasses, a and Sanballat, AlexanaboutJaddus Alexander; historical aboutPhilip and and data der;a story the strand a II, DariusIII, and Alexander Great.In thefirst Manasses, of brother thehigh of marries daughter Sanballat, the Jaddus, priest satrap ofSamaria, as a result ejected is from and Jerusalem flees hisfatherand to
NOTE: This paper is part of a largerproject"Josephusand Rabbinic Historiography" which was begunin 1977undera grantfrom National Endowment theHumanities. the for Research the on thispaperwas supported a generous by grantfrom AbbellPublicationFund oftheJewish TheologicalSeminary. am grateful thelate Professor I to Elias Bickerman discussing for the me Jaddusstorywithme and for referring to the important parallel in Justin. Throughthe Yosef Hayim YerushalmiI presenteda summaryof this paper to a courtesyof Professor Columbia University seminar and benefited from ensuing the discussion. = All translations mineunlessotherwise are noted.The following abbreviations used: AJ are CA Contra Bellum Judaicae;BJ= Josephus, Judaicum; = Josephus, Josephus, Antiquitates Apioin as nem;Cohen = ShayeJ.D. Cohen,Josephus GalileeandRome: His Vitaand Development a Historian Die Fragmente griechischen der Historiker, 15 (Leiden, 1979); FGrH = Felix Jacoby, vols. (Leiden, 1957-68). Yosipponis citedfrom editionofDavid Flusser(Jerusalem, the 1978).
juifsd'apresles sourcesrabbiniques. 348-49." is (each withhisownreasons)thatthenarrative a sin1900). Evenas they in Jewish stand the nally independent Antiquities becausetheyhave beenjuxtaposed. is with (321)justas theMacedonian writhisminatory toJaddus of letter butheforgets availhimself the to ing (317). the sacriAlexander against general rejoicing.appended thenarrative notan inteAlexandrele Grand. the The conqueror theworld of bowsdown greet before Jaddus declares itwasJaddus hadappeared him a and that who to in dream three earlier hadencouraged to launch expedition him his and years Persia. Adolph Buchler. argueagainstBiichler is but gle organiccomposition neither convincing.42 SHAYE J. The observations conjectures thisarticle summarized Ralph Marcus in an appendixto theLoeb ediby approvedand are conveniently tionofJosephus. COHEN in-law. 512-32.Furious this marches Jerusalem. Yoma 69a and scholionto MegillatTa'anit. on a dream. the of but strand. high the andthe Jews Encouraged by priest Alexander outside city."Alexandreet les paignin Palestine"[Hebrew]. is abouttheschism the in Jaddus so unconcerned Jerusalem that doesnoteven he it. asks to he but Alexander Jaddus request whatever would like. thehigh priest ofJerusalem to Alexander teardowntherecently to conforgets petition structed Samaritan or Manassesand theapostate Jews temple to punish whosupport Indeed. 6." Revuedes 1. Sanballat his transfers allegiance theMacedonian to conqueror and receives from in In permission himto builda temple Samaria. zur an Gedenkbuch Erinnerung DavidKaufmann (Breslau. priest. the second Alexander demands submission theJews Jaddus. loyalto Darius. todemonstrate dislike Jerusalem itstemple. Aryeh vol. Kasher.2 only his for and In opportunity onediscrete and to paragraph (340-44).21 (B. to suchreferences would story although havebeeneasyand natural thetwostories had shared common a origin. fices theGod ofIsrael. the Kislev) develop thispoint by havingtheSamaritansask Alexanderto destroy Jerusalem temple. Sanballat to a for and folpromises build new temple him hisJewish lowers intends ask Dariusto authorize project.pp. and to the When Alexander is victorious. esp. D. bestows upontheJews. pp. of 2."AlexanderMacedon's CamBethMiqra 20 (1975): 196-99. 530-32. thehigh remains at Alexander rebuff. . comnot theyare easilyseparable bined. The rabbinic versions thestory T. demonstrated agothat three the strands origiwere Adolph long Bfichler ofeachother. too mention Sanballat isvery community He Alexander Tyre at is forgetful.'Neither refers theother."La relationde Josepheconcernant have been widely 36 and of itudesjuives (1898): 1-26. him. Amidst enters temple. third to and The strand gifts ofthenarrative nota story historical aboutthedeath Philip is but of data andtheconquests Alexander Syria along Palestinian of in and the littoral. and IsraelLevi.
in hurried schedule. Sidon.In the sole place wherethe third with is strand closelyintertwined thetwostories (317-25). because (304 and 313) and close with"as has been relatedelsewhere" of the contamination sourcesthe same eventis relatedmorethan once of 3. The historical approachesJerusalem. The sourcetakesAlexander from Granicus(313) to Issus (314) to Damascus.Tyre (317). Here theJaddusstory to kingreceivesthe highpriest'sresponseand threatens attackJerusalem after and TyreAlexander capturing (318-19). and perhaps Egypt(345). 4-6.Both stories are from Persianto Macedonianrule in anchoredchronologically thetransition to (Sanballat intendsto ask Darius forpermission build a templebut asks Alexanderinstead. . Alexander had. narrator his theSamaritanto Alexanderwho was just beginning siegeof Tyre(321). Gaza (320). was first combinedwiththe Sanballat storybeforethe two together werecombinedwiththe Jaddusstory. The chronologicaldata on the durationof the siegesofTyreand Gaza (325) are confirmed othersources. we see how much Damascus and Sidon. us fora second timeabout thecaptureof Tyreand Gaza (this After telling closesthefirst time. chronological out narrative ofhisdishe failedto producea smoothand coherent Perhaps room for the Jewsand the but he succeeded in finding parate sources. After the narrator taking difficulty to begins.The besiegesTyreand writes Jaddus(317). analyzes 317-25 differently concludesthatthe historical and source pp. Jaddus remainsloyal to Darius and as a resultis the the but victim Alexander's of intended story requires levelof wrath). Unfortunately inexplicably. in who had littleinterest the but of Alexander'sconquests. the actorsof one story gralpartof either theactorsoftheother(theJews). by 4.3 our narrator. Biichler.4 Samaritans Alexander's into an almost who combinedthe threestrands Who was thisnarrator or Was it Josephushimself his source? The former coherentnarrative? are in techniques Josephan: appearslikely viewofthefactthatthenarrator's the sourceopen with"about thistime" intrusive quotationsfrom historical (305). data). Now thatAlexander at Gaza and brings to the returns theSanballat story insteadof Jerusalem. is but proceedsnotto Jerusalem to Gaza (320). made use of thisinformation onlyto providea for framework thetwo storieswhichwerehis mainconcern. neither detail which the thirdstrandprovides. thenarrator addingsomechronological to the second story its climax(Alexander story(Sanballat dies) and brings sourcegave an accurateoutline 325). The third strand too was originallyindependent. deeds of Alexanderper se.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 43 to refer do (theSamaritans) story. however.
257-60) isjuxtaposedto. These problemsdo not prevent literary analysis. 24-33). n. notcoordinated the of and with. pp. and itsorigin Any literary analysisof the Jaddus-Alexander storymustbe tentative. elsewhere thatsections340-44 are Josephus'sown s. 59.44 SHAYE J. I shall analyzethe literary typeof the story withotherJewish stories within Jewthe (II). Elsewhere hope to study Sanballatstory. appreciatedthe role of Josephusin shapingthe narrative. myargumentis suggestive..concurrent let is used to strengthen point of the previousnarrative(340-44). thatthe then.E. Some can be explainedby appeal to morethanone literary tradition. p. 276. was a real editor. thestory theAlexandrian of to delegation Gaius (AJ18. On "as has beenrelated see elsewhere.others not.C. because of the contamination sources AJ 18 mentions of Tiberius'sdeath threetimes(Cohen.Some motifs be tracedto their can can source.v. pp. scholarshave pointedto theanachronistic reference the book of Daniel to (337) and have concluded that the compositionof the Jaddus-Alexander the but story postdates 160sB. (Meisenheim. COHEN stories juxtaposed. activeparticipant the formabut an in tion of the storyas we have it." FriedrichPfister. its affinities (III). not 7. index. That the compilerof the variousstrandsof the narrative was Josephushimself sugis Revue biblique44 (1935): 48. 55-56. (IV). Petronius. D. Josephus often employsdoublets(Cohen. and by gested by Felix Marie Abel. 65. techniqueswere the commonplacesof ancienthistoriography (Cohen. may for the anachronism (see sectionIV below). may assume thatthisJosephus-like we employ narratorwas Josephushimself.261-309). theJewsof Palestine(AJ18.7 assumethatJosephus paraphraser theworkofothers. Withall due reserve. its function ishAntiquities and date(V).5 the Rather than posit the existenceof some lost historian who happened to theseJosephantechniques.p.but theydo render uncertain some of its results. 6.I suggest 5. 131).6 Previous studentshave not sufficiently For example. p.an apparent are doub(thecaptureof Tyre).The conclusionis probably right thereais certainly sinceJosephus himself have beenresponsible soning wrong. probative. Kleine Schriften zum Alexanderroman.1976). and 73-74." see Cohen. I the . and it willbe difficult decidewhichsourceis primary whichsecondto and ary.Since Josephus's pp. 169.on "at about thistime. Biichler. I hope to demonstrate composition. n. 45 and p. "doublets").p. cannot decide. Reinhold Merkelbach et al." Cohen. "Alexandrea Jerusalem. sincetheepisode is a complexamalgamof motifs rather thana representativeof a singlegenre. 320. 5 and 25-26. story Gaius. ed. In this studyof the JaddusI Alexander was nota mindless of story.
C. priests. largess city. an accountin the first III of personplural of the expedition Ptolemy Euergetes duringthe Third arrival Antioch(thetextis at SyrianWar (246 B. theboard magistrates.citeonly Of thedozensoftexts this I is a few.The members the procession of would carryvariousinsignia. especiallyif he werea would distribute or respondto therequestsof the Roman emperor. After celebrations visitor. MacCormackand Millar providefurther bibliography. . young from gymnasium. "Change and in The of Historia21 (1972): 721-52. magisall would marchout of and otherofficials."Zeitschrift systematische des Theoloceremony ErikPeterson. Fergus Continuity Late Antiquity: Ceremony Adventus. other governors. 8. E. the the of men the and priests.incensewould be burnt. V. in either thevisitor. fir Victoria Romana(Mainz am Rhein.the temples and a festival would be opened.The first the so-calledPapyrusof Gourob.especiallythe statuesof the citygods. are theJews rescuedfrom Alexander Greatbya divinemanifestation the (an epiphany story).E. Sabine MacCormack. satraps. After wereexchangedthevisitor would enterthe cityamidstthe acclagreetings and generalrejoicing thecitizenry. whichillustrate generaldescription." in Millar.Here is themonarch's restored): partially of the the the the Goingoutside thecity.).On the adventus see "Die Einholung Kyrios. soldiers.the citizens trates.salutations. Classical Quarterly (1970): 313-16. 1967). Tonio H61lscher. 48-59. I do not engagein the futile to the attempt reconstruct actual wordsor phrasesof these stories. would atmosphere Dressed in whiteand bearinggarlands.pp. The equivalentGreek terms apantesisand hypantesis are ("meeting").8 TheAdventus Story of Adventus ("arrival") is theLatin wordfortheceremonial reception a his arrivalat a city.the city would be decorated with wreaths.9 Beforethe visitor'sarrival.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 45 is of the Jaddus-Alexander story a combination two substories: highpriest and the JewsgreetAlexandertheGreat (an adventus thetempleand story). in fulldress.led by their prevail.TheEmperor theRoman World (London. Pearce. the cityto greetthe distinguished visitor. 64 T. 9. of Sacrifices would mations. 31-40. 1977). or by both.Throughout monarchor otherdignitary Grecoupon Roman antiquity theseceremonies followeda regularpattern. be offered themain templeof thecity.pp. bythecitior by the the zens. gie 7 (1930): 682-702.
grecques. and The guestwas hailed with leave acclamationsand hymns. textis conveniently at monarch and Latini2 (12).5 vols. 1949-55). 726) entered citywithsimilar triumph between triumph a and an adventusis thattheformer could be celebrated onlyat one's home could be celebrated either homeor abroad. which give the pleasure of proceed attainment without trouble petition. 1942). Aftermentioning the and thehymns. Both gods (Pearce.3-4.Pandgyriques latins.46 SHAYE J.'2 He was metbycrowds the at ofpeople.. I am indebtedto the Frenchtranslation notesof 11.37.2. city conspicuous snowy venerable their in the (sacerdotes) promi(flamines) municipal purple.3: 288-90. On the symbolic of importance theadventussee MacCormack.E. Theybrought all thecultobjects the and roadinfront the of gate.Somesaluted others uswith us. greeted applause When hadcarefully we all which [Lacuna] shouting. 12. to that thereby indicating he was therulerofthe city. The insigniaof all theassociationsand theimagesof all thegods in in werebrought forth theprocession. I should mention free the nobility's meeting you]outside the festal [with Why white thepriests thesenators their walls. rattling. Pacatus describes to the emperor'sreceptionat Haemona (Pannonia).2) and thosecelebrating a ceremonies.7). Hence the symbolicimportanceof the adventusceremonyin the as of Roman period:a refusal participate to could be construed a rejection Hence too theutility theadventus of during imperial ceremony authority.3 vols.23-111.Constantineaskedthecitizens whatthey The oratorexclaims.E.Upon arriving thetown. priests with I crowned vernent their conical hats? should mention gates the by Why I dant wreaths? should mention. received Seleuceia(11. (The major distinction (MacCormack. 13. by clothing. COHEN wreathed met out to entire crowd. (Paris. to his listof passagesadd Diodorus Siculus34-35 fragment 33.6-9.D. required.as editedby Maurice Holleaux. p.10 provided. by fromyour spontaneousgenerosity. Panegyrici Edouard Galletier. Cf. singing.p." Why In a panegyric to in oradelivered Constantine 312 C. a 316.13 10. (Pairs. with private In his panegyric delivered Theodosius in 389 C.an anonymous tordescribes emperor's arrival Autun(Gaul). Papyrusof Gourob III. the reception The availablein FGrH 160. 17-IV. emperor. performed thesacrifices hadbeen ten a we.19.At thehead ofa festival he would temples procession sacrifice thegod ofthecity. poured libation. citizens. Panegyrici Latini5 (8). "O whichare notextracted prayers which but thesearethetruebenefactions. The very gods ofthecitywould temporarily their to welcomehim. See JuliusObsequens. asks: Pacatusrhetorically dancing.whilethelatter . etc.Etudesd'dpigraphie the et d'histoire ed.7.." the of The essentialelementin the adventusceremony was the acknowledgmentof the authority power of the visitor. us. Louis Robert.De at town.
writes Josephus stephanountas tinpolin(327) and itis unclearwhatwas wreathed: temple the and thebuildings BJ (cf.1926). (Munich. 31.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 47 a was a war:when city approached a hostile or whose by army.Das Alexanof derreich 2 aufprosopographischer Grundlage. In spiteof all unbekannt"(in Pauly-Wissowathis. as deredthecity. Welcome by gods: sacerdotes<cum> insignibus ac [AttalusI] urbem[Athens] di propeipsiexcitisedibussuis acceperunt.40. Upon entering the to their the ordered Babylonians rebuild temples. Sacrifice: n. Svensson. and C. or thecitizens (polin= politas). . Like thecitizens anyGreco-Roman theJews. too thereception 12.Ganszyniecwrites"den Judenwaren die Kranz-sitten vol. elders.25. 1976)." suis intrantem Idnique50 (1926): 527-35. at see 1591).Cf.101. 16.119).16. Sacrifice a signof rule: Elias J. bytheir after Palestine the the led council of taking him his surrendered.1) and thatVespasianwentout to greetTitus (BJ7.459.12(omitted by Polybius16.1: 87 and 99. (Leiden. a gesture hislordship already was and measures notneedwere accepted that military his For the of ed to establish ruleoverthecity. after battle Gau"as Alexander marched Babylon iffor on battle.3-5. Arrian.or both. BJ3. 19 below.'which his custom. 15. "Accordingto the instructions the Chaldeans" means of thatAlexandersacrificed Bel not in the Macedonian fashion.14Similarly. 10:86 = AJ 13."Receptionsolonelled'H6rode Atticus. to was but in thelocal manner. vols. Alexander.Refusalto participate: Millar.459.. example.Realencyclopidieder klassischenAltertumswissenschaft.The participants Judith's also wore wreaths(Judith15:12-13). oftheir to greet their visitor. Sotah 9:14).14. The gamela him and went tomeet enmasseandsurrenout ledbytheir priests archons. a token surrender As of to distinguished city is Like at the him. i. Bulletin correspondance de helHymns:N. Acclamations: below. is that Jaddus Alexander and He remarks themeeting between (hypantisis) in character different that other from of nations" and "sacred (329). byan army toward city the were clear. 18. city.Anabasis 3. 1 Macc. Bickersee as 2 and man. Arrian Cf.n.e. M.15.) It was thoroughly exceptionalthat Augustuswentout to greetTiberius(Dio see 56.p.2 . Practically descriptions adventus all of mention wreaths.1-2)." Babylonians.7).16 Theodosius Prodigiis56. to Jerusalem from Ptolemies.On open gatesas a tokenofsurrender an adventus. Livy31.noteon Diodorus Siculus 17. greeted "splendidly.3in theLoeb edition. thenewlordofthe Babylon. 14. citizens not intentions the to greet the might go Such woulddemonstratethegeneral to that general ceremonially.1 withthecomments HelmutBerve.13. especially temple of Bel. AJ 13. 4. 1: 93-94. Alexander sacrificed Bel "according theinstructions" the to to of whenAntiochus prepared enter III Chaldeans.Thecity wreathed. Bradford Welles. 11:60 = AJ ofVespasian'sgeneralat Tiberias. gatesareopened (327). vols. Paullus32. bytheir of led priests.138." they During warsof Jonathan Hasmonean the similar from the received treatment conquest Askalonites. Jews.8 and 6.BJ 3. 1 Macc. out go city. Kroll-Ziegler.StudiesinJewish Christian History.'5 Theauthor theJaddus-Alexander knew adventus of the story ceremony. p.71 and Aemilius in Plutarch.149.3. In Hellenistic fashionJewsonce wore triumph wreathsat weddingstoo (SyriacApocalypseof Barukh 10.1. 11. 7.
See Heinz-Josef 20-21 (textofthe"Raphia decree"or "Pithomstele") and pp. Gourob (above). CorpusPapyrorum 3 carum. The adventus story complete against Jaddusfirst thecity. Gourob (above). 332. Unlikeothernationswhichtake the theiridols to an adventus.7.71 [G6ttingen."The Jewshail Alexanderwithone voice (332). Giftsand concessionsat an adventus:Ptolemy on his return Egyptafter vicThissen. In one oftheActa Alexandrina Jewsand Alexandrians bring gods to thetributhe nal but unfortunately textbreaksoffbeforewe are told whattheJewsbrought (the Alexet a Judaiandriansbrought statueof Sarapis). 14) or some otherstoryabout Alexander. 2.7.1966). their whattheyrequireand he grants (337-38). priests their and hyacinth-blue gold robe (327 and 331). vols. GinBauer.and F. H. IV his to 21.73. i. of to theinstructions" theclergy Amidstgensacrifices "according (336).72.F. COHEN dressedin Haemona. phrasesappear elsewhere Josephus. toryat Raphia.22. BJ3. and Bi 7. Generalfestival: 1903-1905).-Kallisthenes1. the their Kroll). 157.2 and AJ (see.pp. Jaddus'sdreamand Alexander's is without threats 22.s.19. Herodian 8.34. Statues at an adventus:P. Dionysiusof Halicarnassus. (VictorEhrenberg and Tiberius the Documents [Oxford. M. (above). A Greek-English grich. vol. 1926].no.Studienzum Raphiadekret (Meisenheim.lines 17-18.Alexandersacrihis and ficesto thegod of thecitywhichhas just acknowledged suzerainty.'"and escorthimintothecity.48 SHAYE J. 12. D. 52.lines38-40. Orientis GraeciInscriptiones Selectae (Leipzig. Aegyptenreise Germanicus at 19. 13 above). AJ10.v. W.22 glorifies Jewsby showing of 17. 191-92).2 (pp. analysisof DieterWeingirtner. 64-65 (notes).no. For acclamationsat an adventussee AJ16.RomanAntiquities 4. Panegyric 312 C. Ps.39. 320a) withthe Illustrating ReignsofAugustus Die des (Bonn.2.172).pp. in the Cf. AJ 16. aspazesthai). ed.As he did at Babylon.14. interprets phraseto but the see meanthatAlexanderhimself performed sacrifice.72. and 102. 7. W. 6).butithas a morelikely story place in theepiphany . BJ 7. and A..to hail" (AJ10. Danker [Chicago.19 the dismisses assembly eral rejoicing. no.. 1969). Jones. Alexanderwitnessesa colorfulsight:the multitude in his mitre in and and his the vestments. Livy (n.17 For theJewish fromthat of other fact which makes the meeting"sacred and different nations. 38 below).211. See VictorTcherikover al. p. On thenextday he. Mark 15:18..E.14.That Alexander (331) maybe partoftheadventus (cf. (Cambridge. by WilliamArndt. theyacclaim him. Sacrifices thevisitor an adventus:P.21 requests as In all likelihoodtheadventus story outlinedwas once an independent to It the piece withno reference themiraculous. WilhelmDittenberger. 108-19. 1979]. thehighpriest white.1955].a phrasewhichfrequently acclamations(Erik Peterson. n. and especiallyGermanicus'sedictof 19 C.2-3. Dio Cassius 78 (77). thisis mostunlikely. 20.20Alexander (337).293. forexample AJ 15. Aspazesthaican mean "to acclaim. see Walter 2d Lexicon of theNew Testament.Herodian by of 8.147and 19.e.a meaningthatis assuredhereby characterizes Heis Theos mia ph6nei. on bestows"truebenefactions" the people: he asks them like Constantine. The phrase is pant6nmia ph6neiaspasamenon.2. 37-38 ed. 18. Jewsare led by their highpriestupon whose authorit is this mitre nameofGod was engraved the (331).E. Mass.pp. The phrase "according to the instructions the high priest"was not necessarily sinceanalogous by inspired the Babylonian(see n. Abel (n. greeted story Arrian 5. 1957-64).459.
. less comor.: Supplementband (1924).ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 49 witha visitand honoredthe thatAlexanderthe Great honoredJerusalem of the Jewish God witha sacrifice.allowed himto sacrifice their from temple.s. the to monly. 32-34. "Le miraclede Zeus Panamaros.Recherches les armeeshelle'nistiques.thunder." Bulletinde correspondance hellenique55 (1931): 70-116. Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich 18)."H61iodore au Annuairede l'institut philologieet d'histoire de orientales slaves 7 et templede Jerusalem..v. esp. pp.23 sinceHerodotus'sdescription the Persianattackon Delphi one of themostpopulartypesofepiphanystories was the soteriological: invadingarmyattacksa templeor a citybut is an a manifestation thegod or goddess.1977). the Dioscuri mighttemporarily assumehumanform and join theranksofthevictorious army). especially Pfister..The heroesof the of repulsedthrough are the defenders their and The mastory god. in acclaimedhim. 832-909. 24. ing. This storyis the Jewishsupplement the histories pagan to of in authorswho werenotinterested thepeople ofJerusalem. Cf. 23. god might appearin a dreameither thepious defenders (witha of encouragement advice) or to theinsolentaggressors or message (witha ofwarning). perhaps. and ElpidiusPax.and received him permissionto live accordingto theirancestrallaws (and.and so forth). Theodor ed. and Marcel Launey. Theophanie: Geschichte alttestamentlichen Gattung (Vluyn. Realencyclopddie klassischenAltertumswissenschaft. "Epiphanie. heaven. 1950). vols.see PierreRoussel. On soteriological epiphanies.naturaland supernatural phenomenacould be turnedagainstthe enemy(e." sur 2 (1939-44): 5-40. 277-323.g. thevillainsare theattackers. epiphanies generalsee thebibliogOn in (n."Reallexicon Antike ftr Die einer Klauser.24 message We are interested herein the soteriological of epiphanies thethirdtype."in Pauly-Wissowa der 4 al. Friedrich et raphycompiledby Bauer et al. The entire worldwas conqueredby Alexander the Great. fromtaxes in the sabbaticalyear).All of theseare clear indicaexemption tions of politicalsurrender. 5 (1962). J6rg Jeremias. The storydoes not disguisethe temple to factthattheJewssurrendered Alexander.or by some deed of powerby whichitspresence made is Ever of known. TheEpiphany Story "A visiblemanifestation a hiddendivinity.g.2:897-901. nifestation thedivinepowercould be in anyofthree of thegods could ways: personallyparticipatein the battle(e.Theyopened thegatesto him. epiphaneia.vol.. Elias Bickerman. undChristentum. lightenbouldersfrom rainstorm. of in either theform a perof sonal appearance. pp. (Paris. "Epiphanie.."was called an epiphany.
pp.heardthisrequest. . accordingly asked barbarians five and to enough they to number days. He set forth and the before after thebusiness him. ofthem most at the Thereupon barbargathering Lindos. in and be the stood over ofthe one ture goddess magistrateshissleep badehim with of good courage. thedreamthegoddessbidsthecitizens have themiraculous she storiesoftheinscription confidence. C. minded handover city theenemy.theadmiral Darius. sinceshe herself wouldprocure. COHEN of of were Duringthedepredations theGauls. water needed. as in thesubsequent epiphany just 25. 1959). by gods. establishing with besieged declarpeace "Thesemen protected the are ingpublicly.. and phany:thegoddess's appearancein a dreamto one ofthe magistrates.50 SHAYEJ. onewhosawthe they had that So andfound zensAthena's command. to In rainstorm. the them.KingofPersia. He of was forlackofit."25 of This story.32. Even moreelaborateis the accountof Datis's siege of Lindoswritten a nativeofthecity: by of WhenDarius. island thefirst enslaving for to thecountry terrifiedtheapproach thePersians fled safety were at of and all thestrongholds.2-3). to and a heavy shower inside cloud. sore-pressed a water by at were to the to Right this juncshortage.Lucullus10. by on . sent forth great a for army thepurpose of this was his visited. Grantas quotedbyMoses Hadas. the of he WhenDatis. immediately aboutthe But when great a cloudgathered burst laughing. The translation thatof F.D.an extractfromthe greatinscription the templeat Lindos is thefirst fourlabeled"epiphanies"and containsa doubleepiof (Rhodes). ians setaboutto besiege until Lindians. thenext out day. 166-67.thebarbarian struck theepiphany thegoddess. themagistrates Themisonion in dreamsby Heracles.so thatcontrary all fell the Acropolis the suffered the had of while Persian army expectations besieged plenty water.Athenaappearedin a dreamto one of of himofvictory. WhenMithridates besiegedKyzikos. Helis lenistic Culture (New York. and Hermesto hidethecitiinstructed their zens in some nearbycaves in orderto escape danger(Pausanius 10. people The which fleet Hellas. FGrH 532 D (1). they they only investigated the water lastfor days. of fora truce justthat for that had saying Athena sent her if would for time father help. themagistrates thecityand encouraged the him. his and took off personaladornment sentit as an offering. .Apollo.assuring nextday a violent of winddestroyed thesiegeengines theattackers all (Plutarch. that helpdidnotcomeinthespecified they and surrender city. intercession her by vision rehearsed the to citithe The father.3).
permission requesting toenter their andtoworship he at citadel their (adorare) city gods. 2 century vols.establishpeace withthe Lindians. Plutarch.1927). Throughthe manifestation the divinepower the by of whichwould have pious inhabitants thesefivecitiesobtained a victory eludedthemhad their in behalf.1: 173-77. onlyas a result Lysander's .seeing image thegoddess thecolonnade. The miraculous storm. When Lysander was besieging Aphytis (Thrace).C. and Massilia are As and remainindependent.he a donated golden necklace the to goddess concluded theMassilians and with a friendship inperpetuity. 20.3.lift siege.causes Datis to offer the goddess. of The people of Themisonion. Pausanias 3.5-7: Philippicae the consensus chieftain was Catumandus chosen Bygeneral general the [of Gauls in their against war When was besieging enemy he the Massilia].see Michel Clerc. secdedicationsto the ond half of the double epiphany.Kyzikos.. army select thefigure a fierce of whosaidthat wasa goddess. arrived the ofMinerva of the in exclaimed and. This eventallegedlyoccurredin the fifth B. Aphytis.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 51 in the one instructs of herpriests timesof need.28 to LindianAthenaand Massilian Minerva give offerings (personaljewelry) Both Datis and Catumandusdeclarethattheiropponentsare respectively. 28. a resultof the episaved fromtheirattackers the phanytheaggressor explicitly acknowledges powerofthegod: Lysander ordersthecitizens Aphytis worship of to Datis and Catumandus Ammon.5. city with large a of was in Catumandus terrified hissleepby soldiers. Lindos. the god Ammon himto abandon thesiege. a result] woman she he [As the After established voluntarily peacewith Massilians.26 moreelaboratestory theappearanceof a god in a dreamto thegeneralof of an armyattackinga cityis the followingaccount fromJustin.27 treaty The centralelement theseepiphaniesis thesavingactionof thegods. it was shewho had ordered to withdraw thesiege. that him that suddenly itwas shewhohad terrified at night. Lysander 27.E.and acknowledge thepowerofthelocal gods. him from the Congratulating Massilians becausehe realized thatthey to thecareoftheimmortal belonged gods. Massalia. It is unclear whether Ammon was worshippedat Aphytiseven beforethe siege or whether cultwas introduced the of order.Lysander appearedto himin a dreamand ordered to A compliedand orderedthe citizensof the cityto sacrifice Ammon. (Marseilles. gods notintervened their 26. of protected the gods. Historiae 43.18.
J.butAlexander who appeared to himwas not God but the priestof thatthe humanfigure but God."For timan rewardwithgifts.29 gifts thehighpriest and thepriests (336). knewthattheGod oftheJewsis not of who appearedto Catumandus likethegod ofthepagans. unknown bothAristides to however. cognized the consul. p. ." e. does obeisance enters temple..Alexandersees an angelwiththe features Jaddus.is wrongwithAlexander'sdream. Severalmanuscripts see."i.like the Nebuchadnezzar thebook ofDaniel. of TheodorusG. The parallelwithDaniel 2:46 (see nextsection) Kasher (n. has no place in a soternot iological epiphanywhose heroes are the would-bevictims. foster Sabinus who was still of saw Aristides thegod in his dreamin theform theconsul L. him Macedonia (at Dion) he saw a robedman exhorting to attackthePersians and promising thathe would lead Alexanderto victory (334).Later he metand reHieroi Logoi 2.. 396. a substantial (see Bickerman. Alexanand at of der did not knowtheidentity theman untilhe arrived Jerusalem narrator saw Jaddus (335). In the second epileaderof the cityreceivesencouragement As his from the realizing ambition. D. bestows the and to theGod ofIsrael(331). Sincethetemple Jerusalem. The Jewish imaginesthat Alexander.511and 646. The humanfigure had thegood senseto realize declaredthatshewas a goddess. treasury "H61iodore" [n. See Aelius Aristides.e.1848]. 30. 224-25. Behr. Book ofJoshua(Chronicon and in theSamaritanchronicle .52 SHAYE J. honors(i. the father Aelius of 31. ed. 198-99. 54. 184).. a kisson one's hand followed theextension thehand as a salute.p. "to omit"and thepriests. storydocumentsa herea and therea dreamto a citymagistrate a rainstorm. the wouldmeans "prostration"or a "handhere whether 29.30 upon) however. A. It makes littledifference proskynisis of kiss. Alexanderdonated giftsnot to but thetemple to thepriests. pp. did unlikemostotherancienttemples.e. a result phanythegod prevents attacker ofhis dreamAlexander salutesthehighpriest (331 and 336). and legitiofpious generals the allelsare thedreamswhich justify conquests It of matetheusurpation powerbyheroicmonarchs.Parola dal Passato 18 (1963): 244-53. nothave of BJ 1.3' This Its is nottheright sortfora wickedaggressor. Petronius realizedthatthegod The dreamer. COHEN the Jaddus-Alexander Like the Lindos narrative.p.See Elias Bickby erman.. 24]). and his foster father. to The practice in for respect Alexander thisfashion. double epiphany: the In thefirst dreamto thehighpriest and a dreamto Alexander..Juynboll [Leiden.9. was usingthe consul's formand spoke withhim about Aristides'work.AeliusAristides theSacred Tales(Amsterdam.however. epiphany fromthegod. Samaritanum LiberJosuae. 1). Bruno Keil = C.g. See sectionIII. and 1968).pp. and thatobeisancewas due notto thehumanfigure to God. makestheformer pointsout thatthereference since many orientalsby this point (afterIssus) showed is to proskynesis not anachronistic was introduced Macedoniansonlylater. closestpardream.ed. At thetempleof Aesculapiusat Pergamon. correctly morelikely. In Yosippon. While stillin Something.
3 vols. Symmachia. 31:24) and themedievalversion translaby ted by Micha JosephBin Gorion. (from years mid-332 wondered abouttheidentity themanin his of B. thenight he On dream. See sectionIV. saw Alexander undisturbed. paid to thePersians 35. medieval literary Alexander's dream night the before encounter Jaddus the with and story put within a warning theMacedonian to harm to include it not and Jerusalem theJews.(MuDie des III: nich. payto theMacedonians thetribute had formerly to thePersians. Alexanderorderedthecitiesof Asia Minor to pay himthesame tribute theyhad (Arrian1.35 theendofthestory. Staatsvertrdge Altertums von338 bis200 v.g. e.1969). and dora are fairly indicesin Hatto H.1: 225. thespecific condition agoraarecompletely of Jaddus that forgotten. 33. AJ . commonin treaties and alliances. forgets he is still boundbyan oathandagrees paytribute years ofseven to six out and to acceptMacedonian provided theJews allowed live rule that are to to ancestral (338).33 is Another with as the difficulty ournarrative itstands that endforgets thebeginning. god to from literary dramatic and that a We perspective. Jews The must him soldiers lia) on three provide with (symmafor and chia). 36.298)and had polluted his (AJ thetemple (297-301).I. whose and of major is thedemonstration power the thedreamis unsatisfactory to protect adherents. general (318).2). 34. story The with for Alexander's demand friendship opens (phiconditions.to Jerusalem. are supposed believe foralmost three mid-or late335 B. staring every eagerly Jaddus hisdream. Wereloyalty oaths generally Jaddushad everyreasonto requiredof the highpriests? defect sincethe Persians had supported uncleagainsthis father 11.E.. 1976).ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 53 aim ofthe be attackers. Schmidt.p.36 Jaddus Did remain priest still by loyal to hisoathor not?Did theJews surrender Alexander did he accept to or their neutrality? 32.18.supply provisions hisarmy (agora). the agora.Alexander at robedfigure wouldmeet.See. Chr. laws Alexander asks according their forvolunteers and imposes compulsion Jaddus. 54 (perhapsinspired Gen. inelegance.E.C.345.32 his Furthermore.C.34 Jaddus (dora)which they paid refuses three all conditions thegrounds he is bound refrain on that to from Darius"as longas he [the remains theliving" fighting against king] among At the for demand philia and however. Lask..trans.As forsymmachia.). Contrast 11. M. Dion. no on (339) presumably the is because high bound hisoath. met When Alexander slept thehigh he his on he priest explained conduct thebasisofa dream hadseen Aware this of some of versions the longbefore. MimekorYisrael: Classical Jewish Folktales. (Bloomington. See Yosippon.
whether narrator is or the has from drawnupon a preexisting or has epiphanystory merely drawnmotifs whether the epiphanyliterary the narratorhas drawn upon a tradition. at had no needforthismotif. theMassilianand Lindian plot and not just a collectionof motifs used to enrichan adventus narratives.The aim of thestory to finda place fortheJewsin assertstheopposite.not his). erary point the The stories/motifs. litfrom adventus adventus or merely drawnmotifs has the story preexisting is theseambetween two in anycase. The Jewsdo notsurrender Alexander. tension being mostevident theend ofthenarrative. The motif story (331) mayderivefrom adventus greeted as Prostory. It ran somewhat follows.Tarbiz11(1940): 271-94.See his "Alexanderof Macedon in the Land of distinguish Israel" [Hebrew]. I suggest and thattheepiphany was originally independent an like narrative. thefirst as 39. theimportant the tradition. 285-86. night on The before theassaultbothJaddusand Alexanderbeholdvisions. D. it to Alexander. the latter encouragement not to touch the Jews.54 SHAYE J. Whether thisreconstruction correct not.God saves the Hellenistic The epiphany story history. sit one the Thesetwo stories/motifs uneasily nextto theother. The adventus story the Jaddusfirst thatAlexander 38. permission enter recognizes him as the figure had seen in his dream.thenextday he meetsOctavianfor timeand realizesthathe is theboywhomhe had seenin hisvision.As Persianhegemony shifts Macedonian. 22 above) but probablybelongswiththeproskynisis partoftheepiphany Cicero44. the Jews to is shift theirallegiance.The former receives from froma Jaddus-like receivesa warning God. Jerusalem. his demandforphilia. and invites Jews join the to his expedition.37 Alexandermarches Jerusalem. After establishing philiawiththeJews theirterms.2-4. esp. Alexanderleaves Jerusalem.As a resultof Jaddus'srefusal accept as to story. (see n.38 he on and bestowsgifts thepriesthood.39The aimofthisstory is to add thenameofAlexander Greatto thelistofdistinguished the pagans who recognizedGod's power and showed him respect(see sectionIII). COHEN To explaintheseinelegancies difficulties. 37.The nextday Alexanderabandons his siege. This epiphanystorywas at some pointcombinedwiththe adventus story. fessor an imageof a boy in a dreambut does not recognize him. figure receives to beholdsJaddusin thetemple. (on perhaps declaring "Great is theGod oftheJews"(see sectionIII). adventusstoryassumesthattheJewsacknowledge rule of Alexander. is he who Jewsfrom and the of surrenders acknowledges supremacy God.does obeisanceto him. Cicero sees the to MortonSmithbrings myattention parallelin Plutarch. . Yehoshua Gutmannassignedthisobjectiveto the narrative a whole but he did not betweenadventusand epiphany.
I remarked to notJosephus earliwas not Joseconcurrent narratives er.describing magnificent arrivalof dignitaries Rome (Vespasian and Titus). the of whileSolomon pp. and JamesPurvis." Jewish StudiesinMemory Zeitlin.g. amid crowdsof women and men. ed. 119. 119. Marcus Agrippa. Had thesestoriesbeen combinedby Josephus. 357-58. suggested arrival Agrippaas themodelfortheAlexander story. the of Mass. 78 below.p. (G6ttingen. done. unionwould have the been muchlessharmonious. Horovitz. ed.122-23 (Vitellius).16.138(Antiochus). See. Margalioth). 1927).101and 149.and Vitellius). . cussedin thefirst of des chapter Ignaz Ziegler.These and otherpassagesare disp. Theybestowgifts upon her(15:11) and. Hugo Willrich.ed. priestand the gerousiago to Bethulia to greetJudithand to praise her (15:8-10). p. too Philo.30 and 459. have no needto positanysinwe familiarity adventusas themodelfortheadventus gle historical portionoftheJadduseventas the Alexanderstory.41 we Similarly.LeviticusRabbah 30. need not posit any historical her modelforJudith's fictional at After victory high the triumph Jerusalem. Pesiqta Rabbati. e. Jerusalem: 12. AJ IV 13. Legatio 294-97). the combinationof independent is of withepiphany well whereasthecombination adventus phus's strength. of Israel Abrahams (New York. 4:22.Antioch(Titus).ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 55 the Althoughin all likelihoodit was Josephuswho converted original sectionIV). III Adventusand epiphany.Josephusknowsthe adventusceremony well.40 ofthemotif and theceremony. at and Jerusalem Given the (AntiochusIII. Juden Griechen dermakkabaischen und vor Erhebung 1895).pp. III.Die K6nigsgleichnisse Midrasch (Breslau. Antioch:Bi 7. She sings a hymnof praise to God (15:14-16:17) which modestly includespraiseof herself all (16:5-10). Ish-Shalom..14 (Agrippa.the former all dancing. 18.TheSamaritanPentateuch and theOrigin theSamaritanSect (Cambridge.suggested arrival of Antiochus See n. of themcrownedwith in (15:12-13).Even Antiochus Epiphaneswas greeted in 2 magnificently Jerusalem: Macc. theyaccompanyher to Jerusalem a joyfulprocesgarlands sion.63-74.1903). too Bi 3.the lattersinging. 21b. 1968). 124. 40.Cf. 41. "Simon theRighteous.Mekhilta. itwas dreamto a dreamwhichsanctions conquest(see warning As who weldedtheadventus theepiphany.. 704-5.100-2.were popular genresin Hellenistic the ture.7 (pp. At Jerusalem do obeisanceto God. It is so welldone thatwe can no longerreconstruct certainty with the theseparatemotifs formof either remainrecognizstoryalthough original able. cf.the two strandswhichformthe bulk of the JewishliteraJaddus-Alexander story. Rome: BJ AJ 7. Professor me is described in Shaya Gafnireminds thatthe adventus ceremony frequently rabbinicliterature. endorsedbyGeorgeFoot Moore. 9-10.
there no god butyou!" (Bel and theDragon 41). 42. claimed. Shadrach.D. Ptolemy IX Physcon: 2. Heliodorus:2 Macc.44Daniel was intothelion's den not once but twiceand was rescuedeach timeby thrown God. I cite Judith traditions Textes(Rome.56 SHAYEJ.O Lord.. After attempt killtheJews Egypt Ptolemy made a similar declaration Macc. I do notquote biblicalmaterial here. M.the king"fellprostrate" interpreted to ordered oblationsand incenseto be offered him.The Latin and Hebrew versions..and declared"Your God editedby A. Afterthe first instanceCyrusproclaimed."Blessed be the God of Shadrach. and Bel and theDragon. his to of IV miscarried."You are great. 6:27). Nebuchadnezzar'sdream. 25).After ordeal he testified to themighty of theLord and declaredthattheGod ofheavenwatches acts over his templeand protectsit fromthose who would harm it (2 Macc.Meshach. fromthe Greek text. Judith: II: but is thanan adventus.43 not These storieshighlight only of God's salvificpower but also the recognition thispower by the pagan monarchswho had attacked the Jews. he enduresforever. 3. Jerusalem accorded Judith same properbut fictional the it the reception accordedAlexander Great. 6.Ptolemy and Ptolemy (from Heliodorus). is the God of Daniel. his will and ingGod. wreaths). On several otheroccasions a of rescuedhistemple through manifestation hispowertheGod oftheJews IV Nicanor. 3. Dan. After "He is thelivsecondinstance Darius made a moreelaborateproclamation. 1966).. theinfluence theepiphany also Hellenistic on Judith. 13. Heliodorus was struckdown by to his angelswhileattempting plunderthetemple. Hadas (n. sovereignty neverbe destroyed his end" (Dan. Whenthey thekingproship emerged safely. 44.COHEN The people offersacrifices(16:18) while Judithdedicates the personal belongingsof the enemy Holophernes(16:19). never kingship is for In Daniel a soteriological epiphany notnecessary a pagan monarch and described to acknowledge God of theJews. thetwo theadventus elements. 15. 3:36-39). Aside from CA Daniel. entry morea triumph PerhapsJudith's is in narrative inspired partby biblicalmodelsbut the are closelyrelated. Ptolemy Philopator: Macc. and Abednego . see IV 3 43.see n. thereis no othergod who can save like this" (Dan.42 The epiphanystorytoo has its parallels.Meshach. Bible. Daniel is citedfromTheJerusalem ..omitmanyof Formeset sensdes diverses Dubarle.g.hispeople (from IX). The rejoicinglasts three months(16:20). 7:6-9). Nicanor:2 Macc. The Judith On of tradition contribution is clear (e.When Daniel correctly the beforehim. (3 Philopator and Abednegoweretossedintoa fiery furnace because theyrefused worto thestatueofNebuchadnezzar.53-55. 3:28-29). and his saints(Daniel and his friends).
protects place".279.50-51. hedidnot and care for but declare "Greatis theGod oftheJews!" 18. Alexander Great wasforced an epiphany acknowledge the too to the by LikeNebuchadnezzar didobeisance theperson God oftheJews.217and 242. 2:47 (quoted by JamesMontgomery loc. dreamhad againcometrue. God ofJaddus.absent Josephus omitted or it was already absent from narrative the which used.Josephus narrative 2 Kings that Haddadwasamazed "themiracle.45 Danieland Jaddus received Both their and from Like and paganadmirers. he "The God ofheaven this mally shouldhavedeclared. master kings.215. is favored thefact former that omits such possibility by Josephus regularly The declarations. Heliodorus Ptolemy gifts honors is not Alexander convinced theepiphany to attempt IV Philopator.286. . theJews at hisprovidential (pronoia) hispeople. (Dan. Compare Dan.1979]): ergo non tam Danielem quam in Daniele adorat deum qui revelavit. epiof 6 Ben at the of the God of the Israelites. 2:46-47). appositely 46. Jeromeon Dan. but "Greatis theGod of prophet.46 version thestory 3 Maccabees of His of of doesnothavethe the of addsto the kingdeclare might Israel'sGod (CA2. and [his] phany(epiphaneia) [his]power. hisrealobeisancewas to God. mysteria quod et Alexandrum loiade fecisse regemMacedonumin pontifice legimus.63-65).ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 57 be the of and of must theGod ofgods. our Either mal. O is is there nogodbutyou!"Why sucha declaration. in his commentary ad on Daniel [repr.211. he to who wasthevehicle themanifestation divine for ofthe but power. notto theminister. maximally might declared.47Dis288. either or minimal maxiWe from story? havetwobasicpossibilities. 47.Josephus omits three thefour of acclama(AJ tions Daniel. 4:31-32). (AJ 45. Dan. 49:23 and 60:14.60). have he "You aregreat. and308-9). 2:47 withAJ10. 4:34 withAJ 10. Dan.Edinburgh. by any theJews. inthe Antiquities Midianite priest no suchstatement 3.1-15). therevealer mysteries" On another of after Daniel's interpretationa occasion. 3:28-33 withAJ10. Artaxerxes' decree (AJ11.53-55). Bevanapud Montgomery citesIsa. Similarly adds no acclamationto thebiblicalstory about thearkin thePhilisJosephus tinecities(AJ version theencounter of between Naaman and 6.The he it. 18:11). further action against ThepaganandJewish to that parallels this story epiphany suggest AlexandertheGreatshouldhaveacknowledged God's might Miniexplicitly." he doesnothaveBenHaddad declare Elisha!"(AJ Petronius wasamazedat theepiphany theGod of too of 9. Lord. Unfortunately Josephus's Elisha is lost in the lacuna at AJ 9. God and acknowNebuchadnezzar praised his ledged power(Dan. see Marcus's note) omitsthedivineepithets Esther of 8:12 = 16:16. Biblehas Jethro declare "The Lord is greater thanall other but this makes gods"(Exod.
53 and 173.5" proclamation and was suppliedbylaternarrators. Pagan respectand benefactions: e. dies in Jewish 1969).341. thattheGod of theJewsappointsand removes Theyevenrecognize gentile in accordance with theirtreatment the Jews and theirtemple.Philadelphus form). 14.D. ed.139.257-58 and 318-19.48. cf.thatGod protects Israelites: 8. sim(Romans).p.122-23. thesailors' fearof theLord and theNine49.58 SHAYE J. 12.82.and sacrifice theirtemple. 14. CA 2.217.17-96) is theonlyplace where mentionedonly a few times and is usually equated with circumcision 3.an issue whichJosephustriesto ignore. 10. 50. 293.49 it were not for in as else. 1 Macc. BJ (Artaxerxes). 11. 150-61. Pagan sacrifices: AJ see. The Adiabenestory it in discusses conversion anydetail.477-78.12.90) perform proskynesis see and inconsistency. at 5. 13). Such proclamationsmighthave proclaim sounded odd or unbelievable. in everything that who droppedAlexander's concludewithsomecertainty itwas Josephus the from narrative. Cohen. 9. p. Josephusallows the declarationof Daniel 6:27-28 to remainat AJ10. COHEN tinguished pagans respectthe Jews. 18. generalsloppiness 51. 11. 20.3-4 and 103(Cyrus).208-14).g.25and 47 (Philadelphus). thatGod kings:AJ gentilekings:AJ11.48 theydo not boldly and forthrightly Israel's God.242. thedocuments AJ 14. BJ2. 93 and "H61iodore. said.bestowbenefactions upon them. too AJ11. of kings but Pagans do all thesethings accordingto Josephus.5. especiallyin the mouthsof pagan monarchs." 32.4. Ruth's "conversion"is omitted AJ from paraphraseofJonah(AJ the are vites'repentance omitted 9.14.379.263 (albeit in either shortened proclaimmegasho theos. 16. we could Josephus'sinconsistency thesematters. WhatJosephus omitted bothJewish The highpriestof the rabbinicstory was not Jaddusbut Simon Christian.. 15.139 and 145. On Josephus's does (AJ12. and mighthave raised the sensitive issue of If conversion.Pagan monarchsand generalsrecognizethat the at his God of theJewsprotects people and appointsand removes theirkings.322. Studies(n. Pagan recognition AJ the 8. Bickerman.For parallel textssee Margalioth's notes. theRoman fearofJewish proselytism thefirst between Hellenism[Hebrew](Jerusalem.16 and 87.pp. Thissubjectneedsto be studiedfurther."Blessed isthe God ofSimon Righteous. (AJ 13. 18. 6:12).114) or does not (AJ12.139has Nebuchadnezzar beforethe Torah. 3.357(AntiochusIV. theRighteous.318-20. ofhimitwas told: and see he When the Alexander Macedon would Simon Righteous.282-84 speaks not of convertsbut of see in On century JohananLevy. Cf. 11.279 appointsand removes 5-6 pas12.120 and thatGod appointsand removesIsraelite 124. p.Stuimitators).elsewhere is Josephus (AJ 20. LeviticusRabbah 13. Margalioth. . On the distinction see conversionand declarationsof reverence. CA 2.AJ10. 276.285.31and 58 (Darius).p."5' the in 48.488.147 and 422. 13.
1892). Carolus Frick. God. Cf.p. Cf. pp. first whichis a fifth following Christian century WhenAlexander founded he Alexandria-at-Egypt. version a lost fifth of The SamaritanBook ofJoshua."54 "Your God shall be my God. Marcus's translation this text (Loeb edition. Jiirgen Trumpf (Stuttgart. I knew longagothat is the his is of the master all. you you God. In theseJewish the textsAlexanderdoes not "convert. to Jerusalem did coming obeisance to to (adoravit) theLordGod. 322. a seventh eighth the is or Latin century Greekchronicle. see 53."Deus vester deus deorumac dominusdominorum" (trans. by obviously inspired Dan. the Macedonian conqueror 52. 229-30. Peterson. servants. This chronicle.p." Like Ruth.after century paraphrahas est singJosephus. On theformula whoma god has manifested "god ofX" whereX is thepersonthrough see Heis Theos."53 of Comparethislateversion theAlexanderRomance: said the "We [Thepriest] [toAlexander]." and seen No [?] of To thisAlexander "Go in peace.andthat dominion over andthat soulofevery all. 1963). . ByzantiniVita AlexandriRegis Macedonum. texts. "Glory you. 515).worthy said."He acknowledges the Contrast powerof theGod of theJewsbut does not denypolytheism. 184). living Andfortunate you.ChronicaMinora(Leipzig. God ofthis is the temple. p. manisabletointerpret him. 78. allthings andunseen.Juynboll. withminorvariants Der griechische Alexanderroman Rezension Gam1974). 56): For he Blessed theLord.wholives one. 210-12. Anonymi ed. ed. 227 and pp.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 59 This minimal declaration.p. In othermedieval Jewish versions Alexander too himself.I shall peace[shall with notinvade as [I havedone]to other because serve living the nations. HelmutEngelmann of (Meisenheim.p. Bin Gorion. does notconvert. 218.go. 3:28 and similar was thenexpanded(Yosippon. followed by ma BuchII. 54. and creature inhishandfor him whominister before inthis place. worshippers thetruly great God andmy God.p. the paralleltexton p. YourGod shallbe my be] you.theonly O of ruler all. are his is death life.the forever.saying.52 of two the chronicle: texts. Gloria tibideus qui vivisin secula solus princeps. p. 270: Gloria tibideus solus omnia tenensqui vivisin saecula. serve one God whomadeheaven andearth. Alexanderdeclare. ExcerptaLatinaBarbari.
(J. 246-47. Me'or 'Einayim.See nowGerhard Trumpf Jurgen Journal the des for Gottesglaubens. 18:11). Migne. commentary Isa. of an epiphany shouldbe followed an explicit acknowledgmentGod's by that was from Jaddus-Alexander the sensed something missing they power. analyzedby EphraimUrbach. Louis Ginzberg. 7: 257. David Cassel [Vilna. from and filled suppressed story imaginatively thelacuna. ed. See to Israel'sGod (Exod.converted monotheism. as of because they that of had later readers theJewish Realizing Antiquities no suchreticence. De 7 vols. arguesthattheAlexAkademie Wissenschaften der derHeidelberger ander romance. 22.p. narrated riseand fallof Athens. .176-83). PatrologiaGraeca 68: 281-84). Eccle[Cambridge. Adoratione ed.45. 97-98. 25-26.E.1977). to because he was converted his worshipthrough through Dei withfalsegods. "Eine jiidischeGrfindungsgeschichte 57..1967-68).56 refrained recognition in from formulae the mouths pagans. Jerome.60 SHAYE J. deletethesepages from (n." See De Civitate thatGod oughtto be worshipped together impiousvanity 18. not "Alexanderdid indeed offer 56."Alexanderder Grosse als Bekenner jiudischen StudyofJudaism12 (1981): 1-51. Cf. Josephus.perhaps of placingconfessional But couldbe so easily mistaken declarations conversion. TheMedievalAlexander 1956]. deduced from no Cyrus'sedict that the Persiankingacknowledged god but the God of Israel (Patrologia admiration SeriesLatina 73a:504-5). no.and Josephusdraw independently upon an earlierversionof the C. some fifteenth sixteenth to thatAristotle converted Judaism (Azariah de Rossi.1864-66]). 66 and 136. ed. 5 (1914).reprint (Philadelphia. D.57 the hissource later was supplied IV in The riseand fallofstates empires a common and was theme GrecoRomanhistoriography. with (Munich. Augustineremarks.Die Quellendes griechischen 2d Alexanderromans.WhatJosephus from imagination. Friedrich Alexandrias. and Cyrilof Alexandria. Claimingthatthe romancedependsupon century storywhichhe dates to the earlyfirst Pfister's KleineSchriften 6) wherethey et Merkelbach al. as siastesRabbah 10. 11."Cyrusand his Decree Molad 19(1961): 371. 45:1. chap." Delling.pp. LegendsoftheJews. but because he thought truepiety.pp. 128). intheEyesoftheSages" [Hebrew].2(cited by George Cary.the rabbis." Sitzungsberichte Pfister. Manyadditionalexamples in sacrifices the templeof God. on P. Accordingto both Jewish legendJethro. could be cited. the Thucydides the and Polybius Livydescribed riseofRomeandthefallofMacedonand of and Christian who declaredthegreatness 55.12regarding Cyrus. From Aristotle's Latina 24:442 = CorpusChristianorum Jewish scholarsdeduced and fora Jewish century sage (CA 1. pp. should have appeared at pp. COHEN was the of Alexander nottheonly accepts faith Israel. See Reinhold Merkelbach. distinguished pagan him his tohavemonotheism thrust after death."* long upon we "conthat knew howtodistinguish presume Josephus Although may from polytheistic a he version" oftheGod ofIsrael.
5-7).89and 104). see 60. and by is in Jeremiah Babylon turn conquered theMedesandPersians. D." Journal Theological of our discussion. Polybius. ther Greeks barbarians so savageandimpious deedever nor had a among beencommitted" as (299. G.and by discomfiting the ple. "The HistoricalValue ofJosephus's Jewish XI.ShayeJ. .ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 61 One oftherecurring themes Josephus's of theGreekstates.by supporting protecting Samaritans. Esther. 97-104. "Josephus. high tells of The Joannes feuds hisbrother with Jesus kills inthe and him "Neipriest temple. by and God's people. by explains downfall: sinfulness folly 10.184-296) thenarrative ander(11. book 11Josephus history ruleuntil Persians arereplaced a newempire. Macedonian. and 114-19. thecausesof Judaea's and (AJ Danielexplains causesofBabylon's the downfall: and impiety blasphemies In narrates Jewish under Persian (AJ 10.16. trans. Antiquities. then were of Why they deprived their empire? Partoftheanswer provided theenigmatic aboutBagoses is and by story the Jews between paraphrases the of (11.302-47).was theking's oftheprophecies Isaiah.3-4) which. Jeremiah.61. Josephus piety. In AJ Josephus 11 stresses enmity the between the Jews and theSamaritans. Jewish is War and rise thefall theJews the oftheRoman of empire. Recognition thatGod appointsand removes gentilekings:see n.26).Just God wouldlateruse the 58.58 Within Jewish the books10and 11. 48 above. Cambyseswas readyto listento the Samaritans because he "was wicked"(11.this theme too.241-43). and Jaddus. Judaeais conquered Babylon. 59. Josephus says. Discomfitingthe Samaritans:AJ11. 84-88 and 174." paperdelivered the 1980meeting theAssociationofAncient of Historians.Byparaphrasing and documents continued Persian The Nehemiah. Marcus). later Persian for follow leadin kings (except thewicked Cambyses) Cyrus's that Jews given has them dominion that and recognizing theGod ofthe they owehim Thegratitudeexpressed benefactionsGod'stemis to gratitude. Jacquelinede Romilly. do notaffect Antiquities 297-301. the too the by The book openswithCyrus's edict(11.60The story ofthemisdeeds theJews. temple (11. M.1977). Alex(11. Williamson.59 Unlike Babylonians Persians notguilty impiety the the are of andblasphemies.The Rise and Fall of States According GreekAuthors to (Ann and a at Arbor.Two hundred of prompted by perusal and tenyears earlier prophet predicted God wouldappoint this had that and of nations that in would restore Jews the to king many Cyrus Cyrus turn landandtheir their someform of Esdras.297-301)whichis sandwiched Esther and aboutSanballat.In book 10 Josephus of and Daniel and their fulfillments. The problemsanalyzedby H. Studies28 (1977): 49-66. especially details prophecies Jeremiah the has a majorrole. Cohen.
granting permission thebuilding a temple to nonetheless Samaritans discomfited are (340-44). leadership Alexander form contrasting theonewicked theother andsuccessful. Antiochus Sidetes(AJ 6. 13. offerssacrifice.62 SHAYE J.191) or about the Jewish by ad Eusebius(Chronicle 359 a. Cf. tle doubtthatDarius was prepared comply to continues old Persian the of the mantle.Redemption replaced. AntiochusEpiphanes and pairs appear elsewherein Josephus. 62. butin theendthe for of (324). The next victory paragraph to (317).61 this following is thefirst oftheSanballat-Alexander Immediately part story which ofSanballat's a tells to for Preattempts build temple hisson-in-law.theJewish theRomans In are War occasion.93-95). their not are the emphasizes guilt. saidto pollute Josephus 297and300). Alexander. (301) temple precincts the a sacrifices "enslaves" Jews (300)byimposing feeon thetamid (297). Chr. Stern.62 for his he triedto force material fithis thesis. usedthePersians this butwith major one difference. Sanballat the but seems kings confident Dariuswillgrant request that his from when returns fighting he relates Alexander Alexander's (311 and 315). to The new Persian enmity is which the describes wickedness the of toward Jews documented a story by both Jews thePersians.194withthenoteof Menahem (see 2 and on Greek and LatinAuthors Jews Judaism. ruleendured. SinceJosephus little had hard evidence sucha reversal. Persian the respects temple.Bagoses enters sacred the and (miainein. vols. their Oncethey these reversed policies they were doomed. theeditorial the and but introduction andcon(297) the of and clusion (301)to thestory ignore wickedness theformer highlight is that thelatter. They. COHEN to for Romans punish Jews similar the on God crimes.1:43).) and otherwriters CA 1. 2 Maccabees: thesinsofwickedhighpriests bringthepollution thetempleby a monarchare and thegentile comes whenboth thehighpriests gentilemonarch. Josephus but leaves reader the only thinking withSanballat's wishes.. inheritor thePersian into Sanballat notthenew. theJews. viousPersian had discomfited Samaritans. in whereas theJewish the led Antiquities Persians byBagosesarewicked. 1974-1980]. 63.D. In contrast Bagoses the and with whoprofaned temple interfered thesacrificial Alexander cult. and thus a and pair. as they toward Jews malevolently the and toward behaved long benevolently theSamaritans. The and a the venerates priests.he is maneuvered thewily by policies. Such contrasting e. who the of God's righteous avengers seekto purify temple itscontagion. [Jerusalem. (316)andhisapproach Jerusalem is As Herethen Josephus's for of explanation thedownfall thePersians. new of The Persian toward Samaritans expressed the policy litinthewishful ofSanballat. righteous of 61.True.g.63 failing.243).and JohnofGischala and Titus(BJ . At this point Josephus obviously knew nothing about the Persian persecutions revoltagainstOchus chronicled describedby Hecataeus (CA 1.
of Persian was hegemony legitimated prophecy.werehonoredwithvisions tinely. 37. 34-37..ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 63 ander's conquests. an exhortatory dreamwhich divinesanction Alexto replaced by gives 64. Alexandertells Parmenionthat while still at Dion in in Macedonia he saw a figure a dreamexhorting to attackthePersians him and assuringhimof victory (334-35). p. 67. wereusuallypublic.2. of Therefore claims that Macedonian Josephus hegemony too was legitimated thedivine. a thereby creating "double-dream" story).17. God on warning of theJews. 282-85.g. pp. and Merkelbach 57). unlikedreams. Kroll) and 2. e. This possibility well notedby Bfichler. Vespasian). 68. especially their sentbythegods.16. Kroll). by the of Daniel predicted collapse theBabylonians Isaiahpredicted and the rise thePersians.33.18.1. Ps. suggests was that p. 109.65 the romanceAlexander'sdreamsplay an important In role. p.-Kallisthenes 1. 59. diiselectus (Rome. in of himnotto touchhis warned In the extant version the story warning of the dreamhas been people. 1977). 80-81. It was Josephus himself who gave Vespasianone oftheoracleswhichbestoweddivine on house. Arrian2. 13. the dreamis based on the Heraclesstory. legitimation thenewruling . Cohen. Plutarch. whileAbel. In antiquity generalsand kingsrouand at accessionto power.Alexander. Gutmann. 66 was judaized (christianized?) theadditionof the to by Phinehasto Ammon(Vita Alexandri.13 (pp. Trumpf) by thereplacement Ammonby or of p.butI have to by not foundany singleeventor dreamwhichis theobvious model fortheJewish In story.68 industriously sought out favorable omensand oracles. Jeremiah Trumpf's (see apparatus). onlythrough not but by prophecy also a throughdream. ed.p.67 More effective than dreamsforthe legitimation powerwere omens of and oraclesbecausethey. Curtius4. 65.RufusFears. theform thehighpriest.and Alexander was no exception.beckonedto himand led him into the city. ed.3.His visits theoracleofApollo at Delphi to In theperiod Cyrus. suggests thatit is a judaizationof Alexander'ssacrifices thegods at Dion as described Diodorus Siculus 17.7-11 (pp.64 Tyrehe saw a dream At in whichHeracles. Alexander 24.perhaps a Jewishversionof a dream which was originally ascribedto someother god. ed. In one dreamSarapis assuredhimofworlddominionand revealedto him the eternalgloryof Alexandria. no less than many Roman emperors (e. 66.. See. I suggested abovethatin theoriginal saw Alexander a epiphany story his The dream night the before planned assault Jerusalem.3 (wherePlutarch juxtaposesitto a dreamoftheTyrians.Princeps a (n.g.n. J. later versions Ammondreamreferred in n.66 Alexander's dreamin theAntiquities is of this type.thegod ofthecity(= Melqart). 39. 51.In anotherAmmonappeared to him him and instructed how to proceed.
370) and is not mentioned Ginzberg.In one rabbinic Rabbah 3. CA2.At both he receivedpredictions his of future Not to be outdone. 60. is notrabbinic(Urbach [n.3-4. is story modeledon theSiwahstory. Kallisthenes. Historical:AJ storiesabout Alexander:BJ Romantic:BJ7. to Who was theauthorwho converted Alexander'sdreamof warning a inserted Daniel episodeintothenarrative.192and 201-5.64 SHAYE J. CurtiusRufus4. is to tedthereference Daniel inthenarrative suggested Pfister. on 2. FGrH 124 F 14a.257-64) and profaned temple. and 72 in (civilrights Alexandria). The divine approval grantedthe Macedonians was forfeited AntiochusIV who by the the favored Samaritans 12. Diodorus 17. Josephan of 70.35. 199.He invents withthetradition about Alexfiction thatCyrusread Isaiah.4. 37. an dreamofexhortation.ruleovertheJews. theJewish Warhe piouslydeclares aid?70 suggest the thatGod approvesof the Roman dominionover theJews.boththehistorical been theone to createtheDion dreambased on a pagan modeland to have insert Daniel episodeintothenarrative. Whileat Alexanderwas shownthe book of Daniel and learnedthatthe Jerusalem God of theJewshad preordained the thatone of theGreekswould destroy Persianempire (337). 55).49-51.73 the makingbothchangesin order of on of and theancestor to bestowdivinesanction theinheritor thePersian.245.theJewstoo pointedto their"oragreatness. theRoman. by legendCyrusreadsDaniel (Song ofSongs gends(n. Plutarch." Thus the beginning AJ11 (Cyrus-Isaiah)corresponds its conclusion(Alexanderof who inserThat it was Josephus awaitsinvestigation. 73.CA1.n. Delphi: Plutarch. (AJ . else independently this 71.4)."Athenaeum (1979): 446-47. 4: 353 (withthenotes).see 1 Macc. and the the partof neither epiphanynor the adventus episode whichis an integral stories?To rephrasethe question: Which Jewwishedto show thatAlexwith divine approval and divine ander's conquest of Persia was effected I In thatit was Josephus. by Kasher. use Daniel). Siwah: Arrian3. was not such a Jew. p."Flavius Josephusand Alexander'sVisitto Jeru57 salem. COHEN and Ammon at Siwah are famous.487-88. The authorof 1 Macc.7.74 Alexander14.7' He is familiar and theromantic. and Arnaldo Momigliano. 321. I do not thinkthatthe Alexander 26-27. 1:1-9 withthecommentary Jonathan Goldstein (New York. 74. 42-44. p.69 cles" whichpredicted Alexander'sconquests:thebook of Daniel. The Daniel "oracle" parallelsbothAlexander's pagan oraclesand Cyrus'sIsaiah "orato cle. 72. 1976). p. D. 56]. 69. Jewish 2. Josephus's of ringstructure KleineSchriften. As faras I have been able to determine motif appears nowhere LeIt of Josephus.347-48 (for parallelssee Jacoby'scommentary FGrH 124 F 31).72 Hence he maywell andertheGreat.
Biichler.75 revealto us the originsof thethreestrandsof AJ 11.302-347.74-79). of (n. not dependent upon theSanballatstory. deduced from the alleged anti-Samaritan tendencya (Palestinian?) settingunder Cumanus.AJ is and probablycircuSamaritans. 1927).sincewe can thatanygivenphraseor motif partofthepre-Josephan was neverbe certain source. scholars have ignored these problems.302-47 is wovenout ofthree about Sanballatand Alexander (1) A story A story about Jaddusand Alexander (2) or (2b) An epiphany story motif Data about Persianand Macedonianhistory. as I have suggested. (3) is of authorearlier The prehistory thismaterial mostobscuresinceno extant who completedhis Jewish in than Josephus.changing.. betrays any knowledgeof either(1) or (2). 11-13. Antiquities 93/4 C. 1: 24. Josephparaphrasedthem.Mass. But theJaddusstory nothing do withthe has to (cf.. Centuries the Christian Era.ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 65 V strands: AJ 11. influence anti-Samaritan Biichler's manyscholarshave assignedan Alexandrian originto the See Marcus's appendixin theLoeb editionand GeorgeFoot Moore. and it is likelythat all post-Josephan authorswho retellthis materialdepend upon Josephuseitherdirectly or it who combinedthethree If.Judaism theFirst in story.10and 13. 24-47. was Josephus indirectly. Willrich 41). lated fora long timebeforebeingjuxtaposed to a story about the Samaritans.Ratherthantranscribe sources and omitting whatverbatim. 76.adding.E. pp.pp. to ascribedan Alexandrian on provenance theJaddusand Sanballatstories the thegroundsthattheyreflect Jewish-Samaritan tensions within thatcity 12. 3 vols.76 was composedin the Biichler Similarly. the strandswitheach other. (Cambridge. Under story but its literary parallels show that the Jaddus storywas once independent. 13.we cannot determine date and provenanceof sinceJosephus of one strandby thedate and provenance another mayhave his combinedmaterialof disparateorigins. Cohen. . Many have Unfortunately. Hence we cannot relyupon isolatedmotifs phrasesto or ever he wished. argued thatthe Jaddus storyis an imitative reactionto the Sanballat p. arguedthattheJaddusstory to from period of JuliusCaesar on thegroundsthatit refers an exemption or (2a) Anadventus story motif 75.
318-19. was an integral partof thestory for to Alexandrianprecedent permission followthe ancestrallaws would For thePtolemaicand Seleucidperiods. 18.This conclusionwould be looked benevolently Jews upon gentile if to laws almosta certainty we could be surethatthereference theancestral sinceappeal to an and not a lateraddition. Judith).66 SHAYE J. Even Alexanderthe withtrans-Euphratean 77. the Jewsaccepted Macedonian sovereignty: Alexanderguaranteesthe Jews'rightto follow theirancestrallaws. think earlier . It is possiblethattheJewsof Babyloniaand Media toldtheirown storiesabout to the Alexander Great(in response theadventusof Alexanderat Babylon?See thepassage of with Palestinithe of a 11. a boon thatwas granted Jewsby Caesar is for (AJ14. adventusstoryabout a polite Macedonian king and obedientJewswas whoseaim intoan epiphany It was story unsatisfactory.By employing request to make it prefigure we could concludethattheJaddusstory ofBabylonianoriis Biichler's logic is on thegrounds the of thatAlexander said to guarantee rights theJews gin the of Babyloniaand Media (338).The adventus of thepolitics theHellenistic story "putstheJews themap. 12) and soughtto finda place forthemselves between on world. as was to finda place fortheJewsin HelleThe aim of theadventusstory nistic to showthattheconqueroroftheworldconsidered Jerusalem history. Josephushad connections Jewry 1.whenthe dominion.202and 206).17-96.) and thatAJ an Jaddusstory.6) and knewhistorical (BJ thatarea (AJ from traditions 3." All in all I an date is moreplausible.77 When we seek to determine date and strucprovenanceof theJaddusstorywe mustrelyupon the fundamental tureand messageofthestory a wholeand notupon itsdisjectamembra. The for is mostplausiblesetting thisstory thepre-Maccabeanperiod.Josephus(or someone else) may have modifiedthe the Caesarian exemption.338combines fragment sucha story Arrian citedin n.310-79. when the Jewsinvented genealogicallink in and themselves theSpartans(1 Macc.131-33. 10. 11. It is notimpossible III.not leastofwhichis our ignorance thepreciseformulation Jaddus'request of of in the originalstory.78 the have been mostuseful during on Jewsin the Maccabean period. thattheadventhe 78. therefore converted the was to demonstrate power of the God of Israel. COHEN taxesin theseventh the year(338).who prided themselves theirvictories over the Macedoniansand told storiesabout thesavingpowerof God and this in thesuccessof thosewho trusted him(Daniel. a tus storyoriginatedin the Maccabean period. Especially timeofAntiochus see n.Like everyoneelse. 14. emanating cf.CA 1.192).264-65. of worthy beforehis departure course. D. of of a visitand the Jewsworthy respect. But thisargument precarious manyreasons. 1 Maccabees. 41 above. 20.
330) (AJ remind oftheslave dealersof I Macc.This parallelwas notedbyBiichler. Josephus added thereference Daniel. For a recent thesepassages. The epiphany story to the betweenAJ 11. added the reference Babyloniaand Media (see n.2 Macc.79It is thisstorywhichformsthe basis oftheaccountin AJ 11.8. . is for the Josephus also responsible giving story itschronological and it about theSamaritans setting for juxtaposing to material (see sectionI). 37.muchas Datis scoffed Athenabefore goddess manifested power.p. The "Phoeniciansand Chaldeans" readyto plunderJerusalem 11. 72. thenarrative AJ omitsor contradicts in 11 relevant information in contained 79.35. 81. 19. 42-44.AJ12.see AryehKasher.AlexandrianJewsspoke of Alexanderthe Great as the grantorand guarantorof theircivic rights. is unlikely it thatourJadAlexander. and made many to otherchangeswhichwe can no longeridentify. changedthenatureof Alexander'sdream(see to sectionIV above). who sacriJosephusgivesa listof monarchs or to ficedat thetemplein Jerusalem otherwise showedrespect theJews (CA This omissiondemon2.4). ("Phoenicians" probablymeans "traders"and "Chaldeans" probably her means "astrologers".pp. Marcus's notead loc. TheJewsinHellenistic RomanEgypt[Hebrew](Tel Aviv. 10:36and 13:40). Not appreciating distinction the between adventus the and to Jewsinven"It epiphanystories."but our story the of makes no such claim. areas whichhe had not yetconquered. and Arrian see also has 6." tinga visitofAlexander Jerusalem 80.c. cf.Similarly. 445. 171-76. (see sectionIII above) although resemblance and 2 Macc.80 conAlthoughAlexandriawas the creativecenterformanytraditions bothhistorical and novelistic. For some of the sharedmotifs sectionIII above. Alexanderpromisesto protect rights theJews not onlyin Palestinebut also in Babyloniaand Media.but he does not make a similarpromiseregarding the a work Jewsin thecitieswhichhe was goingto build. cerning dus storyhails fromthat city. sourcesand concerned withtheproblems based upon Alexandrian Jewish faced by AlexandrianJewry. Momigliano. is difficult imaginePalestinian to between170and 70 B.326 manyaffinities 2 Macc.buthisdeducI p. CA2. (It about Alexander once circulated is possiblethattheepiphany story indepenbefore combined withtheadventus Sharedconcerns and story.487-88.E.BJ discussion of 2. For example.C.In theAgainst Apion.42-64) but omits Alexander'svisitto Jerusalem. writes. Thereare others see too. stratesnot only Josephus'ssloppinessbut also the factthat Alexandrian apologistsdid not know the Palestinianstoryabout Alexander. WithAlexander's invitation theJewsto join his army(339). 3:41 (cf. 3:14-17 is superficial. comparethesimilar to invitations issuedby Demetrius (1 Macc. 77).22. and 1978).ALEXANDER AND JADDUS ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS 67 Great had to bow in homageto God and had to leave theJewsin peace. Theirpresence theepiphany us in the at the storyheightens gloryof thesalvation.) being dently linkthisadventus-epiphany to theliterature Palestine the motifs of of story second halfof the second century B. tions are extreme. 8:11).
iffake. wastoo busy to He priest. By assumingthe unityof the Jaddusand Sanballat stories.part2). hisEupolemus: StudyofJudaeoof GreekLiterature (Cincinnati.74-79) also do notrefer Alexander. Alexandrian Historiker see discussionand bibliography. This contradicts 11. For a recent view.see Momigliano(n.Jiidische Schriften hellenistisch-r6mischer vol. ascribesa to 11. p..43) of Alexander's treatment he knowsno suchthing butin AJ11Josephus although is contrasting thatAlexander of theJewswithhis treatment theSamaritans. all likelihood work Alexandrian to a of oriis Hence Jaddus but the story notAlexandrian Palestinian. If genuine. WhentheJews AJ relented. 1976.For a brief Jewish) (i. 144-53. pp. Palestinian origin AJ . tus and epiphanystoriesdemonstrates. aid in therebuilding thetemple Bel.82 Thehistorical Alexander notvisit did did to Jerusalem. (AJ of endorsement theAlexandrian 83. Nikolaus Walter. Alexander's affected Jews the journey deeply thatAlexander 82. with insignificant to the an inland conquering world bother peopleliving But around a smalltemple.pp. Hecataeus reports (CA gave Samaria to theJews"freeof tribute" 2. The protagonists the Jewish-Samaritan to debatein Egypt 13. 10027 NY in a work ascribed Hecataeus. was not always easy to decide it whether to or Alexander surrendered theJews theJews surrendered Alexto ander. 293-95. 262-73.68 SHAYE J.302-47. Fragmentejiidisch-hellenistischer aus Zeit. This is not ancestral that volunteers they der assureshis Jewish mayremainloyalto their theplace fora discussionof thepassages ascribedto Hecataeus. 445. thisviewis notconvincing.In CA 1.Wacholder.e. 1. pp.192 Hecataeus reports of of to Jews ordered soldiers. D. 73). notdo obeisance thehigh anddidnotsacrifice theGod ofIsrael.1974). COHEN nonetheless.83 gin.339whereAlexanrefused theywerepunisheduntilAlexander laws.theyprobablyare of Egyptian origin. (Giitersloh. theyare of Egyptianorigin. Whentheytold storiesabout himthey toldthemin Greekand As thetension of between adventhe adoptedtheliterary genres theGreeks. Jewish of Theological Seminary America 3080Broadway NewYork. are The Hecataean passagesquotedbytheContra Apionem ascribedbyBen Zion Wacholderto A see but earlyPtolemaicPalestine. his included.
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