THE

NUMISMATICCHRONICLE,
AND

JOURNAL
OF THE

NUMISMATIC
EDITED BY

SOCIETY.

V. S. W, YATTX,M.A., F.E.S , -JOHN EYANS, F.R.S., F.S.A., R0.fi.,
AND

BARCLAY

Y. HEAD.

NEW SERIES.-VOt.

Factmn abiLt-monumentn

maneiit.-Ov,

Fast*

LOKDOIT.

JOHN BrTJSSELL SMITH, 36, SOHO SQUARE.

PAKIS: MM.EOLLUJT FBUAEDENT, VIUES^, No.1! ET HUE
1872.

t CONTENTS.

ANCIENT

NUMISMATICS.
Pago

Jewish Coins. By F, W, Madden,Esq On an UnpublishedCoin of ArtaTasdes King of Armenia. II,, By Percy Gardner,Esq., M.A. i;

1 9

Pienseignements Numismatiques^ sur 1'Expression*pp,
" cornu," employee dans rEcriture Saulcy, Membre de 1'Institut, &c Sainte pour de60

signer metaphoriquementla Puissance. Par M. F. de Coins of Alexander's Successors the East. By Majorin Q-eneral Cunningham, E.E. A. ..... Note on the Legend pp.

157

By the Be?. Hpnry^C. Eeichardt. 221

MEDIEVAL

AND

MODERN

NUMISMATICS,

Notes on the Annals of the Scottish Coinage, By B. W. CochranPatrick, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. . . 16, 83, 242
Farther Notes on the Gold Coins discovered in 1828 at

Grondal,Hants. By the Vioomte de Ponton d'Amecourt

72

Yi

CONTENTS.
Page

An Account of a Hoard of Coins found at Ephesus. By H. A. Gruober,Esq. . . . " " " .120

Ona Hoard EnglishCoins of found St.Alban's, at with some Remarks the Early Coins Edward on of YI, By John
Evans,Esq., F.E.S., F.S.A. ...... 186

Unpublished Varieties EnglishSilverCoinsissued the of in reignof Richard 22ndJune,1S77-29th II. September, 1399, By J. Fred. Neck,Esq. a . . . . 223 Unpublished Varieties Scottish of Coins, By E, W. Oochran
Patrick, Esq., F.S.A. Scot, ......
On the French Medals struck on the intended Invasion of

235

England Napoleon By T. J. Arnold, by I. Esq.,F.S.A. 2GG

ORIENTAL

NUMISMATICS,

Sasaanian C'olns, By Edward Thomas,Esq., F.R.S. 33, 105, 271 Arabic GlassCoins, Ey Stanley E, Lane Poole,Esq. . , 199

'

NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC

PUBLICATIONS,

RevueNuiaismatique,N.S., Tome xiv., 1869,No, 5 . Kevuede la Numismatique-Beige «
British Museum,. "A Guide to the

.

80

,

,
Select

.
Greek

»

61,212 62
. 63

Coins

Exhibited in Electrotypein the Gold Ornament Room" The Story, Partly Sad and Partly Gay,of the Thorngrafton '
Find .

.
'

,
. .

,
*

»
" .

.

,

,

.

.

Berliner

Blatter

.

". .

, .

. »

. "

, 213: . 214

Numismatische .Zeltscnrift,.1871 .

CONTENTS.

Vli

MISCELLANEA.
Page

The

St. Bartholomew STEAGES

Medal

with

YGONOTTOEYM 216 217

British Museum. Casefor the exhibition of a portion of the
National Collection of Coins

Saleof Coinsand Medals, The '<Chetwynd" Collection

. 219

NUMISMATIC
i.
JEWISH

CHRONICLE

COINS.

THE pages of the Numismatic Chronicle have not for some time been filled with any papers on the Jewish coinage. Whether the cause of this neglect be the

absence art so peculiarto thesecoins,or the difficulty of
there is in their decipherment and classification,it is not necessaryto speculate. Suffice it to -say, that Jewish coins, notwithstanding the impetus that was given to the study of this class some years since, have received of late very little attention. By those, therefore, who have made this interesting

anddifficult branch Numismatics of their particularstudy, the recent paperby M. F. de Saulcy must-be warmly
welcomed.

I propose speak the coinspublished De Saulcy to of by
in their historical order. JOHN HYRCANUS.

De Saulcy publishes nineteen varieties of the coins of

this Jewishprince. I mayremarkasregards reading the
of the legend on Nos. 13, 14 and 15, i.e. " John the high-priest and head of the confederation of Jews," that the wordf(confederation " wasproposed Dr. Levy, and by not by Cavedoni.
VOL, XII. N.S. B

Z

-NUMISMATIC

CHRONICLE.

JUDAS ARISTOBULUS.

On the seven varieties (Nos. 20 to 26) published by

De Saulcy-there maybe found the wordsbm ]ro (Cohen Gadol]andnot Vta ]ro (Cohen Galul.) This latter reading
has already received a fair share of remark.1 ALEXANDER JANN^US, ALEXANDERII., AND HYRCANUS II.
Numbers Jannseus. 27 to 41 are varieties of the coins of Alexander

De Saulcypublishes (No. 47) a piece which he attributes to John Hyrcanus II., and to the period of the reign of this prince comprisedbetweenthe years B.C.69 to 66 or B.C.63 to 57. Its description as given is :Obv.. , ASIAEOS. Anchor within a circle.

j£fo>.- .....

£>rrp....

(very clear). In the field

De Saulcy remarks that this fragment of legend can

only be completed reading by "f*?t>n pmrrs (Jehochanan
Hammelek]. Now I have no wish to say that this reading is incorrect,,but the secondword,,Hammelek, supplied from the is two letters . " " 5on. Unless the TD so clearly defined is as to leaveno doubt, it seemsto me that the letters might equally well be rjft.,the original letters being somewhat

alike. In this case, wordwouldbe 'jroir Hakkohen. the
A somewhatsimilar coin was publishedin 1864 by the Rev. H. C. Reichardt,2 on the obverse of which are the

letters HA? (or SA), and on the reversethe legend
JewishCoinage/' p. 62; Num. Chron., N.S.,vol. v. p. ... "...."'. """:":: .""(:^.: '"': ... ; " '" ' ."':". ".'" ' "'.'" "
2 Niim/Gliron., N.S.,vol. iv. p. 176.

How does De Saulcy. vol. instead of the Jewish . . and was attributed by him to HyrcanusII.nameof the issuer of the coin. or wmr^y. and it would seem more probable. Chron.JEWISH COINS. Judging from history. They are remarkable from having the Greek name Alexander repeated in Hebrew characters (tC3msi%Akxadras. Now the important question to decide. 3 Num. iv. it seems very doubtful whether Alexander II.propose to supply the deficiency? If Mr. De Saulcyin his. 175. Reichardt be correct in his reading. N. HA (or 2A). especially bearing that title. that the type adopted by Alexander Jannseuswas perpetuated during the subsequent reigns. is the correct readingof the Greek letters on the obverse.3 which I am rather surprisedhave not been noticed by De Saulcy in alluding to this period of the Jewish history. de Saulcy in his presentpaper.. Should this be the case.by others to Alexander II. p. who was never king. but leavestheir attribution undecided.I supposeit will be necessaryto attribute to Alexander Jannseus the remarkable coins published in 1864 by Reichardt. does De Saulcy supposethat YPKANOY is the word to be supplied? I confessthat I am unable to offer a solution of the difficulty.2and 43). 3 ["jrr]3]rmsJonathanCohen. and M.. though the names of the reigning prince might be different. Of theselatter De Saulcy has published two examples (4.. If it is not to he so interpreted. Ahkxadras). ASIAEQS-then the completereading may be BA3IAEOS AA8HANAPOY. though I am in favour of classing these coins with the mass of small pieces attributed by some to Alexander Jannseus. ever struck coins.and is again reiterated by M. and as has been often suggested.S.

4

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

It is evident that we must wait for more perfect

examples thisportion the Jewish of of coinage before any
real andsatisfactory conclusion possibly attained. can be

If, ontheone hand, thereis much uncertainty respectingtheattribution theaforementioned of pieces, thereis,
onthe otherhand,greatsatisfaction beingableto assure in
ourselvesof the correct attribution of some coins to

Hyrcanus anattribution which II., for Numismatists are
indebtedto De Saulcy, Under the numbers 44 and 45, De Saulcy publishes

some pieces bearing legend the
TTTTT innrr wr jron

Jehochanan HakkokenHaggadolHacheberHajehudim, which,ashe remarks, wouldat first sight seemto belong to John Hyrcanus. The rare coin, however,in the possessionthe CountdeVogue,whichin place of the of

name prniT, Jehochanan, that of rrnritt,Mattathias bears
(Antigonus), whichis in otherrespects but identical, proves
without doubt that these pieces must be attributed to

HyrcanusII., and in all probabilitywere issuedin the yearB.C. the yearbeforethe accession Antigonus. 41, of
Of No. 46 a more perfect specimenmust be obtained before either its reading or its attribution can be
determined.
ANTIGONUS.'

Some small copper pieces, bearing for type on one side what was supposed be four trees, and on the other a to

candelabrum seven with branches, werepublished M. by De Yogiid in I860,4 and from their similarity to other
* Rev. Nunu, I860, p. 291, PI. xiii. No. 8.

JEWISH

COINS.

0

coins bearing the legend " Mohammed [is the] Apostle of God/' were attributed by him " to the period which

separates the Arab coinage from the coinageof the first moneyof the Caliph Abd-el-Melik/'s
5 I also published this coin, with others of a kindred charac-

ter, in my work (" Jewish Coinage," 231). The reviewerof p. my book in the Morning Post (Sept. 28th, 1864) considered
the account of these Arab coins confused and unsatisfactory. " How should," he says, " any money have been coined before the first ? The figures, supposed to be caliphs, increase the difficulty. It is well known that the law of Mohammed forbade all imitation of the human form, and that for more than seventy

yearsafterthe Hegira his successors obediently abstained from all coinage. The want of a circulatingmediumfor thesevast
dominions, after they had exhausted the plunder of conquered realms, compelled Abd-el-Melik, in A.D.695, to issue national coins, and he employeda Jew named Somyor as his first mintmaster. He probably commencedhis work at Jerusalem, and it is not likely that there were any Mohammedancoins prior to this date." De Saulcy's classification of the coins bearing

figures a caliph ("Num. Jud.," p. 188; " Jewish Coinage," of p. 230), seems be justified by the following passages to from the Arab historian, El Makrizy, who, speakingof Moaviah,
says, " He struck dinars, on which he was represented girded with a sword;" and, a little further, in recording that El Hedjadj received the orders of Abd-el-Melik to commencein Irak the fabrication of Mussulman pieces, directed by the Jew Somair,adds, " These coins having circulated to Medina, where there were still some of the companions of the Prophet, they only disapproved of the types, for they bore figures " (Traite desMonnaiesMussulmanes, translated by M. Silvestre de Sacy

from the Arabicof El Makrizy, Paris, 8vo.,. 1797,pp. 15, 18).
From these statements, and from their great similarity to the Byzantine coinage of the period, it would seemprobable that they were struck in the earlier part of the reign of Abd-el-

Melik, who,towardsthe year 76 (= A.D.695) gave up figures
(Lettres de Baron Marchant. Paris, 1851; note by M. A. de Longperier, pp. 14, 15; cf. Gibbon, ed. Smith, vol. vi. p. 377,

note a), and issuedgold and silver pieces, employing Jew as a
his mint-master. It would, therefore, seemcorrect to say that

thesecoinswere the first copperpiecesstruck in Jerusalem by
the conquering Arabs, and that they were struck during the

period which separates Arab conquest the from the coining of
the first money of the caliph Ab-el-Melik.

6

NUMISMATIC

CHRONICLE.

The piece now published by De Saulcy (No. 50) provesthis attribution to be incorrect, and that these
coins should be assignedto Antigouus. The word rrnn (portion of Mattathias) occurs on the obverse, arid the letters SAN (BAS ANTIT) on the reverse. De Saulcy

suggests that what has been taken for the four trees is oulythe four feet of the tableof shew-bread.
I must congratulate M. de Saulcy on the discovery of this interesting novelty.
ARCHELAUS.

No. 63. The remark of De Saulcy respectingthe trident in front of the prow on some coins of Archelaus (De Saulcy, PL vii. No. 2; Madden, p. 92. No. 2) is very probable. He suggests that it is only an UU(omega),and that this letter is a portion of the word HPGQA.
HEROD ANTIPAS,

De Saulcy publishesseveral interesting varieties of the coins of this Jewish prince.
AGRIPPA I.

In a P.S. De Saulcy says-" I have again collected a large number of the coins of Agrippa with the umbrella, 100 at least! All, without exception,are datedyear VI., L. £". I persist then more than ever to deny the other dates which have been published." I have nothing more to say on this question, It now rests with M. Reichardt to produce his two coins with other dates. I might suggestthat he shouldforward them
to the Editors examination. of the Numismatic Chronicle for a careful

JEWISH

COINS.

7

HEROD I.

The various examples published by De Saulcy are

interesting, inasmuch they add to or correctthe coins as
of Herod I. as at present known. A more perfect example
of No. 56 must, however, be obtained before its attribution

can be acceptedas certain.
THE Two REVOLTS OP THE JEWS.

M. de Saulcy commences this portion of his paper by saying that he persists more than ever in attributing to the first revolt, that is to say, the one which ended in the destructionof Jerusalem,only the small coins having for

type a vase with cover,bearingfor datethe year2; and a
vase without cover, with date year 3. As to all others, he attributes them without one exceptionto the revolt of
Barcochab.

So far so good. M. de Saulcy then proceeds to publish some varieties of the coins of this period, and it is of those described under the Nos. 64, 65, and 68 that I would say a few
words.

Speakingof 64 and 65 De Saulcy says: " The similarity of these two pieces, of which one of the sides has been

struckfrom the same die, and of which one-according
to Madden-would belong to the first revolt, whilst the

otherwouldbe of the second, shows that this theory will
not bear examination/'

Of 68, De Sauicy says: " Maddenattributes this piece

to the firstrevolt and to Simon-bar-Gioras;it belongs
certainly neither to the one nor to the other." I must take exceptionto these passages.

De Saulcy'spaper bears date "the 9th of October,

8

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

1870." Four years previously (in 1866)I publisheda
" The Coins of the Two Revolts of the Jews/5 in the Numismatic Chronicle (N.S. vol. vi. p. 36) in which I reconsidered whole question, and restored to the Barcochabthe very coins of which De Saulcy now writes.
paper on

The Numismatic

Chronicle

has, I own, a limited

circulation, and is probablynot consultedby any but Numismatists. I do, however, maintainthat De Saulcy,
as a Numismatist, should have examinedits pagesto see if anything had been written of a novel character since the publication of my work in 1864.
I have no intention in this article to rediscuss the

question,nor doesDe Saulcy's paper give occasionfor me to do so. My views were fully given in my paper pub-

lishedin 1866, and nothing that I haveat present seen hasbeen written since that year to warrantme reopening the subject. I then expressed hope-which I now the
reiterate-that Numismatists interested in Jewish coins

will well considerall that has beenwritten upon the question, a viewof obtaining,if practicable, correct with a classification the later period of Jewishcoinage. of
F. W. MADDEN. April lOdfc, 1872.

II. ON AN UNPUBLISHED
KINGOF

COIN OF ARTAVASDES II.,
ARMENIA.

IN the cabinet of the late Mr. Woodhouse,which on his death in 1866 he bequeathed to the British Museum, is a coin which throws a little light over one of the darkest parts of all history-the annals of ancient Armenia after the death of Tigranes the last King of Syria. The fall of the kingdom of the Seleucidsein Asia Minor before the rapidly increasing power of Rome placed Armenia in an exceedingly unpleasant position. On this side the Parthians, on that the Romans, each a young and mighty power, were rapidly extending their borders. A collision between the two was inevitable, and as the natural boundary between them lay through the mountains of Armenia, nothing seemed more likely than that this comparatively feeble power would be trampled to death beneath the feet of the contending continents. This danger, however, brought a large immediate increaseof importance and dignity to the princes of the line of Tigranes, who could feel that they held

the balance, were in a positionto givepreponderance and
to the influence of either power in the eastern part of
Asia Minor,

Unfortunately the accountshandeddown to us of thosetimes are not much to be relied on, because they
VOL. XIT. N.S. o

from the accounts of native historians.at '* that time in a state of anarchy. would tend to show that the southern parts of Armenia were less under foreign influence than the rest. liv. the nephewof Tigranes.10 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE." he says(the deposed Parthian monarch). Tacitus and Dion Cassius have each preserved for us a list of kings...who by counterfeitingfriendship 1 Moise de Khorene. To begin with the accountof Tacitus. 3. by Beesley. It would seem that there must have been two dynasties reigning at once. that during all this time there were independent kings on the throne. * Tacitus. Trans.2 " Vonones. ch." ii.supposed have governed to Armenia chieflyin the Komaninterestj and yet it appears. French trans." Ann. comemostlyfrom a purely Europeansource. Certainty in these matters is scarcelyattainable. sought an asylumin Armenia. established a dynasty ruling from Edessa. but from the complete silence of native writers as to the kings mentioned by the Boman historians. that Abgar son of Archam. we may be almost sure that the latter have magnified the influence and successes their compatriots this part of in of Asia. Still it cannotbe doubtedthat part of Armenia was ruled by the kings whose successions and wars are narrated by Tacitus and Dion. and not to be relied on as an adherent either of Parthia or Borne. We can only reconcilethe very differentstatements of nativeandRomanhistorianshy supposing the kings that whose deedsare dwelt on by the former ruled a remoter and more securepart of their native dominions. 27. in consequence of the crimeof Antonius. hy nameArchamand Abgar. ii. while the more accessible parts of Armenia were overrun by the Eoman or Parthian armies. . and the assertion of Moses1 of Khoren.

found a shield for himself and his kingdom in the power of the Arsacidse. c. 9. and ended hy putting him to death. 11 had entrapped Artavasdes. and held to by meansof succourfrom Parthia.lib. He was assassinated his kinsmen \ and Tigranes. disorganized. nor did his children. Tigranes. " By order of Augustus. they placed the wanderer. Artavasdeswas next raised to the throne. did not reign long. however. whose extreme personal beauty and brilliant ability made the appointment a most popular one with the Armenians. put in possessionof his sovereignty. was. on the throne. but was deposed. as Dion 3 Dion Oassius. adjust the affairs of Armenia.named Erato. and not without disastrous consequences us. whom they soon deposed. after trying the experiment of a female sovereign. Dion Oassiustells the same story up to a certain point. Artaxias. being irresolute.ON AN UNPUBLISHED COIN OF ARTAVASDES II. King of the Armenians. they refused to submit to his children." I make so long an extract from Tacitus becausehis account is clear and doubtless in the main correct. When he had been accidentally killed. liv. whose affection for his father made him our mortal foe. . by birth a Mede. that of the throne was at once seizedby his son.and in a state of anarchy rather than freedom. being apby pointedto Armenia by Csesar.under the escortof Tiberius Nero. This prince. and. Vonones. then loaded him with fetters. He too relates that Antonius entrapped and put to death Artavasdes L. His son. though they observed the barbarous custom of intermarriage and joint sovereignty. This caused the appointment of to Caius Csesar. Artaxias (whom in one place3Dion seems call Artavasdes also). and he set to up Ariobarzanes. the son and successor Tigranes.

however. 6 Ibid.followed in order by Arioof 4 Dion Cassius. who had been a hostage at Borne.soon came to an end. lib. The former asserts that Tigranes wassucceeded by the dueen. Artabazesor Artavasdes. Dion proceeds. c. At the death. however. Iv. he seized preof and the text of a request from certain Armenian nobles to send Tiberius with an army and orders to dethrone the Armenianking. and at his death Augustus set up his son. Ultimately. a Mede and refugee at Rome*6 The Armenians. the Romans tried to set up as ruler Ariobarzanes. joined the Parthians in resistance to this interference. H. c.12 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 6 Ibid. It will be seen that Dion and Tacitus cannot be reconciled in their accounts of the names and fates of the successors Tigranes. When she had lost the kingdom. Iviii.5 The reign of Tigranes. Tacitus makes Artabazus the of successor that monarch. lib. I have already quoted the accountof the latter writer..lib. Artabanus the Parthian gave Armenia to his son. 16... proceeds state. and afterwards to Mithradates the Iberian.. 7 ibid. c. and put in his place TigranesII. Arsaces. He perished in a war with the barbarous tribes of the frontier. Erato. 9. And at this point the account of Dion diverges from that of Tacitus. 26. and in fifont of one of their fortresses Caius Csesarwas treacherously wounded. c. Ariobarzanes was establishedby Roman arms. lib. 10a. The task of Tiberius was made an easyone by the assassination Artaxias before of the Roman army reached Armenia.4 to had a not unnaturaldislike for the Romans. liv. The wrath of Augustus was naturally rousedat this piece barbarism.7 Artaxes (who must be either this of Artabazes or his son). by him all the Eomanresidentsin Armenia and were massacred. .

Boarder dots. Head of the king. whenthe Armenians had revolted. to lay before the reader the coin which is the subject of the present essay. No. Ariobarzanes. andcanonly regret that it is not moredecisive. Rev. Size 4J-(Mionof net).ON AN UNPUBLISHEDCOIN OF ARTAVASDES II. Let us turn to the monument of Ancyra." Corp. I have recapitulated all the important evidenceto be found bearing on the history of Armenia at this period.-BASTAEan MEPAAOY APTAVAgAOY. Nor is it possible to reconcile these accounts. Head laureate. Before further consideringthe historical bearing of thiscoin.. yet it is very strange that he alone mentions an Artavasdes or Artabazus as holding the throne for a while before the appointment of C... 4040. I.the inscriptionsand typesof two of them (PI. right. Ariobarzanes and his son Artavasdes in succession.8 a more trustworthy record than either of the above. is correct. Erato. 13 barzanes JErato. Border of dots. but that is all. in At this point I must pause. 7). Inscr.-EEOV KAISAPOS EYEPPETOY. . as far as the death of Tigranes II. and may be described as follows :Obv. except by assuming a second Erato and a second Artabazus. Unfortunately. In particular..I maynoticeoneor two interesting peculiari8 Boeckb. Dion saysthat the orderof these and reignswasasfollows: Tigranes. This monument relates that Augustus set up in Armenia Tigranes. I.. diademed. although it is quite established that the account of Tacitus. son I. the coins of Augustus givebut little information.. Art poor." No. Caesar the East. It will be found engraved(PI. and Artabazus. of Artavasdes and afterwards. Nos. 5 and6) showthat the Emperor interfered successfully in Armenia. weight 54*7grs. ofAugustus. right.

which was before assumedby Tigranes II. Luke. and shows nothing hut Roman influence.as I understand. V. is noteworthy. '* Numismatic[ue de FArmenie. No. C. 4). Nos* 1 and 2). hoth from its likeness to that on his coins. ties in it.it is interesting to find his surname revived in the remote region of Armenia That at a time close to the birth of our Lord. (see PL I. 10I have taken the liberty of borrowing these illustrations from M. two coins of Artavasdes I. Thus the name of Artavasdes strangely spelt. thus the words ©EON SEBASTON occur on the coins of Pergamus.D 14. Langlois' complete work on the coins of Armenia. it is quite certain that the present coin was struck between B.. and a curious illustration is afforded of the passage the in Gospel of St.and the words ®EA2EBASTHare used of Livia on the coins of Sidon. 10 and A. and from the use of the term ®EOS. xxii. No. 36.for purposes of comparison. (PL L. 3) wastaken by the kings of Armenia.. Even as early as this the Greek cities of the East were not ashamedto hestowthe title ©EOSon eminent Romans. because the power of of subordinate feudatories who under them ruled the dis- tricts of Armenia. is the Y havinghoth the form and forceof the Latin V.C. It is evidently framed on the model of a Roman denarius. coin " is that of the head on the reverse of this Augustus seemscertain.9 I have also had engraved. the latter of which is very similar in style and sizeto the Roman denarius. had at this time heen a century and a half dead. and one struck under the protectorate of Germanicus (PL I." p. As PtolemseusEvergetes II.10 To return to the historical question. The title of Great King. .14 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. does it occur in this age. who 9 Langlois. but whether it was struck under that prince. nowhere else. The term Evergetesas applied to Augustus. 25-ot e£oiJa-idfoyT¬S avrw «j¬pyercu KaXowrat.

15 is said by Tacitus to have been " whether under nee sine clade nostrorum must remain dejectus.render it probablethat it was not meant for circulation in Armenia so much as among Roman legionaries. and its unlikeness to all the money of Armenia.C. Csesarin B. These troops were defeated. At least. The further reasonswith which I can support this theory are the following:-Firstly. like Artavasdes. II. doubtful. based on the account of Tacitus. in his name and with his effigy. the Roman generalsin Asia Minor set up a prince of the blood royal. PERCY G-ABDNER. if Tacitus is right. 6. or the son of Ariobarzanes. and there was a King Artavasdes in Armenia before 6 B. and has antedated the reign of the son of Ariobarzanes.C."previousto the expedition of C. succeeded to the throne of a father. This defeat was at once followed by the expedition of C. the result of which was the establishment of Ariobarzanes and his son. is this-that during the anarchy which followed on the death of Tigranes II. in. Secondly.and coined money. Thus. Caesar.wherewith paythe troops to with which they supported his pretensions to the throne of Armenia. I think that to this prince the present coin must be attributed.C. and far more resembles the coinageof a military usurper than that of onewho. named Artavasdes. . any caseit must be consideredas the first and only coin yet publishedof Artavasdes . but if Tacitus is wrong.ON AN UNPUBLISHED COIN OF ARTAVASDESII. and seems to belong rather to a period before than after B.at some town of Syria. My own theory. 6. and the prince disappears from history.the style of the coin. except the one coin of Germanicus struck under similar circum- stancesto those I suppose. it is certainly the work of Roman artists.. the son of Ariobarzanes. the head of Augustus is youthful..

The following memoranda are taken in a great measure from such sources. Under such circumstances.the incidental references scattered through contemporary annals and records may afford valuableassistance when it is not possibleto obtain more authoritative evidence.III. that the nearer an author is to . there are many points which are still involved in considerable obscurity. It is necessary premisethat in to theymustbe received with differentdegrees authority. I. of nor can any particular rule be laid down on this point beyond the general one. and the Acts of Parliament and other public records which remain. NOTES ON THE ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. Nor is this to be wondered at. leave many difficult points untouched. when it is remembered that the most valuable materials necessary for fully illustrating the history of the Scottishcoinage are not now available. and it is hoped may prove of some use to those who are interested this study. No. THOUGH great deal has been done during the last thirty a years to correct the errors and clear away the difficulties of the earlier writers on Scottish Numismatics.

made money of leather:-" Nummum ex corio bubulocudi jussit."4 It is hardly necessaryto say that this account is of no historical value. quhen thay interehangeit with Britonis and Eomanis afore thir days. and his face on the tothir. p. The notices which are found in the early chronicles are more curious than trustworthy. XII. The Scottis usit na money.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE." lib. "We possessno historical evidence on which any reliance can be placed. seeing that there is no authority given by the historian for his statement.. On the ta side of this money was prentit ane croce. N. 1 " Hist. » Lib. 2 Lib. 86 b. Scot.Hist. p. 17 the time of which he writes.S. except it war money of the said Bomams or Britonis : as may be previt be suidry auld hurdis and treasouris found in divers partis of Scotland with uncouth cunye.1821).i. m. Lib. and that no coins have ever been heard of anywhere near the period here indicated. the more likely he is to be correct in matters such as these. 195(ed. Lesly assures us that Eeutha.."1 Buchanan gives to a certain King Donald V. vi. till a comparatively late period. p. 175. who "primus omnium Scotorum reguni ut in nostris annalibus proditum est memoriae nummum argenteum aureumque signavit/' &c. v* fol. 85.:B an account which is translated in the quaint old version of Bellenden as follows:- " King Donald was the first King of Scottis that prentit ane penny of gold or silver. a very early King of Scotland. p. NIC. 24. bot merchandise. D 4 Vol. . VOL. ii. The early history of the Scottish money is involved in great obscurity. the credit of first coining moneyj2 while Boethius assigns that honour to Donald I. part ii..

or the precious metals by weight. fol. p.5 and the reason of this was in all probability the scarcity of metal. A curious proof of the scarcity of money is found in the laws of King David I.Ver." 7 Vide Skene. Nic. Edin. 85. "When anything was wanted which barter could not supply. 1° Ib. 1782. folio 194 a.though what it was is not particularly specified. lib.6 when. though there was a native currency. i. 84. in addition to the poverty of the country and the absence of any great foreign intercourse. struck in the country. would most likely " be used in the earlier times. 9 Boethius. iii. there is more frequent note of offendersbeing liable for a fine of so many "ky" (cows). and the " uncouth cunye of other countries in the later. 35 a. and the want of necessaryskill. vol. Lib." sub Colpendach. " 8 Boece.." Canmore a " nuinmus aureus " is mentioned. 6 "Assise Regis David. the assithement) the slaughter for 5 Ruddiman's Introduction. ornaments of gold and silver. lib. .. p. of payments in moneylong before we have proof of a native currency. was much later of coming into use than among neighbouring nations.^ In the " Leges inter Brettos and Scotos" the gtcroo" (that is.. ii. 118. x. with sometimes the addition of a f'colpendach" (calf).7 There are traces in the early annals.. It is related that Brudus sentconsiderable sumsto the SaxonKing Edwine-"missa ad eum ingenti peeunise 8 In the time of Malcolm vi. Hist. and though money penalties are sometimes mentioned.9 It is called in the Scotchtranslationby Bellenden "a golden penny/'10 though the same sum is elsewhere stated to be "half ane merk. De Sig.18 NUMISMATICCHRONICLE/ "Wemay safelyassume that in Scotlanda circulating medium.

It is also recorded that amongst the articles of silver found in NorriVs Law." 12 Forty of the samekind werefound in Lanarkshire. but no other evidence exists on this point.1844)." pp. 519. and 4 dwt. 318. were several coins with rude markingson them. Wilson's " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland. among the rest a number of flatand tened " circular gold pellets. In 1806a quantity of very early goldarticleswasfound in Peeblesshire.and the workmanship the other articles of found along with them might afford someclue to the age in which they were made. wecancall if them such.ANNALSOF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. De sig. were "the primitive typeof nativeminted currency. s»Ib.1?. another hoardin Forfarshire. 299." Money. H Ib. thereis little doubtbut of that therewasan attemptat a nativecoinage muchearlier than is generally supposed. 351." vide alsoRobertson's "Early Kingsof Scotland. Twoof these of pieces. respectively. 19 of a kiog is fixed at three thousand"orarum aurearum.p. They weigh 4 dwt.." 12Wilson's " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland.."13 The cross. p. p. In many parts ^ "Acts" (ed. with nothing but the cross or star. 520. preserved the Antiquarian Museumin are in Edinburgh. 12| grs." u But though specieor foreign moneymay have been usedin payments this kind. ." That distinguished antiquary has no doubt that these circular piecesof gold.eachmarkedwith a cross in relief. vide Bkane. 5.14It is muchto be regrettedthat no exact account of these has been preserved. othersin various and parts the country. 15 grs. verb.." " "*croo . arid are figured in Mr. 317.

. 376. they are probably not earlier than the time of David I. There does not seem to have been any classof coins corresponding to those which are called Early British ever struck amongst the barbaroustribes of Caledonia.20 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.p. "Pro vulnere 15Lindsay.but from the perishablenature of the metal none haveeverbeenpreserved long enough makeany to particular examination of them. p. Among the " Fragments of Ancient Codes" preservedin the first volume of the " Acts of the Scottish Parliament/' there is one which provides:-" Quicunque falsam monetara fecisse probatumest manusejus amputetur. though we find no regulations as to the currency. 2. they seem all to have been brought from other parts. but ruder. i. Nor do we find any native imitations even of the Eoman coins. Though some Gaulish and Early British types have been found in Scotland. . though coins exist of the type of David I. Another law of the samereign-the authenticityof which is not altogether fromsuspicion free -providesthat. and evidently of earlier work."16 Thoughthe ageof thesefragmentsis uncertain.but in the meantime. but their attribution is not altogether satisfactory. which must have been plentiful in the country. it is doubtful whether we can satisfactorily appropriate coins even to Alexander I. w "Acts. which have been supposedto have been used as currency.15 Other hoards may come to light which will give more certain evidence. In the early Scottish laws. of the countrythin discs of iron havebeen discovered in tumuli. Somecoins havebeen attributedto the chiefs of the Western Islands. there is constant reference to money." vol.

82. The date of those curious enactmentsis prior to the year 1153. is but he who has one uncoveredwill only owea "ferding. made grant to the Abbeyof Dunfermlineof all the gold a which should accrue to him from Fife and Fothrif. Most probablythe pennies werebroken into the partsrequired. on can there are various denominations money mentioned.. . 21" Acts." v. " Chart. must refer either to foreign gold coins or to some amount of uncoined metal. 22 Ib. 34.. f. 20Edinburgh. p."19 In the " Laws of the Four Boroughs. but it is hardly necessary say that no halfpence to or farthings of this reign have ever been discovered. p. fixed at eight shillings. 461." "twentyone pennies and two-thirds of a penny" are mentioned as the "croo" (assithement) of the "newow of ane oge- thearn. » " Acts." Preface. 18 Hailes.. 7.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. by the samecode. pp. ii.Berwick. ii. if we accept it as genuine. 21 in facie." p.and therefore during the reign of David I.Stirling. the merchant who has a coveredbooth in the market-place to pay a halfpennyto the town. videlicet unam imaginemauri. 32.18 In the "Leges inter Brettos et Scotos. 86. 27. this law. 33. vol. Dun. for we find in the year 1153 David I. by 17 Nichol. p. A few yearsafter (1170)this we find a charter granted to the monks of Paisleyof someland in Ayrshire.21 of The brewer is to pay to the aldermanfourpence annum per for leave to brew. . Roxburgh."20 which is generallyconsidered now as the first body of legislation which historicalreliance beplaced. 299. There is a proof that gold in some shapewascurrent in Scotland at that time."22 A burgess " forfalt" is.vulnerans dabit unam peciam auri."17 As no native gold coin then existed.

151 (3rd ed.24 Under the year 1189 we find the samesum mentioned by Wynton :" Twa thousand marks of sic mone.. Lord of Galloway. .. p. 1819). yet at and the mention of a baser currency might imply that it was not altogether unknown.22 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. in which mention is made of "tres nummatas fern/'23 It is difficult to say to what this singular notice refers.. 100. There is no trace of any other coinage that period exceptthe silver pennies. 26Ib..26 William sent from Roxburgh two thousand marks as a contribution towards paying the ransom of Bichard of England. As oysed wes than in oure countre. derail." . offered Henry of England two thousand merks of silver as a yearly tribute. 98. 160. vol."2fi Two years afterwards. i. p. 231.accordingto the sameauthority.p." p.under the year 1190 :" Willelmus rex Scottorum dedit Eecardo regi Anglorum x. i. The chronicler of Mailros says. In thereignof William the Lion wefirst findtrustworthy evidenceon the state of money matters in Scotland. Tnillia marcas aim et argenti propter dignitates et libertates ac honores suos quos hahuit ante guerram et pro Berewic et Rochesburh quas Henrietta rex per xvj annos violenter detumit.Edin.. 25 "Chron.vol... p. de *4 Hailes.and the large sums mentioned in the chroniclesshow a great increasein the wealth and civilisation of the country. son of Fergus. and still later in the same reign we find the Scottish king agreeingto pay King John fifteen thousand nfarks as compensationfor the destruction of the castle 23" Begistram Passelet"(MaitlandClub). His coins are numerous.. In 1186 Gilbert. Hose of Cragyn. Hailes.

.. (subanno). vol. vol. . 365. he does not inform us what he means either by " modius" or "aureus. p. 579. The chronicler 27 "Fffldera. c.a " modius of barley could hardly be purchased for five e aurei. vol. It is mentioned by Wynton. And it is alsoreferred to by Balfour and Hailes. 102.though no other particulars are given. 164. 3* Hailes. 23 of Tweedmouth. p. p. so much so that. de Mailros. . Hailes. accordingto Boece.' "32 Unfortunately. ii. viii. no doubt. 80. affords very scanty materials for the annals of the coinage. vol.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. in his chronicle:" Of Scotlandthen the Kyng Willame Renew'd his mone then at hame . i.." p."2J Thedifficulty with which this sum was raised renders the astounding statement of Hector Boece that one hundred thousand poundssterling was the sum to be paid as William's ransom after his capture by the English28-to borrow the forcible language of the learned author of the Preface to Anderson's "Diplomata Scotise"-e< equally false and incredible."29 This was. 31Balfour. 155. 29 <-Chron. vii. the secondcoinageof William the Lion. bk.and for " procuring his friendship and ful- filling certainconventions between them. . i. p." so the reference-is of no historical value as far as money is concerned.31 Three years after this there was a great famine in Scotland. 28 Bellenden's Trans. Hailes. 818. p.." t. i. i." ros Under the year 1195we find in the " Chronicle of Mail" the first direct referenceto the coinage:" Willelmus Bex Scottorum innovavit monetam suam. The long reign of Alexander II." 30 . 30 Wyn.

Underthe year 1250we find in Balfour and in Hailes a notice of a changein the coinage:" This zeire K. 1249. p. Andrews. i. 1759). . 83. makingthecrosse tuochethe utermostpoynteof the circhell to wich in his predescessors rainges it did not"35 In the " Scotichronicon" it is thus given :" Moneta etiam Scoticana renovatur. 56. ii. both double and single^ to the latter. 177." s4 with adwisse of hes 8 estaits altered the standardof hes coyne in a Parliamentholdin at Alexander II. and all the long-cross." p. ita ut crux quaeprius non transivit circulum in denarium modo ad extremos fines denarii attingat"36 These references at once raise the question of the appropriation of the coins of Alexander II." vol. i."Bower's Continuation (ed. 1. 38Fordan's *' Scotichronicon. Alexander renewed the stampe of his coyne. 57. In the absenceof any direct evidenceon the subject there are many reasonswhy the present appropriation is unsatisfactory. are attributed to the former king. only seven as "Chron. died in July. de Mailros. The short-cross pennies which bear the name of Alexander are of the highest degreeof rarity.24 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. p. vol. Alexander St. and these only. of Melrosesays that in 1247 there was a "mutatio monete/'ffl and the same event is referred to by Balfour under the same date :" This zeire K. and his successor. By the present arrangement the short-cross pennies. 3* Balfour's " Annals. 35Balfour.

that the coinageof William the Lion was a very extensive one. ^ but we have seen that during his reign large sums were sent out of the kingdom. The names recorded on the pennies of William 37 Lindsay.38 But the reign of Alexander II. and in the next place. 196. 11. they exhibit a great variety of type. vol.41 4." Burton's "Hist. of Scot. and this is urged as a reason in favour of the present arrangement by Mr. p. 12. no doubt. Roxburgh. The evidence afforded by the coins themselves is altogether against the received appropriation. 12. Lindsay. For in the first place we find only one mint recorded on them.37 while the long single and double-crosspennies with the samelegend are the most numerous coins in the Scottish series.During this long period the country madegreat advancesin wealth and civilisation. 39Bobertson's "Early Kings. N. p. The long double-cross coins have been frequently found with those of William the Lion. 12. and we might expect from the surrounding historical circumstancesthat a large coinagewould be required. though the coins are very few in number. VOL. p. 3. It wasaltogether against the usual custom of that time to strike the entire coinage of one reign at the same mint. XII./' . " « Lindsay.. and without any of the short-crosspennies along with them. It is true. viz. ii.S. p. extendedto upwards of thirty years. p.andwasonly a few monthsshorterthan that of his successor. E « Ib. Lindsay at the time of the publication of his view of the Scottish coinage. 25 being known to Mr. * Ib.39 2. and it is unlikely that what remained would be enough for the requirements of a country making such progressas Scotland was then doing.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE..

the moneyer is often ANDRV.subReg. from continual references in the annals. present first coinageof Alexander III. courts. he should have struck money only at Roxburgh. 6.. For if we remember that Alexander IIL was a boy of eight years of age when he succeededto the throne. Perth. p. the Lion and on the longdouble-cross coinsof Alexander showa great number of mints in various parts of the country. 5. . Lindsay places considerable weight on the Appearance the head as presented on the short-cross of coins and on the long-cross coins of the. but wehearof him at manyother placesholding parliaments. under these circumstances. Andrews.26 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. so far as I am aware.andthere is no reasonfor supposing that this practice alteredin the caseof Alexander was II.43 But this evidence tells more againstthe present arrangement than for it. and.IE. 1223. was evidently in the habit of constantly making progressesin every part of the country. and that this change of coinage is said to have taken place in the first year of his reign.42 He was at Sconein 1214.though a specimen exists in my own collection. Selkirk. Forfar. It is in the highestdegreeunlikely that. 1225. Mr. Roxburgh was certainly a very favourite residence of that king. 1220. St.anddispensing justice. on any of the so-called first coinage of Alexander III." ® Lindsay. it is not published amongst his so-called second coinage. whose name also occurs on the short-cross coins. and is of great rarity in the third coinage. Berwick and Stirling in 1248. and if we compare the coins of the 42" Scots Acts. 12. In connection with this argument it is worthy of note that this mint does not occur at all.and when this mint does occur. 1247. Alex.

. 8. present an old haggard face. Scot. is invariablycrowned.andthereforethis fact cannotbe allowed to have much weight.we are to accept argument to if any at all from the portrait. II. Lindsay as another argumentin favourof his view. Nos. though others have not (Lindsay. The third coinagemore particularly. Scot. PL xxxvi. the full featuresof the fourth coinage. Nat. immediately preceded youthful. Dip. Another very curious fact. PL ii. some of William the Lion's second coinage pennies have a beard. as in the long double cross coins.45 and But it is at once admitted that all these arguments wouldfall to the ground if we had certain evidence that no long-crosscoins were struck till after the accession 44 Vide " Charter of Alex. xlix* 46Ib." PL xxx. and by a moneyer(PERIS) whose namealsoappears the bearded on type of the short-cross coin of his successor.44while Alexander III.is that Alexander IL is representedon his great seal without the crown. . appears remarkably the facepresented the coinsof the fourth like on coinage. thoughevidently well preserved. 27 first. second. 7. Dip* Scot. The presence a heard on the short-cross of coins has also been pointed out by Mr. Besides.. which it is im- possihle suppose. But this only occurs on some of the short-cross coins. though it can hardly be admittedas an argument. Man. 47 and 48 of PL iii. in his work haveno trace of it. and especially those of Berwick. 41).. and third coinageswith those of his fourth (according the presentarrangement) will he at once to it apparent that the mostboyishfaceof all is the last. as Nos. 34. and it is worthy of remark that the best definedbeard is from the Roxburghmint.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE.

Lindsay says:" The evidence history cannot be got over.28 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. and see if it is really such as would destroythe highly probable casearrayedagainst it. since all their information on this point is derived from the two earlier sources. . But 46 Lindsay. Sir J." which not only does not support Mr. they do nothing of the kind. 12. It remains. it appears of from the Scottish writers that in 1250 it was ordered that the crossshouldpass throughthe legendary circle. all other. 1871).viz." i. nearly two cen- turies after the event. during the reign of Alexander 1L-there wasa " mutatio monete. in point of fact. not by Fordun in 1384-87. Fordun. vol. The wholefoundation his statement for rests on a passage in the " Scoti-chronicon/*47 written. that in 1247-that is. Mr. therefore. There is not a single word by Fordun in referenceto any changeof coinagein 1250.which was not the case before in the Scottish series. and the only statement about the coinage the " Chronicle of Mailros " relating to this in period. x. 48Tide " Historiansof Scotland. p. but by a continuator in 1447. The two latter authorities may be at once eliminated. of Alexander III. merely probable. is the one given above. 293 a (ed. ® Lib. iii. Balfour. We cannotput muchweighton the fact that Fordun doesnot mention the changeof in the ee Gesta annalia" of the reign of Alexander III.. We have then left the " Chronicle of Mailros and Fordun -9"and if these two support this assertion. Lindsay's assertion. Lord Hailes. p."46 A note gives a generalreferenceto the Chronicle of Mailros. arguments go for very little. But. that we examine the evidence derived from the Scottish writers. j48 for he doesnot mention any monetary changesat all.but goesa very long way to contradict it.

lastly.whoplaces 1250 in what really took place three years before. coupledwith the fact that the previous alteration had been carefully noted. J. stands thus: on the one side we have(first) the presumption arising from the historical circumstances. but really made by his continuator. and which has noted the only monetary change that has occurred before. from the portrait. writing two centuriesafter the event." a nearly contemporary authority of the highest value. secondly. The case. from \ their being all from one mint. and that the only alteration in the figure of the coins was prior to the death of Alexander II. 29 the reverse is the case with the " Chronicle of Mailros. we have the historical fact that the " Chronicle of Mailros.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. On the other side. therefore. . but makes particular referenceto some alteration in type during the previous reign. ® Vide preface by the Rev. and." It is an authority of the highest credibility (after the year 1140). Stevenson. and. "being the testimony of individuals who lived seldom later than half a century from the occurrence of the eventswhich they record. which appears older on the double-cross or earlier (as now given) coins than on the single or later ones. did coin more largely than is now supposed. which is against the usual custom of the time. we have the statement erroneously attributed to Pordun. is a negative proof of the highestvaluethat no such change took place then. (next) the argumentsderived from the coins themselves first." 49and the omission of all notice of such an important change in the coinage under the date of 1250. thus very much confirming the probable evidence from the other sources.rendering it probable that Alexander II. not only doesnot mention the alleged changein 1250.

That Scotland had in governyng. still be found which may either confirm or modify this view."-" " Alysandre. And in the kirk standand there. But in the present case I am inclined to think that the balance of evidence is in favourof appropriating some. to return to the annals.. and these three classescorrespondvery exactly to three similar varieties in the short-cross coins. Nothing short of demonstration oughtto be allowedto disturban existing arrangement. It maybe aswell to guard against confusion any which may arisefrom there being three so-calledcoinages of the long double-cross coins. Til of Sanct Andiewys the cite. In 1253 we learn from the "Chartulary of Moray" that one mark was paid for the risk of conveying twenty marks from Badenoch to Berwick j80a sufficient proof of the lawlessness the times. Further evidencemay. Under the year 1283 a very of interesting reference occurs in "Wynton's " Chronicle. Gome intil his Ryawte". But.Moray. viz. 371.i. owre kyng. not all.. those with crowned head to the right. the long doubleif crosscoins to Alexander II. . Hailes. 22. which are never divided into coinages. all frely Til God and til Saynct Andrewe he Granted the strykyn of mone 60« Char. Devotly befor the hey Awtare In wytness of all that there wes by Gaddryde and standand. There are. Lindsay correctly says." i. however. three varieties. There is no authority for such a division.30 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. as Mr. those with bare head or closefitting cap. and those with crowned head to the left.

As ony tyme befor gane by Ony Byschope had sic thyng Quhen that his Fadyre before wesKyng Or of his Eldrys ony before As mycht be herd or had memore. he is still a very respectable authority for events such as narrated above. and of the particular saint here mentioned. though this is uncertain. ii. or the profits. and there is no reason to doubt the fact here recorded. may have been granted to the service of the Church. I am not awareof any charter of either of these kings granting the power. some or part of them. vol. It is referredto by B/uding a proof that the power of striking moneywas as granted by the monarch publicly. qwtly. nor have we any evidence.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. It is true that both Mr* Lindsay andMr. c. x.which would lead us to suppose that this was the case.. in 51 Wynton " Chron.savethis statement of Wynton's. . p. Of the feftment of that thyng To remainay with the Kyng/'51 .62 Possibly in this case the profits arisingfrom the coinage. There is no proof that any ecclesiasticalmint existed in Scotland either in the reign of William the Lion or of Alexander II. . and fullyly. Sawfand the declaratyoun Of the Inquisityown. WingategiveInchaffray-an abbey Stratherne. 405. 53 Ruding. vii. 137. 31 Als frely. . that the bishops had the power of striking money at this time." bk. of coining money to any individual or religious body. Though Wynton is not implicitly to be relied on in all mattersof history. and there is nothing either in the mints or in the names of the moneyers. The referenceto the " Byschope" is curious. and may meanthat in former reignssomesimilar advantagewas enjoyed by the bishops.. .

Henri. But this is done on the authority of a single coin. which was at one time in the cabinetof the late Dean of St.32 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. The legendon the obverse free is manifestly blundered. Adrien de Longperier in an article in the Revue Numismatique^in which he shows.and vice versd. and others. and the same name appearsas moneyer on the long doublecross mintedat that town. which might at first sight serve to confirm the statement of Wynton.and Renaud. COCHRAN PATKICK. are found on the long double-cross coins. the ION and IHIC FEA on the reverseis very likely blundered also. for we find their names on William's second coinage. I am more inclined to adopt the opinion of M. Nichel. evidentlyof the sameorigin. Patrick's. "W. Thus Walter was Bishop of Glasgow from 1206 to 1232. Yet thoughWynton'sstatement not confirmed an is by examinationof such data as are at present available. foundedin 1200-as one of the mints of the long doublecrosscoins. from the namesand the legend on the coins of William the Lion. R. brought over probably to coin his ransom to the English king. Many of these apparently remained. and there is little doubt but that some of them minted for his suc- cessor. But a careful comparison does not strengthen this view. that the moneyers were of Norman-Frenchorigin. the attribution of which is not altogether from doubt. Peris occurs on the short-cross coins. There are many bishops whose names do not appear amongst the moneyers. this is a case whereit is perhaps better to suspend positive a judgment till better evidenceis available. reading ANL6CXANDR. . There are some curious coincidences between the names of some of the moneyers and of some of the bishops.

The publication of these illustrations. SASSANIAN COINS. abiding of amid the early centres of civilisation. though delayed. illustrative of the rule of the Sassanian kings of Persia. and its bearing 1 These plates have lately becomethe property of that enter- prising collectorof Orientalantiquities. after his own independent way. Steuart from specimensin his own cabinet. XII. The selection of the representativetypes will be seen to have been madewith great numismatic acumen from a collection. who.IV. N. Guthrie. THE introductory plates which accompany this article form part of a seriesof 10 engravings/ preparedunder the supervision of the late Mr. now permits the editors of the Numismatic Chronicle to avail themselves of these illustrations.ColonelS.S. as might have been expected. and who. whether in regard to the limited notice this branch of Numismatics has re- ceived in England. may still be welcomedas opportune. C. at the time. or to the more important question involved in the palaeography a great nation. F . though. YOL. The execution of the designsis alike careful and artistic. in a like liberal spirit.the definition of the Oriental legends is often wanting in critical precision. unrivalled in choice examplesof the coinagesof the East. has contributed so much to further the cause of Eastern research.

and its free acceptance throughout the nation. 1864. . but I am more inclined to attribute these often casual modifications to the want of skill or knowledge of the die engravers. B.34 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. And here I would desire to point out that this alphabet was not. upon the philology and religious developments the of ancient world. M. A. in their serial order. The medals I am about to describe exhibit. N.it sufficedfor the monumental records of the kings..that is. and to that far more important element of change. Mordtmann.2 over of The earlysources the alphabet of havealreadybeentraced to the Phoenician/ and its latter adaptationsmay be folio wed through the sacred rituals of the Parsis to the modern type. founded the survivingtextsof the Fire Worshipon pers of Bombay. which now makes its first appearance in this Journal. is evidencedby the signets and seals of the people at large. xiiL (1852) p. for the entire series of the Sassanianmints. official. 202. 374. an almost unchanged system of writing ex- tending a period morethanthreecenturies.. 4 J. aesellschaft.the geographical proor vincial variations of caligraphy which prevailed at the sites of the various mints. Chron. in any sense.. S. 216.4 I am the more anxious to bring this positive evidence to the front as it has an important bearing upon a subject I have lately been discussingin these pages. according to the material employed. in appropriate illustration of the normal characteremployed in the Imperial mints. p. vii. xi. which carry it down in the universality of its employment far into the period of Arabian dominancy. p. ranging at times from the Tigris to Merv.S. s Num. 1. the consistency continuityof theuseof the Pehlvilanguage and 2 Some Numismatists have imagined that they could trace epochal gradations in the characters employed.Zeitschrift der D. mutatis mutandis.

D. IxvL) quotingMas'audi.) The writer is express his assertionthat the currentspeech the in of people of Shirwan was Pehlvi.1848.D.D. H. xii.Journal Asiatique. Chron. translated into Pahlavi in the first half of the sixth century A.. 9 M. 35 or some of its dialectal varieties in the Persian empire. Paris.in the reign of the Khalif Abdalrnalik7 (A. 762)."-(The Academy. St. &c. ''Mem. 7 Tarikh Ghizidah. and the Arabs were still carrying on the translation of Pelhvi books up to the tenth centuryA.in a late reviewof Benfey's work. " Benfey thereshown has that with regard to the cycle of stories in the Panchatantra and other similar collections there are three distinct * moments' in the history of their transmission. which will specially interestIndian antiquaries. an author who died in 750 A. Trans. R. Th. 212. p. J. and translated from the Pahlavi into the Arabic by Ibn al Mukaffa (ob. 155. they were thence adaptedby the Brahmans. A.SASSANIAN COIKS." vol. 252.. April 1. i. ix. p. how came the sacred 5 Num. A. N. Seealso Colebrooke. Mas'audi. S. sur 1'Inde. Reinaud. p.8 it that the Pehlvi language was still spoken.p.) Professor Oowell. Reinaud (Abdulfeda's Geography. iii.A. Petersburg. 266.9 It maybe asked. and Quseley's Travels. in the form of a transin lation into Pehlvi* Therevenue system the Sassanians of wasdoneinto Arabic from its originalPehlvi. iii.D. and v. Their origin is generally Buddhist.Hitopadesa. August1. Phil. R.in the " Bull.p.684-705). quoting the Nuzhat-al-Kulubof Hamd al Hustufi. so late as tlie fourteenth century A. 357* . also J. 159. Benfey. Hist."-(The Academy." French edition. adds the following particulars. andfinally we have on record . 417. 387. H. (1871)."p.D.D. the nationalliteratureattainedsuch if ample and enduring proportions. 6 Prof. 1872.H. some in parts of the country. s M. incorporated their Sanskrit and in literature. (1349 A. 128. R.5 The Indian JEsop'sFablesmadetheir first stepof Western progress the sixth century. 1862. S.) i. S.S. 146 . ii. " Notice on the original version of the KalilaJi and Dimnah. A. 1871. 374. and it is in Buddhist books that we are in most cases to look for their oldest forms .. 139. p. Seealso Mas'audi's" Meadowsof G-old. 257. xiii.. 64.p. Wilson. and it is from these Indian adaptations that they have spread west- ward over Europe. See also . de Khanikofit.

the fall of an old edificebroughtto light fifty skins-full of documentswritten upon birch bark in the ancient character. by of that their scriptures were destroyed in the conflagration of Persepolis Alexanderthe Great. Un de ces pretres commence un par reciter le fragment qu'il a retenu. ii.p.") " As regards Isfahan.we havethe later Arabtestimony that in A. Seealsothe ShahNamah(Macan's edition). 126."-(HamzaIsfahani. si.lerecitait par eoeur integralement. un septieme. that the representatives the ancient fire worship. et ainsi de suite jusqu'a ce qu'ils aient completeleur recitation en commun.there was founda roll. the palace which is in the countyof Media. other official copies distributed.961. to 152.) Esdrasvi.10 It is pretended the later revivers the earlycreed."-(Haug's translation of the "Din- "The Parsisthemselves obliged to admit that among are kard. unintelligible the discoverers. on cite cependant un guebredu Sedjestan qui. and translated into Greek. and the fact. 12" Les dix pyrees que nous venonsde mentionner dataient . 1097. 28.36 NUMISMATIC CHBONIC'LE. Ceci demontre qu'il leur est impossibled'apprendre cet ouvrage en entier. but surely there by were other depositaries of the royal archives11 more favoured than Persepolis. even if the primitively established and more important fire-temples did not preserve their own special copiesof the recordsof their religion ? As the sacred fire was brought from Kharizm. puis un troisieme.12 the 10 " Les Guebres ne sont pas encore parvenus a retenir par coettr tons leurs livres reveles. par exemple. 11"Then commanded King Dariusto seek among records the at Babylon."-(1 JosephusAnt. un second reprend a son tour.neglected and of the more determinate written traditions of their faith. one was found at Isfahan.D.. relying of uponoral transmission powers memory. texts to fare so badly? The answeris probablyto be found in the degradation and depression the hierarchy of throughoutthe five centuriesand a half of the domination of the Seleticidseand Arsacidse. 6."-(Mas'audi. quart ou un tiers. et p. posterieurementa 1'annee300 de 1'hegire. and so at Ecbatana. aussi leurs savants et leurs hirbeds se bornent a en apprendre des fragments.

iv. a parallel inquiry suggests itself as to the authenticity or mediumof preservation the scriptural of fragments in the Zand language. in from the markedabsenceof a single exclusivelyZand letter throughout the whole array of the national and popular monuments of the period up to 641 A.. . . If this was the condition of the Pehlvi versions of the sacred texts. O'etait priniitivement un temple consacre idoles.1? that the Zand alphabet had not."-(Mas'audi. 16 My own ideas of the derivation of the various Aryan . been elaborated out of the more restricted number of the SassanianPehlvi characters."-(Mas'audi. up to that time.14 We may fairly assume. Sur 1'invitation de Zoroastre. apres avoir de- truit lesidoles.D. la reine Houmayeh. . under the d'une epoque anterieure a 1'apparition de Zoroastre. . le convertit en temple du feu. fille de Bahman. . iv. 75." in which he examines the antiquity and authenticity of the first chapter of the Vendidad. p. Du vivant de Zoroastre. 37 Persepolitan text13was probably a mere reproduction of au earlier recensionengrossedamid the primitive homes of the Iranians. aux fils dTsfendiar.il le decouvnt dans la capitale du Kharezm."-(Journal Asiatique. et le fit transporter a Darabdjerd. Michel Breal has entered into a searching criticism of the geography of "the Avesta. plusieurs temples furent consacresau culte du feu. 1862. . Eawlinson was under the impression that he had discovered a very brief Zand record on one of the rocks in Persia. The conclusion he arrives at is that " la geographic de 1' Avesta est essentiellement fabuleuse. which are tendered for acceptance moderntimes. even if we could say ivhen the writing was inscribed.SASSANIAN COINS. 76.) 14 M. See also ii. le roi Youstasf fit rechercher le feu venere par Djemchid. *5 Sir H.16 whosetreatment. apres de longues investigations. 497.) *3 "Un des pyrees les plus veneres des Guebres est celui d'Istakhr. . and must decline to admit the conclusiveness the of Zand element. I have been favoured with a sight of his original sketch. 120. dans le Fars (Persepolis).

and the Assyrian Cuneiform emanatedfrom an antecedentTuranian symbolic character. Thomas.38 KUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Mr.and the elaboration of Sanskrit grammar at Taxila. which was ob- viouslyoriginatedto meet the requirements Turanian(Draof vidian)dialects. out but by a totally different method to that followed in the adaptation of the Semitic Bactrian. self-developed amplification of signs. Mr. ViscountStrangfordin the chair.' These were the results of his palseographical investigations The Aryans : inventednoalphabet of their own for their special form of human speech. indebted to the nationality amid whom they settled for their instruction in the science of writing: (1) The PersianCuneiform owedits origin to the Assyrian. (5) the Pehlvi was the offspringof later and already modified Phoenician letters. (2) the Greek and Latin alphabets were manifestly derived from the Phoenician. and whose graphic efficiency was so singularly aided by the free use of birch bark. Thomas then proceeded to advert to the single point open to discussion involved under the fourth head. spoke( OntheAdapted of Alphabets of the Aryan Eaces. 1866. which is proved by Asoka's scattered . This alphabet continued in use as the official writing under the Greek and Indo-Scythian rulers of Northern India. and (6) the Zend was elaborated of the limited elementsof the Pehlvi writing. April 9th.but were.adverting to recent controversies respecting the parentage of the various modes writing in usein ancientIndia.-The Eight Hon. in all their migrations. took the very different form presented by the Pars! system of definition alphabets were thrown into a compactform someyears ago. connecting the advance of their literature with the simplified but extended alphabet they constructed in the Arianian provinces out of a very archaic type of Phoenician. until it wassuperseded the superior by fitnessand capabilities of the local Pali. tracing the progress of the successivewaves of Aryan immigration from the Oxus into the provinces of Ariania and the Hindu Kush. (4) the Devanagdriwas appropriated to the expression of the Sanskrit languagefrom the pre-existing Indian Pali or ~Ldt alphabet. (3) the Bactrian was adaptedto its moreprecise functionsby a reconstruction and amplification Phoenician of models. and the downward course of the pastoral races from their first entry into the Panjab and the associatecrude chants of the Vedic hymns to the establishment of the cultivated Brahmanic institutions on the banks of the Sarasvati. I mayperhaps permittedto claim spacefor its reproduction be in this place. " ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

if not identical. 122. character is seen to have furnished the prototype of all the varying systemsof writing employed by the different nationalitiesof India at large from Sind to Ceylon. . and Dr. 1862).H fallait adopter alors pour le zend le systemesemitiquecommeon 1'avait pourle pehlevi. D.. . " The Sacred Language of the Parsis" (Bombay. Whitney. Salitteraturevegeta longtemps dansla bouche pretressans des etre concuepar ecrit. article.. N. 19. cxxxix.. 1854). cxlv. Westergaard. viii.et en subir toutes les consequences. S.8A8SANTAN COINS.S. R. " 1852-4). 162.250.p. systeme lettres tout a fait different un de avait deja pris place et fait oublier 1'antique ecriture-arienne.(J. lorsqu'on de sentit le besoin de Connerau papier ce qu'on craignaitde perdresans 1'ecriture. and likewise Dr. &c. A. S.) The point adverted to under the fourth head formed the subject of discussionat two several meetings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. introductorily. "Letter from Yazd" (1843). fait inscriptionson rocks and monoliths(Lats) to have constituted the current writing of the continent of India in B. 15. I am glad to be able in illustration of this question17 cite the independent conclusions of so to competentand experienced deciphererof ancientina scriptionsas M. of Yale College.C. 360. Mr. E. 9. with the result of which I have every reason to be satisfied. S. 17. and spreading over Burmah. 1867.J. v.. 22. vol. derived from completely independent sources.. cli.whoseremarksupon the constructionand application the so calledZand alphabet of are as follows :- " Le zend ne nous est pas connu dans son ecriture primitive. B. while a similar. A. 1833). R.. Indeed there is a growing feeling in favourof the proposition defiance all local prejudices. Oppert.) ."-(Athen aum.. pp. v.. exhibited at p. pp. 14.. "The Avesta'7(Oct. 3. 350. Burnouf. 21. regardingthe Scythicorigin of the introductoryIndian alphabets. In conclusion. A. 53. " Commentaire sur le Ya9na" (Paris. ou du rnoinssespremieres conceptions ont eteperdues bonneheure. Haug. till the Indian Pali meets Chinesealphabets on their own soil in Annam. 352-5-6. W.pp. andhis " ZendAvesta (Copenhagen. J7 See also. 421. Plus tard. 39 . cxli. in of 6 Feb. and J. 129. pp. Journal of the American Oriental Society.. Thomas pointed out the importance of the discoveries of Norris and Caldwell.

altogether abandonedit. made more or less considerable advances in it and. Asiatique. Malheureusement la langue etait deja alteree dans la bouche des pretres. to my apprehension. . de Tautre." concocted subsequent the Muhammadan to conquest. qui ne faisaient que la murmurer."18 Finally. 2. as Professor Wilson remarked. et 1'infiuence de 1'eeriture semitique avait contribue a confondre la valeur des voyelles. e. et e pour i.the most damaging and discouragingfact in connexion with the Zoroastrian texts. e. as we now have them. 1851. consists in the number of eminent men who have taken up the study. was unhesitating in his denunciation of the fictitious nature of the "barbarous jargon. Olshausen. II parait qu'on adopta d'abord 1'ecriture du pehlevi pour le zend. it d'une part. i. reveredEugene Burnouf.-Mar. on einployait indistinctement les signesdifferents a. the English authorities were " unanimously opposed the antiquity of to the aacredwritings of the Parsis and to the genuineness of 18Jour.en observant et appliquant toutefois les lois particulieres a cet idiome. On inventa alors trop de signespour toutes les nuancespossiblesqu'on n'observait pourtant pas. puisqu'on ne les pouvait plus maintenir. receiveda shock. One Persian lexicographer. 6. 281." Sir William Jones pronounced the dialect of the Gabrs " an invention of their priests. as if their credulity had. Miiller^ and the Westergaard.in short. il faut recourir aux langues congeneres. Mais cet alphabet ne suffisait pas pour le riche vocalisme de la langue indo-gerraanique.40 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.Feb.alike seemto have desertedtheir unfinished work. et reellement les consonnes des deux ecritures sont en grande partie les memes. parce que la triade vocalique des Semites leur avait appris de mettre a pour e. sans se soucier des voyelles. les voyelles que s'y emploient presque sansaucunedistinction.p. J. Richardson. at some given point.. et il fallait inventer des signes propres pour suppleer a ce defaut. et u9 u. Voila pourquoi 1'orthographezende est tellement desorganisee. suddenly. Pour la deterrer. o.

xlix. 44. S. " Mithr. I will not amplify this reference. that I am now able to read the legends on the class .(Nos. p.andto attribute them with someconfidence to the Median kings Darius and Artaxerxes of Atropatene. and maintaining controversies on the authenticity of the languages in dispute. further than to mention.p. As I hopeto revert to the general question in a more completeway. B. 5-8 of the old Plate). to use a rather rude expression. Plutarch in Antony. 129" 22Appian.....SASSANIAN COINS. (1837). where you may find ancient pearls. Our own learned countrymen of the last generation in Bombay. xii. 134.S. p. 25. 16. on some future occasion. a classification of the scattered examplesof the issues of theseminor dynasties.. 21My " Sassanian Inscriptions (Triibner.-cxvi. were by no meansnegligentin their inquiries into the then extantknowledge of the local Parsis. 346. 40. it is necessaryto disposeof the three Sub-Parthian. which Mr. 351. o. pieces. 68. 41 the language which they are composed19-but was in it reservedfor a once faithful believer. S. A. VOL.of coins distinguished by the small fire-altar and the single ministeringMobed. Dion Cass. to climax their condemnationin the expression.s. The readers of the Numismatic Chronicle may refer to a specialpaper of mine on this sub- ject in vol. 20J.s..s. o.22 19J. 33. into PL I. 1868). Nor were they at all reserved in putting the result of their investigations into print.whereI attempted preliminary p. iv. viii. like Westergaard." cvi. G ."20 Before entering upon the description of the Sassanian coins.the Zand Avesta is a modern dunghill. Steuart has insertedby way of introduction. o. A. N. xii."though the Zand Avesta may contain the Sassanianfire-faith..21whose names appear in connexion with the Roman campaignsof Lucullus and Antony in Armenia. still it canno longer he consideredas a monument of antiquity. li. B.

1. Mus. similar in its details to certain examples the portrait of PhraatesIV. &y]p = l&* C^J^y?Aturdat J*£ ]p 1 Rev.1 fcObfc nVM vro.. 3. mixed Chaldaeo Sassanian in and Pehlvi .. Other obversedevices similar character.n ddd.42 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 25 grs. SUB-PABTHIAX COINS. Obv. 52. EMt Malkdbari KamiutMalkti. L. Brit.like the above. fig.Chron.. Legend. 9. Chron. ix. with Parthian tiara." 23Lindsay. Weight. . imperfect. Lee/end. 4) seemto run tobfc mo. PL xii. altogether but wanting in the circular legend. PI. PL fig. in Sassanian ^#£1-* " " l£i^? The Pehlvi. fig.iii. 3 . Headto the left. -l£U Mdla. . ban..conjoined of with a reverse Arab head. display the title of \&*j&£j\> Artahshatr Malka. No. suggested may possibly ast^xAx* for^jzJxj**? Minuskatr be read ? No. Silver. . .Head to the left. king.. Silver. 4." Eev*. Longperier. PL I. Two coins.. Head of king to the left. 2. with head-dress arranged after the manner slightly differingfromtheordinary but Arsacidan models. .23 of Crescent (andstar ?) in the field. . xii.ft " _ *j^^J\ Artahshatr MalM. king. King Artaxerxes. son of Kamiut. Obv.* while the legendson the reverse of a similar coin (Num.Num. fig.Crowned head to the left.. . fke>" "^ft.

to the left. De Sacy. Feb. Tychsen. Legend. 1793. 1823. fig. in this case. ^J^ ^l ---- ? " " anShatri. .. the other explanatory of the alphabet in which the Mint legends are defined.26in this 25 The most complete and searching examination of this difficult subject is to be found in the Journal Asiatique." London. " Commentationes IV.March. G. " Travels in Persia. 3. JL Patkanian . " Memoiressur diverges Antiquites de la Perse. in an article entitled "Essai d'une histoire de la dynastie des Sassanides.25 fusion is inseparable from the then prevailing system of reckoning(whichwepreserve our Acts of Parliament). Soc." (Edit. translated from the original Russian text by M." Iconographie rois perses. ornamented crescent and a star. Obscure. 5. I have to preface the description of the Sassahian coins by two introductorynotices.'* Gott." Paris. Beg. in from the moment of the elevation of each new sovereign.-Head with the hair arrangedafter an exceptional Arsacidan fashion. by any epochalinitial date or serial dynastic chronology. Legend. Silver. Sir "W. A fall enumeration of the Sassanian A certain inonarchs amount is subof con- joined with the datesof their severalaccessions. with a Obv.-Head with Parthian tiara. revised from the latest authorities. 26 The literature of the numismatic section of the subject is as follows:- Hyde. 43 No. 1808-1813. " Historia religionis Vet. unchecked. Evariste Prud'homine.the one comprehending the serial order of the kings." London. Persar. Costard)Oxford. de numis veterum Persarum in comment. 1760. Visconti. PL L." des T. Our coins too. 1866. Ouseley."by M.SASSANIAN COINS. Rev. 1801. ^Observations on some Medals and G-ems.

Shapurl 3. 226 A. in p. p. 1865. The Arabic version of his nickname is Al Ataim. these records simplysufficeto determine extreme the limit of the given reign. I. 2.s. «The Hero " (ii. and xv. Hormazd 240 271 Sir E. Dora. der letzt. p. " Bulletin de FAcad.and de xiv. (1849). instance. 1841. " The Sinner. 396. 373. Bartholomews 1'Academie St. a St. 68. 1. Sassaniden. p.p. " Essai sur les medailles des rois Persesde la Dynastie Sassanide. Ker Porter. Imp. Dorn in the " Bulletin de M.27 . 106 Anzeigeblatt. Justus Olshausen..Classe Eistorique.p. p. afford us but limited aid. (1852). in the number of years. .p. p. . Dr." Bd. also M. (Chiefly from Armenian authoritiescorrected from other up sources. 27Mas'audicalls him Al Batal. Dr. in den Wiener Jahrbiichern der Literatur. 353. and Num. 68. 1857. S. 1864. as the practice of enteringthe dateon the reverse was a comparatively late innovation. A. London. " Ueber Olshausens." &c. 1 . (1852). elsewhere . de Khanikoff to M. and at the best might leave many monthsof error either at their initial or terminal points. xii. Mordtmann's papers in the " Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 1854. 180." Die Pehlvi-Legenden auf d.o. and when fully ascertained. Petersbourg. Petersbourg. Mzn." (1857)." 1848..." Kopenhagen.D.. 371. My articles the J. Ardeshir Babekan 1. 184B. Wilson. N." London.) Accession. xL (1848)." p. o. . A. R. Adrien de Longperier. edition of Prinsep's "Indian Antiquities.s. No." 1843.44 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Chron." Paris. 373. THE SASSANIAN DYNASTY. Entzrfferung. xiii. . (1849). Dorn. 1840. Dr. London. M.. . " Travels in Georgia. Translated in the Num. Krafft. Letters to M..p.1' . with numerous detached essays of later date. xii. Chron. 13). "Ariana Antiqua. And also casualreferences in my 1858. 1821. 166. 112.

11. (Turk-zddah) as.) VarahranChobin revolts and gains temporary possession of the throne on the death of Hormazd. I . 275 6.Azarmi (one dukht (six months). . 8. Tabari. (Jamil) .. (Mas'audi. . of " 29 » The iniquitous. . Asiat. The Armenianchronicles makeYezdegird the sonof Kobadand grandson Khusru. Varahran (Gor) V. . 80.SASSANIAN COINS. 348). Hormazd . Shapur(Zu'laktdf) .. 380 384 12.397 14. . Ferroukzad Khusru. " si Widow of No."Mas'audihas transfigured name the into Shahribdr 233). 26. 628 (Al 24. Firoz. Kobad(Nek-rdi. (Kermdn Shah) .ii. . 10. 45 4. Yezdegirdof 25)32 j 6j^ ^e) HI. (ii. No. 219. Firoz 457 459 18. ArdeshirII. VarahranIV. fils de Mihr-'Hasis.438 16. 309 . HormazdIV.. andYezdegird 349).. Kesra. 386 13. p. . (ii. Varahran II 272A. Khorzad- Khusru. 530-1 21.... 631-2 of 29. Vagharsh (BaAas) . . Yezdegird (Basah-Kdr] . graphies the nameas " Schew-bin (ii. . 252). Tabari records in order. Shahr-yar(Khorham)Sap/fopos30 . Khusrii 28. Hormazd HI 17. . .(Mas'audi. Puran-dukht (daughterKhusruParviz)3i of 630 27.. 292 292 301 9.-Sepeos. Varahran III. 227.) Tabari gives one of the orthoii. (Began Shah) . Yezdegird (Sipdh-dost) II. Ardeshir III 628 25. 20.quotedin of the Jour. Azarmi-dukht (daughter Khusru) . Hormazdll .Khousehensade month). Kobad Shlruiah ghashum)^ . "wise") (Ka/3aS^s) 490 . 32This is Harnza's accountand that usuallyadopted the by Persianauthorities. 629 . has " Schehrabraz (ii. . .." soHamza " Shahrizad. 578 22. 7.. (Naushirwan) . (J® (son ssHormazd's mother was the daughter of the Khakan of the Turks. .590 23. Khusrii II. . . 417 15. . Shahpurlll . . (Parviz) . Nersehi(Napcrrjs) .. . . Varahran (Bahram)1 5... . 211. . Khusru I.. 486 19.D. 25. Puran-dukht (one yearfourmonths). p.in the Frenchtransliteration. .

or/ 13 L->or uJ ^ or/. CoMSrUTABLE SOUNDS THE l^ORMALLETTERSONTHE OP INCLUDING THE LATER PERSIAN DEVELOPMENTS. KH. (JW S. 10 11 pi SH* g_ GK. 1 " c OT C . 13 4}j (old 2 = r}orJ r or 12 form Z. 12 13 <r» B- 3 4 cSJT. or ain. 1 2 \ A. ^. 16 17 7 8 9 or . b.j } i. J D. d. 8 9 3 ^ cr r *> b.orJ worw% or^ 5final. or ^ ». ff. 5 6 or 3 ^. IL MODEEN PEELYI.or detached esa/«^. 18 19 20 * K ^ I or Y.*. k 3 ?» CJ ej j J or k £. * J- 14 15 JL. I. ^ 55) 6 ±> 10 J) (old 2 = w?r) form or { u.46 NUMISMATIC CBRONICLE. ?. L5 I ^a/. JZ. 21 22 0 ^CH^ p. . WITHTHECORRESPONDING PERSIAN AND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS.

47 In my first notice of the Partho-Persian coins. By M. for his own son Ardeshir. In very early life Ardeshir was entrusted and from this to the care of the local ruler moment dates the rise of of Darabfounder gird. fils de Dara. 28.). the grandfather of Ardeshir. seulement. who by his mother's side boasted of royal blood. the of the Sassauian dynasty. Paris. was rendered comparativelyeasyby the existing distribution of poweramongthe numerouslocal kings.qnand un . which though gradual. the reigning monarch of Persepolis. was the chief of the hamlets of the districts of Khfr.. Hermann Zotenberg. 88. parce qu'ils descendaientd'Aschk.NIANCOINS.p.H. and in charge of the Fire-temples in that metropolis.922 A." Al Tabari (ob. 310 A. near Persepolis. It appears in from the narrative of the historian Tabarif^ that Sassan. mais ils ne leur donnerent pas Tempire. 34 The Tdrikh of " Abu Ja'afar Muhammad bin Jarir bin Yazid. of 1849. o.35 and who ss Vol.. p. de leur cote. His son Babak.succeeded to his honours and responsibilities.-(Oriental Translation Fund Publication." (JournalAsiatique. in the Numismatic Chronicle. whom he eventually succeededin his government.) And alsoQuatremere's Notice of the Mujmal Al " Tawarikh. Les Asehkaniens. 1869. ne demanderentpas obeissanceaux rois des Provinces et fie 1#0 molesterenten aucune£09on.1839. xv.s. et ne leur demanderent ni des biens ni le pouvoir. The presentstate of our information on the subject may be briefly recapitulated this place.D.33 quoted some passages I from the original Oriental authorities illustrating the rise of Ardeshir Babak. whoconstituted the free feudatoriesof the reigning Arsacidan.SAS8A. and was able to secure the patronage of Johar. Us leur abandonnerent le gouvefnement dn pays entre le Tigre et Be'i.) 35 " Les rois des Provinces respecterent beaucouples Aschkaniens.

Col.. 6. with a 4th. silver. 3rd. . "Son of Divine Babak. weight. 2nd. . East India collection. Luscombe. 58 grs. BINOMINAL COIN or AJRDESHIR BABAK.. fig." Rev. Obv. Mus. 4. - Legend. .> SASSANIAN COINS. weight. " Kings of Provinces. Ghithrie. 1. Ban Bagi PdpaldMalkd. *£ 2^-*0*?»2* j Pehlvi.. - Legend. Persian. PlateI. Front face of Ardeshir.48 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Silver. ^£j-«fi) **$£ ^2 Pehlvi. king. Plate I. Obv. silver . ennemimer^ait le royaumedes Aschkaniens. Silver. of No. 52 grs. Weight. 5. Persian. fig.^ue ceux-cienvoyaient de bonne gr&ce. reclamaient ils des rois des Provincesune arm6e. No. 65-5grs. king. Profile head of Papak." Other specimensof this classof coin are to be found in the Brit. Headof king to theright.ii. silver.n-(Tabari. with the Parthian helmet. to which I cannot now refer. went by the genericnameof the Muluk al Sawdif. Bagi Artafishatr MaUcd9 "Divine Artaxerxes.) . once in the possession Mr. 5.

y (whichstands the indiflerently r or Z). 3-5*))) J^^AJ^JJJ \ ArtaMiatr Nwcdzi. A Fire-altar. (1852). I amended this readinginto Nuwdzij a transcriptionwhich has sincebeen generally concurred in.SASSAN1AN COINS." The Pehlvi word associatedwith the king's name on the reverse of these coins was originally interpreted by De Sacy. Navvas). for in the reproduction of these legends.divineArtaxerxes. as Yezddni."divine."The Orraazdworshipper. xv. XII. de Longperier." On the occasion of the publication of some rare Sassanian coins in the Numismatic Chronicle.S. j VOL. H . I have. of divine origin from God. I quoted the Pehlvi vocabulary of the Farhang-i-Jahaiigiri.L)^ (proto Naus perly(jwjjti." Eev.local'acceptation in of 86 As the German fount of Pehlvi here employed is deficient in the ancient letter 2 r.vol. sought to discriminate the proper character by the use of the modern Persian r in the paralleltransliteration. Minuchatri minYazddn. Legend. Mazdlsan Bagi ArtaJishatr Malkdn Malkd Airdn. N. king of kings of Iran. meant. however. I have been compelled to use its modern substitute. and subsequentlyadopted by M. 49 Legend. \ ^jlj^J f - &-$^>j\ " Ardeshir's j Fire-altar. the. simultaneously with this revision of the legend itself. the effect that <JgU.

or as in that of the Magus. argenteis altaribus praeferebatur. 6. The king. as a rule. a " Fire-temple. did not perform the chanting. " Ordoautemagminis erat talis. xxiii. 3. Ignis." while its relation to the Fire- altar. which. si justum est credi." " to play. etiam ignem cselituslapsum apud se sempiternis foculiscustodire. 113. tell us " Outre les somptneux pyrees construits dans .in spite of the want of strict orthographical identity. Where the king is praying or ministering at the altar he is so represented. 34. seemed in suggestively palpable and obvious. praeisse quondam Asiaticisregibusdicunt. cujusportionemexignam. Curtius. been contested by continental authorities. as a portion of the religious paraphernalia. depicted the field. viii. in This explanation has. " to sing.Magi proximi patrium carmen canebant. p. There are several objections to any such conclusion. who desire a closer approach to literal exactitude. 12." Armenian authorities quotedin the JournalAsiatique (1866). 7. in the substitution of the word Nawaz (from Naivdkhtan. however. ftera ScTOVTO /ecu OTTtc&ev iw9ca^apasjncyaA^s irvp avrov avSp¬$ eiirovro Q. "Feruntque. there were professionals kept for the purpose. quern ipsi sacrum et seternum vocabant. the term.ut faustam. My own impression still continues to be that the word in question refers to the small portable altar depictedon the coins.. in the Atropatene coins.as in the caseof the tombs of the kings at Persepolis.") and seek to infer that the king may be supposedto be chanting his own prayers on the opposite face of the medal. who stands before the altar. 3.sopardonable ordinaryPehlvitransliterations.50 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE."Ammianus Marcellinus. from the days of Cyrus the Great37to those of Yesdegird.formed so constant an accompaniment of regal processionsand royal progresses.iii.who carried his 37 XenophonCyrop.

amonga peoplewho did not erect such edifices. easilytransferred amongnationswho had frequentintercourse.SASSANIAN COINS* 51 revered fire in its^fit receptacle even in his last hasty flight beforethe conquering Arabs. Get Atash-ddn est toujours rempli de cendres au milieu. a trois pieds et demi de haut L!'Atash-ddn. in relating Yezdegird's last retreat before the con- quering Muslims. 1 estplus petit " (p. records.Hi § 73. the altar itself les villes. cap."-(Zend Avestah. Celui du No. ou il deposa le feu qu'il avait apporte avec lui. 50.40 naturally applied parallelword to that they the which constituted. No. qui porte YAtash-ddn vase que contient le feu) (le ii."De la il alia dans le Khorasan. sur la cendre. This is highly probable wordsof generalimport were jf." The Hebrew has rf$ " to rest. nommee Adoscht. the centre of adoration-their national praying machine ! As we advance further" on in the numismatic series. PI. the Persian word Ndus cameto mean "a tomb. in their creed. 181.a Nischapur. but as we knowthat the Persians not affect did temples. 2. lieu dufeu Au milieu est une pierre d'un demi pied de haut. the use of the derivativewould be consistent. 568. when the fire worshippers had ceased to bury their dead. est le feu Adertm. " A gauche est une petite chapelle ou chambre quarre nominee Atash-gdh.38 It hasbeenurged that the Persian Ndiis is nothing but the Greek Naos.. il existait encore des pyrees ambulants pour lesquels on disposaitune tente speciale. to dwell. 531). x.xv." In after-times." Anquetil's description of the modern fire-altars accords completely with this assertion of portability..though both 'Cyrus's built-up tomb and the rock-cut mausoleums of his Achffimenian successors might have had something of the air of temples. 40Herodotus. "II y a des Atash-ddns"de differentes grandeurs. (Strabo." If it was so applied in our senseof the last dwelling- place. c'est-a-dire.i. a Merve il fit construire un pyree.. le roi n'entrait jamais en et campagne autrement qu'accompagne mages de pyrees.. 38 Tabari."de et (Sepeos. 39From NAm " to dwell.) Ce yase est d'airain.) .ayanttoujoursaveclui le feu (sacre) .) p.

No.seem to rest upon handles. fig. the subsequentmodifications imply a power of carrying the elongated and narrower shrine by the ornamental bands encircling its central division. Ditto. Weights average from 63 to 64 grs.suitable to uplift and uphold the altar.. Tresor de Numismatique. 13. the protection of.." ArtahsJiatr Nuwazi. Brit* Mus. identical with the pattern in useby MitiradatesI. fig. PI. Coin nearlyidentical with No. PlateI.who shareswith the monarch. 05«7. fig. 8. fig. A changetoo comesover the generaldevice. changesits form . 9. \M$U Mazdisan Bagi ArtahsTiatrMalMn MalM Airan. The usual Fire-altar. 60*0 grs.. 6. No. " The Ormazd worshipper.. or serviceat. . wearing a highly ornamental Parthian tiara. in the form of lions' paws. 6. No. the sacred emblem of the Zoroastrian creed. Weight. fig. now representedin his own person. Ditto. Weight. the delineation a single of by of Magus. 32-0grs. king of kings of Iran. divine Artaserxes. Silver. Lemgperier. No. Rev. Plate I. PlateL. 7. 10. varied still further. 8. 6. 9. with - 41Visconti.iii. King's head to the right. 7.52 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. in the progress the coinage. by ministering Mobeds. PL xlix. perhaps guarded. 9. and whereas in tlje earliest examples the metal feet. Plate I.. Izvii. Weight.41 legend.and the altar is supported. 9-5grs. fig.

No. . Flandin. x. he marked each conquest by the reproduction of the typical emblemsof the fallen monarchy on the new issues of public money. Coin of the same king of a similar character. an engraving of which is to be found in the Numismatic Chronicle. There is a choice gold piece of this type in the British Museum (weight. 131 grs. in curious completeness. 597. In effect. 11. of the Zeitschrift for 1854. xv. not the likeness of his own ancestors. PL cciv. 53 No. from whom he eventually regained the old dominion of Darius. Mordtmann in PI. vol.the reigning king of the southern division of the Parthian dominions. supplies the following reading : Mazdwan Bagi Artahshatr Malkdn Malkd.42 whereArdeshirand his son Saporaredepicted 42Ker Porter.but the conventional effigies of the enemies of his race. A secondmore legible specimenin the Brit.temple of Atropatene and the rest of their domains from the Armenian Arsacidse. 10. ccv. commencing with his first great success over Vologeses. fig. an event which is further commemorated in the extant bas-relief at Salmos. 11. PL Ixxxii. the design of which has been reproduced by Dr.SASSAXIAN COINS.p. Mus. in billon. he seemsto have aimed at a numismatic exhibition of a series of royal portraits.. The legends are coarser. Plate L. vol.). and necessarily less complete. r. progressive the extension of his dominions. As step by step he exterminated the surviving branchesof the Arsacidan dynasty. and ending with the triumphant recovery of the sacred Fire.. The variations in the types of ArdesmYs coins will be seen to Illustrate.

or may. 9). Journal Asiatique.as to the modern profile..173..C. be designedto indicate the later defeat of VologesesVI. Ibn Athir (Tornberg. on his own proper coins of four centuries' prior date. combined with the reverse device of the new Zoroastrian- ism matured amid the Fire-temples of the South. The original Parthian tiara of Mithridates I. the local ruler of Persepolis. 32. 31.44 during the life-time of Vologeses V. 272. Be Sacy. in the treatment of the head-dress. xxi. the re- cognised style of the front face of Yologeses V." (Claudian.. 6.iii.raised the Parthian monarchy to the higher rank of the Arsacidan empire. 10. in eSect.vii. It is evident that the head of the Sassanian period was an intentional copy of the old model. and it 43 a mistis hie Colchus Hiberis.who. 1867). as Lords of the bushy-haired Armenians. 136). 270. (Plate I. There can be no question. 1365. which was probably intended to denote the revival and reassertionof the ancient Persian empire.. Hamza Isfahani. 8. 274. 167. hie crine deeoro Armenius.vol.54 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Shah Namah(Maean). is associated on with an absolutelikeness of that great conqueror. * Tabari MS.43 stand at who the bridle rein of the victors' horses. 7. fig. in Kerman.fucataque Medus. The next gradation in the progressof the Statecurrency indicatedby Ardeshir'smodifiedreprois duction of the archaic plaited hair and beard. Hie Mitra velatus Arabs. p. i. which appears the coins PL I. hie picta Saces. This assimilation may either refer to his assumption the of sovereigntyof Johar. (B. . 155.p. 11. which is absolutely identical with some of the more finished portraits of Mithridates I. figs. p.. 1) clearly imitates. pp. (1839). Ardeshir's earliest coinage (Plate I. figs. p. in this instance. perhaps.

but the legends are altogether obliterated.the bust of whose most prominent ancestor appearsupon the field.. 54 grs. 12. THE BECOGNITION OF SAPOR AS HEIR APPARENT. Plate I. the adversary of Antony (Nam.. p. while Ardeshir'snameandtitles which surround the central device declare his accession to the supremeauthority. Rev. Uniquein silver. Silver. Cabinet. Mus. 68. . fig. whosetype of countenance will be seen to differ entirely. Legend. 55 is in nowise to be confounded with any attempt at a subduedlikeness of Ardeshir himself. Chron. xii. Artahsliatr nuwdzi. and the fall of the last scion of the house of Arsaces. Mus.-Head of Ardeshirwith the usualcrown.2). both in the numismatic and sculptured examples.SASSAN1ANCOINS.&c. The latest development emblematic of varietiesis to be foundin the mural crown adopted by Ardeshir and copied by Sapor (PlateII. usual Fire-altar. There is a coin with similar devices copperin the in Brit. fig. Facing him is Sapor with the Parthian helmet. The appropriation of which may be taken to allude to the final and hardwon conquest of Atropateue and Armenia. 12. Brit. Weight. Malka. 8). No.from the physiognomy of the Parthian Emperor.imperfect: to the left Malkdn : to the right. whichwouldappear havebeen rehato a bilitation of the coronet of Darius the Mede. and on the reverse the new symbolof the Sassanian Fire-altar supersedes the Parthian bowman. These changes of course point to Ardeshir'sfinal conquestover Ardevanand the consolidation of the restored Persian monarchy. fig. Obv.-The Legend.

fig.AFTER HIS ACCESSION. vol. Ley end. that the piece in question must belong to Ardeshir.56 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Legend. Brit Mus. Olv. Rev.. 227 grs. fig. Copper. Silver. and seemingly concluded from the form of the Fire-altar. Basire with his usual skill and accuracy. Weight.obliterated. II.45 into jfcnw boba 7tobB "nmanitf "»» pnto Mazdisan Bagi Shahpuhari Malkdn Malkd Air an. wearinga close-fitting helmet. 56 grs. SAPOB. p. Shahpuhari NuwdzL guardians armed with This coin was figured in my article in the Num. Mus. Chron. 13. 1. fiev. It would seemas if the piece had lost much 45 Some of the readers of the Num. . Chron. - * Legend. Bust and profile of Sapor. Brit. 180. 14. Obv> Crowned head to the right. " ShaJipulir (nuwazi). Unique. Plate L. which is obvious enough on the reverse. Legend. No. Weight. PI.Fire-altar. surmounted by the crest of an eagle's head. may be more familiarwith this type than with the modernPehlvi hitherto employed. transliterated Hebrewcharacters. (worn).The usual Fire-altar. He clearly could not read the nameof Shapur. xv. Steuart Collection. the engraving on this occasion having been executed by Mr. with priestly swords and javelins. . No. 2. Steuart has made in his classificationof these coins. This is one of the few mistakes Mr. ..

. 11.N. in his enumeration of the singular head- pieces the provincialtroopsin Xerxes* of army/6 prepares us for typical manifestations of a similar character in the monumental delineations of the later Persian kings. of p. and the JewishScriptures alike introduce us to the symbolic eagle affected in the present instance/7 or the ram. Chron. 4. 57 of its original sharpness. xlvi.S.48 whoseemblemwas revived at a more advancedperiod of 46 Herodotus. 1. however. during the interval between its original delineation in the accom- panying plate and its later reproductionby our English artist. I . 61-80. Seealsolist of authorities quoted in the 8th volume the Num.by wear. vii..SASSANIAN COINS.S. 297. VOL. XII. Herodotus. 4^ Daniel viii. N. 47Isaiah zlv.

188. which was officially adoptedand usually retained through- out as the banner special or discriminatory emblem the of ruling monarch. Min yazdan. Silver. &c. fig.52 not Odenathus the if himself. . Shahpuhari Nuwdzi. 4. PL II. MalMn Malkd Air Cm Minuchatri. of Flandin. 3. Legend. possibly SyrianSitarun. 15. Rev. but extending the full superscription to Minushatri.. No. . xxiv. No.-Head of Sapor. This same style of head-dress Sapormay be seen in other bas-reliefs. It will be seenaswe proceedthat these head-dresses have considerablesignificancein the attribution of our medals. 80 Xenophon.with crown and globe. 51Flandin""La Perse. xix.-Fire-altar. 81. Anab.-As usual. iii. 3. Morier.-Mazdisan Bagi Shahptihari. ."PL 51. 2. Obv..ii. 80. 17. PL IL. 16. Ibn Khallikan. Ker Porter.even where the legendsare hopelessly obscure or obliterated.49 In further illustration of this adoption of attributes of the conventional eagle of the ancient Achsemenian standards. fig. 12. Coin of similar type. Rev. vii. 1.. Obv. Silver. Marcell. 318. PL IL.58 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE* Sassanianrule. 52Mas'audi. Tabari.. Cyr. fig. 49 Ammian.50I have introduced above a wood-cutof the head of Sapor. L 10. 1.-Legend less legible in the outlines of the letters. iv. 54. we can place our specimens with the utmost certainty by the test of the form of the crown. Silver. and in most cases. from the bas-reliefon the rock at Shdpur*1 where the monarch is represented as receiving the submission of an Oriental adversary. No. . 187. Coin of similar type. PL xi.

^ and No. No.SASSANIAN COINS. monograms <p. PL II. Coin of similar type. 22.-Monogram Y. Silver. less perfect in its legends. on No. E. 20. Coinof similartype. Rev.-Legend complete to the end. Coin of similar character. PL II. 6. . fig. Similar Coin.-Monogram thealtar C>. 9. PL II. 19. fig. Coin of similar character.. Rev." Rev. 8. Potin. fig. Silver. Legendsmorecompletely defined. Bronze. PL II.. 21. PL II.. 18.. No. Silver. Minuchatri min Yazddn..-As with usual. 5. fig. fig. Half piece. No. 7. THOMAS. 59 Obv.

legends. hasat lengthmadeits appearance. N. Lambros. at in of Ephesus.Tomexiv. The following articles are contained in the present Part:- 1. Deschamps Pas. F.There still remains one number to complete volumefor 1869. de Longperieron the Concave Gold CoinscalledRegenbogen-Schiisseln. Daneoisne. 2. therefore. struck at Ephesusbetweenthe years 1299and 1346.. ««An Inedited Gold Medallion of Constantino the Great."byM." by M.B. de Saulcyundertakes. the publication of this Review was necessarilysuspended. Lambros here publishes for the first time a coin in imitation of the gigliati of the kings of Naples. bearing de Pfaffenhoffen."byM. of the Department of Coins and Medals in the British Museum. 3. to explain the meaning and the origin of countermarks as applied to Roman coins of the earlier Roman Emperors* He endeavours fix the date of the various coins on to which countermarks occur. and furnishes us with a useful Chronological Table of the events which may have given occasionto the employment of these countermarks. Fr.-On account of the unhappy and calamitous events of the years 1870 and 1871. This coin is no longerunique. L. which was in preparation when the late war brokeout. 1869 and 1870. A. de 5.as severalspecimens have cometo light in a hoard of coins lately discovered Mr. Mr. <*Essay on the Monetary History of the Counts of Flanders of the House of Austria.has carefully examinedthe . "An Inedited Coin of Sarukhan. RevueNumismatique. Emir of Ionia.NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS.by M. '* Countermarks on Roman Coins. from Augustus to Trajan. Grueber. 5. that we see that the present number. P. 1869. Wood during his by excavations search the site of the Templeof Artemis. and we think successfully.." by M.No. It is with great satisfaction. de Saulcy. 4. which the we understand shortly bepublishedunder the datesof the will two years. M. with a Classification of their Coins" (3rd article). " Letter to M. In this article M.

doubts the attribution of all these coins to Marseilles. <*Some Unedited Coins from the Collection of the late . by 5.and of their belongingto the incuseclass. Deschampsde Pas. M. Chabouillet on the discovery is at Auriol. and on the reverse a small head of Herakles in an incuse square. " Catalogue of Obsidional Coins and Piecesde Necessite" Supplement (4th article). and he has furnished us with a detailed account of the same. le Dr. In the Revue de la Numismatique Beige.are not necessarilyproofs of their high antiquity.however. by M. and embracing perhaps Phoksea and its celebrated colonies.farethe following articles:1. we would suggest. This coin was found on the same site as the hoard of 2. Brichant.180 small silver coins discovered in 1867.C. " Contemporary NumismaticHistory Fragments" (2nd 4. Maillet. M. by M. Dugniolle. which will be published in the next number of the Numismatic Chronicle. The Part concludes with the prices fetched by the principal pieces at the sale of the Greau Roman Coins. 61 whole of this find. 2. Imhoof Blumer contributes a note in which he vindicates the authen- ticity of a tetradrachm of Panormus in his collection. Chabouillet. which had been doubted by M. Veliaand Massalia.-ColonelP." M.NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. &ne Serie3Tomeiv. having on the obverse the head of a. " Descriptive Notice of ihemereaux found at Therouanne. M. Chabouillet reminds us that the facts of their bearing no letters or inscriptions. and which maybe attributedto that town " (3rd article).by M. in the present article. which bears the types of Katana and the retrograde legend IIANOPMITIKON.to point to a period not later than the sixth century B. of a small Greek silver coin. «*Discoveries of Coins of the eleventh and twelfth cen- turiesat Brussels. Granting this supposition. In the Chronigue a paper by M. and supposesthat they were the coinage of a league similar to that between Kyzikos and Phokaea. HEAD. The archaic style of the types of these interesting little coins seem. which continued to be struck until they were supplanted by the gold coinage'of Alexander the Great. 8. lion. Henri de Longperier. F. in 1868. Ire Hv. article). as both these characteristics distinguish the Kyzikene staters. le Lieut. which have been considered as the primitive coinage of Marseilles. B. V.

In the Correspondence various letters on Numismatic subare jects. R." We may congratulate the public on someportion at least of the vast medallic treasures of the British Museum being accessible to the ordinary visitor. M. " Numismatic Curiosities-Rare and Inedited Jetons and Coins " (18th article). A.*' by M.by M. 3. du Moulin to M. and in the Melanges are notices of all the recent numismatic publications. In the Correspondance letters from M. A short description is given of each in the Guide. The coins are arranged geographically in the order adopted by Eckhel. " Inedited Eoman Coins. le Baron Michiels Van Yerduynen" (2nd article). Assistant-Keeper of the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum. Head. Schuermans." by M. which has been prepared by Mr. " Sealof lung Childeric I. 2. Dumoulin. comprising characteristic specimensfrom each principal series.62 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. " Catalogueof Obsidional Coins and Piecesof Necessity. called the Chevalier d'Aumale. In the %me livraison of the same Review are the following articles:- 1. and of a Jeton struck in his honour as Abbot of Bee." Supplement (5th article). A Guide to the Select Greek Coins Exhibited in Electrotype in the Gold Ornament Boom. and are 209 in number. in Normandy. " Notice of Claude de Lorraine.5' by M. H. A mere inspection of the coins without any guide to call attentionto the peculiarhistoricalbearings of eachis of but little service. Yallier. le Lieut. and the great merit of sucha guideis to place at a glance before the reader the salient points in connection with the coin he is examining. by M. " British Museum. and may farther express a hope that the exhibition of this judiciously selected seriesmay tend to awakenthroughout the country a more general interest in the scienceof Numismatics. and to most there is . Chantard. by M. R.-Colonel Maillet. without entering into unnecessary detail." by M. le Catte and from are M. Chalon. P. 6. 5. In the Melangesare notices of recent publications. Chalon. "Inedited Coins and Jetons relating to the History of the Seventeen Ancient Provinces of the Low Countries. G.. This merit mayfairly be claimedfor the Guide now before us. le Comte Haurin Nahuys. 4.

soon sank into the grave.NOTICES URGENT OF NUMTSM." " Kappadokia. It may be true that the coins themselves authorise such a method of spelling. Collingwood Bruce. wandered restlessly over the country. They had. and having been unsuccessful in seeing him. After hiding the coins sometime in a well." the familiar Cyprus and Cappadocia the Acts of the Apostles. it would be as to the spelling of the Greek names.and tracesthe subsequent adventures of the coins themselves and of their discoverer. or as to the history of the town or countrywhereit wasstruck. containing sixty silver and three gold coins. who appearsto have paid for the hoard four or five times the market value of the coins. J. was lodged for twelve months in Denbigh gaol.fifteenof Trajan.fifteen of Vespasian. and thus retained the treasure in his possession. and . The information given is such as will interest all who possess but the slightest knowledge of histhe G-uide. at the end of which term he was legally discharged. of the Thorngrafton Find. either as to the meaning and origin of the type. almost as impracticable a man as himself. . In many casesalso references are given to classicalauthors whoseworks contain passages illustrative of the coins. historical value. printed for private distribution. the historian of the Bornan Wall.VTIC PUBLICATIOXS. but at last succumbed to the blandishments of Mr. of and the "parts of Libya about Cyrene." and " Kyrene. E. His brother. suffered an action to be brought against him. threeof Galba.however. one of Otho. seven Bomitian. Were we to cavil at all with the manner in which the tory. " The Story. the finder. Clayton. but after his release from prison. The former having been claimed by the Duke of Northumberland's agent as " treasure-trove. declined to allow visitors to see the coins. of Chesters. Partly Sad and Partly Gay. 63 addeda few words by way of note. neverdid a day's work. the silver coinsbeing a one of Nero. four of Nerva. Borcovicus. Thomas Pattison." This guide is sold in the museum at the low price of threepence. of a curious skiff-shaped bronze vessel. in a quarry near the Roman station. Dr. gives an accountof the discovery. and sooner than pay the £18 and costs with which he was saddled. while even the practised Numismatistwill probably find manyfactsthat are new to him in glancing over the pagesof work has been done." the latter declined to give them up except to the Duke himself.and threeof of ." In this little quarto tract. confided them to his brother. but we rather doubt whether the class for whom principally the Guide is intended will recognise in "Kypros.

the son of Jehoiada. " Benaiah. for the sadness of which we may thank the law of treasure-trove. 1008 is amusingly told. and for the gaiety. not to have been deposited later than the reign of Hadrian. They appear. wasthe well-known few one denariusof the Livineia family (Cohen.and those of the early portion of his reign. chap. with the two No. . Bruce. May no numismatist of greater experienceever commit greater errors 1 The discovery of how a coin of Caracalla (which had sadly perplexedthe Northumbrian antiquaries) had become mixed with the coins." Pattison recognisedthe man killing the lion as Benaiah. therefore. Dr. and found the date in the margin of his Bible. 1). they afford evidencethat the date of its erection was the time of Hadrian and not that of Severus. The three gold coinswere of Nero. Claudius. he slew two lion-like men of Moab: also he went down and slew a lion in a pit on a snowy day. and as they were found in the quarry from "which the stone for the Eoman Wall seems to have been obtained. and a bear between them. gladiators engagedwith a lion and a tiger. and among the silver coins not enumerated. who had done many acts. and Vespasian. completes the story. si. weresome familycoins. His authority was 1 Chronicles.64: NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Of these. as had by some been believed. The story of William Pattison's assigning to this coin the date B.C. verse 22.the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel. Hadrian.

au mot pp. xlviii.briser. et de ^^^. je lis ce qui suit . La come(la force) deMoaba etecoupeeet sonbras a etebrise.dit Jekovah (de ^"Ti abattre. Dans le magnifiqueouvragede Gesenius (Scripture linguseque VOL. RENSEIG-NEMENTS NUMISMATIQUES SUE L'EXPRESSION np. casser. 25. EMPLOYEE DANS L'JSCRITURE SAINTE POUE DESIGNER M&TAPHORIQUEMENT LA PUISSANCE. multiplier les exemples de de Femploide cettelocutionm£taphorique. et qui constatent Pemploi bien determine de cette expression.couper. CORNU. (Jeremie. rompre.V. On n'avait pas jusqu* 4 ce jour signal^ de monument numismatique en offrlt la trace. & la T^rit^ mais ils n'ea sont pas moins probants. K . Si j'ouvre 1'excellent dictionnaire hebreu-frangais de Sanderet de Trenel. je pense. " <m figurt. Le plus saillant est le suivant :rnn1*DM nn^tt?: win awi» pp n^iaa. N. celui queje yiens de reproduire suffisant amplem. comme symbole de la force et de la puissance. XII.. fracturer un membre).S." Puis viennent les exemples cit6s de l'6criture.entpour en d^montrer la legitimate. et je vais m'eflTorcer qui de d^montrer qu'il en existe : ils sont fort rares.) II est inutile.

) . cap. 8. lettre Bs Moyen- Ces deux transcriptions ^tant aussi mauvaises queUautre..certainsententiam non dicere.. je lis a la page275 (Lib. temerarium est. Rev. jcapv^) a Fr. Strab. nosquenumumipsum..xvi.66 . Phoenicia. Ste'ph. ut' in Maratnensibus tertiss epigrapheslitterse. Non displicettamenLindbergius 34). promontorium Tyri appellataest. quern dediinns litt. Un peuplus bautj m^rne page. come d'abondance "J e^ a11dessus. Fortasseeniin Came. qunm vero Irajus insulsB nomen in Y. tf^^^. litt. et qui nous fournit un texte irr^procliable 4tudier. viderimus. Plin. Lindberglus Aradi nomen reperisse sibi visizs est.1887). s. ed. an dessus y^s sous ^a "omie de la. Bayero (p. No. v. E "SecundumMionnetum." La belleet rare monnaie. 11). D ad Bayeri delineationem." Bayeri conjectura conciliari potest. 25.per compendium magistratuum nomen indicasse. En voici la description & :- .1) :3. ne m'y arr^terai pas. iii. scribatur1*T$j(Ezechiel. NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 10. v. germ. T.Byz. in aliis. Tete toorrelee de femm© tournee a droite. aliascompareant. 758. epigraphen litt. ^^ 1^p? Cornu Tyri. Leipzig. Pfoceniclse oppido. qnain nonnnlla exemplaJhabent.enta quotquot supersunt. qtii (p.).xxvii. tribuitur numns. *' Carnae. r*fs 20. .Cette figure est accompagnee la de suivante. p.) (PL 86. dont il s'agit dansle premier passage emprunt6 k Gesenins. monts.. Ea voici la description Obo. duarum epigra- pharumquum tanta sit diversitas. in quo navale erat Araden- siuni (TO¬triv¬iQv 'ApaSou. tab. la date Bronze. Haslitteras insulse nomen continere miM non persuadeo et videntur ese : potius.qui perrarusesse-videtur. 88. . lettre B. E legit. eeeque littersB' in paticis exempiis inveniantur.figure sur la Planche 36 de son ouyrage.rn.Gesenins avaitdit :**In epipraphe ^^. quorum origo Aradensismulto certior est. quod cum "IS pp. Une corne d'ab'ondance place hoiizontalement . (PL 86. Je me contenteral je de parlerd'une tres belle piecein^dite quej?aiacquise a Jerusalemen 1869.

et a gauche.et ne peut en aucunefa9ons'y rattacher.Une corne d'abondance remplie de fruits et dont pendune grappede raisin. Tete de Jupiter tournee a droite. Dans tous les de cas il est bien clair que les deux monnaiesdont il s'agit ont et6 ^mises deux epoquesfort rapproch^es disons S. repr^sente-t-illa localityAradienneconnue sous le nom de Carne. plus un nombre d'unit^s. 22£ millimetres. la pointe de la corne est ornee de deux appendices en forme de fleuron . on lit a droite. a la meme. . a gauche dans le champ. Cettelegendese transcrit sans aucunedifficult^. corne. dans le champ. pp 67 Qbv. au dire de Strabon. a droite et parallelement a la ISgende precedente la date. En redressantla piece de fa9on a placer la corne d'abondanceverticalement. Rev. au bas de la corne d'abondance et a hauteur de sa pointe la legende ^\ ^O..nonobstant de Fobjection soulevte Gesenius. le front surmonte d'un globe. Le mot "TO est-il le nom Ph^nicien d'Aradus ? Je euis bien tente* le croire avec Lindberg. par . Le mot pp. qu'il n'est plus possible lire. J3.puissance.ayantle sensdeforce.. de Pline et d'Etienne de Byzance ? cela est fort possible. . legende la trilittere^l^l^. et en ligne verticale... mais il est fort possible aussique cesoit tout simplement substantif le metaphorique.dont la fin est obliteree.HNNpVO. comme 1'a pense Bayer. pp et Quant£ la datequi sur la pi&cede Bayer (lettre D de G-esenius) nous donne Tamie'e si nousadmettons 74. la date de notre piece serait 70. avec Gesenius le signe H ait la memevaleur quele signe que N.L'EXPKESSION (COKNU).La derniere lettre de ce mot est enticement separee la legende de verticalede gauche.

contestant les renseignements suivants.empruntee Ez^chiel(xxvii. la forte.dans cepays. Tancienne Jaffia. 1) et dansles Juges (L 16) une ville d'Arad dont le nom est £crit TIE. situee pres de Nazareth. la pluplart ^taient obstrue*s de terre et de gravats. dans les Nombres(xxi. et en faisant le deblaiement. 1870. La formeTPN." La lettre de MonsieurPattori contenant empreintes des BUT papierdes monnaiestrouve"es lui. pour Aradus la puissante. La legende YTO pourrait pp done s'expliquer la rigueur par la corned*Aradus. PAbbe Louis Fattori. & qu'il estbien possible que la formePhenicienne ait pure et£ orthographiee difl&remment. Mais il demeure bien entendu notremonnaie que ne peut en aucune fagon 6tre attribuiee a cette Arad qui etaitau suddelaPalestine. 18) 1'habitantd1 Aradus est appele encore . J'ai voulu les deblayer. Au mois d'aout dernier je recevaisde M.* & esttellementanalogue la formearabeactuelle-Aroued.que le meme nom s'appliquait souvent a des localitiesfort difiKrentes. ^t la puissanced*Aradus. trouv^ un petit vase terre rempli j'ai de de monnaiesportant Feffigie de plusieurs empereurs Eomains. et nous savons. en efiet.68 NUMISMATIC CHBONICLE. comme nous le trouvons ici. J^y ai trouve divers compartiments creus^sdans le roc. Mais un heureux hasard m'a fait connaltre unepiececapitale qu'il me semble permisd'invoqueren faveur de Tinterpr^tation: la cornecFAradits. une lettre en date du 25 Juillet. "On m'ayait dit que sous sol de mon ^gliseil y avait un souterrain. JJai le eu la curiosit^ de le yisiter.Nous avons. Toutefois en presencede cette legendeisole*e j'avoue que j'auraispeu h^site a j chercherle nom de la Oarne de Strabon.du reste. 8 et 11). je me suis empar 1 Baas la Genese(x. Cure de Jaffa.

Buste laure tonrne a droite et revetu du Paludamentum.de Oaracalla. PHENICES. ^V.. La presence la Pourpre la de classe ayec toute apparence raisona Tyr. de Valerien offraiit les types suivants:Obv. au et Bas-el-Abiadh. titre pompeux appliqu^a Tyr. de de desPhilippes. B. de GordienIII. et un objet indetermine. VALEEIANYS. B. que la d£fectuosit£de Tempreinte ne me permet pas de classer. la ScalaTyriorum.B.B. G. . et Les autres sont deux Q-. ne peut guere s'expliquer autrement que par la corne. Elagabale G. .L'EXPUESSION(COENU). ^1. Indetermine. maisun de promontoire n'est pasun ville qui frappemonnaie. mais frappe & Tyr. le Ras-el-Abiadh nosjours. et sa legende de indubitableOORNV-PHENICES.de Trajan-Dece. Et enfin un tr£s beau G. m&ropole de cette province. 27 millimetres. le Promontoire blanc. B._COBNY.la coquille de la Pourpre. La grande de majoritese compose Potins d'Antioche. AVG. frapp^s£ Tyr.pas plus qu'au cap contigu. On pourrait a la rigueur voir dans le Cornu PAenices. Macrin. Caracallade G. P. il n?y a de traces d'une ville assezimportante pourqu'un empereurRomain y ait eu un atelier uaonetaire: force nous est done de nous en temir d. a 1'exergue. Cette monnaie d'ailleurs parfaitement conserve est la plus recente toutescelles se trouvaientreuniesdans de qui le petit tr^sor de Jaffa. Bas-0nUakoura. 1.-IMP.la force ou Porgueilde la Ph&iicie. Temple tetrastyle TU de trois quarts. C. de Trebonien-Galle. pp 69 presse les etudier avec soin. 1. la logon proposee plus haut. LIC. 1. de la m£me de viUe.la puissance.

NT. Obv. Je laisse de plushabiles le soind^lueider cettequesa tion difficile. . P. le U Novembre. Bollin et Feuardent Tine tr£s interessante mention de monnaieainsi congue(Page 480)PHGBNICB IN GENERE. H n'est pas douteux que cette curieuse monnaie. Paris. Je trouve dans le catalogue publi^ en 1864 par MM. No. Eev*-COL. Temple hexastyle vn de cote. Paris.COL. Quant au mot PHOENICES. je soupQonne que par habitudede la saine orthographedes mots..-IMP. ne soit un exemplaired^fectueux de la piecede Yalerien decrite dans la notice qui pr^cMe. NY. 1870. a droite. et il est bien clair que nous retrouvons ici le mot CORNTJ. ne serait susceptibled'aucune interpretation. que je n'ai mallieureusementpu Toir en nature. 1870. C DIANYS Buste laure et drape de Gordien III. le 12Octobre. DE SAULCY. PEOENICES. 7250. 7.le r^dacteurdu catalogue questiona transcrit ce qu'il en devait y avoir. indubitablede la belle monnaietrouveepar M. NOTES ADDITIONNBLLES.70 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLJS. I. le Cur6 de Jaffa. M. La legende. sans copier scrupuleusement qu'il y ce avait en realite. et je me contentede me tenir heureux d'avoir publi£ le premier un monumentnumismatique aussi curieux. PHOEIflOES. .

pp II. 19 mill. qu'uneheureuse inspirationleur fassetrouver la place qui leur est due. avec le PaludamenRev. BE SAULCY. le 21 Novembre. F. .tum. 71 En examinant plus presle fouillis de pieces de ind^termine'es attendent chez moi. commedans toutes les qui collections. AYR Buste lanre et tourne a droite d'Elagabale. CM. ne soit pas reellement de cet empereur.j'ai reconnuune monnaiede cuivre malheureusement maltraitee par le temps. Paris. ^3.YPN Temple hexastyle vu de cote. au dessous le murex. quepar consequent n?est certain que et il pas la pieceattribute a ^Qordien III.L'EXPRESSION(CORNU). En voici la description. L'existence cettemonnaied'^lagabale parait de me prouver que le type en question a £te employ^ assez longtemps. 1870. dansle catalogue Rollin et Feuardent. Piece envoyee de Nazareth. Cuivre de qiialite detestable. fort mais serattachesans qui aucundouteaux curieuses pieces de Tyr a la legendeCORNU PHENICES. Obv..

Lefroy sur la cel£bre trouvaille de monnaies merovingiennesfaite a Crondal en 1828.qu'ils . je viens vous demanderla permissionde vous signaler quelqueserreurs. H. c'est-Srdirede l-10me environ de la totalit6 qui pr&entent ce type. MONSIEUR. Tout en rendant hommage a la science et au zele deployes MessieursAckerman et Lefroy pour I'mterpar pr^tation de ces obscures l£gendes. II est au contraireincontestable ce type que est la reproduction de 1'inscription TOT. mais descroix. et de donner a vos lecteurs quelques renseignements.parait avoir £chapp£ Mr. p. 164). HANTS.qui seront loin de clore la discussion mature. le Gen. Hos. J".-Le sens des caracteres inscrits au revers sur une aussi interessante et dans le champ des imitations du monnayage de Licinius. Part III.VI. Cenumisa matiste croit que les deux X ne sont pas deslettres. dans le Numismatic Chronicle (1870. Lefroy. les nouveaux renseignementsdonnas par M. FARTHER NOTES ON THE GOLD COINS DISCOVEREI IN 1828 AT CRONDAL.- Je viens de lire avec le plus vif int£r6t. Lesexemplaires tr£sorde Orondal. nombrede 9 sur du au 96. ont cela de tres interessant. A Monsieur le Directeur du NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. BY THE VlCOMTE DE PONTON D'AMECOURT. 1 et 2. XX qu'on trouve si frequemment au revers desmonnaies romaines.

Yiviers. 395). Aries.K FOKA. etc. Ce n'est pasun fait isole*. le type immobilisede Inscription VOT. je possede car notamment tiersun de-sol d'or au type dit de Wodan ou Odin. p. VIVA. VI.en Mercie. emprunteaux monnaiesde Crispus et d'autres empereurs la m£me de 6poque. 271). AVQ-. (457-474). Ainsi il faut noter ce fait que. AB. XII. Le regrettableMr.-La determination est exacteet incontestable. la monnaie e*te a frappe'e Metz par lemonetaire & Ansoaldus* ]STo. Le triens de Crondalpr6sente ttne Victoireet ne provient pas desateliers du sud-estde la Gaule. Mr. L . Beige. Leur type ordinaire oflre au revers une croix latine accost4e des initiales MA. ii. mais de Phocas (602-610).-On a frappe en Gaule. 81). et£ gravesur For avant a de descendre sur des m6taux d'une moindre valeur.p. Head a deja fait ce rapprochement dans son tres-interessant article du Numismatic Chronicle. 73 nousoffrentle point de departdestypesnombreux figures sur les Sceattas Anglo-Saxonnes argent et enbronze. Phocas (602610). de Salis.COLD COINS FOUND AT CRONDAL.S.dansunerecente publication. etc.. Dirks croit avoir appartenu aux Angles-Nord (Bernicie).qui avait fait une 4tudeepeciale typesde transition entrele monnayage des romaine le monnayage et barbare. parcequ'il suppose c'est la que degen^rescence etendard d'un romain (v..t.Mr. en que. dessols et des tiers-de-sol aux noma des empereurs Maurice-Tibere (582-602). que Mr.3. Je lis distinctement D..p. sur un autel carr6. P.5me Serie. 4 Marseille. Vienne. 1. tandisquele type etendardou autel carre aurait eu cours plus au sud.-Ce triens n'estpas de Leon I. BarclayV. de la Num.nousaurait sans doute VOL.intitul£ " Anglo-Saxon Coinswith Eunic Legends" (1868. 4. H"o. par exemple (1. et H^raclius (610-641). N.P.dansla s^rle de sesd£gen6rescences. XX. Rev. Dirks designe sous le nom de type etendard.

la notoriet^ du personnage les qui a sign^es. Marsal.Je n'ai rien a ajouter & Interpretation donn^e par le Numismatic Chronicle. sonorigines'il n'avait pas et6 ravi si preinaturfementa la science. 7.. a Touest de la 3me Lyonnaise. §... tout leur assureune place parmi les plus pr£cieux aux qu'un collectionneur joy puisse aspirera posseder.signe du mon^taire Totus.I/attribution du monftaire a Metz est exacte. leur date certaine. ou proraice de Tours. vers Le Mans. En tout cas.Me pouvantlire le nom de Fatelier.74 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. No. non SISLOALDTJS et (Gresel-alt)d'ou Gisloaldus. il serait interessant de reehercner quel courant commercial pu porter en Angleterrecesespeces rares a si dans les collections frangaises. d'apres son style.parfaitementcontemdu poraindesesp^ces frappees lesroism^rovingiens. comte de Eent. leur rarete. mais le nom doit &tre lu : THEYDELENVS. £tait un marchd de sel fort important . Cetfcecoincidencen'est sans doute pas Teffet d'un pur hazard . 189). Le nom du mon^taireparait §tre SIGECHEAMNUS. peut se traduire par noble compagnon. les monnaies frappees& Paris par St. 1'interetqui s'attacheaux originesde la capitale de la France.nousavons un produit la du commencement Vile siecle. de un triens de cetatelier. p. 5. c'est la seule restitutionindiqu^e par la philologiedela l^gende inscriteau revers. Eloi sont pr^cieuses a tous les titres . 8. Sig contribue comme pr^fixea former les noins SigoalduS) Sigebertus> Sigomar^^ Sigofridus^ . Numismatic Chronicle. No. seniorou venerabilis). .Le triens est bien de Marsal. j'attribue cette mpnnaie. 1845. par No. et£ a trouve a Sibertswold. No.6.dansle comes diocese Metz. la fin du dernier siecle (v. mais le vrai nom du mon^taire est G-ISLOALDUS.

Chramnapparaitcomme suffixe dans Waltechramnus. Bigulfm. sousles deux premieres racesdes rois de France. mais le Wic situe d 1'emboucliure de la Canche. comme est si^ je le crois. Akerman. lectureproposed par Mr. 186). No. il faut lire ABBONE MVIfET. C'est£ Quentowic qu'appartiennent ces produits du monetaireDutta. Vales. fut 1'un des ateliers les plus feconds. ne laisse aucun doute sur leur provenance. Guntechramnus. Vulframnus. diocesed*Arras. par Mr. 75 Sigolenw. Eloi. Tin autre exemplaire de ce triens est dans ma collection et a et£ attribue avec raison.O'est la signature du maitre de St. et non pas au Wyck situ6 sur la Meuse en face de Maestricnt. mais son nom de QuentoWic indique la situationa Tembouchure la Canche. Hadr..Notitia Gall. lo Abbo. Wiccm. Rev. Bertechramnus. £ Lens. Wo.etc. le castntm Lenense du Xle si£cle.en meme temps qu'une des placesde commerceles plus importantes de cette4poque. CettelocaKt^ u'existe plus. de transit le plusfrequente port entrela Bretagne et le Continent.la riye droite de la Cancheappartenaitseule au Ponthieu. Nos. 10 et 11. Rev. La presence sept monnaies de franquesdu m§me atelier. etc. AEGOALDO. Lefroy.GOLD COINS FOUXD AT CROXDAL. et sans doute aussi VElenas vicus de Sidoine Apollinaire (v. dans le tresor de Crondal. 9. sa designation de et de Wic-en-Ponthieu encoreplus precise. Hermand. faber auri probatissimw qwf apud Lemo- . DVTTA MONETA. 12*-Au lieu de BROANMANEI. D'autres mon^taires pu signer des especes le faubourgde out dans Maestricnt.-II faut lire: + LENNA CAS.p. Je lui ai deja restitue les tiers-de-sol ayantpour l^gendeWIOO IN PONTIO.-+ WICCO. et de la version plus correcte IBBONI MAEI donneepar1Mr.

entre Thionville et Treves.et de cette pleiade des dont les oeuvres sont si recherch^es aujourd'hui.-La legende est PALAEIOLO. du revers de la monnaie trouv^e £ Crondal. notamment Saturnus. Num. Mr. Robert(Rev. Bandegische. 28. Je crois avoir d^couvert que ce personnage a commence sa carriere de mon&aire & Chalon-sur-Sa6ne. . diminu6 ou eut Timportance de Chalon et l'aetivit£ de sonmonnayage. d'orfevres-^mailleurs Abbon etait 1'ancetre des Leonard Limousin. trouvereproduitdevant se le profil du No. Fran. Domulfus. tout le monde sait ce que fut cette ecoleartistique de Limoges au moyen-dge pendant et la renaissance. Abbon. p.palatwla* & quelque distance de leurs r&idencesordinaires.a retrouv^ dansPfatzel. et je considerece dernier type comrae Anglo-Saxon. qu'il a reuni sous direction les divers ateliers de cette sa ville. a des details artistiquesqui n'appartiennentpas a la numismatique merovingienne. Les empereursremains avaient desmaisonsde campagne. transporterent leur art et leur industrie dans le diocese Limoges.. 193).13.76 KUMISMAT1C CHRONICLE. I^*o.desCourtois. non pas et PAEAEIOF. Betto. plut6t la mort de Grontran. 0.L'un destrois objets composent qui cette singuli£re croix a six branches. d&ja publie en France. quand la suppression second du royaume de Bourgogne. La Bourgognepourrait done revendiquer 1'lionneur d'avoirallumd le foyer qui pendant mille ansa brill^ d'un si grand eclat. Je de serais m£ine portea croire qu'il a fait aussi s6jourdans un Tile de Bretagne. vicenses publicammonetcB offidnamgerebat (Vie de St. et que. et tout un groupe de ses compagnons. car le type. _Eloi). Eaymon. Le fait de remigration d'une colonie d'artistes de Chalon a Limoges a une certaine importance au-point de yue de Thistoire de Tart. 1863.

No. Palaiseau et nous offre Fannexedu palais de Paris. Rev. s'il p* n'avait eteentralnepar une premiereerreur.-Cette monnaie se rencontre assez souvent dans les collectionsfra^aises. Tun de nos plus savants numismatistes.par sur Langres.rattribution a Chateaudun d'une monnaied'Autim signal^epar le m&ne Magnaaldus. et peut designer Domulfus ou Domulenus T pour Fecit]. dont les trois dernieres lettressontseules entieres. C'est a cette dernierelocalite qu'il faut attribuer le No. 14. DOMOLENO. 13 de la de- scription tresor Crondal. M. de Les ancieus itin^raires mentionnent cette station situee au passage la Meusede la voie de Lyon a Metz.tr^s-bieninterprete par Messieurs Akermanet Lefroy. n'aurait certainement pas mis en avant Moisy. ville situee sur le Ellin. entre Cologne Coblentz. No. La legende revers du de du se lit + DOMV . j'incline vers la derniere interpretation. sans on trop de temerit£. . 16. 15. pres Chiteaudun (Catal. 55). mais commedeux tiers(F de-soldemacollection offrentles l^gendes PALACIOLO. Cetriens. et qu'on n'aitpas encoreretrouv^ un prototypequi en donne le sens/ peut. Les lettres A N qui accostent croix m'autorisent completer la a par ANTONACO la legendede 1'obvers. Rousseau. Oe seraitun produit de Tatelier d'Andernach. a causedesinitiales LU qui accostentla croix. S F T. . a etefrappea Menvy. de Longp^rier.-+ MOSA VICO. Tattribuer a LugdunumBatavorum(Leyde). . Quoique ses legendes soient toujours barbares.GOLD COINS FOUND AT CRONDAL. MAQNO +' ALDVS. dansle diocese Langres. et No. 77 le palatiplum voisin cette de derniere capitale. Rev.-On rencontre en Austrasie des monnaies dont le revers offre beaucoup d'analogieavec celui-ci.

le que posee un petit globe.. Quant a la legende de Fobvers. 1841. Le No. No.ne laisse pas voir le nom de AVDVALD. Doroverniscivitas a ete le premier specimensignale aux savants de cette branche si intgres- santedela numismatique la Grande de Bretagne.-Je possMe un exemplaire de cette pre*cieuse monnaie. dansune locaKte a ou voisine de cette ville. Franq. Haigli contre Messieurs Akermanet Cartier (Num. Avril. Dans la planche du NumismaticChronicle. 18. 469 j id. discussion dans laquelleune vietoire complete est reste*ea Messieurs de Longp6rier et Daniel H.est la m&tneque celledesmonsur naiesde Londuniu(No. 21. p. En 1841. Les du monnaiesde transition. Nos.. Eaigh citait un sold'or d'Edouard le Confesseur. forment actuellement la tete de cette serie. et je lis assez distinctement au revers: AMBALLONDENYS.-Encore inexplique.-Le style de cettemoniiaierevelesonorigine. Rev. un peu rogne*. 1838. Je desire que ce renseignement nouveaufacilite 1'interpretation d'un triens dont 1'importance est capitale. 1838. Num. 20. le triens V . mais on lit tres-bien £ la suite: EEGES. cabinetSpurrier.-On s'accorde a trouver dans le monogramme des revers de ce triens.17. On se rappellela discussion soulevee sonsujet dansles revues a anglaiseet fran§aise. "No. 23. les elemens de EYTENIS. 28). 23 appartientdone an monnayage d'or des Saxons. elle a etefrappee Chalon-sur-Sa6ne.mon exemplaire.78 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 435). Mr. p. Vindemius. graveura le renvers6 type du revers. Le type diEusebius frappea Canterbury. Le nom inscrit autour est celui du monetaire Eodez. 22. 1 et 2 du tresor de Crondal. Nos. il faut remarquer la croix. Journ.-II faut attendre de nouvelles decouvertespour expliquer ces monnaies. 19. No. No.

Je ferai encore.-Oes trois typesformentun groupe 24. prend place une intennediaire. roi de Kent de 616 & Nos* 25. Le triens de Cantorbe"ry porte a 1'obvers EVSEBII MONITA. c'est que sur les monnaies Anglo-Saxonnes d'or deja signalers. ABBONE MYNET. Edward est un derive de Andoaldus. la premiere.et autour de la croix que nous allons trouver LONDYNIV. EYDWARD. deux remarques qui ont quelqueimportance. Ma seconde observa- tion consiste£ appuyer Popinion de Mr. AYDYALDYS. noms d'hommes.. Haigh. "Maximinus celui de Caribert. Ce fait seul milita en faveur d'une attribution .& propos du No. nom conduisant directement a EADBALD. AMBALLONDENYS nom de ville. et au revers + DOROYERNIS CIVITAS. C'est du cote de la te"te que nous lisons AYDYALD REGES. AYDYARDYS. serait sans doute D'apr£s cela. AYDBALD.26. 79 A'Auduald nous qui occupe. redoublementde alt (old) ancien. ODWARD. qui consid^re AYDYALD ou AYDYARID comme 1'^quivalent deEADWARD. comprenanthuit des 96 tiers-de-solde Crondal. 640. les formes de transition sont AYDOYALDYS. il suffitquecette et porte soit ouverte pour que bientot les collections s'enrichissent d'une suite d'or Anglo-Saxonne correspondant la serie & inerovingienne fran9aise. BAD WARD. nous allons signaler en d'autres. 23. ODBALD. £ moins que ce ne soit le monetaire du roi Auduald> comme Eligius etait celui de Dagobertet de ClovisII.le nom d'homme est inscrit a 1'obvers et le nom de 1'atelier au revers. Mais n me sembleque c'est dans une autre serie de transformations qu'il faut chercher le nom historique inscrit sur la monnaie: AYDYALD. un nom de ville. etc.GOLD COINS FOUND AT CRONDAL. bien distinct.

au revers.au dessus la tete de ou de la face. 12)et Pobjetplac^devantle profil desmonnaies du 27me groupe. Tetudede sonstyle d'or et nousguidera versd'autresattributions. J'ai dej&signale la connexite existe entre le reversdestriensd'Abbon qui (No.c'est-d-dire plus de l-5me de la totalite. Ho. j'aime et mieuxavouer mon ignoranceque dehasarder conjecdes tures et d'egarer peut-6tre ceux qui meliront. un autre exemplairea ete trouve isolementpres de Cantorbery en 1844 .80 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. y voit on presquetine inspiration lointaine des esterlinsAngloNonnands. 28.-Ici encore.malheureusementla legende y est a-peu-presaussiindechlffrable que sur les huit exemplaires de Crondal.-Ces neuf types. desreminiscences incontestables de Tespdce d'aureole ovale qui entourele buste de profil de nos monnaies. voil£ done encore une monnaie Anglo-Saxonne. 29 ^ 37. le bas dela haste de la croix se prolonge £ travers le grenetis et la legende. on parviendra sans doute & les classer.indiquent clairement Forigineet Patelierdemissionde cettemonnaie. Nos. pas d'incertitude sur Torigine. 28 (LONDVJSTIV). mais cette preemption devient une certitude quand rapproche ce groupe on de celui du No. et surtout la legende LQJSTDYNIY. maisleselemens discussion de manquent encore. No.inscritseur24 monnaies et composantle quart du tresor de Orondal. 21 pieces. au solAnglo-Saxon.-La reunionde six exemplaires meme du type. sont tres grossiers. presentent le m£me type. jusqu'au bord de la piece. et dans la partie inferieure du revers. Je possede un exemplaire varie de cette curieuse fabrication. Quand on examineattentivementla face de Tobvers. 27. Ton trouve. Je suisdis- A considerer commeAnglo-Saxons typesqui se les .

Premiere No. 1 6 6 46 lreLyonnaise. il ne faut pourtant pas oublier que nous avons rencontre deux monnaies semblables de Metz et sept de Quentowic.Chalon-sur-Saone. Metz Nos.20. XII.No. 30 et 31 permettrait m£me d'attribuer ces deux types£ la valleedu Rhin. Nos. Nos. 5 . 13. a. 9. 25. 30. 14. 1.19. 1 8 id. 9 ex. Sigechramnus No. Nos. Eodez No. N. 34 et 35) . c. 12 11 11 Londuniu. 11. . 28 3° Monnaiesfranques. 1 3me Lyonnaise. cinq exemplaires a la fois (Nos. Je mjarr6te. quatre. Lens No. 2 3 Marsal No.11 4me Lyonnaise. 29. Paris No. 22. 21. 81 rencontrent sur trois. 1° Monnaie des Einpereurs d'Orient. Immobilisation de types remains. 10 et 11. 7 . AngloSaxonnes oufranques. Leyde? Andemart Aquitaine.S. Nos. 23 Abloff No.' b. lp. 1 1 2me Belgique. 16. 29 a 37 Total VOL. 31. No.18. 15 . M 13 33 29 96 . et resume en un tableau le classement des monnaies de Crondal:NOMBEE.11 Quentowic. 26. 4 ' *gg£* detypes 1 1 2° Monnaies Anglo-Saxonnes. 3 et 6 . 24.GOLD COINS FOUKD AT CKONDAL. Phocas No. . 1 1 1 1 18 20 4° Monnaies barbares incertaines. 8. 1 Palaiseau No. No. 1 1 No. Menvy No. Barbarie. 1 1 1 1 Ire Belgique. 17. II est fort possible cesmonnaies que aient e*teemisessur le littoral de la 2deBelgiqueet de la 2deGermanie la croix patee . No. 27 renaissance 1 21 Audvald. 1 7 2de Germanie. let 2 It. des Nos.

. PARIS. VTE. on peut tirer deux conclusions de Texainen que nous Tenonsde faire.le 28 Mara. DE PONTON U'AMSCOTTRT.82 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. les monnaiesmerovingiennesetaienttres superieursaux monnaiesAngle-Saxonnes. Qu'un tiers environ des especes circulation proen venait du Continent. 1872. 2°. 1°. Si le tresor de Crondal n'a pas et6 le pecule d'un marchand d'un yoyageur ou r^cemment debarque Condu tinent. et si ce precieux dep6t est un specimen pris au hasard numeraire circulation dans1'ile de Bretagne du en vers le milieu du Ylle Si£cle. Qu'au point de vuede Fart et de la fabrication.

we know from the coins which exist that considerable coinagesmust have taken*place. to in chronicles. The pennies and halfpennies bearing the name of John are comparatively numerous. and historical documents.VII. NOTES ON THE ANNALS OF THE COINAGE OF SCOTLAND. FROM death of Alexander III. there is almost an entire blank in the numismatic annals of the country. Andrew's appearsfor the first and last time in the Scottish series . II.. No. there are severalpoints on which it would be of the highest interest to the Scottish Numismatist to have some light thrown by history* The mint of St. For nearlyseventy years we have little or no historical trace of what was done in the matter of money. I have and beenunable discover the annals. to the comthe mencementof the reign of David II. which are still extant. nor any recordsof the mint.. No acts of Parliament relating to the coinagehave beenpreserved. considering the length of his reign. nor any accountsof the moneyers. and though no difficultyor doubt exists as to their appropriation. But though no historical evidence is at present available. any notice or reference throwing any light on this period. in 1286.

. it is impossibleto avoid noticing someerrors which are found in Mr. and. though we cannot sayso with certainty. Andrews to " Ood and St. 4 Ending.. 3 SeeEnding. in 1283 at St. on the coins of this king (with onedoubtfulexception). to illustrate the numismatic history of the reigns of John Baliol and Robert Bruce. and the establishment of the Scottish sovereignty. John Baliol might continue privilegegrantedby his poptdarpredecessor the from motives of political prudence. note. p. there is.and it might havebeen expected that such an important proof of the national independence. 14. in the meantime. in which case. On the contrary.84 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. That Eobertthe Brucestruck moneyis admitted by everyone. Andrew " may have had somereferenceto the town . and dueprobablyto someEnglish moneyer. vol.2 Theword CIVITAS3 also is peculiar to this reign. I hope it will not be thought I do so with the view of detracting from the merit of that excellent numismatist and antiquary." in 1292.4 permitting the currency of Scotland to pass in England. p. with the exception of a notice in the English " Statutum de Moneta. i. p. Lindsay's "View of the Scottish Coinage. it is becauseI esteem most highly his valuable' work-the first which has attempted to give any connected historical account of the Scottish coins-that I think it is proper to point out some .which seem 1 Lindsay. 180. But such is not the case. In considering the history of the coinage from the death of Alexander III. to that of James I. 198." In pointing these out. vol. i. no historical referencewhatever. wouldhavebeennoticedby Barbourandthe other annalists. 2 The grant of the striking of money by Alexander III.inaccuracies.! a fact which we cannot explain except by conjecture.

It is certain. and then in a different order from that in which they appear in the "View/' the second one being really the first.ten years till after the date he mentions. : the period at which we havenow arrived. 6 Vol. 85 more the result of carelessness revision than anything in else. and by the distinct terms of a precept directed by King Edward to the Sheriff of Northumberland in the sameyear. p. i. Thesaurus/'7 it appearsthat the money of Scotland referred 5P. Now the historical at fact is. This mistake is the more surprising when it is remembered that the first volume of the folio edition of the Scots Acts (edited by Professor Cosmo Innes and Mr.was published the year before Mr. He there5 states that the first act of Parliament relative to the coinagewas passedin the year 1347. Thompson). Lindsaygivesof the in reign of 'David II. however. Lindsay's work appeared. 215. For we learn from Ruding6 that a proclamation was made in England in the year 1355.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. 19. which is given in full in the notes to Ruddiman's Preface to Anderson's (f Diplomatum Scot. The sort of mistakes to which I allude are very well exemplified the accountMr. forbidding any one to receive Scottish moneyexcept at an appointedvalue("ad nostrum valorem ejusdem")^ though wha. 7 P. 1782. from other evidence.t that value was is not specified.nor is any reference made to these errorsin anyof the supplements whichhe morerecently issued. that a coinage took place some time before 1357. which in all these parliamentsare most carefully and correctly given. and givestwo actsaspassed that time. that theseactswerenot passed 1357. Edit. .

1362.King Edward to allow the money of England and Scotlandto be interchangeablycurrent in both kingdoms upon equal terms.andhadbeenbut very lately struck in that country. and another to the_ sameparty and Jacobus of Florence. of the cunzie house and 11 Knyg. to Adam Tore.86 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. notice of a chartergrantedby David II.' and the the second. of exchangein all Scotland. quoted Euding. Twoyearsafterwards. 2619. p.8 The first of theseprovidesthat the king's money shall riot be taken out of the kingdom.10 and if we are to believe Enyghton.which probably consisted the penniesattributedby Lindsay of and Wingate to the first coinage. i. by vol.granted: but as no statuteor proclamation existsauthorising this.burgess of Edinburgh. 229. i..11 " petitioned .of the King of Scots.12 was " custos monete" at Edinburgh.col. p. Great the Council Scotof land was summoned to meet at Scone in the month of November. unless exporterpayto the king half a mark. and it was by this parliament that the acts noticed abovewere passed.we have no parliamentary record.in consideration the the of great humility. wemaybe allowed to doubt both the fact stated and the reason given for it. to wasof lessweightand coarser alloy.9 1358. or Thor. both gold and silver. 12 Robertson's ID "Index ofCharters(Edin. This year King David visited England. ii.. 10 Hailes. 133. About this period it appears. that a certain Adam Tor. 297. " 1798) there a is .from the accounts rendered the Great Chamberlain Scotlandandpreto of served in the Chamberlain Rolls. 9 Lindsay. shall be received in Scotland according to its true value.vol. and 8Acts. 10. vol. Of this coinage. 1357." whichrequest King of England.that the good money of England.

ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE.

87

his account of receipts and expenses rendered at Stirling, in 1364, before commissionersspecially appointed, is still extant.13 From this document we learn that during the three and a half years immediately precedingthe render-

ing of the account,enoughsilver had been minted at Edinburghto yield the king £577 10s.2d. (Scots),at the
rate of seven pennies out of each pound coined, except during the last month, when the rate was eight pennies. Out of this sum certain payments are stated to have been made to various parties; among others, to "Magister

Jacobus,"moneyer; to John the Goldsmithfor services
rendered; to Bonagius, the moneyer, for various devices

graven and designedby him; and variousminor payments, for graving the irons and other purposesare also
noted.

This account shows that a considerable coinage was carried on between 1360-64, which is not noticed in any existing act of parliament. We may infer from the tenor of the act of 1366, ordering a new coinage,conformablein weight and fineness to the English, that the coinage of 1360-4 was below the standard in both respects. This account is also interesting from the mention made in it of Bonagius, whoselabours at the Scottish mint appearto

haveextended over the long periodof thirty years. Mr.
Lindsay has cpmmitted another very inexcusablemistake,

whenhe says that " Bonagioof Florence" was moneyer a of RobertII. in 1364;w having just stated,two pages
before, that Robert II. did not succeed till 1371,

This leads us to consider whether the B which ap-

liberfcies and anotherto John the Goldsmith the " seyingV ; of
of all the money.-Pp. 31, 36. w Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i. S91, 401. 14P. 22.

88

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE*

pears behind head some the coinsbearing the of of the
legend igj BOBGEBIVS : D6CI: GKBAB&X : SOOTTOEYCD : :

is really the privy mark of Bonagius. And I confess that I am not altogethersatisfiedaboutit. For we have
the most authentic evidence, from this account in the Chamberlain Bolls/5 that Bonagius wasemployedin 1364,

daring the reign of King David II., andwe learn from an act of parliament/6the authority of which is beyond suspicion, lie wasagainemployed 1393,during the that in reign of Kobert III.., and yet this privy mark is never
found on the coins of these two kings. Indeed, I doubt very much if these letters ever stand for the initial of the moneyer. During the reign of David II, the letter which often appearson the reverse of the coins is a D. Now we know that teMagister Jacobus>J>17 Bonagius were and the moneyersof that king, and the D will not stand for any of their initials. Again, we find on the great seal of this reign18 D in the same place where the 3Bappears a on the coins of Robert, which cannot be a privy mark, nor would the initial of the engraver be allowed to appear

so prominentlythere. The letters I G appearon the
gold coins of Queen Mary, and are known19 stand for to James, Gubernator (the regent). Is it possiblethat the letters which appear so conspicuouslyon many of the
Scottish coins were meant to stand either for the initial of

the sovereign or of the regent or governor for the time
«YoL.i. p. 401.

16 Acts, vol. i. p. 207; Lindsay, p. 220.
17This was Jacobus Mulekyn, described as of Florence, and

. ; Boberison's'" Index,"pp.81, 44,70.' -.-...
18 Anderson's **JDiplomata,"pL liii

lie is mentioned several times in the early charters.-See 1J> Oardo&nel,-p. Lindsay, p. 145. 80;

ANNALS

OF THE

SCOTTISH COINAGE.

89

being? Thus, Donald,Earl of Mar, was Governor of
Scotland at the beginning of David II/s reign,20 and this

D might either standfor the initial of the King himself
or denotethat the coins were struck during the regency.

Similarly the T andA which occur on someof the coins
of JamesIII.21 might stand for Thomas, Earl of Arran, in whosehands the chief power of the state for a time centred, and who married the king's sister; and the I

and A which occur on others of the same reign22 for
James (Kennedy), Bishop of St. Andrews, and Alexander, one of the great family of the Boyds,23 who held at another time the reins of government.24These are, however, mere

conjectures, haveno authority, savethe gold coinage and of Mary, and the coincidence which exists betweenthe
namesof the various regents or governors and the initials on the coins.25 But this will not explain the coins of Robert having the B, (if we consider the king to be the
20Balfour's "Annals," voL i. p. 104. 21Lindsay (Silver Coins) Dec. Cat., No. 377. 22Lindsay (Silver Coins) Dec. Cat., No. 398. 23Burton's Hist., vol. iii. p. 154. 24We know from Drummond, of Hawthornden's Hist., that the Boyds coined some money in this reign, though of base

alloy. <fHist, of the James's (London, 1655),p. 95. "
ss The letters which appear on the English gold and silver coins of corresponding periods stand either for the initial of

the sovereign (Buding,ii. 347, 348), or of the placeof mint ,(Hawkins, 274, 275),or (in the ecclesiastical mints) for the
name of the holder of the see. It must be remembered that

no ecclesiastical mint existed in Scotland, and that the exclusive right of striking money belongedto the king, though exercised by the regents or governors in the name of the sovereign.

Mr. Lindsay (p. 24) seems considerthe I on the coinsof to James as meantfor the initial of the king'sname. Onsome HI.
of the gold lions of James I. and IE. we find I B, at the end of the legend; and on others, but very rarely, 2£. The L E. is

most likely for Jacobus Bex., the 2£probably/orArchibaldEarl of Douglas,Lieutenant-Governor & vejey for short periodat the
commencement the reign of James H, of
VOL, XII, H.8. N-

00

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

second the name), of sinceno regentfor whom B could standheldthe government during his reign. Long ago,
Mr. Sutherland,the founder of the fine collection of coins

in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh, at no mean authorityin his day,believedthis B. to stand for Bruce, though there is a verygeneralunanimity of opinionamongst Numismatists that nogroatswerecoined by RobertI. ThoughI am not disposed dispute this to opinion,seeing that there is no historicalevidence about
the reign of Bruce available,and that the argument derived from the weight of these coins inclines to their being appropriatedto Robert II., still I do not think that the historical objections to the suppositionthat Bruce coined groats are so great as has been often supposed. Snelling26 merely saysthat groats were first minted in the reign of David II. Cardonnel27 quotes Snelling and Nicolson, and the manuscript note by Mr. Hamilton, who assignsas his reasonfor not giving those with the B to Robert Bruce, the fact ec that groats were not minted in England till 1353, and it is hardly to be supposed that the Scotswould

be solongbeforethem iu this matter." Evensupposing this wasthe case, thoughit is certaingroatswere struck
in England at a much earlier date,28 is not in accordance it

with fact to assume that at this period the northern coinage followedthe southern, everycase, in invariably. Even the coins themselves bear important testimony against such a conclusion. For the English groats
have the full face on the obverse, and pellets on the reverse,while the Scottish coins (down to the time of

Robert III.), presentthe profile2^ the one side,and on
26P. 6. 27Preface,p. 8, 28 Ending, vol. i. p. 193; Hawkins, p. 92.

2» curiousreasonis given for this in Hardyng'0Chron., A

ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISHCOINAGE.

91

stars and mullets on the other.

We know that in some

cases the Scottish coinage was imitated by the English.

Thelegend D6CI. GK7£. appeared the Scottishcoinssome on
time before it was adopted in England, and is first found in that country on a coin from the Berwick mint.30 Round halfpennieswere in use in Scotland in the beginning of the reign of Alexander III., and in the same reign the mints and moneyerswere denoted by a system of secret marks, and neither of these improvements are found till someyears later in the southern coinage.31
The French constant introduces intercourse another between element the Scotch we must and take which

into consideration,when investigating any point like this ; and it appears from the authority quoted by Ruddiman,32 that large coins such as the groat were minted in France
before the time of Robert Bruce.33

On the whole,I can seeno insuperable historical objection against groats being struck in Scotlandby Robert I.;
p. 87, 88 (quoted by Dr. Jamieson in an article on Scottish coins in the Royal Soc. Trans. 1884):"Afore the fyft K. Henrey's day, Their silver coinage was as it ought to be, The kyng's face looked on Bide all waye To his Sovereigne(lorde) of England as I see." soNumis. Chron. 1871, p. 281. 31Unless we consider Saxon and Irish halfpennies to have beenin common use in England.
32130, Preface.

ssHenry the Minstrel, in his " Book of William Wallace/' mentions groats as current in Scotland at the time of the
Protector:-

" And for a strak he bad him grottis thre." Book ii. 85, 38. It is impossible to consider this as satisfac-

tory evidence the existence Scotchgroats. Henry did of of not compose book till about1470.-(Vide Pinkerton's his Hist. of Scotland.) :

92

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

at the sametime, it would be necessary have authentic to evidencethat he did so before venturing to disturb the

present arrangement, which is supported, I havealready as stated, by very strong arguments,derived from the weights the coins and by the generalconsentof the of
latest authorities.

1366. In May of this year an act was passed which is erroneously givenby Mr. Lindsayas enactedin 1365.
It will be found in full in the first volume of the folio

edition of the Scots' Acts,34and (with the wrong date, however)in the Appendix to CardonnePs" Numis. Scot." No, v. and the substanceof it in Lindsay at p. 19. Ruding, in a note in his first vol.,36places this act in 1347, though one of the authorities he quotes(Snelling, p. 5) correctly says it was passedin 1366. The act refers to the coinages " Magister Jacobus," and ordersa new one of to be equal to the current money of England in weight

and fineness, which a notablesign is to be placedto on
distinguish it from the other coinages already struck ; and

the Chamberlain Master Moneyerand workmenare and
to agree as to the fees. 1367. In October of this year the king issueda precept,36 following on an enactmentby Parliament the month before, addressed thete GustosMonete " and the " Monetarius/' to

commanding the poundof silver be lessened ten that by
pennyweights,and the standard to be reducedto twentynine shillings and fourpencethe poundtale:S7 and that the coinage be the same fineness of the last one, or that of England. It also orders that from every pound coined,
3* Acts, vol. L p. 139.

86 Vol. i. p. 229, note. 86 Acts, vol. i. p. 144; Lindsay,p. 218.

87 Buddiman's Preface " Dip. Scot.Thes.," 126* to p.

shall forfeit for every penny so taken. 93 seven pennies shall be taken for the king. At the commencement of that of his successor find one given in we the Scots* whichis not mentionedat all by any of the Acts writers on Scottish numismatics. 19. was a8Ending. without paying a duty to the king of forty pennies in the pound.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. for we find that in this very year. of the folio edition above referred to. 183 of vol. 1371. 219. either merchant or other. leaving to the " mercator" twenty-seven shillings and ninepence. It was passed the Parliament assembled Sconeon the by at 2nd day of March. shall be paid by any one exporting money. twenty shillings. for his use. 150. Lin<L. it was ordained that everyone taking money.39 This act closes the reign of David II. It will be found in full at p. . one for the Gustos for his fee. should pay or receive any money of the Scottish mint. however. In this year we find from the Chamberlaitt Bolls40 that Andreas Pictor " Gustos Monete" at Edinburgh. or gold. 1372. i.38 1369. pp. ii. 40Vol.out of the kingdom. p. A proclamation madein Englandin 1372. vol. proclamation was made that no money of Scotland should be current there. 282. and provides that certain duties. similar to thoseof the actof 1369. i. p. pp. was 89 Acts. vol. 3. Two yearsafter.. in consequenceof so much light money being brought into England. and that no one. and eleven for the Magister Monetarius for himself and the workmen in the mint. i. Sec. or silver out of the kingdom. 176. it would appear that neither this coinage nor the former one was equal to the English. In spite of these enactments.

94 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. He considers that there were several mints where the gold currency was struck. As this is the first time we meet with Scottish gold. "which very interesting. « Pref.41 forbidsanyoneto receive It Scottishgold or silver moneyexceptas bullion. 28. but were rather the private marks of different moneyers in the earlier times. p.48 which has not been contradicted by later writers on the Scottish coinage. and of different issuesin the later. but would require more time and space than can be given at present. would imply that some gold currency. and grounds this opinion on the great variety of marks which appear in most of the reigns. one-half shall be forfeitedto the king.and ordersthat if any such shall be found after a certain date. The result of 41Euding. An accurate examination and comparison of these marks is exceedingly interesting. Mr. .this allusion to Scottish gold must refer to a coinageof Robert II. much earlier than has hitherto been supposed. must have been struck before 1372.as it mentions the first time is for Scottish gold. 126.. up to 1385. no gold was coined by this sovereign. yol. I 288. and one-halfto the finder. Lindsay says42that there is nearly conclusive evidenceto show that. If this is and the case. it may be proper to take notice of a statement made by Cardonnel. It is hardly necessary say that the extremelyrare gold to nobles of David II. have generally been consideredas pattern pieces. not struck for circulation. but this distinct mention of Scottish gold in the proclamation referred to. referring to the mints of the gold coinage. « P. I am rather inclined to think that these marks were not meant to indicate mints.

considerable coinagestook place.48a new and evidentlyvery light Scottishcoinage is referred to. i. landgfty. however. the connection of JacobusMulekyn with the Scottish mint probably ceased for in 1377 47we find that a present \ of money made by the king. Rolls. combined with the information derived from the very scanty documentary and historical evidence still existing. 50. p. leads me to think that the greatbulk of the goldcoinage. . <sVol. 233. 1376. for a proclamationof this date is given by Ruding4S ordering that fourpenceScotch was to be made equal to threepence English. and from their accounts. 233. 94. it appearsthat. 95 such an examination. An act of the Scottish Parliament was passed in June of this year. both this year and the following. <*Cham.wasstruck at Edinburgh. i. 21.. A coinage probably took place not long before this. and the same proclamation was made again the following year at Berwick. 47 Cham. with possibly few exa ceptions the earlier reigns. The Commons of England petitioned at this time46to be relieved from the burden of returning forfeitures of Scottish money to the Exchequer.ii.still preservedin the Chamberlain Rolls. which will be found given in full at «*Yol. Shortly after this. 1385. and Andreas Pictor at Edinburgh.Rolls. 289-41. 46Ruding.ANNAXS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. for in the informations which were taken previous to the passingof the English act of this year (and given by Ruding). p. 22. ii. 1381.44 But it is also evident that no improvement was made in the standard. whichis duly entered was him in the accounts. p. in 1873. i. In this year Thomas de Stratherne was a Gustos Monete " at Perth.

: viginti novem solidos et quatuor denarios (as it was in the preceding reign) nostrepecunie illis qui sibi tradiderint novos blancos (" albos" has beenwritten in the original. though the value was reduced to one-half. p. 244. and then continues: " Et hoc fiat de quocunque billon sibi allato tarn de moneta extranea quamde vasiset allis argenteis reddat de libra ponet deris. In this year again the money of Scotland was proclaimed in England. 61Buding. during which the moneyof the realm wasgraduallybut surelydepreciating in value: a fact which is strikingly illustrated in the commencement of that of his successor. 190 of the Scots' Acts. 844 . 219. 1387. but is scored out..for in 1390. viz. and " blancos" substituted) Francie pondus pro pondere de nostre monete excepto quod perdunt pro fabrica iilius libre sex blancos. p. i.and the act closeswith even more stringent provisions titan usual for preventing the export of money out of the kingdom.49This act providesthat the moneyto be struck shallbe similarto what was then current. vol. i. the Commons Englandpetitioned that themoney Scotof 51 of land be utterly removedout of the kingdom. Lind. Lindsay's Ap- pendix. .which was again confirmed the following in year.. In 1393 a very important act was passedat Perth. 81. 22. 5°Ending. in * P. and in Mr. i..*' Then follows the price at which various foreign gold coins are to pass. p. but this request was not accededto.p.50 This closes the reign of Robert II. p.96 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.though it is given differentlyin the work itself.wherethe date is correctlystated. and the former valuation of onefourth lessthan the nominal value morestrictly enforced.

but most probablyduring the we reign of Alexander III. and shall take and keep an account of these.that he shall cause be carefully to weighed all the gold and silver which shall be brought to the moneyer to be coined. that some one f' discretus fidelis sufficienset potens in diviciis. and provides.anda resume it atpp. by Hist.." or warden. they seemto have been established in certain towns. XIT. who shall be sworn to perform truly his duties. and every evening.which is given in full in the Appendixto Mr. 140.53 Latterly." shall be elected to be warden of the mint.22. This act of 1393 defines the respective duties of these officers. the moneyersaccompanied king and court from place the to place. In the reign of David II. p. for the long single-cross coins havetheir mints and moneyers distinguished combinaby tions of starsand mullets on the reverses. and the general working. There is very little doubt but that/iri the earlier times. 97 October. 128. 53The-right of coiningmoneybelonged solelyto tfceCrown. after the day's work ss Ruddiman's Preface to Anderson. that Bonachius of Florence shall make the money\ and next. VOL." or master coiner. and also of the " Magister Monetarius. p. It is of chiefly interestingas being the first act we have extant which orders and describesa gold coinage. vol. i. of Scot. O . butany change mustbesanctioned Parliament/*-(Pinkerton. and also for the full account it gives of the various officials and their duties. 157).. in the first place.8.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. we have the first mention of the " Gustos Monete.and struck moneywheneverit wasnecessary to do so.53 When this changetook place are unableto say. of the ancient Scottish mint. Lindsay's work.and regular officersappointed and regulations made for their guidance. and theseare. N.

or permit it to be used. which he shall well and truly keep until a trial is made of them. 1394. it specifiesthe various gold coins which are permitted to be current. shall take a note of how much. under lock and key." but that act contains nothing about any coin- . of Scots'Acts. or the person appointed to examine the money. and a summary of it at pp. And if the warden.98 NUMISMATIC OHBOXICLE. 222. After enacting certain values for the foreign gold coins. and select certain pieces. p. 210 of the first vol. has been made during the week. and shall place it in a coffer (cista) under seal and key. is over. This is. and shall keep them in safe custody. and every week. The act of 1398 was passedat Perth in the month of March. till next morning. 1398. or if they make false money. or the moneyer. And the warden shall be responsible the correct for weight of money coined. as it is there called *' de bono auro nna pecia vocataLeo. except as bullion. both gold and he silver. or use such. they shall be punished as the law directs : nor shall the king himself have any power to grant to such any pardon or remission of their sentence. and is also given by Mr. which trial shall take place within forty days. Scottish gold and silver were forbidden in England in this year. And he shall receive the money which is made each day from the moneyer. he shall receive the coining-irons with which the raoneyer strikes the money. and shall receivefrom the king the feeswhich have been customary. the first statutory provision madefor the trial of the money. shall fail to do their duty. The lion is probably the coin ordered by the act of 1S93. Lindsay in his Appendix. so far as I know. in the presenceof sufficient witnesses. and will be found at p. 23 and 128. Among those we find enumerated are lions and half-lions.

" 1402. or else that it should be " voided out of the realm. appointing him Master of the Office of Coining.s? Mr. correspond very closely in weight with what the half of the " Leo" of 1393 ought to be. coined billon. 6rYol.p. fact that in the list of values given-though the " Leo " is fixed at five shillings-no sum is specified for the halflion. 142. 6« Robertson's Index. Someof the lions usually appropriated to Robert II. B5 Wingate. the probability is. in this year. 41. In this year (1402) we find mention of base " halfpennies" of Scotland. is remarkable the for first introduction of a billon coinage into Scotland.56 Sometime about this period a charter was granted to Thomas the Moneyer. The Commons of England again enacted. in a petition from the Commons of England quoted by Ruding. 58 P. 39.. . that the money of Scotland should only have the value of the amount of good metal contained in it. that the expression" halflion " covered all these smaller gold piecesof Robert II. the notice of these 6*Lindsay. the weights of these earliest gold piecesare most perplexing. i. Whether this Thomas wasthe Thomas Melvill who had also a charter to the same effect along with Galfour Goldsmith in the samereign is uncertain. as a proof that Robert III. 129. It mentions 54mailles. and cannot be included under any of the other gold coins mentioned. and III. which was left to be regulated by the weight.p. Lindsay68 mentions.56 1401. even though their weights may not have exactly corresponded and this conjecture is strengthened by the . p.ANXALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. Indeed. 78. and orders them to be currentat a given value. and as these must have been in existence then. The reign of RobertIII. 250. pp. scarcelytwo being alike. 99 age of half-lions.

and in CardonnePsAppendix." . 8. the first year of James I. though in the Liber Collegii Nostri Dom. 5. mention is made of the " Cunyhe ad communemviam ex parte australi.59 The reign of James I. The money was ordered to be of the sameweight and finenessas the English." p. These acts are curious.." p.100 NUMISMATIC CHUOSICLE. 95. 250. A mint was said to have existed in Glasgowin the time of Eobert 331. 258. 270. They provide that exporters of gold and silver. shall pay forty pennies out of every pound. or if they do not.were not passed till May. 5. in 1415. See Wingate. coins in 1406. 500)noticeis taken of a tenement jacenssuperle West " Cunze. p. 145.in the Dry Gate. and are apprehended endeavouring to evade the custom. they shall forfeit the money and pay £10 Scots besides." and in the Register of Glasgow (p.but he has omitted to note this mention in 1402. opened in 1406. granted. The introduction of this base coinageprovoked remonstrances from the English parliament. vol. and 1423. I have not yet got any satisfactory original authority for this statement. who petitioned that the importers of this basemoney should be liable to capital punishment. 6. as showing the somewhat imperious language in which the Scottish parliament " determined and ordained that our Lord the King gar mend his money. This is noticed in Clelland's "Annals of Glasgow." They will be found in the second volume of the Scots Acts (folio edition)" at pp. These remonstrances were repeated 1411. but the first acts of parliament. 1424. p.p.. and a notice of them at p. or money out of the realm. but it is 59Ending. also in lire's " History of Glasgow. and rightly conjectures these to have been struck in the reign of his predecessor. 26 of Lindsay's work. which was three years prior to the death of Robert III. 257. in which any mention of money is made. in a -writ dated 1435. p. which was not. however. i.

This Robert Gray is first mentioned in the Rolls in 1429.61 and his name constantly occurs afterwards up to 1438. Lindsay. ii. which enacted60 that further provision be made for keeping money in the realm. the initial which appears I. 245 of the third volume. when we know Robert Gray was moneyer. p. 101 left to the king's pleasure to strike it ("quhen him lykis "). seems to have minted entirely at Edinburgh. 1425. but fortunately the. notedby him. Thesereferences in vols." . The following year another parliament was held at Perth. that on the Edinburgh groats of this reign. p. Lindsay givesa very strangeheadingto the extracts aboutthis coinage his Appendix. are all found in the Chamberlain Rolls. The first of these will be found under the year 1434. though groats of several other towns are known to exist. 54.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. It is the account of Robert Gray. master of the mint.63 We have evidence of at least two coinages of gold in this reign. andwhenhe sees to beprofitable the realmj it for a contingency whichapparently nevertook place. 187. ei Yol.or their regents. p. 9. is The distinct mention of a coinageof gold in the year 1434 raises a very difficult question. 62Wingate. that the initials on the prominent part of the coins are the initials either of the kings themselves. Hi.6^ It is a corroboration. 26. at p.p. He. this one 60Scots' Acts. Chamberlain Rolls contain somereferenceswhich are of great importance. vol. at the pages and in the 63 Mr. of the conjecture hazarded before.p. 9.. thoughthey are made appear if they to as were " excerpta Libris Sententiarum e officialisS* Andreas. and shows that about this time a coinageof gold and silver had taken place. Gardonnel's App. These acts throw little light on the coinages of this reign. to some extent. p. 224. and also for bringing in bullion.

viz. No authority is given for this latter statementby Mr." which is given by Pinkerton66 would seem to confirm this view. Lindsay. As these English nobles were most likely what are constantly called67 old Scottish accounts in the " Harry " noble. Andrews must have been struck at an earlier period. vol. 52^ grs. Ledger of Halyburton. Audit. every pece worth half an English noble/' This reward must have been offered between the parliament of 1434 and that of October. to considers the St. It is possible. 347. as we shall one."65or lozengelion.. RSGNAT. be the first coinage. offered a reward to any one who would slay or capture Sir Robert Graeme of " iij thousand demyes of gold. and was apparently a very extensive though a very smallpart of it. 1436. though he also states in the same pagethat the " demys" were probably struck before this coinageof 1436. ii. The latter coinage extended over two years. . 440.102 NUMISMATIC CHKONICL1S. & Acta Dom.can be assignedto JamesI. 65This is apparently called " demy " fromheing equal to the half of the Englishnoble. the half & would agreein weight.-Pinkerton. but a "contemporary account.. It is not the h^lf of any Scottish coin.. or very nearly. &c. in 1434 and another in 1436. Lindsay64 &c. 131. and probably in the beginning of the latter year. to be the second. e6 Vol. i.. p. probably at the beginning of the reign. 445. Andrews with XPC. Appendix.and the " demy. iL pp. im. 60. p. with the weight of the lozenge lion. It states that James I. Mr. presently see.that the term c(demy3> «* P. Ending. however. If we accept this view (that the lozenge lions are the " demys" mentioned in the proclamation) then the St. when well preserved.

there is no doubt whatever that the proper one is 1436-7. in and prohibit the exportof any of the precious metalsout of the country. 701436. " 1437-8. » Scots' Acts.. at any rate latterly. a very important mistake. Andrew of this reign is as nearly as possible. e9Pinkerton's Hist.10. iv. as it affects his arguments on the appropriation of coins in all the metals. 411. 1437. It is not necessaryto enter here on any detailed proof of this. including Pinkerton. Chalmers (authorof " Caledonia"). in the meantime.69 In 1436 were passed the acts given in CardonnePs Appendix. 174. They provide foB*certam payments bullion by the merchants.72 which met very shortly after his father's murder. pp. given in the extracts " ex variis Chronicis Scocise. 27. . Nicolas in his " Chronology" .S. and by the epitaph on the royal tomb. confined to the lozenge lion. It will be sufficient to note that the earlier date is proved by the first parliament of James II. (in his edition of Douglas's "Peerage. Nearly at the close of this year. 143. vol. Mr. 103 mayhavebeenusedto designate coin whichwas any equalto the half of the English noble. Though severalhistorians give the date 1437-8. 133.pp. of the same value. though Pinkerton says very distinctly that the St.70 the night between on the 20th and 21st of February. Wood. the reward mayhave been merely equal to 3. 26.000 in anycoins.eachequalto the Englishhalf noble: but I am rather inclined to think." It is also adopted by all the best authorities. on the 25th of March (New Year's day.). 9. 149. that this term was. Lindsay one year later n than it really took place. c. L p.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. vol. and as the St." Sir H. King Jameswas murdered at Perth by Sir Robert Graeme and his accomplices. The date of this event is placed by Mr. O. Andrew bore the name of demy.

1436. the wholeperiod of twenty-two months being divided by Mr. COCHRAN PATRICK. The effects of this mistake will be more fully seen when considering the history of the coinageduring the reign of JamesII. R. and ending on the 24th December.belongedto the reign of JamesI.).S. and again from that date to the 18th July. while it ought to be seventeenmonths to JamesII. 1436 (O. and five only to James I. can be appropriated to that king." The account of Robert Gray's is divided into two periods. W. According to Mr..and a part of the second. and seventeen to JamesI. Lindsay into five months to James II. In other words. . and is examined at great length by Ruddiman.. the relative proportionsof time given to each king are just reversed. Lindsay'sview. the first beginning at the 14th September."73 Tytler and Hill Burton.1437. in his «Poetic Remains of the Scottish Kings.the whole of the first period. whereas really only that part which extends from the 14th of Septemberto the 20th of February. 1438.104 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. in his " Notes to Buchanan's History.

271. on roi fondait toute la monnaieexistant dans le tr6sor royal et on refrappait a son effigie. li. (Continued from p. more fully described below. would have gone far to condemn his restricted monetary recordsto the contemporary melting- pot. Mordtmanu's proposalto transfer the coins published by me in vol.S. iii. xv. some such aspiration seemsto have led both Dr.in the assignment of either of which I am unable to concur.VIII. The brief and inactive reign of Hormazd I. SASSANIAN COINS.1 Dr. the coins. . NUMISMATISTS have naturally been anxious to discover specimensof the mintages of the fourth monarch of the Sassanianline. 182. and the practice of recoining all the accessiblemoney of a deceased king. 113. of this Journal2 from HormazdII. xn. to Hormazd L may be negatived at short notice.) HORMAZD L A. de Bartholomsei to attribute piecesof contrasted types to that sovereign. will reassert their own posi1 **Lorsqu'un nouveau de Persemontaitsurle trdne. 2 O. p. infra. Nos."-Moses VOL. &c.. cap. Nos. N. on each new accession. Mordtmann and M. i. 8-11. 59. p of Khorene.S.D. may reasonably have circumscribed his original issues.(1852)p. JournalAsiatique (1866). 36.

The obversehead discloses tiara but slightly differingin the subordinate a ornamentation from the canonical cap and globe of Varahran III. and even if conclusively confirmed." and the details of the costume and the arrangement of the hair and beard are nearly identical with the sameoriginal. as the undoubted produce the mints of the first-named of king.. in to asshown their imitative Sassauian their later Kufic in and currencies. typical tiara by which he was to be officiallyrecognised-But I wouldwarn my readers that they must be preparedto meetwith very eccentric employments reverses this series-a practice of in which descended duecourse the earlyArabian conquerors. so constant in the coins of Sapor I. It must be admitted that there are tracesin the engrav^- ing of the nameof Hormazdon the reverse. before he had finally fixed uponthe. de Bartholomzei was under the impression that he hadsecuredan unquestionable specimen the of money Hormazd Thispiece been of I. they are but far too imperfect to be relied upon. which now in are circulation in view to the sale of his collection. is altogether wanting in the piece in questionj and parallel typical objections present themselves with even greater force in the attitude of the supporters of the altar and the absenceof the conventionaljavelins.106 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. that there can be little hesita- tion in claiming it for that king. has figured the in unpublished copper-plate engravings. .. and which duly reappearsin the portraits of his grandson. and pre- sentsso manypoints of similarity to the acknowledged issues of Varahran III. tion in the numismatic serial order. might only serveto establish that the coin was an early production of Hormazd II. The bar or cheek-plate. The late M. . attached to the helmet-crown.

PL III. of divine origin from God. pis.-Fire-altar. divine king of kingsof Iran.D. Monogram behindthehead^. Even in its linear form the likeness may - still be tracedup to the prototype on the -Achaemenian coins and bas-reliefs. i.triple dots. supported.-iii. those outside the normal boundaries of Irdn (the APLLNW KAI AKAPIANON of Sapor's inscrip- tions). and. No." Other specimensadd the Anfodn. min Yazddn. 272-275. . wereconventionally contrasted in the new designation of Twrdn} thus constituting the Iran and Tdran of the Muhammadanwriters. "TheOrmazd-worshipper. by a mobed with the ordinary coronet. the surmounting globe is studded vri\h. Obv. Rev. 1. on the one side. Ma&cfasm Bctgi Varahrdn Markdn MarM Airdn. . Varahran.-Head of king.and the hair and beard arearranged after the most severe archaic style. 23. to the right. or ce non-Aryan " dominions. with radiating crown and protective cheek-plate..e.SASSAN1ANC013SS.-See Lajard. both figures the Persian 3 This monogram identifiedby De Sacywith the type of was Ferohar.3 Legend(restored). fig. A.later in point of time. i.which. 107 VARAHBAN I. by the figure of the king wearing a crown and globe similar to the design on the obverse.

fig. are armed with swords and javelins. 2. to the front . 14). Monogram £f (the sun and moonin conjunction Taurussymbol).with wingedtiara andsurmounting globe. Facing them is the reduced figure of the heirapparent. Obv.divine Yarahrin. Fire-altar." VARAHRAN II. whose head-pieceterminates in the head and beak of an eagle (as in Sapor's coin. from **$*£ Y*P£ )*>2Jm^>i Mr* u1^ Matduan Eagi Farahrdn Mar&dnMar&dAlrdn wa Anirdn Minbohatri min Yas&dn. Legend. 24 PL IIL.in profile. " Yarahran's Fire-altar/ ." Rev. No. A. The Ormazd-worshipper. behindwhich is the portrait of the queen. Legmd (restored).TX 275-292. Monogram on the altar 7^. king of kings of Iran andnon Iran (extra-national lands). of divine origin from God. Headof the king. culminatingin a boar's head. Legend (completed-up otherspecimens). Farahrdn Nvwdsti.108 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.wearing a cap with orna- mental lappets. )A)2jm £3jm) Tarahrdn nuwdti. No. . Yarahrdn's Fire-altar. supported by duplicaterepresentations of - thefigureof the king himself with winged tiara and globe (as upon the obverse)armed with sword andjavelin.

Asiatique(1866). fig.. Varahrdn. Rev. . PL III. Obv. 99 et seq. protecting the Fire-altar. 5.. fig.. Obv. Legend. See also De Sacy. Lrix.. 221. 1. Monogram.. fig.. o. pp. ii. 6 See also Mr.4 was No. 230. 12. Authorities quoted: Moyse de Kaghanjzatouts.. c.J. .pL p. 25. the latter offers a chaplet.s. 11.4. Legend. 180. &c. 3. xv. fig. 109 The Armenian historians inform us that the device on the royalsealof the Sassanians a wild hoar.-Device as in fig. These triple-stars seem to have once constituted a division of the seven planets. fig.-The king with a mobed. i. fig.imperfect. fig. 3. obscure. Bev. xlii. Pis.. 5. pp. and Bar-HebraeusChron. III. . 2..-As in fig. but the prince'stiara is ornamented with the crest of a boar's head. Legend. 189.. cap.. PI. except that the prince presents a diadem.-Deviceas in fig. 26.-The king and queen worshipping at the Fire-altar. in badly formed letters. armed with swords andjavelins. liv. 27. p. PL III.tracesof Mazdisan. No. Legend.vol. ii. Other examples of this coinage complete the Queen's tiara with a beautifully executedhead of an antelope. SeeLajard. . 5.imperfect. Faustus de Byzance. fig. Legend. One of Khusrft Parviz's seals of state " avait pour effigie une t§te de pore. PL IDE. . imperfect. 113. Varahrdn Nuivdzi. fig. xxxiL. 16. No. Ferohar symbol and 0°o. Culte de Mithra.SASSANIAN COINS. Chron. 3. Varahrdn. Basires* engraving of the same coin. .s Obv. Rev. liii. Haasdfoan ." -Mas'audi. 4 " Le Sceaude Perse consistait en un anneauportant gravee I'effigie d'un sanglier 'varass*'"-Jour. Num. as in the coin of Varahrdn L. Syr.-Profiles of the king and his son. The former has his hand raised in the attitude of salutation.

is inadmissible. III. as in the last coin (PI. fig.. Rev.s. because haveon this samecoin. 6. the latter has a - curiouslyembroidered without any apparent cap. 180). 6Num. supported by the king and a mobed.undecipherable. Monogram. Unique coin.The king and a mobed supporting the Fire. No.x. Rev. Legend. we (R's)in the reverse legend. the latter portion expressedin ill-defined illegible letters. No. 180). Monogram sideof the altar [fj. o. 144.and the alternative.S. a group of three dots. Num. crest. as far as I am aware.. jwirrn *n n Atur zi ladi [kadi] Varahran . Mus.Rati.6 Legend. The border ornament of the head-dress is identical with the scroll pattern in use on the IndoParthian coins lately describedin this Journal. on Legend. fig.s. HI.mainly thequestion sense. Chron. 28. "Fire of King Varahran. . as in - PL II.. xv.altar. Kadi. Chron.* 7H-MH i ftrrw MS-IB j&o-na 7bnrm VQ p'nto Mazdlmn Bagi Varahran Markdn Markd Airdn wa Aniran.. Fire-altar..andthe subof stitution £ ork. Legend.XT. in Ladi.Device as in fig. The word answeringalike for God and King. Obv. Fig.o. N. 5.transcribed in Hebrew characters. Plate (p. Fig.has no appropriate meaning in this place. PI. properlyformed*f&. or planets. 4 Plate (p. 2. of upon of Ladi. Brit.110 NUMISMATIC OHKONICLE. 5). Obv. 29. Chron.imperfect." I have ventured to proposethe emendationof the more obvious reading the letterL /. Profiles of the king and queen.Num.

fig. inscribed with the words Khordsdn Khudd. must have had a very early currency.the ideaof it Nuwdzi referring to anything but the Fire-altar itself. Basire in the NumChron. 34-5.D.r. 44. 25. EanazaIsfahani. in associationwith the government of Khor&s£n. 30.. pp. 228. No. Mordtmann's ideal " song of praise. though I do not wishto anticipatethe more complete evidence whichthe coinsthemselves yet affordtowards will demolishing Dr.D. B. 237... A. iii. but it is constant on the abundant money of his successor. 6. PL III.1869. vol. Mohl. as the sole titular prefix. that if the aboveinter- pretationholdsgood.*ii. x. K.v Trarptav. A. by Khusru Parmz. 284.. in preferenceto our as later term of the Shah Ndmah ." &c."p. p.292. however. "Khotlan Kbuda. who made use of a special seal for that section of his kingdom. N.) 7 SeeMas'audi. 3. Journal Asiatique. J. andJ.iii. 227. p. Ill retained more especiallyin the eastern division of the Sassanian dominions. Ibn Khordadbah.457) . 40.Firoz..7 and its special application in the easternprovinces is proved by the retention of the term. " Kad " SedjanShah.). we find the " Book of Kings " as designated the Khudd Ndmah. p. (The samecoin was engravedby Mr. S. Fox Talbot.. xv. (A. for everputs an endto. Segan SMh.438. M. does not occur on the coins until the time of Yesdegird II.. yap T&V «ai 01 3aort\¬?c. ¬7T¬t&7 KOI TOJV o$v ra ScyeoTavwy Ovapapavi/ roi/Sc Wvos rf TO)$&a 6 ' yap TQVTO rrj iv. I need not add. B.SASSANIAN COINS.S. N.s." VAEAHEAN III. 37. 1865.8 A. " Malka " often means god in Phoenia cian(see my " Sassanian also Inscriptions. 8 Wows rtv^sTraXatot) /^erao^(6i. . p." " BukharaEhuda. J.Preface Shah to Namah. Asiatique.X.S. The title. fig.

with his appropriate tiara and drawn sword.terminatingin a pendant jewel. 31.. but ornamented with bold foliated branches. with a turreted crown. It will be noticed in due coursehereafter. . obscure. Rev. MarJcdnMlnucJiatri min Yanddn. projecting from four different points in the circlet.globe studded with triple dots. fig. . is erroneously placed. Ferohar and Taurus symbol. flowing hair. Headof king. holding his sword upright.] NARSES.D. who seemsto be taking a more direct part in the ministering at the altar. Legend(imperfect). A. &c.Eire-altar.112 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. with his appropriate tiara. Mono* grams. . with his sword(baton) inclined towards the flames. 8. Matditan Bagi VaraJirdn . with the usual attendant mobed. Rev. [Fig. 392-301. supported by the king. with curiouslydevised tiara.Fire-altar. Obv.the lower band following the design of the crown of his predecessor. Obv. Legend. No. Headof king. PL ILL. The arrangement of the hair reverts to the earlier classical form. supportedby the king. and a mobed with the ordinarycrown. while the short beard retainsthe jewelled pendant of the later monarchs. Legend (restored from better specimens). and closely curledbeard. 7 of Plate III. Matdhan Bagi Nartahi MarMn Mar&d MMehatri mm Yaxddn.

intentional. there is. " There is only a single inscription and bas-relief of Narses at present known. 11. . PL III. No. restored). He wears a coronet^with sharp spikes. His dress. xn» NA . A." . fig.SASSANIAN COINS. 9.this peculiarity attaching to it.. have been. The inscription is brief.like that of the associate figure of Ormazd. 10. PI. Similar coin. however.9 HOBMAZD II. The Fire-altar of Parses. and merely to the usual effect of notifying the style and titles of the new king .. fig. No. closer set than the more cumbrous rays employed by Varahr&n L. . The ofiaission of his less exalted predecessorsmay. the Narses appearsfrom the arrangement of the bas-relief. to be in the actof receiving investitureas a king from his the hands of Ormazd. with wingedcrown* head of an eagleholdinga pendant \*$$ta%3t* Ms Inscription. the authorised ballooncrestand floating fillets complete picture. p. which. whereashe is ordinarily held to have been the son of Yarahr£tt II. at Sh&bpftr. 32. Narses is represented as a comely youth with a light moustache and incipient beard. however. that sculptured on the rocks . after the fashion affected by Sapor I. however. 301-309. The hair is curled in full and smooth ringlets. III.. that it declaresNarses to have been the sou of Sapor and grandson of Ardeshir. is unusually simple. is tied* determinedly towards the point. fig. 33." 102. Similar coin. No.B. 34 PL IIL.

5. 36.. 111gr. Weight. 10 Eeproduced stampedfac-simile in Dr. III. vi fig. PI.fig. 37). vol. but possibly supplyingan earlier portrait than the ordinary Western coins. 8. (p. A similar coin. * in lieu of the conventional globe. Legend.114 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.The ordinary Fire-altar. 423. No. fSD^D »b& JHBhaHab ^TWrfifTW p*HtD VO MazdisanBagi Auharmazi LaMkusJtdnHaitian Matted. from which de* pend the flowing Sassanian fillets. varying slightly in the reverse.' " Bev. Obv.. with the detailssufficiently to in unisonwith. above which risesa large. 12. No. . above which appears the ordinary globe studded with dots. differing only in the breadth of the ornamental Sassanianribbons. 35. He likewise refuses the to 1a0j&apt reading "Lion-slaying. Mr* u^s Bev. supported. as I have already remarked. "and adheres *' Bag(i) the of to Buehan." SeealsoZeitschrift (1865). Num.'desires to alter the attribution proposed by me. divine Hormazd. as in the classical representations of Hercules. Ztotschrift* The author. " The Ormazdworshipper. and to assign pieceto HormazdI. xvv p. Legend(imperfect). the lionslaying ' Zing of Zings.10 Gold. The hair is arranged in flowing curls. Legend. Chron. in pi. The crest is formed of a lion's headand flowing mane. Hormazd's Fire-altar. Mordtmann's. Unique.. Fire-altar with the head of Ormazd issuing from the flames.p. beak. 180.boldly-developed flower (possibly intendedto conveythe ideaof flames). andthe carefully dressed beardterminates in a large jewel. the King and mobed face the altar with swords at guard. Zing's head the right. fig.

. i1 Ormazd is represented under exactly the same guise in where his identity is clearlyestablished the Greekinseri|K by tioii on his horse of TOYTO TO HPOSOHON AIOS ®B0¥. 180. . In speaking thesea$$. xxiii. and who extends the characteristic diadem of the Sassa-. ttf'mak vmnm« fcO^D Auharmazdi Labdkush Malkd. o. and on the other.8. £ *2Se* Wilson's "Ariana Antiqua/' p. representation. 37. by the figure of Ormazd himself (who is known by the rayed crown and the heavy baton or sceptre). by the king habited as on the obverse. "O^B Malki ] to theleft. Num. PL. xxi.. Chron. No. Obv. with his special Vdhana or « Vehicle/1 the Bull the sculptures Tak-i-Bostan(Ker Porter. fig.). p. pi. from whom the Sassanians affected to have descended. 115 on the one side. and many of the details of his personaland other attributes are preserved in the sculptures at Naksh-i-Bust&m» . 850. xv.. to above the altar.. xxii.bObfc the 7*ob» MalMnMalkd The translation here given of lion-slaying not only accordswith the requirements of the typical.-The Indian divinity Siva. Legend.:aa. 17. the right. Copper. xiv. but commends itself in the fact that the device of the king killing a lion formed the special royal device of the Achsemenians. Prinsep's " Indian A^ttfrifef/* pis.x* 'l-fejxiv* 12-17. with lion-skin as in the last coin. pls> S-il. vol.SASSANIAN COINS. nians towards the young king. of tionof theFire-altar intimates reed|^fon theworship fee of coi&&> ProfessorWilson remarks:-('AiWM%fc ihe introduc- passes of .-Head of king. .11 Legend. Flandin.a. 11.. Rev. *02 p^TTD Mazdisan Bagi ^WirHH Auharmazdi do.4*&t 6. 7«tf "OHSb Labdkmhdn below altar. of pi.

Legend. Rev. 9.St&ndesti. Obv.. Bengal.116 NUMISMATIC CHK0N1CLE. vii.'y times. 8.. figs* 7-10. Prinsep'sEssays. 180. Num. Ifov. xxii. Siva half*feuaiBin6. 38.-Head as above. Pehlvi the letters 4)4* 8Mt Better specimens the collectionsof Lady Sale and in Col.-A largeFire-altar occupying entirefield.ttjjj p^tt. 180. . x.W. pis. Obv.xiii.. fig. Num. vol.troth*1 Sn0& re&cteiiigw0rald a aiseofil with an Qjpvatefk feae of feith and re^ereBce for the ^lea^iWe symbol of w&r- shiptejond what we might be preparedto expect. p.yet the presence0f the trisula or trident is an indica%aa^f the concurrent worship of Siva . ** !Dhe of the Pehlvi word in this senseis very frequent use . xL xii. by outline. p. PI. fcobfc nwirrw AuJiarmazdi Malhd. Kadphises series. 6. and which is some- 0f Saivaworshipare corroborated the typeson the reverses. PL. " xxxviii.. Small copper coin. xv. . 10. No. Chron. Kanerki. xiv.iv»pL jlf *! vol. 5.voL xvv fig. "to stand Zend£tdna)>u clear obvious f* is and $ '-of ~fire. Sanskrit £*4dnn from jAtt4. but ite S$dn (IsMn) place/' (the « ike. . Stdn-rdsti" Tabernacle of .Anderson thelegend 4edj&5& give as p^&sf.an androgynous 18 Ariana Antiqtia.13 No Legend. iii. A. &c.makingofferings & at small altar.. No. These evidences The most frequent is a figure of Siva . >i|gs. 39. pL xxv.. Chron.. vol. the figure being that of Siva and his spoiase tliek in compositecharacter of Arrdk® ndriswam. preferably or ^. .. of. Small coppercoin.-The king with a second figure.pi.-As above.. J. of the type peculiar to the IndoScythian kings of Bactria.pi. whatit probablyalways should be.

15 asAUM*^ Hang. Small copper coin. Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. and Murty &c. . Spiegel givesthe term as^MHOEM.e. fcobfc'"TtEnniN Aukarmazdi Malhd. :r /' The exceptional Sassanian '" just cbsc^ibfect^"j$$£t> ' devices '" '' " '" ''* . 117 and the associate Rfoti is the prevalent word for " truth/' which will be seen to figure as a constant adjunct to the Fire-altar in later reigns.SASSANIAN COINS.half-lengthof Ormazdis of itself suggestive of the interpretation of Murtd^ though the Sassanian u and the r are convertible. but the vernaculars of the Sanskrit Murtti (from Mtirtta) range over various pronunciations of the oft-recurring term for "statue. (?) The uprising. The rendering of Avesta may be moreopento criticism. and the final a unusual. unpublished. Murati. Murti. No. the Stacy in Collection. Murat.though their exact phoneticrendering maypresent difficulties. from. Eev. " Avas- ttti"** but the latter is anything but clear about the primary iQemiqg." for instance.-Medium sized Fire-altar. idol. image. of Ormazd. which rises the figure of Ormazd. "Image of Avesta. NfTTftaNHDKIH AvastaMurta." i. The true orthography derivaand tion of the wordAvestaare still openquestions.-As above. and a Sassanian diadem in the other.which should serve to check tl|e later corrupt versions. Legend. Obv. the Pehlvilettersu^mmt but Audstdare distinct. holding a spear in the one hand. Legend. 40.

xiv.or otherwise. ^ Herodotus 131. 36. and a new coin of Col. Agathias L ii 24* Seealso Sir EL Rawlinson.. which fact mayhaveled him to adopt. Outline's (like AA.their religious emblems. with sufficient clearness. 13. disclose typical figuresof the Vedic Theogony the with the contrasted forms of the ancient Persian nature-wor- ship/8 modified by Mithraic influences. in virtue of cession or conquest. in a complimentary sense. xiv. As the history of these national and religious emblems is full of interest. fig. 22. and formed a new Olympus. 17) contributesa well-definedtiger's head. Strabo XV. It would seemas if half the gods of Asia had sought refuge in Ariana. in conciirrent acceptance with the morerecent developments Branof maarieimage-worship and the representationsof BUDDHA. at or about the commencement of our era. the successors of the Bactrian and Indo-Scythic dynasties17with whom Hormazd II. 8. xxi. Sdkya Muni. I may be permitted momentarily to glance at their growth and development in illustration of our presentinquiry. and finally the Indo-Scythian pieces themselvesare simultaneously affectedby Sassanianinfluences.S. xvii 8. is known to have had intimate relationship by marriage. . i7 There are other points of identity in the corresponding Indo-Scythian coinagesof the post-Grreekperiod-for instance.to associations with the dominions of the contemporary kings of the East. J. PI. 247. AA.118 NUMISMATICCHBONICLE.A. he may have affected the display of the local types as indicative of extended boundaries..iii. xv. 16 has the surmounting flame noticed above in coin No. the prototype of the Indo-Sassanianhead-piecesengraved m A.B.A. 17." at least the coins of the Kanerki. some of the coins of the type figured as fig. iii. exhibit the eagle's-beak crest. where the representatives the Mythologies of many nations conof sented to republican equality .

MIIPO (A. xni.) 2. 6). Wilso^ and comment."(Arivarieties. "MoonG-od") Host of these identifications BOW I mil reserve for future hare been O. OKPO ana Antiqua. . &c. Seatedfigure(J.A. AA. 7) xii. A. DeusLunus(male) MANAO BAPO BUDDHA. SURYA. VAYTJ.KumaraKOMAPO rayed femalefigure. who had found resting-placeson or near these main highways of Central Asia. 5.the deities old or new which were in favour with the strangely mixed races.SASSANIAN COINS. SkandaOKANAO femalefigure figure. 4. MITKA (mihira). A&NI.A6PO (two 1. 1845. (OPA) 2. Om! Adi Buddha Sramana. Persian Gods. Prinsep. that we mayso be quite preparedto find the ignorant Indo-Scythians receiving. The following is a tabular outline of some of the more prominentobjectsof worshipfigured on the coinsof the period:. OAAO. Bengal. 16) 4. MI6PO(AA. NANAIA HAI02 (A. 6. of the prevailing custom thus introduced. Nanaia (Tanais) S. Brahmanical Gods. Ditto (threeforms) 2. 2. 2) 5. male 4. are E. 9) 15. PL 7. THOMAS. 6. PABYATI (the ArNO (Fire} $APO wife of Siva) APAOKPO 3. 11) 6. Lassen. 119 The Greeks in their Eastern conquests carried with them their systemof emblazoning coinagewith the the forms of their divinities. with but little scruple. Mao (The Moon. S. Buddha. UORA (Siva) . YieaTcha BIZAFO female) MAO (AA. xiii. xii. (Maonh JBagw.ziv. and xiv. 1. IfiiUer. PL il fig. 16. OM AAO BOA OAMANA. 3. 3). 19. Standing figure (AA. A. Mithra.#^"wind. Yedic Gods. FIEB. 1. xL 15. and Bactria and its contiguous provincesretained. theSun. XIY. 1.after the decadence Greekletters.xii.

Wood thinks in *ih$ sgot where t&e hoard was found is a portion of tibife etoircli of Si John.. mixed up with the affairs of the East. weighing all 17 Ibs. Mr. of Naples . containing 2. Rhodes..< . From this it may be concluded that the must have been buried not later than the year even earlier. T. the Seljut Emeers. thesewere struck by to CharlesII.:. Wood was carrying on Ms excavationsat Ephesus.M : :of tb$ of the nations Europe.these being struck by Soger de Pins. Grand Master Ehodes.. at a distance of about four feet below the surface. and The whole hoard embracesa period of about eighty years. he came upon an earthenware pot. 358 grs. of whichwere. it consists earliest must all have been can be The date which assigned any of the coins is 1285. Venice. OF COINS FOUND AT AT the beginning of last year.Q-enoa^ the Papal States. during tfe and fourteenth centuries. the latest may be placed not after S.231 silver coins and 15 lumps of silver. 4 oz. ... J.IX. so that the coins of which current at one time.in search of the site of the Temple of Diana.. AN ACCOUNT OF A HOAED EPHESUS. It consists of coins of Naples. as Mr.

121 The existence of such a variety of coins of different countries can be easily accounted for.with them. scene the of the struggle of nearly every European power. but more especially those nations which have just beenmenof tioned. The coins of Naples in this hoard are called giffliati. Asia Minor was. and also on the Seljuks. The coins of the Papal States could easily have found their way into Asia Minor with the vessels of the Italians which joined the Genoese and Venetians. The Knights of Rhodeswere at that period in continual warfare against the infidels. Lemnos. but had held for some time severalislands of the Archipelago. For what use these lumps of silver were intended it is impossibleto say. no explanation necessary the discovery coinsof is for of that peoplein the locality where the hoard was found. they were current not only all over southern Europe. but from their shapeit is quite evident that they had been melted down in crucibles.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. but also in Asia Minor. of which the most important were Chios. On account of the purity of the metal of the coins of Naples. XII. during the thirteenth and fourteenthcenturies.and. and Lesbos. This name signifies "lilied" and is derived from the floreatedcrossand fleurs-de-lis in the four quarters on the VOL. N. Skyros. and which had already made frequent attacks upon the islands in the Archipelago and on the Byzantine empire. wereengaged frequent in attacks upon the Greeks. and more especially against the Ottoman empire. The Genoese succeeded Venetians in the possession the the of islandof Chios. and were possibly for the purpose of coining money. R .S. As Ephesus and Magnesia were situate in the empire of the Seljuks. The Venetians not only carried on a large trade with the inhabitants of Asia Minor. which was fast extending itself over the whole of Asia Minor.

SELJUKS coins)-18 Theologiof Ephesus. A list of the coinsis first given. to after which each class is treated of in detail. GENOA coin)-A coin struck in theislandof Chiosduring the (1 time of the Maona of the Justiniani. He was born in the year 1248. returnedto Naples. CHARLES 1285-1309. of England and the Pope Nicolas IV.. (1 VENICE coin)-A matapan FrancisDandolo. 13 of Louis and Johanna. after being crownedat Rome. Here the captive remained till after the death of his father. of Roger de Loria attacked Naples and took the young regent prisoner. and conveyed him to Mattagrifone.with their numberand the particular countriesand rulers. of Deodato (745 96 de Gozon. whichthey belong. 110 of Pietro Cornillano. when. Immediately afterhis return. (1 of Seven various blundered and unascertained NAPLES. RHODES coins)-148 of Elion deVilleneuve. During this absence CharlesI.. Bang of Naples. PAPAL STATES coin)-A giulio of John XXII. reverse of the coins. of Anjou. surnamed the Boiteux. whichhappened the followingyear.. and 391 of Roger de Pins.122 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. and grandson of Louis VIII.and. when his father was engagedin a war against Sicily. and IL. NAPLES (1462coins)-7 of Charles 1442of Eobert I. was the son of Charles I. . of France and Blanche of Castille. he was left in chargeof the kingdom. II.. he was released. Charles II. by in the interventionof EdwardI. In 1284. Those of Rhodes received the name of aspri9 term which will be afterwards a explained. (14 and 1 of Magnesia. coins.

as their king. 3. upon his death. some time." On the reverseis a cross floreated. but in neither attempt did he succeed. Charles married Maria. The legend. with a fleur-de-lis in eachquarter. On the obverse of these coins is a seatedfigure of the king crowned. 123 Charles invaded Sicily. was succeeded by his third son. In 1302 Charles II. in his right handis and a sceptre.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS."Carolus Secundus Dei Gratia Hierosolymse et Sicilise Rex.which is " Honor RegisJudi- . the differencebeing in the spellingof the second word of the legendon the obverse. Charles. Louis. and on eachside of his chaira lion. havinglong hair. Owing to the claims of the Duke of Andre. with the legend. A list is appended of the coins of this monarch which were in the hoard. on his breast a quatrefoil. His by second son. and in his left hand an orb. in marriage to Frederic. B-obert. and these of very little importance. Charles Martel. which took place in 1309. Charles nine sonsandfive daughters. King of Sicily. the only daughter of Ladislas. which had been taken from his father. and wassucceeded his grandsonCharobert. King of Hungary. the Hungarians asked for Charles Martel. When Ladislas died. gave his daughter. His eldest son. and endeavoured to drive the Sicilians from Cala- bria . the eldest son of Charles and Maria. however. elapsed before Charles was crowned. as on the money of France in the time of Louis VIII. died in 1295. There are only three varieties. latter being had the married to nearly all the principal sovereigns of Europe. King of Hungary. Eleonora. and in the word ¬CTon the obverse of No. having gone into holy orders. who had successfullyresisted the attempts of Jamesof Aragon and Charles of Valois to drive him from his throne..

* l]OnOE . 6C. jfcv. . s[(iD]' .-* ^OROB . E6CSIS.. E6CX. The coins of this king very closely resemble thosestruck by his father.-* K[!SB]OL' . DILI6IT.y. Deci. SdD' . cium Diligit. 1. Robert. i 1. EILK3IT. on either side of seat a lion. 6ES . 1.. ES6IS . EGCX. but during the whole of which period the troops of both kings were never engagedin the open field. King seatedfront. 2. DILIGIT. Type same. from whom he received marked favours by being releasedfrom the heavy debts due to the Holy See from his father. SiaiL . quatrefoil on breast. Ew. Type same. when senator of Rome.. ' EGCX. oiv. .the coins. Robert's accessionto the crown of Naples was ratified by the Pope. Emperor of Germany. sought to weakenHenry's power by arousing the animosity of other 1 Letters between brackets are joined upon. Nearly all the towns of Tuscanyplaced themselvesimmediately under the protection of Robert. M 1.." is taken from the 98th Psalm. GET . lUDiaiU . .holding sceptrein right hand andorb in left. knowing how uselessit would be for him to attack such a powerful enemy in open battle. SMIL. Rev.124 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. lUDiaiU same. in order that they might the better resist the attacks of Henry VII. which of lasted many years. Type same.-^KCSEJOL' SGC DGCI. This alliance wasthe cause a long"struggle betweenHenry and Robert. 3. OZ. Floreated cross. No. in each quarter. IO:ELS. DO!! . GEE . Type ROBERT I. PL IT. and by being appointedVicar of Ferrara and Romagna. Olv.-* KCSEIOL' . with fleur-de-lis -fi -95. MEL' GCT SICCIL'. 1309-1343. I6CEL'.* !]OnOE . crowned. Charles of Anjou. IUDICEIU . 2R. GES . EffGIS .

In 1325. This expedition proved unsuccessful.being released from all fearsof an invasion. In 1318 he took Genoa. having freed himself from his old rival. 125 princes against him.who was shortly afterwards defeatedand taken prisoner. committing the command of his troops to Raimond de Cordova. After a short struggle Robert compelledthem to raise the siege. Henry died in 1813. to stop the invasion of Louis of Bavaria. and laid waste the whole of that district. and return to Naples. His only son being now dead. but. turned his attention to the conquest of Sicily. Florence having surrenderedto Robert.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. The Duke of Calabria. the head of whomwere the at Viscountde Scalaand Boracassi. and Robert. He was in consequence compelled to make a dishonourable treaty with Frederic. he retired to Avignon. but he could effect nothing more. who. he sent his son. Duke of Calabria. fearing to attack Louis. where he lost half his army and the greater portion of his fleet. andthis he accomplished so with much ingenuity that Henry on no occasion was ahleto invade the territories of Naples. retired into Tuscany. instead of following up his successhimself.landing at Castellamare. where he died m 1328. Robert then returned to Naples. for Robert. King of Sicily. This prince landed at Palermo. under the command of his son Charles. beganby besieging Trefani. the Duke of Calabria. waspreparing to invade Italy. and in 1324 sent an expedition against Sicily. and not wishing that the . which he could not do so long as the Emperor of Germany remained in Italy. The rivalry which existed at that time between Louis of Bavaria and Frederic of Austria supplied Robert with the means of increasing his power. and in the following year was attacked in that place by the Lombards.

quatrefoil on. Robert was considered the wisest monarch of his age. in wasthe cause all the troubles of Johanna. There are. There are also many blundered coins.havingreignedthirty-four years. letters which occur on the coins of the Grand Master of Rhodes. on another an acorn downwards. Someof the coins of Robert resemblein type those of his father. Robert. with fleur-de-lis in each quarter. <fComes Provincialet Forcalquerii/* referringto the possessions of Robert in France. crown Naples of shouldgofromhis family. King crowned.-* iionoR. was taking measures to protect his grand-daughter. SICCIL BEX. Xev. and on another G.seeing of discord increasingdaily betweenthem.126 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. GBS .511-05. In the inscription of one of these coins. instead of the Latin word Rex. being celebrated for his learning. viz. on one coin is a ^fleur-de-lis to left of seated figure of king. His death took place in 1343. several varieties. with the following legend around the edge. his strong senseof justice. DILIGIT. IOBL'. however. but on the reverseis the usual floreatedcrossin the field. .Johanna hatedherhusband. holding sceptre in right hand and orb in left. we find the French word Roi. Fio- reated cross. Another type of this monarch has the obversethe same. whom he had appointedhis successor. Beceis . of which a few specimensare given in the subjoinedlist. niDiaiu . itself sopolitic. .Eobertgavehis grand-daughter Johanna marriage Andre. DGCI . 6CT . R. breastj on each side of Beat a lion. whose disposition wasentirelythe opposite hers. although of veryyoung.-* EOB¬CET .seated front. 1. and the ability which he had shownin keeping his kingdom free from invasion. the son of in to the King of Hungary. M. Thismarriage. 0fo». For. whenhe died..

IllDIdlU jR*95. Rev.. Obv. DILI6IT. Type same.I¬tEL' Type same.. IGCEL . DILI6IT.^ llOnOE .* : I]OnOE : E6C6IS: lUDIdlU same. I x. Olv. DILI6IT.* EOBCCET: D6CI : GESdl : 6SU : E : X. : t|OnOE E6C6I8 UldlDIU I>GIT.. E6C6IS . Type same. SIdIL fleur-de-lis. E6C6IS . jRl-Oo.. I6CEL' .DGCI . Type same. ofo. GCT SdlL RW*. Rev..* Mev. 6ES' . E¬CX.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESTJS. same. 6ES .* EOBGCE (SEEdl I[6CE]L ffT dial same as No. DILI6IT.~* 7. . . 10. iiroiau . 06v. Type 1L 06v. Type same.* i]OnOE . 8. Type same. Olv. DILa. Same. 06w. same.. 6ES.ESX. M 1'05. . Ofev.^ EOB6CETD6CI 6E[aE] Type same. 6E£ . but to left of seatedfigure a Rev. 0Jv. M'95.* jfcu. ..* Mev. 1.-* tyOnOE . 5..* ^OROE Ea*cs Type same. EOB[eCE]T D6CI 6E I[Q:E] GCT Slid .* EOB6CT .. D6CI .- * EOBSETUS . Type 4. Type same. 127 E&X.-* : EOB[eCE]T DEI : 6ES : 6CT did : EGCX : . E6CGIS. same. Type same. EX. . EGCX. 9. Type same. same.. lUDICmi . DEI . ¬CT . M 1*05. D6CI . Type same. Type .* EOBGCET'. 6CT.EOBGCETUS . IUDICIIU . £& 1.. 6CEL GCT Sia EOI x D-L'-GHT ice. I}OI70E aaiB lUDian Biaia. £w. Type Type I]OROE E6C6IS lUDIdUI DIF6. ISEL' ^T SIdIL'. 3. Type lUDiaiU 6. M 1. to left of seated but figure an acornturned downwards. 2.

JOHANNA AND Louis. E&X. a . who was accordingly assassinated the Convent of Avenna. EOBSET . IU .-* Type same. her former .-* EOBGCET DI. DldlU &. 6CT . Type same. GCT . M 1*05.128 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Type same. jR 1-05.-* ^eu. GET FOEa[SL]QecEi. Johanna. . M 1. 12. Type same. : 18. .-% EOB6CET D6CI <3ES I6CR TSE6C x. . Type same. She then married Louis of Tarentum. aoMecs : pvinaia Type same. Ml'QS. D6CI. 0&V.-* IjOROE E6C6I3. 2. : ¬CT FOEdSLQaEIL Type same. E6CX. EOB6CT: D6CI 6E3? IljE : GET SlttlL : E6CX. 1352-1362. Type same. SiaL . 1'05.-* 13. Obv. PUIRQIQ: : JffT : FOEaSLQGCEII. D¬CI: 6ES : IF]E : GCT SlttL : E6CX.Olv.-* CCOMOCS PUIRaiQ . DHL Type same EOB6CET D6CTSEE ItjE : 6CT SICCIL.-* dOMGCS : PVIRdlG: Type same. Eev. ¬ES ._* ^ev. FOEdSLQSEII. D6CI. joined in a conspiracy for the murder of her hated husband. 14. 15. Obv. Ii}E . yinaa. 0&y. aoMES p . : .-* EOBffET . : ecT FOEasLaecEn. IdEL . Type JRev. IV. GCT. soon afterheraccession. Mev. Obv.-* Ew. 6ES .-* 16. PI. same. Oh. 3STo. aomecs . Andre.-X EOB¬CET'. @ES : ir|E : 6CT: SldlL E¬CX. ^Et 1. & 1-05. Type same. SldL E6CX.-* RW. 1-7. in at 1345. dOMGCS : PUIRdieC Type same. Type same.

and Jpha^jiatfyenmarriedJames of Aragon. at the request of her old subjects. 129 paramour. m.upon the condition that she allowed herself to be tried for the murder of her husband. quitted Naples Provence. To this she con- sented. towhomshe abandoned that purpose sovereignty had for the of Avignon. and Johanna. leaving nearly the whole of his army behind him.and one of her husband'sassassins. by this means revenging to the utmost the death of his brother. attempted to drive out the Germans and Hungarians. and brother of Andre. seizedher and placed her in confinement. I^ouis died*in 1362. This sooncaused the Louis of Hungary to return at the head of more troops. During VOL. and in 1347 invaded the kingdom of Naples. but having wasted too much time in the siegeof Aversa. Louis of Hungary had accomplished conquest of Naples.. At the approachof the Hungarians the army of Louis of Tarentum wasbroken up. Johanna. from which she wasreleasedby the interference of the Pope Clement VI. her husband. and Louis. Even here she could not find an asylum. gave her$df up to all landsof pleasure. for the barons revolting. King of Hungary. determined to revenge his brother's death.who claimedthe crown of Majorca. and had treated the the inhabitants with great cruelty. and was pronounced not guilty by her judges. and for that purpose raised an army.being thus deserted by her ownsupporters. s . now came back to Naples. and wishing to"put an end to the war. Louis. Italy at that time being visited by a severeplague. In the meanwhile. which causedmucji strife jbetween her an4 her husband. N.Louis returned to Hungary. for where she was soon followed by her husband. after her return to Naples. he granted a truce to Johanna.S.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. Johanna. who still ravaged wholekingdom.

as well as that of her husband. it is related that shediedby suffocation. who had married her niece. who died two years afterwards. when she heard of the designs of Charles of Duras. and being crowned King of Naples. whom the of the queenhad made her enemy. AlthoughJohanna struck coins different of typesduring her long reign. but.Charles caused to beput to death her shortly afterwards. Johanna came. as Charlesof Duras. Johanna. the whole of the time of their union James was engaged in attempts recover to Majorca. having reckoned on the assistanceof Louis. Johannathen married his Otho of Brunswick. contrary to the wishes of Charles. Havingno children living by anyone her fourhusbands. against him. Louis of Tarentum. Marguerite of Duras. after first obtaining consent PopeUrbanVI. requested a conference with his generals.they musthavebeenstruck between 1352and 1362. Count-of Aragon^ whom she had appointed her successor. the legend and .. and as these coins have lier name. in order that she might dissuade Louis from any further attempt. there exists but one type in the hoard. They are of the sametype as those which I havealreadydescribed Robert. Soon afterwards Louis of Aragon arrived with a fleet. Charles hatedJohanna. at which he commanded Johanna to be present. did all in her power to persuadethe generals to acknowledge only Louis of Anjou as her successor. wishing to come to terms with him. In spite of this mark of favour. and This occurred in 1381..by taking the part of Clement VII. but he diedin 1375without accomplishing object.and. he invaded that kingdom. of Johannaappointed her successor. and Charles. En- ragedat this.having of thesame seated figure on the obverse.130 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. was defeated and taken prisoner.

No. till the year 1310 that Rhodes became the principal head-quarters of the Order. and who desired to protect the numerous pilgrims visiting it during the course of every year. which wasthen in the hands of the Saracens and Turks. capturedit. Qbv. King seatedfront. mi: a. and severalother places. . holding sceptre in right hand and orb in left.T EPHESUS. 6C EOECCSL . ioi][xn] . ff lOIiLSR] . Foulques . PViaE Ew.. It wasnot. 6C Sia . large estates were granted them. Messina. pvicca .-^ cco[ME]s GC'a[om]iTS7c . and. THE OEDEE OF ST. quatrefoil on breast.. In order that this body. with i. D¬CI. 131 e'Dei Gratia Hierosolymse et Sicilies Rex .. Type same. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. with a fleet of twenty-five ships. Pisa. Sw.-* the legend" Comes Comitessa et Provincise Forcalquerii. oiv. on each side of seat a lion. ec . a hospice was built for them at Jerusalem. I^EJ ec. The efforts of these knights were crowned with success. TSS . Asti... 3. which had drawn to the East many Europeans. 1R 1*05. Otranto. made a suddenattack upon the island of Khodes. however. should have a place where they could shelter themselvesas well as pilgrims. which was always exposed to so many dangers. and hospiceswere built at Tarentum. John of Jerusalemowesits origin to the Crusades. The Order of St.HOARD OF COINS FOUND A. ItyR . FOEat][SL]QE. E6CX... PL IV." et LODOi? . 2.-* LODOV ." but. and reports of their valour spreadfar and wide. who were filled with the chivalrous spirit of freeing the Holy Sepulchre from the ravages of the Turks. Floreatedcross. on the reverse the floreated cross and fleurs-de-lis. As this body increased rapidly in number. In that year the Grand Master Foulques de Villaret. 6 . 2& 1. Type same. after a severestruggle.with fleurs-de-lis in eachquarter. SIGCL' E6CX.

besieged of and tookthe city of Smyrna. At that time the island was much disturbed by internal feuds. ELION DE VlLLENEUVE. John of Jerusalem at an early age. till 1336.and. in spiteof the effortsof the Turks to dislodge them. John having incurred enormousdebts by continued warfare against the infidels. to which Elion speedily put an end. and also in various continental wars. thismeans by securing Rhodes from the constant inroads of the Turkish empire. whose army morethan doubledthat of the GrandMaster.132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. In the year 1343 he gainedthe famousvictory of Rio del Saladoover Alboaces. Havingjoinedthe Order of St. When Foulques de Villaret abdicatedthe grand mastership. King of Morocco. and was bornin the year 1270. instead of returning at once to Rhodesafter his election.. and when the island of Rhodes had been rescuedby Gerard de Pins from Orkhan. at a meeting of the Order held at Avignon. Grand Marechal of Provence. The Order of St. Elion de Villeneuve was descended from the family of Romeo de Villeneuve. was elected GrandMaster. in the followingyear. Elion. was Gilles. when he came to Rhodes. and in conse. de Villaret then built a convent for the Order and fortified the whole island. In . to demandassistance them.the knights under the command John of Biandra.which they heldfor a long time. first visited the Pope and various Christian princes of Europe. who attempted to drive out the knights. John XXII. he soon became noted for his brave attacks on the infidels. He afterwards conquered the neigh- bouring islands. quence raisedto the dignity of Grand Prieur de St. in 1319. Elion de Villeneuve. He was of engagedin this mission. and this election wasconfirmedby the Pope.

bearing at the extremities four shields of 2 Monete inedite dei Grran Maestri dell1 Qsdine cli S* Griovanni di Gerusalemmein Bodi." referring to the whiteness of the silver of which they were made. which up to the present day is known by the name of the "Chateau de Villeneuve. In others. On the shoulder of the Grand Master. From a MS." Elion died two years afterwards. SEE. is the figure of the Grand Master kneeling before a patriarchal cross. it hasbeen ascertained that this Grand Master had a regular monetary system as early as the year 1334. P. . The patriarchal cross in front of the figure was first struck on the coins when the Order was at Jerusalem. Yeaezia.in 1346. this figure is of rude workmanship. in both types. 133 memory of the event.j but on some coins Villanova is divided.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. On the obverse of these coins. there is a cross. and the hands being in the same position as on the other coins. "white. 1865.leaving behind him a memory to be respected by the Order to which he had renderedso many services.2 The name of " gigliati. which is sometimes slightly varied.at the ageof eighty-threeyears. the figure is dressedin the robes of a monk with a cowl. while on othersit is inscribed YIL[?S!N]OY2L In the latter casethe [3SN]is a compositionof the Gothic S and the Latin N. the head facing and the hands extended in the attitude of prayer. On some of the coins the figure is given in outline. the face being turned towards the cross. The coins of Elion de Villeneuve in the hoard were called "aspri. The legendis usually FB ¬CLION D'YILSROYS DL 6R7V.'v afterwards given to them. as VILE : ROYS. Elion built a crenelated bastion. has been explained." from the Greek word oWpos. of Francis Balducci Pegolotti. LamBros. On the reverseis a floreated cross.

. the last two letters on the obverse. Type same. and around it the inscription. fllR. however. : OSPITSL* : S . S' . Grand Master kneeling to left beforea patriarchal cross figure in outline. eCLIOH . thus making the legend in the first instance "Ospitalis Sancti JohannisHierosolymse Dux Rodi/' and in the second instance "Ospitalis Sancti Johanais Hierosolymse Qui (Est) Rodi. YILSnOYS Type same. andheadfacing . 2. M 1'15. S. &T >RODI. EODI. Ofa% FE. OSPIT[£L'] .^ OSPIT[SL'] . Type same. D' ." In the hoard there are two of smaller coins of this Grand I have described. m : RODI : . IOI]IS . .... IELRI . yearsagoasto the meaning the twoletters £)T. * . hands . Obv. YTL[£]Sr]OYS ." . D'l . df]. RODI. standing for " GustosHospitalis. IELRI . JR 1. $HR. DI GRS : SttR. OSPITCSL'] . VIL[7^N]OY3: . on left shoulder a cross. Rw. . D'l : GRS . theywere supposed be short DYX-. lO^IB : IBLRI . S1. bearing at*the extremities four shields of the Order. &T> . and on of account of the bad state of preservation of the coins. the Order.but others to for thought theystood for QYI." Priedlander. ^R I'l. D . PL IY. anotherinterpretation put uponit. £T . that the P was short for CCOn.. 3?loreatedcross. extendedin the attitude of prayer. 6 in the following list. that the whole and word was " CONVENTUS. having a coin of Deodato de Gozon.4. The legends are different to those on the other coins. Master One size than those which of these coins is mentioned in No. Type same. 3. D' . lOJjIS .134 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. IOF]ISlELHI . N"o. whichappears be undoubtedly right one.* PR " QUOIT . Greatdoubtexistedsome . to the viz. on which he found the word written £>Y¬CnT.

Type same. Type OSPITSLIS . but reverse £)T EODI : M 1.* PE GCLIOn . lOftIS : IBLni . Dai . and looking towards the cross..* . 135 4. Many of the knights had attempted to kill the monster. so many lost their lives in the attempt. Deodato was. S' . at 8-5.living in a caveat a few miles from the (iity of Rhodes. to attack it again. Same. however. 6.:»fc*:*' *" DEODATO DE GOZON. and. in the shape of a dragon or a serpent. Obv. £>T . when a knight.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS.H: OSPITSL' . the crosses the obverse reverseare but on and as follows :.destroyedall the cattle in the neighbourhoodand poisonedthe air by its venomous breath. 1. eCLIORVS. determined to try and kill it. RODL Type same. d . that the Grand Master forbade any one. -Bw. and he carried out . Elion deVillenenve was succeeded the grand masterin ship by Deodato de Gozon^who was descendedfrom an ancient family of Provence..but figure dressedin robes of a monk with cowl. 0Zw.of which the following is the legendaryaccount.. had distinguished himself in a remarkable manner by killing a monster. GEE . ft . FE . under penalty of being deprived of his Order.." An immensemonster. Deodato. M 1. but none succeeded. familiar to many from Schiller's "Kampf rait den Draehen. IELRI. same as No. 1346-1353. Other coins of this Grand Master Type same. 5. have the same in- scriptions. DI SftR. D : UILS : HOUR .

where his territories were situated. feeling by . in 1346. had it not been for his attendants. He would.who were at hand . the knights being assembledto elect his successor.he returned to Rhodes." himself bound to carry out his threat. Deodato was shortly afterwards restored to his dignity as a knight of the Order. Havinglingered in for some days the neighbourhood the cave. rolling on him. in consideration of the services Deodato had rendered tbe island. for the dragon. and to bite at its stomach. He soon afterwards gained a great naval victory at Imbros over a . and placed him in prison for disobeying his commands. immediately on his arrival. however. Deodato de Gozon. This act of self- estimation first took the wholeassembly surprise. at by bint. dragged down Deodato. restof its bodybeing the coveredwith impenetrable scales. pierced it with his lance. was crushing him to death when his attendants dragged him out. and. have lost his life in the attempt. as this was the only vulnerable placeon the monster. and discoveredwhere its vulnerable parts lay. standing at a distance. and slew it after the manner he had planned. and whilst there he made a figure resemblingthe dragon. in falling. proceeded to attack the dragon. proposed himself. his resolution the following manner. Deodato then went back to the city. He then obtainedleaveto visit France. and.having sworn that he would only name him whomhe thought mostworthyto fill the office of Grand Master. When Elion de Villeneu ve died. Deodato at the same time. and at the same time raised to the rank of a General. deprived him of his Order. and trained two dogsto attack it. closely in of he inspectedthe animal. Having by this meansperfected his aim and the training of the dogs. he was elected to the vacant office.136 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. where he waswell received the populace but the GrandMaster.

EQ3QL Type same. IY.-* FE : DGODXT : D : GOSORO DI : 6ES : SEE. buying with them lands. extremities four shields of the Order.* OSPIT[£L'] . dressed in.. Olv. Mev. The latter refused his consent for a long time.. VOL. and enriching their families. He also freed the Christian King of Armenia from the attacks of his neighbours and restored him to his throne. hands extendedin the attitude of prayer . the kneeling figure being always dressedin the garb of a monk. who appropriated the revenues of the order to themselves. bearing at the . 137 Mahomedanfleet. & . 3. instead of giving them over to the Grand Master. M 1. 5.* FE D6CODST D .-~ * OSPIT[SX] : S : I0p3 : IELRI : &T : EODL Typesame. IQtfLS . 2. EODL Moreated cross. o&v.* OSPITSL' .Deodato died.however. About the same time the Order suffered much from the continual infringement of the rules by its knights. M 1*05. but at last he gave way . Deodato tried hard to abolish this evil j but not succeed- ing.the message arrived at Rhodes. £>T. The Order during this grand mastershipcontested the dominion of the Black Sea against the Genoeseand Venetians. IELRI . DI . XII. N. . 1. robes of a monk with cowl .and for that purpose asked leave of the Pope to do so. M 1*05. The coins of this Grand Master in the hoard are the sameas the secondmentioned type of Elion de Villeneuve. Rw. GOSORO . Grand Master kneeling to left before patriarchal cross. before.s.. GOSORO . IELRI . This was one of the greatest successes of the continuous struggle of the Order against the Saracens. on left shoulder a cross. SHE. S . PI. Rw. Obv. IOI]IS .. he determinedto resignhis office. T .HOAR!) OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. DI . 6ES . D . : Type same. No.^ PE . DSODST Type same. &T .

were directed against the attempts of Innocent VL.-*. descended from an ancient family of Provence. Ol Type same. IBLm . viz. - PlETHO CORNJLLANO. It will be seenby the coins of Pietro.Pietrosummoned large meeting this a of the Order. held the office before his election to the Grand Mastership of Grand Prieur de St. the crosses the obverseand but on reverse are as follows: . a list of which is given below.in order that they might moreeasilycheckthe inroadsof the Turks upon Europe. John to quit Rhodes. andon the reversethe word Johannishas three forms. who was th£ successor of Deodato de Gozon. Deodato de Goaon. like Deodato.. lOIffS . BODI Type same. He was.:^: »f«: %. like Elion de Villeneuve. Little is known of Pietro Cornillano. OSPIT[SL7] . 4. He was elected Grand Master in 1354 The chief effortsof Pietro during his short rule. that they are of the same type as those of his predecessor. Gilles. . ^1-05..Sew. but beforeit had time to assemble expired. Obv. flT' . To consider matter.>J. S . 1354-1355. On the obversethe family name of this Grand Master is sometimes spelt Oornillianiand sometimes Cornilliano. 6ES . DI . and establishthemselvesin Palestine. This difference spelling and of doesnot occur on any other of the coins of the Grand Masters which are to be found in the hoard.and. he his deathtaking placeabout the middleof the year 1355.138 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. D' . Other coinsof this Grand Master have the same inscrip- tionsas givenabove. .-* FE . which only lasted about a year and a half. SOSORO. who wishedthe Order of St. I017S. lOIjGCS IOI|IS. DaODST' .

P6CTRUS . RODI. hands ex- tendedin the attitude of prayer . Type same.-* 6. 6R7T. P6CTRUS . . RODI. Odo de Pins and Gerard de Pins. on left shoulder a cross. Type same. JR '5. Type same. £ev. 6. John upon the death of Foulqnesde Villaret. GRE: . aORRILLiaiSTO . . Ml5. fiev.* OSPIT[SLS] . RODI.- OSPIT[£L'] . £T' . DI . Olv.-* OSPIT[^LJ] . flT' .-* 3. D' . RODI. 139 1. QORRILLISRO Type same. OSPIT[SL'] Type same. bearing at the extremities F . RODI. oiv. Type same. IOl]IS . DI .-* OSPIT[SL'] . M 1. Eev. lO^S .HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. m. PaTRUS Type same. £>T .- * F . &1. still perof . IRLRI . D . Type same. S . S . No. 331 . PL IV. aORRILLIftRI . F . flT' . S . IRLRI .* P . JBev. dressed in the robes of a monk with cowl . .was a descendantof the Grand Master. and who had rescuedthe island from the attacks of Orkhan. £T' . fiev. * F . CCORRILLISRO . Olv. 6R£ . PGCTRUS . Qlv>. Type same. P6CTRUS . four cross. 5H. CCORRILLISRI Type same. IOI]S . $n. IQftlS . IRLRI Floreated 2.-* OSPITSL'S . M 1. RODI. Grand Master kneeling before a patriarchal cross. DI . IRLRI . Olv. Upon the accession Roger de Pins.* shields of the Order. <3R£ . lOtjGCS. . IRLHI . S . 4. POTRUS . 5X1. IRLRI . jR 1-05. £T . S . DI .* F . who had been nominated Vicar-General of St. aORRILLISRO . GRS m. Ofr. DI . InnocentVI. .. RogerdePins. IOI7IS . ROGER DE PIKS. the twenty-eighthGrandMaster. GRft m.

The coins of this Grand Master are of the sametype as those of his predecessors.-* F . "but after some time promised to remove to the Morea. 1. Grand Master kneeling to left before a patriarchal cross. 12 and 13 of the coins of this grand master. that they could not observe them as long as they were written in a languagewhich they could neither read nor understand. Floreated cross. IKLni Order. it will be seenthat after the legend on the obverseof those two coins there is a small pinecone. D . This mark was common. onshoulder a cross. the matter was dropped. the list of which is rather long. He caused the rules of the Order to be revised.. Roger was much opposedto this arrangement. 1. with the exception of some of them. viz. as there are so many varieties. and his loss as a good and wise chief was much regretted by the Order.for the purpose of putting an end to the excuseswhich were always being given by the knights when a breach of them occurred. uponfirst consulting chief princes Europeas to the the of advisability of this step. Olv. Roger now applied himself to the administration of the affairs of the island. on the coins of Henry VI. PIHIBUS .140 NUMISMATIC CHRONTCLK sisted in his attempts to compel the knights to quit Ehodes. PL IV. 7. GEft .. £T' . The Pope dying shortly afterwards. which have on the obverse a large pine-cone to the right of the kneeling figure of the Grand Master. DI. m. at the extremities four shields of the . Ms handsextendedin the attitude of prayer. RODI. a hundred years later. Roger died in 1365. EOGieCBIUS . and translated its statutes into nearly all the different European languages. . ^R. and to correcting various abuses which had crept into the Order. of England. SPITSL'. clothed in the robes of a monk with a cowl. mentioned below. On No. IOI7IS . No. S .

PT . PIRIBYS .. D .-* .* OSPITSL* . £>T . M 1. 6ES F . Itev. Type same. Oft*.-x OSPITSLI . ^ElI'Oo.. S . PT . PIRIBUS Type same. £>T' . m. Type . Rev.Hh F ... 5. PIRYB . M 1. D . EOD. D .[6ES . D . F .- £1 1. 6E^ . Type same. M 1*05. DI . M 1*05.D Type same. Type same. jjew.&T. 141 2. lOftIS . IELRI . <3E : m.* P .* OSPIT[SL'] 3. EOGIGCEIUS .* . M 1*05. DI . S . £»T}. DI . D . Olv. PIRIBYS . IELRI . . Olv. . 5tt. IGftlS .F . IELRI . EOGIGCEIVS .-* 8. EOGGCEIYS Type same. 4. PIRIBUS Type same. GES . Type same. Type same.* P . D . EOD. 05v. EOGISEIUS Type same. RODL . IELRI . 6ES . EOGieCEIUS . Mev. GEE .-* OSPITSL . EODL . S . 0&v.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS.-* FE . EODI. m. S .* F .* OSPIT[SL] : S : IOI]IS : IE1/RI : &T : EOD. D6CI . 5R. 511.. 9. £ev. DI . S . EOGGCEIVS Type same. .. DI . Obv. . D¬CI . 4. E066CEIYS .. 6. M 1. OSPITSL' . PIRIEUS Type same. EOGieCEIUS . . PIRVB . 7. Olv>. 5H.OSPITSL' . lOfylS . DI . S . PIRYB . Olv. Olv. E06I6CEIVS Type same. lOftlS .* OSPIT^L . EODL . P . EODI :. 10. IELRI. Type same. Type same. DOT . IELI. same. IELRI Type same. 6ES .* OSPITS : S : IC^IS : IELHI : £>T : EOD. Type same.but pine-cone behindkneeling figure. £T . fiev. PIRIBUS . Rev.-^. IQljIS . D . . Aw.. IQftlS . lOftlS . D . S . SH.

D . EODI v Type same.* OSPITSL' . B . OSPIT[^L] . M 1 '05. £)T .^F. PT . OSPIT[£L] . flft. IGftlS .Sameas No. IELRI Type same.D. IQIjIS . ^et.EOGiaEIUS. IELRI . D * 6ES Type same. lOl^IS .. E06EEIVB . D . PIRYS . S... fe. Eev. M 1. 13. 18 0iw. O&v. A small pine cone. S . M 1'05 16. F .*F:E06I¬ffiIUS:D:PIRIBYS:D Type same. . £ev.PiniBYS.142 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. D . IOI]IS .but the crosseson the obverse and reverse are as follows ::^: &: *fr* "}«. Type same. Type same.--* F . i GE2 i m. S ...-* . but legendin obverse i GETC" ft*. EODI. 0&V. o D o PiniBVS o D o GEE 15.* .. 14.* OSPITSL . S£T EODI* Type same. IELRI . OJi'. 0&v. 12. S . Ml. OZ^.-SR. . D6CI . M 3. 0^. IELRI . F . S . PIHVB . EOGGCBIYS . 11. S ._ -I* F . PT . m. CD. EODI#: : Othercoinsof this GrandMaster have same the inscriptions as given above. 12. Type same. OSPIT[^LS] o S o IGljIS o IELHI o £)T o EODI Type same.. Tjrpe same. 17. BOGieCEIUS .OSPITSL' . GES : m.. .-& OSPIT[SL'] o S o lOftlS o IELRI o £>T o E033I 8 Type same. DI . GS .D Type same. PIRIBYS . EOGISEIVS . M 1. . IBLRI . same. RODI. OJv. PIRIBYS . D (Pine cone.* F o E06I6CEIVS Type Type same. D . lO^IS . Si 1. £»T .) M 1'05.

who. Togrul subdued Balkh and Khaurezmin 1041. the chief of which were:1 2 a 4 5 (6 (7 (8 The Seljuks of Jram. Melek Shahextended empire his still farther.Alp-Arslan. adding to it Arabia. By the assistance of his able and virtuous minister. and Fars. The Seljuks of Khaurezm. In 1055 he captured Bagdad. was succeededby his nephew. so that it reached from the Hellespont to the borders of ChineseTartary. and settled in in that countryunderthe rule of Togrul Bey. Togrul. Kerman. the latter had extended their power from the Caspian Sea as far as the Hoang-ho. THE SELJUKS. 143 The Seljuksweredescended from the Hoei-heor Hoeihu. completed the conquest Persia. Armenia. and was himself succeeded his son. and. six years afterwards. Syria.Nizamul Mulk. Palestine. of addingto his empire Irak-Arabi and Mosul. from whomthe Seljuksderivedtheir namej was the chief of a small tribe. overwhelmed the Turkish Empireof Kiptchak. conquered Khorassan. The Seljuks of Mosul. and Transoxiana. laid the foundation for the sure destruction of his empire. At the time of the separation of the Seljuks from the Hoei-hu. Seljuk. by subdividing it into a number of small principalities. who reigned ten years. by Melek Shah. 1027.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. The Seljuks of Damascus. dying in 1073. which had gained possession Bokharaand the surroundingcountry. dying in 1063. a grandson of Seljuk.being driven from the Chinese wall in 744. Asia Minor. The Seljuks of Kerman. The Seljuks of Aleppo. and this conquest was followed by thoseof Irak-Ajemi. a collectionof tribes of the Turkish race. This powerful prince. . His of descendants. The Seljuks of Mardein. The Seljuks of Iconium.

. 1245. or Roum. from 1073to 1297. Gaiatheddin IL. Azeddin II. named Amerkhan. Kilidji Arslan.. and wasfounded by Soliman. from whencehe . became a portion of the Ottoman Empire. that the Moguls entered Iconium. Saissan.. 1117. Soliman.. Kilidji ArslanHI. Soliman IE. The sultans who reigned over Iconium during the two hundred and twenty-four years of its existenceare mentioned in the following list. 1092. This powerful Emeer compelled Gaiatheddin to take refuge in Constantinople. 1283-1294. From this time the Moguls disposedof the crown of that state as they desired. and finally. 1219. 1267. Gaiatheddin IV. 1074. and having subdued it. many of the Emeers took flight and escapedto the mountains.. Gaiatheddin DL. Kilidji Arslan IL. Gaiatheddin. viz. Azeddin L. greatgrandson Seljuk. 1261.1107. 1198.who soon learnt to fear its power. 1155. 1204. In 1293 Gaiatheddin IV. Alaeddin. together with the dates of their accession :- Abouliasem.144 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. During its last years it was tributary to the Moguls .. The principality of the Seljuks of Iconium.. and was renowned for its numerous wars against the Byzantinesand Crusaders. As wehaveonly to deal with the Seljuks of Iconiuni. who had established himself on the Euxine Sea. 1085. It was during the reign of Gaiatheddin II. Masoud.was attacked by another. 1237. having conquered all the Emeerswho dwelt in the mountains. It lastedfor the a of space of two hundred and twenty-four years. my remarks will be confined to that part of the Seljukian Empire. in 1389. after which it was divided into severalsmall principalities. Eokneddin. 1192. 1210. extendedover the whole of Asia Minor.

assisted Emthe VOL. having collected an army. and (4) Aidin. and formed. The death of Gaiatheddin was the signal for those Emeers who had retired to the mountains at the approach of the Moguls to return to their estates. among themselves. and slew him. named Alee. I will here give what facts I have been able to collect of this Emeer.out of the kingdom of Iconium. settled in Bithynia. who. N. Having by treachery Amerkhan. Gaiatheddencausedthem to be strangled. got into his power.S. who took Phrygia. With this prince perishedthe Empire of the Seljuks of Iconium.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPJIESUS. The most noted of the founders of these states were:- there laid the foundation of the Ottoman Empire. XII. and otherson the coastsof Europe andAsia. Lemnos. who. others. Although this invasion has been attributed by some historians ta the Ottomans. U . escaped. the son of Othman. 145 returnedto Iconium in the followingyear. by the captureof Brousa. (1) Karaman. had greatly extendedhis principality. attacked Gaiatheddin. who (3) Ottoman. In 1337 Orkhan.with his sons. how- ever. About the year 1310 an attack was madeby the Turks upon the islands of Rhodes.and other places. Samos^Karpatos. Saroukhan. (2) Saroukhan. who. eleven principalities. held Magnesia. who foundedthe kingdom of Burki and seven In nearly every case each principality assumed the name of its founder. Karasi^and Mentesche. with his son. This they did. little doubt remains but that it was made by the Turksihprincesof Aidin.KaprihiasijNicsea. As the coinsin the hoard which belongto the Seljuks were struck in the principality of Saroukhan of Magnesia. one son.

which was then held by the Genoesefamily of Catagna. perorAndronicus againstthe attacksof his grandson. Oumurbeg in to was consequence compelledto obtain leave from Saroukhanto passthrough his territory. and being unable to hold this position. and having attacked Phoc£ea.now accompanied by Souleiman. These two.146 .and. only obtained peace condition that Saroukhan should for the on future cease from farther hostilities. with thirty more. suffered and and sosevere defeatthat they wereunableto return by the a Archipelago the shoresof Greece.journeyed along the coast of Asia Minor as far as the Hellespont.who wished to join Cantacuzenus. for it is said that they returned laden with riches. being defeated by Cantacuzenus the Chersonese.were attacked by the fleetsof Venice Cyprusat Smyrna. Theseprinces. and promised to protect his son Souleiman. There is no doubt of the success of Saroukhan and Amour in this expedition. having assumed the government of Greece with John Paleologus. In 1342 Cantacu- zenus. re-sorted to civil war. NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. the son of Aidin.complied with the request Andronicus. crossedover again Asia. and from thence crossedover into . II. retiring to Constantinople. sought the aid of Saroukhan and Aidin. and obtained the assistance of Oumur- beg. general. the being at war with the Genoeseand Ottomans.and forgetting for the moment their old feuds with the Greeks. In 1341 Saroukhan again laid waste the coasts of Greece\ but. Soon into afterwards Andronicus Younger. The Ottoman troops were defeated. and in 1336Saroukhan of came in personwith twenty-four ships. which the latter allowed him to do on condition that he ceded certain possessions. having plundered for the spaceof two years the coastsof Thrace. Andronicus the Younger. took it.and Amour. in his Jakschi. the son of Aidin. fearing the fast-increasing power of Orkhan.Oumurbeg.

marched to the gates of Apanea.. or whether it was coined by the Emeers. neither is there any mention of his death. despot of Xanthea. of Souleiman. From this time there is no further record of Sarou- khan. the minister of Orkhan. and having driven him from his country. in his article upon the Erneers of Lydia. Oumurbeg compelledhim to abandon idea all of such an alliance. where his progresswas arrestedby the suddendeath. was the striking of money for the Ottomans with the name of Orkhan upon it. returned hastily to Saroukhan. Whether this money had been coined by the Sultans of Iconium pbefore the dismemberment of the Empire. who divided the . The mother of John Paleologushad in the meanwhile sought the aid of Saroukhan against Cantacuzenus. It is known that his state lasted till 1389. One of the chief reforms of Alaeddin. He then attacked Bulgarno Monitzelas. Oumurbeg. followed their example. and there seems little doubt but that Saroukhan.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. 147 Greece. growing weaker and weaker everyyear. by who attachedit to the Ottoman Empire. that he might explain in person the cause of his son's death. in spite of his promise not to quit Cantacuzenus till the conquest of Servia was completed. and Von Hammer asserts that up to that period the only money then current in Asia Minor was struck by the Seljuks. fearing lest Saroukhan might think that his son had died by poison. had not Ouraurbeg arrived just before Saroukhanhad determinedwhat to do. Friedlander. By judiciously spreadingdiscontentin Saroukhan'sarmy against the expedition. states that it is well known that the princes of Aidin struck coins for their own state. by fever.when it was conquered BajezidI. and the other princes who reigned supreme in their principalities.and would have succeeded.

would be of very of little use in. These peculiarities I will attempt to explain in the following manner. Christian subjectsof Saroukhan the appearto haveapplied to him for permission strike to such money wouldmeettheir requirements. and it is only reasonable suppose the coinage to that of the Seljuks.it is impossible say. although struck in Asia Minor. and whichwasnoted for thepurityof its metal. struck coinsof the Arabic type for themselves. .aswehave to noproofthattheEmeers. and in a part inhabited by the Seljuks. but all of them bear the name of one of his two greatestcities. To make money moreto the still resemble of Naples. chose apattern they as for their new coinage type of the moneywhichwas the at that time currentin Naples. they are of Latin type. -which was then current in Asia Minor. as the Christian inhabitants of Asia Minor carried on an extensive trade with merchants of nearly every European nation. the hands of foreign. as "Having obtained Saroukhan*s permission. merchants. but more especially with those of Venice and Genoa. on account its beingof the Arabic type. During the rule of Saroukhan. Empirebetween them.148 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. manyyears thefoundafor after tion of the smallprincipalities. The great peculiarity of these coins is that. The coins in the hoard to which I wish now specially to draw the attention of the Society were undoubtedly struck duringthe rule of Saroukhan his principality. To avoid suchan inconvenience. and as one of them not only bearsthe name of that ruler. Seljuks that the permitted legend the to be Latin.they must have requiredmoneyfor the purposeof exchange. and the legendson them are also in Latin. Magnesiaor Ephesus.

" The type of this coin exactly corresponds with those of Robert of Naples. holding a sceptre his right hand and an orb in his left. holding a sceptre in right hand. Countof Luxembourg. and upon being compared with the others.. and Of thesecoinsof the Seljuksbut two kinds have. in with the legendaroundit ee Moneta ManglasieSarcani/' and on the reverse is a floreated cross. of Bavaria.up to the present time. is alsoto be found on someof the coinsof Henry VI. As threeof thesecoinshavealreadybeenpublished by Friedlander and M. there is but one specimenin the hoard.front. 149 Theimitation by one nationof the coinage another of was at this period of very commonoccurrence. I will give a list of them. de Longperier.* raonecTS . John of Bohemia. Otho IV. i. which. o&v. The type of the long-cross of pennies of Henry III. and that on the reverseby whoseorder it wasdone. and at the end will add a description of the fourth coin.. FIT . been brought before our notice.5 D6L Figure of Saroukhan seated . on each side of chair a lion.whichwasfound in the hoardat Ephesus. will be found to be slightly different from either of them..and the legend on the obverseleavesno doubt as to the identification of the place where the coin was struck. and an orb in left . and with the legend f<De Voluntate Domini Ejusdem Loci. On the obverse is a seatedcrowned figure of Saroukhan. in . oyec . struck some of his coins after the type of the short-cross pennies Henry IT. these beingstruck at the citiesof Magnesia Ephesus. which I have already described. In France several towns. usedthis typefor their coinage.. and Of the former.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESXJS. with a fleur-de-lis in each quarter. Various typesof the Englishcoinage werefrequentlyadopted by European nations. and Louis V. TheEmperorof Germany. . of which wereCambray Ligny.

DICCT . considered it to be unique. There exists thirteen coins of this class in the hoard. same. M. DRI . oiv. JR. LOCCI. appear and to have beenused for the same purpose. GOYSDecm 01. YOLYHTSTff . will heregive a description all of them.and. Type JZev. snon&TE ." by which latter name the small town which is situated near Ephesus of modern times is still called..-* YOLYRTSTe: . into whose hands one of these coins fell about two years ago. and who.* D6C. IY. de Lambros. or TheologOj Theolog. YOLYHTS : Dni . 8. This name was corrupted by the Italians into " Alto Luogo.150 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. : QYO: : PIT : mnGLESia: : O : Type Rev." and by the Turks into " Aia Solnk.. ssBaani. John. Type . 2. PI. ^R. same. . Thecoins theSeljukswhichhave of been struckat Ephesusareof the same type as thoseof Magnesia. snfsnjSLasia: . of Athens. being derivedfrom the ancient church of St.. oiv. DEC VOLYnTGC.* Type same.*tfK)ne:T£ same. Floreated cross. 4. On the obverseof these coinsis the legend " Moneta Que Fit In Theologos. Type 3. Olv. TheMediaeval nameof Ephesus was"Ayios ®EoAttyo$. same. Gvec . v. ssRaani . o. DHI ¬CISDJ LOCCI. at that time. as there is some slight varietyin each specimen. which was situated there." My reason for stating that these coins were struck at Ephesusis founded on the word " Theologos" in the legend on the obverse. FIT . . etlYSDSm : OI : Type same.monecTS . Dpi . I of . In this opinion I find I have been borne out by M. -with fleur-de-lis in eachquarter. No. msmsLssiec .-* D¬C." and on the reverse the legend or "De Mandato Domini Ejusdem Loci.

: DRI : 6CIUSD8:. M 1. 0to.fr MOneCTS aUGC FIT : in . JR 1.* HOneCTTV QU0: FIT : in .-* £w>- MOneCTTV : QUGC .. 4. M 1*05. PL IV.* MOneCTfi . : Type same.. mTvna^To same.--* MOneCTS . Dm GCIUSDO:Loa. holdingsceptrein right Rev.. Obv. MTmDTVTOTO Dm aiUSDGC : LOOI '. TljeCOLOSQ.. 9. 6.. FIT . 9. FIT : in : TI^eCOLOSO Type : £w. QUO:: FIT : in : T^eCOLOGOS. 2. T^eCOLOIo.* : DO: : MTtnDTYTO : DRI : eCIUSDCC : LOCCI : Type same. A Type same. : IH Type 7. GCIUSDGCn: LOCCI : Type same. same. QVO: . 8.with fleurs-de-lis in each quarter. . but on breast a »J«. 060. Obv. 3.. ..* : Da : MTVnDTtTO . Oto..-* : MOn¬CTK : QUGC FIT .--* : MOneCTTV . . Beo.. jffev. Ml.HOAKD OF COINS FOUND AT EFHESUS. LOCCI:: M 1. D6C : MTTRDSTO : Dm : GCIUSDeC: LOCC.. 151 1. on either side of seat a lion. FIT Type same. j|l 1. M 1*05. Be*. Dni .* : MOneCTfi : QUO: : FIT : IH : TIjGCOLOGOS : Type same. Oftt.-I.-* :D6C . M 1. same. . M^nDSTO Type same. Floreated cross. No. Obv.: D¬C : M^nDTTTO : Dttl : ¬CIUSD6C : LOCCU : Type same. Figure .* hand and orb in left . * : D6C : MTVnDTVTO : DOI Type same. 5. of Saroukhan seated front.in T^GCOLOSOS QUGC : Type same* Dec . Type same.* MOnSTfi QUeC KIT : in : TfteCOLOGO Type : : Mev. 0fev. in : TJ]¬COLOGOS. Obv. Type : same.* .* : Dec : MTmDTCTO : Dm : fflUSDGC : LOCCL Type same. Mev. D¬C . M 1.

in Eubsea. Olv.~ * : Da . 10.* MOneCTK Qlia : FIT .152 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. : DRI : GCIUSDeCH: LOCII. MORET7V: QUGCFIT : IR .and returning to Venice with only seventeen ships. Obv. Type . 12.. Ofa.who had robbed them of a considerable portion of their trade. LOCC. DGC mftRDOTO DHI ecrosDec . same. possession this island. 11.wherehe passed took of the winter.. in 1172. ID : TI]eCOLO(30S Type : E&». CHIOS.* MOneCTTV QUO! PIT . but. and failing in an attempt to render himself master of Chalcis. same.* . having sailedup the Archipelago. in : TfieCOLOGOS Type : same. Olv. 13. TljGXDLO-toOS.. same. M 1.. The Greetseverywhere showed greatest the animosity to the Venetians.-* DEC . In 1329several Genoese nobleshaving acquired consi- . M7VRD7TTO : DRI : aiUSDGCR . T .. Type " same. MTVRDT^TODRI eCIUDGC : LOCC I-. M 1.* MORSTTt QUeCPIT . LOCEL Type same. Eeo. M 1. Lemnos Skyros. * D6C : m^nDTVTO Type same. finished and and by quitting the Archipelagoaltogether.. and 150Byzantine galleys having issued from the Hellespont to attack it.the Dogeof Venice.Type same..... In 1173 a dreadful pestilencebroke out in the Venetian fleet at Chios. of and retired succes- sivelyto Lesbos.* .. : Type £ev. the republican force was so much enfeebled by the ravages the plaguethat the Dogeabandoned of the islandon the approach the enemy. Ew. JR '95.. Theisland Chios manycenturies of for formeda part of the Byzantine Empire. Vital Michieli II. 10 .

but this time by the Genoese. lL loss by ple<Jgii%:. N. there|^lii"v. during that period to payan annualtribute and of 22. in the reign of Audronicus under the pretext that the island II.'B^3 who eaeh. the brother of the reigning noble. X those1 citizens ^bsbt^4SS|^.000 byzants."V^ that for -ysSA 'for1. called the Maoria of the JFustiniani. In 1346 Chios was again taken from the Greeks.^^^iagr' to V0&.the treasuryof Genoa ""«$!"'?'*&-' the wM iausted the fleetraised that:p%rpQ^:. This recovery of the island was accomplished the treacheryof by Benetto Zachario. AndronicusIII. XII. private by subscriptions. 153 clerable possessions the Byzantine Empire as vassals. in but actingmore as independent princes. which originated in the following manner. The Genoese agreedto restorethe island to the Emperoriu ten years. The Genoese domination in the island of Chios was different from the feudal government established in the other conquestsof the western Christians in Greece.HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS.000byzants of to the publictreasure wasa valuable it conquest. and the government was held by a commercial trading com^ pany of Genoese.. on account of the friendly disposition shown by the Genoese towards Cantacuzenus. Two years later.the latter sent ambassadors the to Senate to demand the restoration of the island. . When Simon Vignoso was preparing the against island. of which had been occupiedby the family of Zachario. As Chiosthen yieldedan annualrevenue 120. resolved to re-establish the imperial authority in those places.. For that purpose regained he possession Chios.S. But this treaty was never carried into execution. the head of whom at was the famous Simon Vignoso.>/-'|fc§d%:' annual 6iPthe .. had beengranted to them by MichaelVIII.

and as a place of refreshment for the Christian corsairs. !Hteearlytype of the silver coins of Chiosunderthe .who administered the government of the island. and collected the revenues under the sovereignty the republicof Genoa. but the Turks very soon afterwards regainedpossession it. by which the latter were recognised as lawful shareholdersof the island for a term of twenty years.154 NUMISMATICCHBONICLE. The Genoesejoint stock company governed Chios fear two hundred and twenty years. of No gold coins of the Maona of Chios have ever been found. Thisspecies joint of of stockcompany receivedthe nameof the Maonaof Scio. revenues of the state to pay the interest on the advances. about the year 1566. and the greater part of the shares falling into the hands of the familyof the Justiniani. whichprivilege of theydoubtless availed themselves. In 1694 Chios again fell for a short time into the handsof the Venetians. althoughthe Justimani boasted possessing of the right of coininggoldducats. The island at that time served as a place of refuge for fugitive slaves.a convention was concludedbetweenthe state and the Maona.theseconsisting chieflyof wine> fruit. The great source of wealth of this company arose from the monopoly whichit enjoyed certainarticles produce on of of the island. on paying the capital of 23.during which time the governmentreservedto itself the right of resuming the grant of the island. The governmentnever fulfilled its promise.the joint stockcompany Scio of wasgenerally called the Maona of the Justiniani. After the conquest Chios.000 livres due to the Maona. andsilk. The republic being unable to pay the advancesof the subscribers.Vignoso established comof a mittee of the subscribers. when it fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

on either side of seat is a and lion . GMa.tbfc reverseis a floreated cross.'*"*> ' '"/ The other coin is a G-ros^j /'^atapaii of Francis M . DHS . . To this classbelongsthe single coin of the . wearing a mitre. As the two coins of these countries iu the hoard are so well known. 6E7V Omn ' .seated is front. in left an orb .HOARD OF COINS FOUND AT EPHESUS. the legend is loi^ecs : PTHOT. pxecG^T: On the reverseis a floreated cross. IV. with a ribbon hanging down from either side. The legend is * DVX rsrrran . xxii donees : . witfch 4. The legend on the reverse illustrates the fact that in 1138 the Emperor Conrad granted to the Genoese the right of striking their own coinage. I shall only give a very short description of them. The first coinis a Giulio of the PopeJohn XXII.' '. PAPAL STATES AND VENICE. the head is covered with a cone-shapedhat. On the obverse the figure of the Pope. tha right hand raisedin the act of blessing in . 10. the left is a sceptre. with the legend PL No. and on each side of seat a lion . 155 Maona very closely resembled that of the money then current in Naplesand Sicily. avec .mittl : TIBI . On the obverseis a seatedfigure. together with the legends on each. and falling on the breast.. He is called Rex Romanorum because at that time he had not received the imperial crown at a solemn coronation. holding in right hand a sceptre.island which has been found in the hoard.

NOTE.156 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Fio- reatedcross. 8 of Pietro CornHlano.*with nimbus. Dm . being also a portion of the hoard above described. 127 of RobertL. M. SELVES eoin$) I theologi Ephesus. EHODES (41 coins) 14 of Elion de Yilleneuve. eciYSBecm. and betweenthem the word DYX. YENETI. 5 of Deodato de Gozon. (6 of and PA. with the legend FEA . mORGCT^ . Wood has forwarded from Ephesus a packet of coins. The following is a list of them :I NAPLES coins) 8 of Charles II. Doge of Venice. A. .eciYSD¬cm : Type same. On the reverseis a seatedfigure of Christ. with fleur-de-lis in eachquarter. (2 Six various blundered and -unascertained coins.. and (141 11 of Louis and Johanna. M 1"05. nearly all of which are duplicates of the first portion. 2 of Magnesia. and 19 of Eoger de Pins. x * . JfTS .PAL STATES coins) %gMii of Joto XXU.and XOC right. * DO: . and that of St. both holding a standard. on breast a quatrefoil. imi . On the obverse is the figure of the Doge standing to left. QV¬T . YOLYnraTa . 3328-1339. DANDYLO S. and on eacn side of chair a Hon. YOLYHT^TQ: Type same. DO: . . Since the above paper was written. M 1. to to H. only coins of this second lot to be noticed are the two of Magnesia^ which the following is a description : of Figure of Saroukhan seated front. holding a sceptre in right nand and an orb in left . with the letters IOC left of head. Mr. mSRCLSSIG: . Dandolo. This secondportion of the hoard consistsof 196 coins. Mark to right. GRITEBER.

tells us that " the fiercelyfighting Greeks will not stay in Madhyadesa(the valley of the Ganges): there will be a cruel dreadful war in their own kingdom. The same Sanskrit writer who relates the campaign of the Greeks in the valley of the Ganges. ending with the capture of Palibothra or Patna. whose date he fixes about 50 B. R. was not destined to last."1 In this short passage think that we have a true account of the actual I causeof the downfallof the last Greek kings. Kern. On the death of Menander in camp. COINS OF ALEXANDER'S EAST. causedbetweenthemselves. SUCCESSORS . N. quoting the to "G-argya Sanhita" of the astronomer Garga. XII.S. Y . which probably 1Dr. The following is the S&nakrittext:" Madhyadese SthasyantiYavana yuddhadurmadih na Teah&« manyonyasambhava bhavishyanti (?) na VOL. IN THE JBy MAJOB-GENERAL CUNNINGHAM. and from Kashmir to the mouths of the Indus."p. and of the closing history of Greek dominion in India. THE vast dominion established by Menander.X. Preface " Brihat Sanhita.C.E. 38. which extendedfrom K&bul to Mathura. A.

and many of the coins are said to have been melted. or certainly very soon afterwards. and This view of the state of affairs after Menander's death is borne out by the number of ephemeralprinces. who. must be placed in the short interval that elapsed before the final establishment of peaceunder the greatly reduced swayof Herrajeus. from the style of their coins. will never be known j but all the . This would be the " cruel and dreadful war between themselves which is mentioned the native ^ by author. happened when on his marchagainstParthia. where tHey were found by somewomen digging clay. I presume that these chiefs most probably adopted Greekstyle of coinage whichtheir the to subjects had beenaccustomed during the Greekoccupation under Menander. or water vessel.at the old town of Sonipat. The exact number. the Hindu princes of Menander's territories to the east of the Satlej must have risen against their Greekconquerors driventhem back into the Panj&b. in company witli twenty-seven hemidrachms of Apollodotus Philopator.I suppose that a generalscramble took placeamongsthis relatives and friendsto securesomeportion of his dominions for themselves. Another very large find of hemidrachms of the IndoGrecian princes themselveswas made on the 29th June. therefore.158 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. near the bank of a tank. or twentyeightmilesto the north of Delhi. The discoverywas at first concealed. It is strongly supported also by the recent discovery. Sonaprastha. with a narrow neck. About the same time. of some well-executed silver coins of three different native princes. about three feet under ground. 1871. The coinswereplaced in a common earthensarai. who most probably took part in the expulsion of the Greeks from the territories to the east of the Satlej.

000.. but as a large massof the coins at the bottom of the vesselwere completely oxidized.us II. or altogether 883 specimens. last Greek king.. Thefollowing table shows the relative numbers of coins of the different princes amongstthe total of 883 which I have examined. . 27 17 64 Others. and of Kalliope. Kings.200 hemidrachms. . there areonly 32 specithe mens. . Antima. while there is the same number of the double- headedcoinsof Hermaeus and Kalliope. 1 2 3 Heliokles Straton. and as manyof them areknownto havebeenmelted. 21 13 18 5 6 3 26 19 21 AntlalMdas Menander 61 481 15 83 79 564 Diomedes Hermanns 11 4 17 1 1 5 12 5 22 and Kalliope . . or were found.Kalliope. and I have seen and examined 138 others.The equalnumberof the coinsof Herniaeusalone. is also very curious.. Of Hermseus. Total . 30 19 64 « .. . 3 2 10 Total. Author.. This find comprises coins of no less than eleven differentprinces posteriorto Eukratides.and of one Queen.. 159 people agree that about3 serst 6Ibs.. 18 745 4 138 22 883 In this list the large number of the coins of Menander is as remarkableas the paucityof thoseof Apollodotus and Hermseus.. Of this number I now possess 745 coins. ."*.in weight.COINS OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. . 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Apollodotus Lysias Philoxenes ..the actual number now existing is believed to be under 1...being very nearly three-fourthsof the whole find. This weightwould give rather more than 1...ch..

But the comparative amount of wear canbebest judgedof by the following table. All of these Sonipat coins are more or less worn by circulation.Moas. therefore.. Antimacbus II.160 " NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.whichgives the average weightsof 703 coins of elevendifferentkings. and all the conquestsof Menander to the east of the Satlej were abandoned. it is not too hazardousto conjecture that this Sonipat treasure. may have been secreted by some G-reek officer during the anarchy and general confusion which followed soon after the deathof Menander. indeed^are almost obliterated on the reverseside. I presumethat the town of Sonipat. as I have already shown. Vonones. and his secret consequentlyburied in his grave. with the loss on each referred to the standard of 37 grains. and that the luckless owner of the treasure beingsuddenly calledawayto take part in the " cruel dreadful war in their own kingdom caused betweenthemselves/' as described by Garga the Indian.of about 6 minceor one-tenth of a talent. was then garrisoned by Greek troops. Straton. and this is more particularly ths case with the coins of Heliokles. and Apollodotus. was killed in the bitter contest. I concludethat the hoard must have been buried in the beginning of the reign of Hermseus. one of the oldest in Northern India. .asdetermined from the bestpreserved specimens of these Indo-Grecian kings. Taking this last fact into consideration alongwith the entire absence any coinsof the earlierI ndo-Scythian of princes. Someof them. or Azas. About that time. Perhaps. Greektroopswouldappear havebeen the to finally withdrawn from India. astronomer.

Total 884-00 Weight. Thomas.COINS OF ALEXANDER S SUCCESSORS.. Fig. while those of Heliokles had been thirty years in circulation. and chlamys on . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28 lo 15 53 77 12 21 Apollodotus Antimachus II.-Helmeted head of king to right. Obu... Didrachmon. as the extremes difference in the amount between the coins of Heliokles the two if the and Hermseus. Brit. . have been caused by equally great differences in the periods during which the coins had been in circulation.. 1. as could only. PlateXIIL. Pleliokles .. AMYNTAS.C. 1.it is clear that there would be a great of wear between money had been buried early in the reign of Hermseus. 161 Specimens. NIKATOB. 1. with the ends of his diadem hanging behind. 486-50 486-55 1724-00 2533-25 396-50 698-50 31-57 32-43 32-44 32-52 32-90 33*27 33-23 5-43 4-57 4-56 4-48 4-10 3-73 3-77 g 9 10 11 450 9 5 18 Diomecles Hermseus 14. Thus. and I conclude. Unique. taking the dates of 165 and 135 B. Mus. Mean Loss. O -» 10. Kings. 128 grs. in my opinion. that the Sonipat hoardmust have been buried during the early part of the reign of Hermseus. For this reason I look upon the small loss shown by the coins of Hermseus and Kalliopeas a strong evidence that they had not been long in circulation. Weight. when his coins were nearly new. No.977-00 302-50 168-50 608-50 33-28 33-61 33-70 33-80 3-72 3-39 3-30 3-20 703 33-09 This table shows such considerable differences between the weights of the earlier and later coins. therefore. .

Obv. and Lahore Mus. author. " Rev. 139 monogram of Ophiana. Monogram and circular Ajian legend as on No. Mahdrdjasajayhadharasa Amitasa. 2. 127 monogram. 35 grs. In field to left No. Rev.-Draped and helmeted figure of AthenePromaehos moving to left. as on No. 2. Chapman. from Sonipat find. In field to left No.BASIAEQS NIKATOPOS AMYNTOY. O M 7. Hemidrachma. . Only these three specimensknown. 4.the Sonipat find..34 grs. 2. 1. and a small figure of Victory in right hand. Unique. 3. 1. Dr.-Bare headof king to right. 2.-ZeusNikephoros seatedwith Victory. O M 7.. E. Hemidrachma. author. 2. with the addition of a central horizontal stroke* Circular Arian legend as on No. Fig. as on No.-Seatedfigure of Zeus Nikephoros holding a small Victory in his fight hand.and chlamyson his shoulders. Circular Arian legend as as on No. O M 7. 1* as Jfetf. Circular Arian legend.-Diademed head of king to right. with aegis on his left arm. 8.-Draped figure of Zeus Nikephoros seated. with endsof his diadem hanging behind. Fig. 32| grs. with aegison left arm. Duplicate. covered with the Macedoniankausia.-Bare diademedhead of king to left. Circular Greek legend as on No. and chlamys on his shoulder* CircularGreeklegend on No. Plate XIII. with sceptre and palm branch in left hand. I. Author. Rev. and half turned to the left. and thunderbolt in her upraised right hand. Obv. Hemidrachma.162 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 1. with the ends of his diadem hanging behind. Circular Greek legend as on No. Monogram on No. shoulder. No other specimens known. and hurling a javelin with his upraised right hand. PlateXHL.. 2. From . Duplicates. Mus. Circular legend. Obv. 1.

Greek legend on three sides as on No. Obv. Eev. pi. 6. Sceptre and chlamys on shoulders. BASIAEOS NIKATOP02 AMYNTOY.. Mus. Ariana PI. The head with the rayed diadem is certainly bearded. Author. describesone of these coins as having a " beardedhead " and the other a " beardless head. i. pi. SOTEB. Author. xxi. fig. 5. moving to left.) See also the similar coinsof Hermaeus. or Kabul. N.. 163 5. 139 monogram of Ophiana..-Bearded head of king to right. D M 8. Very rare. Fig. Arian legend on three sides as on No. 5.-Draped figure of Pallas Athene as on No. 1. Thomas. Fig. forming Nikaia. with chlamys on the shoulders. 5. with her right hand extended before her. with chlamyson the and shoulder. Journal des Savants. Bochette. .-Draped figure of Pallas Athene. DichalUon. 12.BASIAEOS SOTHPQS II1II02TPATOY. 4. HIPPOSTBATUS THE GBEAT. Greek legend on three sides. 1839. covered with a pecu- liar rayed head-dress.COINS OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS..No. 148 grs. 14.. Plate XIII*. I think that the other portrait is also bearded. armed with helmet. Bare. I. Ariana Antiqua.. Circular Greeklegend.-Bearded head of king to right. O M 11." " On the few specimens which I have seen I did not observe any difference." (See Journal des Savants. fig. Brit. covered with a lofty tiara. PlateXIII. In field to left No. ii. Fig. In field to left No. shapedlike a Phrygian cap. Plate XHL.-B. Arian legend on three sides. 1. and shield. Obv. February. A duplicatein my collection has No. XIV. and Antiqua. 2. Mus. Bare. E.-Bare diademed head of king to right.judging from the similar coins of Eermasus. Obv. Diclialkon. D M 8. 65 monogram. Thomas. Fig. 5. Didrachmon. 139 monogram of Ophiana. 1839. 90. Mahdrdjasa jayadharasa Amitcisa. Eev.accompanying. p. 15. Duplicate. February. 6. 12. No. pi.B. spear. 127grs.

-Helmeted figure of king on horseback.and would identify with Kasyapapura. In field below No.-Bare diademed head of king to right. which I read as KASIIEIPAS. Mahdrajasa trddatasajayantasa Hipastratasa. Obv. or Kasp&ira. Thomas. 2a. Obv. Fig. Hemidrachma. Circular Arian legend. monogram on No. BA2IAEOS MEFAAOY 2OTHPOS IimOSTPATOY. Circular Rev. O M 12.and extending right her hand to the front. 3. Thomas. "With the Arian letter ch to left. 1. 3. 116. O Ml. Obv.-Helmeted figure of king on horseback standing at rest. 115. 2a. Circular Arian legend. 2a. as on No. Author. Author. Types.164 NUMISMATIC CHBON1CLE. Circular Greek legend. Mahdrajasa tradatasa Mahatasajayantasa Hipastratasa.No. or Multan. 2a. as on No.-:Helmetedfigure of the king on horseback galloping to the right. Author. Author. In field to right No. the victorious. Plate XIII. 36 grs. with chlamys on shoulders. 1. and as 2. 1.B.legends. and the Arian . Greek legend as on No.-Bare diademed head of king to right. 1. 142grs. Plate XIII. 1 a. forming APT. O JEL 11. N. Rev.. Hemidrachma. galloping to right. Fig* 8. XIII. 2b. 110. O £L 12. 144 grs. Author. 48 monogram. No. Unique. 2.-Draped figure of Demeterto left.-Bare diademed headof king to right. 7. with Soter only. Rtv. as in PI. Types and legends as on No. Circular Arian legend. Didrachmon. Rev. 7. In the field to left the Greek monogram No. Didrachmon. Maharajasa trddatasa Hipastratasa. O M 7.-The title ofjayanta.. '' Thomas. Circular Greek legend as on No. No. Monogram No. 110 Greek monogram. 135 grs. and to right the Arian letter «. la. Fig. has no equivalent "in the Greek legend of the obverse. holdinga cornucopiain her left hand. Didrachmon. 36 grs. No.. In field below No. Thomas. 48 monogram of Kaspeira.

11. N. Mus. holding an arrow with both hands.295 grs. or lo. and extending her right hand to the front. Mahdrfiyasa tradatasa jayantasa Hijpastmta&cL Hare ag&in the word j&yantaxa. 4. Obv. Bm. as on No. 9. holding a palm-branch in her left hand. In field to left -variantform of No. and to right the Arian monogram forming ar. 4. 2a. 115. E. CircularArian legend as on No. and holding out a wreath in his right hand. B#P. Thomas. % . 165 letter n in the exergue. 5. XII. D ai 8. Author.-Demeter standing to left. O M 8Thomas. BA2IAEOS SOTHPOS IimoSTPATOY.-Horse walking to left.-Tripod. Legend on three sides. O M 13. Rev.. or Hemiobol. Fig. Fig* 10. surroundedby a squareof astragalus beads. Arian legend on three sides. No. Obv. Dwhalkon. 4. Types and legends as on No.-Zeus seated on throne half turn'ed to left. 93 grs. 5a. Author. Plate XIII. Plate XIII. 46 monogram. Trichalkon.B. with Greek and Arian monograms forming. forming ortospaM. APT and ar. 6. 4. Otherspecimens havethe Arianletters pre. No. forming APT. Maliaragasa trddatasa Hipastmtasa. D M 10. the Greek monogram No.. Greek legend on three sides as on No. holding a dolphin in his right hand and a rudder in his left. Obv. 250 grs. with fishtails for legs. 4.-General Fox possesses !a#geeojpjrar a coin of the same types: VOL.coiis's OF ALEXANDEB'S SUCCESSORS. Very rare. from General Abbott. 5. Tetrachalkon.. 5.-A triton standing to the front.1' no equivalent or has in the Greek legend of the afovme* N. Including the additional title of jayanta. I. Plate XIII. Arian legend on three sides. Ariaa legend on three sides. or misi in the exergue. as on No. Fig.. the " victorious.S. Author.-Drapedfigure of Apollo standingto right. In field to left. 131 grs.. Legend on three sides as on No ^ 4.

-Draped figure of Artemisto left. Author. 2. with chlamy bead on theshoulders. No.whose nameis borne by the king. 86 grs. and carrying a palmbranch in her left. 120 monogram.Circular Greek legend.166 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.-Bare diademed head of king to right. with the same monogram and Arian legend.-Helmetedand diademedheadof the king to right. Very rare. Plate XIV. forming APTEMI. Author. Plate XIV. Hmidrachma. Fig. 37 grs.-Draped figure of Artemis drawing a bow. with quiver at he back. £w.and drawing arrow from an the quiver at her back with the right hand. Plate XIV. Unique. 1. In field to right No. Unique. In field to left No. as on No.-Humped Indian bull ta right. Pei}. Circular Greek legend as on No. 2. Obv. Dichalton. field belowNo. Obv. ANIKETOS. Bidrachmon. 58 monogram Dementis.-Bare "diademed of king to right. 1. and drawing her bow. Rev. D M 8. Author. 1. . O Si 6. 1. BASl AEOS ANIKHTOY APTEMIAOPOY. 4. Obv. 1. Circular Arian legend on No. 1. Authoi 128 grs. 1. 3. Thomas. Greek legend on three sides as on No.. O^6. 3. PlateXIV. holding a bow in her left hand.-Draped figure of Artemis to the front. with chlamys on the shoulders. in honour " of the goddess. Obv. ABTEMIDORUS. Hemidrachma. with chlamys on the shoulders* Circular Greek legend as on No. From the late Mr. Unique. as 4. 1. O JR10. Fig. holding out a wreathin her right hand. Fig. j^v. Circular Arian legend Mfthdrajasa apadihatasaArtemidorasa. Brereton. Fig.perhapsfor some town named Artemisia^ or Artemita.. Arian leg«ndon three of sides as on No.-Winged figure of Victory to right. 2.. In.. 119 monogram.

Hemidrachma. SOTEB. In field to right No. and . 1. Circular Arian legend. 7. Circular Greek legend BASIAEC&SSOTHPOS AOOAAO^ANOY. EUEBGETES. N. Plate XIV. 142 Greek monogram.. No. The Olympian Zeuaseated throne. Fig. Figureof Athene Prornachos left. Plate XIV. O & 6.B. Circular Greek legend.The late Mr. Author. Circular Arian legend. Fig. ^ 167 SOTEB. the Gazaha of Ptolemy. on half turned to left. BodleianLibrary.. 1. Author. the former crowned with the solar rays. told me that he had seen a didrachmon of Telephusin the possessionof a Kabul Jew at HEEMJEUS. Didrachmon. of Obv. BA^IAEQS EYEPrETOY THAE^OT. 87 grs. which I have identified with Ghazni. OF APOLLOPHANES. Mus. Obv. Brereton Attok. perhaps forming TAZAKAS. Rev. Thomas. 1. Helmeted and diademed head of king to right. Five specimens which are now in the Brit. Plate XIV. with chlamys on the shoulders. 145 grs. Mahdrdjasa haldna-kramasaTeliphasa. in his left hand. and thunderbolt in upraised right hand. Obv. for Euthydemia. 1. with chlamys on . O M 10. 6. Giant (? Scythes)with snakylegs to front. 5.No. and the Gazos of Dionysius. Ree. the latter with the lunar crescent. Oxford.the shoulders.COINS ALEXANDER'SSUCCESSORS.. [Elliot collect]. Mahdrdjasa tradatasa TELEPHUS. O JR7. Hemidmckma. . 1. Twodraped figuresof Helios and Selene standing to the front. forming EYBY. 77 monogram. Unique. with aegison to left arm. Fig. Circular Greek legend. Thomas. BASIAJEOS 2OTHPOS EPMAIOY- Rev. holding a sceptre . In field to right a variant form of No. Bare diademedhead of king to right. and to left the Arian letter hi.

100. 153 grs. 189 monogram. with No. O^7. Q-^7. with chlamys on the shoulders. Fig. 31 to 36 grs. for Demetnas. O &10. Circular Arian legend as on No.-Eelmeted figure of king on horseback galloping to right.-King on horsebackgallopingio right.No. g. 9. 1. Author. extending right hand to the front. 2. la. Hate XIV. BASIAE&S SOTHPOS EPMAIOY KAI KAAAIOIIH2. Obv. Olympian Zeus seated as on No. In field monogram No. 8. Hemidrachma. Circular Greek legend as on No. O & 1. Circular Arian legend as on No. Fig. 1. Rev. 31 grs. 100 monogram. 58 monogram. 1. 1. Author.-Bare diademed headsof king and queento right. O & 6. Obv. as forming Ophiana. MaMrajasa tradatasa HermayasaKaliyapaya. 2. Circular Arian legend. Circular Arian legend. 2.-The Greek legend as on No. Hemidrachma. forming Demetrias. 139 monogram. Author.168 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Thomas. Hemidrachma. J&r. . 1. No. . Author. From the Obv. Didrachmon. mas. Sonipat find.-Helmeted and diademed head of the king to right. In field to right No. EEKE&US AND KALLIOPE. 4. ThoCommon. 2a. 1. Circular jfor. Unique. Author.-The Olympian Zeus seated as on No. Plate XIV. la. Hemidrachma. Unique. MaMrajasa tradatasa Hermayasa. 1..Unique. with drapery on the shoulders. Types and legends as on No. Monograms various. In field below No. Circular Greek legend. 0 grs. In field his to left No. Typesand legends on No..

Fig. Common. his shoulders clad with the chlamys. coveredwith a lofty tiara. Author. Dichalkon. to 90 grs. Author. Rev. D M 8. Rev. Chalkous. Circular Greeklegend. Thomas. Lepton. Thomas. Plate XIV.COINS ALEXANDER'SSUCCESSORS. Lepton. 4. Bare diademed head of king to right. BASIAEOS SOTHPOS EPMAIOY. Obv. 6. 7. 6. Barediademed headof king to right with on the shoulders. 12. as. Author. Unique.blun- dered. 33 and 34 grs. 14. 6. Fig. O M 6. Plate XIV. Obu. D M 5. The Olympian Zeus seated. Obv. In field to left No. Dichalkon. 8.. Rare. which I take to be the latter half of the name of Hermseus. Greek legend on three sides as on No. 5. Fig. pLeVfNo type. No. D M 10. 9. Malidmjasa tradatasa Hermayasa. on the silver coins/ - Circular Arian legenl. Obo. Thomas. Rev. Plate XIV. Fig/11.. Circular Greek legend. 4a.No.. 46 monogram. with chlamys on the shoulders. 10. QMS. Bare. King onhorseback gallopingto right. -131 and 138 grs. The Olympian Zeus seatedas on the silver coins. Greek legend on three sides as on No. 13.. 70 Of rude fabric. Arian legend on three sides as on No. BASIAJEOS STBPOS SY EPMAIOY. 7. Author. O^EIO. Dichalkon. 6.Horse standing to right.. Arian legend on three sides as on No.27 grs. 6a. OF 169 . Plate XIV. 3. Rev. Beardedhead of king to right. Fig. 143 grs. Obv. No. Author. Mdfi&rtyasa mahatma . forming Ortospana. with right fore-leg raised.Horse standing with right fore-leg raised. Types and legends as on No. 6. Plate XIV.. but in the middle of the field the Greek letters AIOY. 5. covered with a rayed tiara. 125 grs. Circular Arian legend. as on No.. Author. Beardedhead of king.

Fig. No. or . an attempt to transliterate the native title of Yavug. which bears blundered Greek title on the the name of Hermseus.. lOa. Plate XIV. Circular Greek legend. which has no connection with the Greek legend. 185 grs. Author. The name of the Greek the king on the obverse was afterwards dropped.-Herakles standing to the front. Circular Greek legend. on and the obverse I think that I can trace the lofty title of BAEIAEUIN BAEIAEUIE. 1. Circular Arian legend. O M 5. 10. 50 grs.170 NUMISMATIC CHBONICLE. Plundered. presentsan entirely new legend on the reverse. Common. N. with STHPOS SY. as KOZOYAO KAAWZOY. Pig. as on No.B.Kujula 3£as&) leader of the Eushan tribe. of mahatasa.-This last coin of the Greek kings of India. with chlainys on the shoulders.B. Obv. Circular Arian legend." Onecoin gives the nameof Hermaasa. is. and that of his Scythian conqueror takes its place in barbarous Greek. Rev. 15. of rude execution. 9. Eev. Chalkous. Su-Hermseus. which has hitherto been always misread as ZA0GY. ". as on No. the the " preserver. Plate XIV.B. with 3THPOS 2Y. 28 to 35 grs.-Bare diademedhead of king to right. which on other specimens different of type is modified to KOZOAA KAAA*60. O $19. Types and legends as on No. Diohalkon. 16. holding out a wreath in her right hand. in the Arian legend.-Winged figure of Victory to left. in the Greek legend. with the skin of the Nemeean lion on his left arm.great/5 instead of the usual tradatasa. with obverse. O^!7. On the reverse we find the nameand titles of the great Scythian conqueror. Bare. which rests on the ground.-On some specimensthe lofty title of " king of kings " is expressedby Mahardyasa rayadirayasa. Bare. and his right hand holding a club. Kujula Kasasa Yavugasa dhramathidasa* N. with the title of Yaua. Mahdrdjasa rdjardjasa mahatasa Hermayasa. The Greek form of ZAOOY. Author. therefore. and to Kuyula Kaphsa. Lepton. 9. Thomas.-Bare diademed head of king to right.-On these coins the Arian legend presents the title 10. Obv. Author.. with the title of ZAOOY. 11. N.

NTKATOR. 240. and two va- rieties of Oriental tiara. . and that he may have been employed during the reign of Menander as a tributary governor. as well as from his Macedonian name.Yavug. I infer that he must have been connected with the family of Lysias and Antialkidas. But the strong argument in favour of K&bul. from B. There are only three distinct types. but there are severaldifferent styles of head-dress. and Ophianaor Alexandria (No. dropping by the guttural. only twentysix specimensbeing known to me. The coins of Amyntas are exceedinglyrare. The find-spots his coins also point to the K&bulvalley as of the seat of his power. I supposehim to have been the son of the latter prince. Amyntas must havekept his hold on K£bul. for which the Greek ZAOOY is a very close rendering..COINSOF. where he probably reigned for one or two years. 65). will become Yavu.C. On the death of that great king.are found of 2Boyal AsiaticSociety's Joixraal.is the fact that the chieftype of Zeus> well as as the two curious Oriental head-dresses his coins.C. 140-138.v. of which five are in my own cabinet. From the Macedonian cap. among which there are Nikaia or K&bul (No. 139). 171 Yail. and suggests that " the two words are probahly only different ways of expressing some foreigntitle. amid the general scramble for power. Professor Dowson reads Yarug and Yau.which is really the sameas Yau.2 He notes also that the gutturals are frequentlyomitted.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.as in dhamiasa dhamikasa-to for which I may add mahataand mahataJca.zx. the common helmet. AMYNTAS. This assignmentis partially borne out by the monograms on his coins. p. 140 to 138. B. the as Macedonian Musia.

The type of Athene Promachos. which is copied from the coins of Antialkidas. ce . Zebina. who. 6? 7. ni reproduite depuis. £t dont 1'usage.. 4 Journal des Savants. which is found on the unique didrachmon in the British Museum. 1835. Zebina. 183. dont le colossed'or et d'ivoire formait le principal ornement d'Antioche. type est manifestement imite de eelui des medaillesd'Alexandre IL. Mars..-" Je me crois doac maintesant pleinement autorise & placer la regne d'Antial- . p. assissur un siegea jour.8 A similar figure is found on the coins of Hermseus.whoseseat of powerwasundoubtedly K&bul itself. consequence. roi de Syrie. 580:-" En effet. et cette maniere de representer le dieusupreme. Oct. doit avoir andreIL. and whom R.129 to 123. as its first appearance on the Syrian money took place under Alexander Zebina. is precisely the sameas that on the coins of Menander. qui representent Jupiter.. 5. reigned many years before Alexander II. avecdossier.we find but one type. that of the seated Olympian Zeus.5 we must altogether discard * SeePL 8. des uneinnovation ne s'estni montree qui avantle regBe ilexrenferme entre les annees 129 et 123 avant notre ere. and 9. and Jalalabad. He argues that this particular representationof the god. sur la monnaie rois de Syrie. and. 8. of Syria. as we havealready seen this samefigure on the coins of Antialkidas. On all of his six hemidrachms. Figs. his presumedfather. who reigned from B. en yr^eMe rimitationqui sefit deoetypesmr monnaie la Grrecque deji rofe de la Bactriane." rSJOTimaldes Savants. of Syria.which the learned Raoul Rochette believed to have been copied from the coins of Alexander II. this type must have preceded that on the coins of the Greek kings of Bactriana. according to all inquirers. repeatedon those of his successor.his immediate predecessor. Rochette hjmself places immediately after Eukratides. ISSB* p. wastaken from the colossalstatue of the Olympic Zeus at Antioch. est.Hermaeus.172 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.C. seatedon a high-backed throne.4 But.

11 and 12.S. 277. 292. I have considered it necessary to discuss this point fully.C. ii. 292) while in pi. 6 Ariana Antiqua. if we accept Rochette's R..135. a position which is quite untenable. N.C. which might " have beensuggested the headsof by p. and pi. father and mother. si je ne me trompe. rang la de le qui vient immediatement apresPhiloxene. with the heads of his VOL.150-140.185..from the coins of Antiochus IX. Wilson. repeatsthis suggestion R. of Rochette. 7. xxi. he has given an engravingof the beautiful tetradrachm of Eukratides. in supposingthat the double portrait of Harmseus Kalliopewas a and novelty. and calls the high-backed chair on the coins of Hermgeus " a piece of furniture first observable the on coins of Alexander Zebina of Syria.125 (Ar." Lassen places Antialkides in B. because. and Seleukus VI.Helioklesand Laodike. curiouslyenough.7 I have already shown how this partiality for regardingthe types of the Bactro-Grecianand IndoGrecian coins as imitations of the Syrian money had misled the learned French author in the case of the Pallas Athene found on the coins of the Bactrian Demetrius.. XII." 6 althoughhe hasgivenengravings two coinsof Antialof kidas. as the whole of these princes were posterior to Demetrius of Bactria.C. 7 ArianaAntiqua. of Syria. A A Cleopatra Autiochus and VIII.B. figs.COINSOF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.and its conse- quentvaluein fixing the chronologyof the Greekkings of Bactria and India.123. the type of which he_describesas " Jupiter seated in a chair with a high back/' while he assignsAntialkidas to B. conclusions. of Syria.C. dans la successiondes princes qui gar<Jaient frontiereseptentrionale la Bactriane. fig. p. which he suggestedwas copied from the money of the kings of Kappadokia.. Ant. more especially. mustassign only we not kides a peu de distance de celui d'Eucratide II et. Wilson.on th« opposite side* . and. il dut oceuper. 173 this idea of imitation of the Syrian coinage. who diedin B.p. in B. Wilson has committedanothermistake of a similar kind.C.

but both the positionand the action are different. These curioushead-dresses cerare tainly not Greek \ and.6 Wilson suggests some affinity with the Pallas on the coins of Demetrius.p. 12. 8 Bee R.and are found only on the coins of these two princes. fully established by the two peculiar head-dresses on his copper coins. and immediately preceding Hermseus. Hermseus. and buckler. Journal des Savants.» fig. . On the copper coinsof Amyntas the sole type is that of Pallas Athene. i.the kings who adoptedthem mast be assigned to a late period of the Greek rule in India. Vonones and Azas. as they showan increaseof Oriental influence. s ArianaAntiqua. 1889* p. would appearto have belonged to Artemidorus. excluding PesMwar. The placewhich I have assignedto Amyntas. from the monograms. moving to the left. from which it appears to have been afterwards copied on the money of the Indo-Scythian princes. both of which appear again on the square copper coins of Hermseus. and pi. I think." The other seemsto be of exactly the sameshape. Rocbette's description. The type wasprobablyoriginalon the coinsof Amyntas. but without the rays. following Menander.C. and holding out her right hand.Fev. 90. also Amyntas and Antialkidas to a date but somewhat later than 129 B. spear. armed with helmet.. which. is. The dominionsof Amyntas I supposeto have been confined to the Kabul valley.174 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Wilson justly describes " them as belongingto a more barbarousperiod/'9 One of these curious head-dresses describedby Raoul Eochette is as " me tiare recourbee avant et ornee de rayons sur les en edits. 271.

which forms APT.C. By the style and fabric of his coins. Altogether. The positionof Hippostratusis chieflydeterminedby the find-spots his coins. not one of which. 115.whichare limited to the Northof west and "WestPanjdb. 175 HIPPOSTRATUS. 48 as Kaspeira. The coins themselvesare not very rare. and No. as it is always accompaniedby the Arian letter a on the same face of the coin. The type of of the galloping horseman shows a connection with the princesof the hostilefamily of Antialkidas and Lysias. is probably intended for Artoarta. Great. No. I infer that Hippostratus must have ruled over the Panjab. The monograms are confined to three varieties of equally common occurrence. No. as well as by the types of Apollo and his tripod.I haveseen just sixty specimens. The city of Artoarta is mentioned by Ptolemy. 140-135. The adoption of the title of Great points in the same direction. Hippostratus claims a close connection with Apollodotus. can be assigned with certaintyto anyparticularcity. and we may suppose that he saved himself by becoming a tributary governor under Menander. Hippostratus was probably the son of Apollodotus. or Mult&n. who places it immediately to the west of the Indus.which might have united the interestsof the two rival families during the supremacy Menander.COINS OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 110monogram may be read as Taxila. the B. on both round and square coins.-SOTER. . when. According to all these indications. however. other members his family were reduced. perhaps referringto his own marriage. Thetypeof the Olympian of Zeus. which upof wards of twenty are in my own cabinet. but the coppermoneyis lessplentiful than the silver.

in evident allusion to the king'sname. that I know of but one other example. Thethird silver coingivesthe figure of Victory. As this coin bears the title of Dikaios.on a recently acquired unique hemidrachma of Menander. whosecoins known to me are limited to sevenspecimens. 140-138.pointof connection with Menander. and the adoption of the type by Artemidorua. 3-ndI have since obtained four others from PesMwar and the North-west Panj&b. Of the seven coins known to me. Of this ephemeralprince. not improbablyrefersto the sameconnection. ANIRKTOS. in 1848. which is copiedfrom the coinsof Antialkidas. . B. I got the I first of his coins in Kashmir. that I am very strongly inclined to believe him to have beenthe sonand successor that powerfulandpopular of prince.C. Oneof them is a didrachmon. whole style the and fabric of which are so like those of Menander's coins. and the original copper coin which I got in Kashmiris now in the . have little to say. I wouldthereforelimit his reigu to four or five years. The silvercoinsof Hippostratus morecommon are than the copper.176 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Two of the silver coinsbear the figure of Artemis on the reverse.BodleianLibrary at Oxford.whichis so uncommonon the silver moneyof theseIndo-Grecian kings. but they are not numerous.C.and assign him to the periodbetween and 135 B. offers another . it musthavebeen struck towardsthe end of his reign. three of silver and one of copper are now in my own collection. 140 ARTEMIDORUS.besides general the fabric of the coins.

177 The monograms limited to three.is not resolvable. A second. and Straton II. bear the samemonogram those of Apollophanes. I or whichwas have been minted the same at place. As these rude coins of Straton I. or from B.all of the same type.C.but the No. of which some city represented by No. must as they (No. As the coins of Artemidorus are exceedinglyrare. On the death of Menander I supposethat Artemidorus. 140.togetherwith five several rude coins of Straton I. which was mostprobablythe Greeknameof the city of Peukelaotis. Thismonogram . 58 monogram was the capital.of which oneis are an obvious compound of Artamita or Artemisias (see No. his rule cannot have extendedbeyond one or two years* I suppose thereforeto have reigned him over the Peshawar valley for a short time immediately after the death of Menander. 120). while the western territory of Kabul wasseized by Amyntas.C. No. the Eastern Panjab by Apollophanes.142} readas Euthydemia Smyala. of the sametype. his presumed son. These coinsI procuredin the Panjab.COINS ALEXANDER'S OF SUCCESSORS. third. APOLLOPHANESj SoTER. all the North and North-westPanj&b and by Hippostratus. to the north of Pesh&war. B. may have succeededto this central portion of his wide dominions. which is found on all the four coppercoins.is the well-known monogram of Demetrias. 58. Both the monogramsand the find-spots the coinsthus agreein showing of that Artemidorus must have ruled over the Lower Kabul valley. It is difficult to sayanything regardinga princewho is onlyknownto usfrom five coins. 140 to 138. 119.

or in the North-west Panjab. sonof Heraklesand Echidnaaccordthe ing to Herodotus.two of the five weighing 37 grains each.C. This may have been in 140 B. and that he held the Eastern Panjab for a short time just before the final extinction of the Greek dominion in India. but the metal is base. The coinsof Apollophanespreservethe full weight of the Indo-Grecian hemidrachms. EUERGETES. B. Thetypeof the giant with the snakylegsmaypossibly refer to Scythes.C. which is now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.C.after the death of Hippostratus.C. the capitalof the EasternPanjab.when he may have ruled either in Peshawar.178 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 135. for a few months beforehe was subdued by Hermseus. of Zeusand Echidnaaccordingto or . or perhaps as late as 135 B. I may hazard the suggestion that this prince must have belonged to the family of Straton and Menander. and its single monogram is not found on the coins of any other Greek prince. A single silver coin of this prince wasobtained towards the close of the Afghan campaignin 1841. TELEPHUS.immediately after the death of Menander. rather than by the hostility of his own countrymen..Telephus must be placed towards the close of the Greek rule. The rule of ApollophanesI supposeto have been brought to a close by the increasing power of the native princes. I should therefore assignhim to the year B. 135. and the execution barbarous.. immediately after Hippostratus. Its strange types offer nothing whatever to guide us in assigning him a position either in time or place. But as the coin itself is of inferior workmanship.

Fig.. p. 138-120. The coins of Hermseus were found in such numbers at Begram by Masson. B. HermseusSoter. it will be seenthat the first and second belong to a single king. iv.10 If this supposition is correct. judging from the quantity of his money. 9. 179 Diodorus. 10. April. " that a prince of the name of Hermseus.p. 10Herodotus. to the second. HERMJEUS.ruler of on the samecoin offers a convincing proof that Hermaeus must have been the last of the Indo-Grecian princes. 15. Diodorus. 194. must have been a long one. the type would show some connection with the Scythians. But this opinion was justly objected to by both R. 1884. 167.12 The conclusion which the former experienced and judicious Numismatist drew from the samefacts was. Fig. ruled the country of which Nysa was the capital. and of Kvjula Eadphizes in the Arian. that he concluded there must have been no lessthan three difiFerent kings of that name.after Apollodotus. ii. and that his reign. 16. and to the third. legend.COINS OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. who was the eponymoushero of the Scythian nations. SOTER. 12 JournaldesSavants. 11Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal. Fig. 48. 1863. The mother of Telephus may perhapshave beena Scythianprincess. This joint appearance the namesof a Greek and a Scythian.C. XIV. 11..that of HermseusSoter in the Greek legend.11To the first he assigned the coins given in PI. . and the type wouldthusrefer to his Scythiandescent. Rochette and Lassen.." From the description of the three different coins already given. and that it lasted until the Scythian occupation of Bactriana. and that the third classbears two names.

But of this number no less than twenty-five specimens bear No. are undoubted copies of the coins of Amyntas. are much less common to the eastof the Indus.180 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 41. but the proof of relationship will not be complete until we obtain a coinof Hermaeus the Macedonia with Kausia. three bear No. and that Kujula Kadphizes must have been the Scytliian prince who subverted the Greek dominion in India. its place being taken by that of the Scythian conqueror Kujula Kadphizes in the Greek legend without any alteration of the types. 48 monogram of Ortospana.138. This conclusion is definitely proved by the final disappearanceof the name of Hermseusfrom the coinage. 128 j and two bear No. Kalliope . as I understand it to refer to a royal alliance.C. numbers in the Kabul valley. Hermseus himself I supposeto have been the brother of Amyntas. six bear No. 129 monogram. The last three I read conjecturally as MOYA for Muttdn in the Southern Panjab. but all the other places shown the monograms in the K&bul valley. The seated Zeus of Olympus. by are The types of the coins of Hermaeus are few. five bear the letters MO. and there the find-spots are limited to the north-west portion of the Panjab. The coins of Hermseus. which are found in such. five bear No. eight bear No. 58 of Demetrias . or a combination *of them. and offer no novelties. 139 of Ophiana (all these are Kalliope coins). The monograms are very varied. whom he succeeded the throne of Kabul about on B. of which the reading is doubtful. as well as the two curious head-dresses on the coins of Hermseus. The most important coin is the hemi- drachmawith the portraits of himself and his queen. Kalliope. there being no less than twenty different kinds on eighty coinswhich I have examined.

pure Greek. we find that the conqueror was named KOZOAA KAAA&EO. and 227.with either the seatedZeus or Victory on the reverse. alsothe nameof his tribe. pp. but with the Arian legend perfect. boldly executed coins with the same blunder in the Greek legend.as Yauand Yaug.which the Chinese gave to all kingswho weredescendants the great Scythianruler of namedWen. as it reveals us not onlythe nameandtitle of the Scythian to conqueror. 3. "Nouveaux Melanges Askti<raes>". By /comparing but the two legends of these last coins. The coins of Hermaeus.or &QZOYAQ KAA$IZHC in Greek. But the horseman alsofound on the obverse a single is of hemiclrachma Herrnseus of himself. The last classis of special interest and importance. points to her connectionwith the Macedonian dynasty of Antialkidas. that his title was ZAOOY.1* This title of Shaoor Zao?wasafterwards changedto Rao. which is evidentlythe the sametitle as Shao-wu. . but on the reverse.S.or a horseon the reverse. with the name and titles of the Scythian Prince Knjula Kadphizes in the Arian legend. B B . or even of Amyntas. XII. in 208.COINSOF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. is re- presented the Arian legendin two slightly different in ways.or Yavug.tom. and perhaps the type of the horseman.as already stated. i. rude coppercoins.a standing figure of Herakles. and the Greek legend of the obverseinvariably blundered. 2. with either the Olympic Zeus. of goodworkmanship. 181 may have been the daughterof Menanderor Hippostratus.or Zawu. The Greek ZAOOY. VOL. are of three distinct kinds:-1.. PAO. which I have lately obtained from the Sonipat find. 219. offering STHPOSSY instead of SOTHPOS.by Kanishka and his successors.and his tribe the KOPANO. N.which is found on all her coins. 18Eemusat.

. 42: "Additaeres et ScytWcse. Ophiana. we find that sometime before the Christian era. or Kushdn." for whom I believe that we must again read Sarauca 14That this law was actually extended to these same letters in the middle of words we learn from the Greek forms of KANHPKE and OOHPKE. Now. 222. with law which changes initial sh or z to r. that the Asiani gave kings to the Tachari. Nouveaux " Melanges Asiatics/' L.Kipiu. as laid downin books. 35Eemnsat.182 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. havethe samechange we from ah to r in the middleof a word. therefore. and. or Kophene. gentes Sarancse et ." 16 Trogi Pomp. and by Here.and Parthia. afterwards.interitusque Sarducharuia. in the inscriptions Gushdn. The tribal name of an KOPAKOrepresentedtheArianlegends thecoins is in of by Kwhdn andKhushdn. 41:-" Scythicae e. conquered Kaofu. and overthrew the Sarducha. which correspond with EanisKlca and HurishJcaof the inscriptions. and the name of the ruling tribe of Scythians who caused its downfall. conformity a peculiar of theTurkidialect. an&Hantha. named SMu-tsm"kiy subjectedthe other four tribes of the nation. AsianiBactraoccupavere Sogdianof. although the rule.18 This accountis confirmed by the few notices of classical authors regarding the overthrow of the Greek dominion in Bactria. Prolog. the chief of the Kuei-shwang tribe of the great Yuchi.who was the Zau or Shao of the Rushdn tribe." c. Thocarorum reges Asiani. and assumingthe title of " King of the Kuei-shwang.is limited to theseletters whenthey areinitial14 We thus learn from the coins that the Greek dominion in India was overthrown by a Scythian chief named Kujula Kadphizes. turning to the Chineseauthorities. From Trogus we learn that Bactria and Sogdiana were occupiedby the Scythian tribes of Saranca (read Sarauca to agree with Strabo's Sagamuka)and Asiani.

had actuallycomeinto conflict with the Parthiansbefore the death or deposalof Hermseus. 2.C.C. in which he left China.and curtail the vaguenumber of " about one hundred years" to seventy-five eighty years. xlii. and subduedKaofu and Kipiu. if wemustacceptthe embassy Ohang-kian the of as starting point. Yen-kao-ching. 1.C. we have the Tocharz. .17 In these. which took place in B. Lao-shang.C. 163.C.C. in battle with the Thogarii in B. classical accountsof the death of PhraatesII. and his son.) in battle with the Scythians in B.I recognise Kujula Kadphizesof the coins. 183 or Sagarauk<&* Here the Asiani are evidently the Kushdn tribe. these events took place about one hundred years after the embassy Chang-kian to the of Yuchi. In the Chinese Khiu-tsiu-ki. Or.or Tochari. or perhaps from their first settlement in Bactria. and of the death of his successor. the overthrower of the Greek dominion in the Kabul valley. If .COINSOF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The war with the Parthians is confirmed by the.and or lr Justini. to 60. extended conquests into India. and the successfulleader of the Thogarii or Tochari againstPhraatesand Artabanus of Parthia. which dates from B. tohis far wards southand east.and we thus learn that the Tockari or Ituchi.. after the death of their king. Khieu- tsiu-ki died at eighty-four years of age. 139.weallowforty or fifty years the to the reign of the long-lived father. the reign of the son. 126.Artabanus II. (ArsakesVII. who gave kings to the whole nation of the Yuchi. 123. Thogarii. may be fixed at from B. According to the Chineseauthorities. I would take the year B. the conqueror Kophene of and Parthia.139 to 126. or just onehundred 80 yearsafter the first occupationof Bactria by the Yuchi.

14).184 NTB1ISMATIC CHRONICLE.C." NouveauxMelangesA&fotiques. and to add the rich city of Taxila to his kingdom. 128. by referring to the conquests of Yen-kao-chingin India. the leaderof the Tochari. and tinder Moas in the Panj£b. 15.C. To this period I refer the ruder coins of late date. and the sounding title of " great king of kings/* la Bemnsat.C.. His dominions would then have stretched from Kabul. on which the equivalent of the Greek title of Soter is omitted in the Arian legend of the reverse. under Vonones and Moas3 being driven from Bactria towards the south. ""tie's tribusTdes se*divls£rent se dispersereht Sai et demanurea former$aet !£ differentroyaumes. on whoseadvancethe Sakas. on the west.and perhaps his also his dominions. XIV. 205:-" La roi desSai (Sakas Saca)vint an midi demeurer or dansle Kipin (Kophene).he must have increased power. took possession Kabul and Ghazni. and succeeded him on the throne of Kabul about B. I suppose of that Hermseus may then have applied for aid to their powerful enemy. By his'marriage with the Princess Kalliope. with its capital Demetrias. he probably took advantageof the death of Hippostratus to extend his rule into the Panjab. About B. on the east. For some years he probably ruled in peace.C. and to Ghazniand Multan on the south. or Sac&retired to the south and east. when the Su. thus bring the Chinese date into accord with that derived from the classicalauthorities. with the type of Victory."L. Fig. XIV.. To this marriage I would assignthe acquisition of the Lower Kabul valley.and also those shown in PI.until about B. wherethey established severalpetty kingdoms1S under Vonones and his relatives in Ghazni and Kandahar. My view of the career of Hermseusmay be summed up asfollows:-He wasmost probably the brother of Amyntas. or Saka Scythians." . about B. Fig. to the Hydaspes.135.60. 138. (PI.

is said to have been eighty-twoyears. 120. after a brief but brilliant career of upwards of one hundred and twentyyears.assigned Jena (or Yavana) to Baja. the Indian conquests Demetriusduring for of the lifetime of his father.thus gone for ever.until it was finally closedeither by the death or removal of Hermseus. chief the of the Kush&n tribe. Chandragupta. Sodeeplyrooted wasthis influence of a superiorcivilisation. or . and India. Euthydemus.126.or Tochari.from the first establishment the indepenof dent kingdomsof Bactriana.19 Thus ended the Greek dominion in the East.oneof the successors of Sansarchand.about B. more than a century after the complete extinction of the Greek kingdom of Hermseus.Ariana. 19 the Hindu Puranas the duration of the Yavana. for of Prom this time. If we reckon this number back from 120 or 126 B. 185 which wasemployed in the Arian legends this new only of money the benefit his nativesubjects. this state of affairs must have lasted for some years. about B. Kujula Kadphizes. by Diodotus and his contemporaries. well as by the as great conqueror. and his successors. Kujula Kadphizes. and leader of the whole nation of Yuchi.or Greek In rule.Pantaleon and Antimachus. But.C. though the political power of the Greeks had .C.COINSOF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.C. Perhapsthe same thing is intendedby Ferishta in the length of reign. As the coins with the joint namesare common.yet the far greaterpowerof intellect and civilisation still remained with the Hellenizecl subjects of the Scythian kings. ninety years.were still employed by the Scythian chiefs. I supposeHermseusto havebeen mere pageantking. Kanishka Huvishka and "Vsisu Deva. under the protectionof a the greatScythianconqueror. Their influence was shownby the adoption of the Greek religion arid the Greek language by Vononesand Moas and their successors.O*we obtain from 202 to 208 B. that the Greek alphabet and language. in India.

the latest in date of the coins is a half-sovereignof Elizabeth. The coins themselvespresent some features of interest. The coins were therefore probably deposited soon after that date. As will be seen. Michael's. its original owner had for some few years been gathering together this store of money. Alban's. though judging from the great number of varieties in the hoard. buried in the ground beneath the floor of an old house. which is as follows . WltH SOME REMARKS ON THE EAKLY COINS OF EDWAKD VI* THEtwenty-nine gold coinsof which a list is given below have been kindly submitted to me by the Earl of Verulam for examination. adding to it perhapssome three or four piecesat a time."- . and is thought to denote a period about 1559-60. but before remarkinguponthem it is desirable give a to detailed list of the whole. which has been demolished for the purposeof building another on the site.with the cross-crosslet mint-mark.XI. ALBAN'S. ON A EOAUD OF ENGLISH GOLD COINS FOUND AT ST. St. which was in useduring a portion of the first three yearsof her reign. They veerefound upon his property at St.

m. PL viii. fleur-de-Hs. v. tower.As No... PL vi.m.pern x aEYaa' + TYTt' x STVLYTVx nos E¬CD¬['. 2. fleur-de-lis. 6. . 78J grs.m..m.m.m. 05-y. Olv. m. x. Annulet on ship. m. 18.i^ecnEia ° Yin x DI 4. oiv. GETTx EGCX+ TOLS x z x 3TE' °xx m.m. No. portcullis. in Kev.. 187 ANGELS.x nos *x xpec1 x E6CD6C* mm. Perforated o. or IK below arms.. ffi . m. 5w.. Perforated x XPG: + jfew. 1. Obv. HENRY YIII. fleur-de-lis. 79 grs. 6. 3. m.- PQ:E x aEYaec9 x TYK* x STVLYTT nos + xpa x E6CD6C. but F' only. No.IjanEICC x YHI x DI' + SET^ x E¬CX + TOL' x Z x FE' o* in o. Euding. As No. Annulet on ship.PI. Mev. PL viii. R&u.. tower. As No. x x ILLOE' x IBTtT. m. fig. m..i^ecnEia . i. Perforatedin o.. Type.PGCE aEYaec x TYTI* x STVLYT. 11.£aEvaec'£TYTVSTVLYTV J XPGC PGCE J x nos 'xx E6CD6C'. portcullis.. i. 79 grs. m. Type. ii. oiv.ijecNEia : s %D *xG x TOP x FEKncn x z x E6CX x x. m.m. m. 96 grs. annulet and pellet 0. HALF-SOTOEEIONS.m. x. tower. osv.m. Euding. 5. fleur-de-lis. fig.ON A HOARD OF ENGLISH GOLD COINS.. 1> but BGCD-f-. PL vi. 4.m. 2. 79 grs. No. SnelHng. PI.. Type. No. m.tower. annulet and pellet 0. s x D : G x TVGL*+ FETC x z x I^IB x E¬CX x °. 4. Euding.. 1.

Olv. m. 95f grs. 6.m.aEA:AGL:EEA!Zl. annulet ? 2.-ifts: Twrec i TETtnsiecns x PGCE mecBr ILLOE' IBT^T x m.-IHS Diamonos between words. S.-HENEIC^.m.m. 97 grs. 0fo. obv. Youthful head. 7. 91£ gz& 3.. PL viii. 93 grs. ^e^. IE on tablet. pellet in annulet. TEANSIENS.m.m.m. E.D. JSev.m. Annulet on inner circle. Throne with plain narrow back.HIB:EEX. PEEMEDI. m. m. Ofo. EEX:* AYT6C' TEANSIGCN* P6CE m¬CBr ILLOE* IBAT. between ILLOE.HIB No m.m. Trefoils in legend. Same.-As No. Jfcw.Z.m.-IES'. Small letters.-As No. m. m.' AGL' EEANCIE' Z.G. Rev. 4. HIB: EEX. pellet in annulet. a martlet. 21. .m.-AsNo. PL vi. m.188 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.--The same.-HENEIO!8 to. m. Euding. but mGCDIV x. SL below shield. in. AYTE x TEANSIE ! PEE 3VIEDIY' ILLOE x IBAT. m. a martlet B£ ? on tablet. AVTEM TEANSIENS \ PEE MEBI! IBAT* m. m. m. Obv.f fig.m. IBAT. ILLOE ! m.-IHB x AVTE'x* TEANSI i PEE JftEDI J ILLO i IB AT. 97 grs. 93£ grs..m. 0^. : HI ! GEA HIBEENI' EEX. GC ¬Cbelow shield. No. m. Type.below arms.m. ditto. Z.m. Obv. IE or IK on tablet. 6C below shield. 3. Snelling. ditto. AYTEM. AGL! FEANOI. Jtov. 96 grs. E. 06v.AaL. 98 grs. on tablet. No.-^ecnEia: s ^ D x 6 ATOLS EETrnaiec x z x I^IB x E6CXA. S. S.m. words.-~HENEIC! Ew.-IBS' 8 o D : G . 2.-EBBS' ATTEM: TEANSIENS : PEE : MEDIVM ILLOEYM : IBAT.FEAN. .m. Diamonds m. 2. pellet in annulet. "S P . 1.-IHS DEI.m. . 3. ? HALF-SOVEREIOTS. Beo. below T and above side of crown.m. PL ii.-HENBIO : 8 : DI 96 grs. 5. 0Jw.-As No. 12. 1. HZ.-As No. e. 1. m. ditto. but FETVRdlGC. 2. Rev.

m. 0&y.m. .-IHS . HIB.m. XIJ. IBAT.-HENBIO.. 111.. TRANSIENS ILLOR . Tablet not struck up. Ruding. PER . and 87f grs. AYTE'. OJV. Eev. AYTEM ILLOR . .m. I ILLO 5. m. TRANSIEN. ' 96^ grs. m. HIB m. . . 0 0 PRANC $ E Mascles between AYTEM 4. 4. PER PRA'. 8. grappling iron. MEDIY'. JEfep. 93J grs. IBAT. HIB' between words.-HENRIC . Three specimens. Y. below 93 grs.m. arrow. . No.~HENRICC'. 7. Small letters. Z . ditto. 7. AGL'.m.-HENRIC' 8' D' G' AOL' PRANl Z! HIB' REX 0<>0t Eev. arrowMascles between words.m- TRANSIE' arrow. HALF-SOVEREIGNS. Diamonds .TRANSIENS ILLOR' IBAT -J-.-As No.. erownedC C . Oto. AYTEM .-. HIB: between words. 8 .-HENRIO'. MEDIYM IK on tablet. 9. PER . GRA AGL .m. DEI. 6. AGL t FRA . . GRA' . PL iii. No. TRANSIENS No m. AYT. Cbv. PER Diamonds MEDI . j?¬?.EDWARD ! YI: D 1G 1AGL ! PRA! Z. K under sHeld.m. 91 grs. 93 grs. TOL. m. QlVt-0 HENRIG 0 8 0 D 0 G 0 ANGL HIBERwordsRev.m. words. 8 . m. Diamonds PRA5 Z . O^.m. Two specimens. GRA'. EDWARD YI. ditto.-As No. AGL'. MEDI . . m. Type. arrow. Ofo.-IHS REX$.ON A HOAftT) OF ENGLISH GOLD COINS. DEI. . 93£. PL vii. arrow.-HIS DEI . Snelling. a martlet (possibly double struck). and 97 grs. REX . 10. DEI . m.mS : AYTE' IBAT.m.' TRANSIENT P ER . S. 93 8. 93^.~IHS No m. between . m. IK on tablet. HJ8L Head in profile. ILLO'. Grappling-iron below shield. m. '. arrow. HIB' REX. Z . MEDIY IBAT. m. PER : MEDI EK on tablet ! ILLOR. jRet>.m.S REX. GRA' REX.-IKS 8 . IBAT . Obv. m. Ew..' arms* .

84£ grs. 84 grs. 3.. m. But why. 1.m. HI. : PIDBI : PEOTEGET : EAM . on the obverse. HALF-SOVEREIGN.m.) 84 grs.should the coins of this particular class be prepared in this re* markable manner for being defacedby having holes bored through them? The reason. between words. Ending.--As No. E.-EDWAED © YI © D © G © AGL © PEA © Z HIB © EEX ©. grappling hook? 81 grs. for three out of the five are neatly perforated with a small hole through the centre of the annulet. 1. Olv. however. Obv. would at first sight appear of to affordlittle subjectof comment. and are thus adaptedfor suspension. in the shapeof a small annulet. but POTEGET. m. I think. Type.-As No. EEGINA.-SCVTVM " D ! G! ANG. that in addition to the usual mint-mark. E. The use and intention of this second mark appear to be illustrated by the coins in this hoard. ELIZABETH. mm. m. ditto. Eoses between words. 2. FE: ET. the portcullis. Y. No. is that . 1. Ofa-ELIZABETH £ev. iv. Thereis. it will be asked. or the fleurde-lis. what lookslike a secondmint-mark.190 Rev.-As. PL x. SCVTVM © FIDEI © PEOTEGET © EYM ©. (Possibly double struck. 12. hitherto escaped observation. 1. there is at the end of the legend. Snelling.. 2. I would suggest. a peculiarity about them which has. PI.m. such as the tower. No.namely. The angels Henry VIII. Rev.-© NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. cross crosslet. No.m.m. E E at sides of shield. Eoses Rev. grappling iron.

se.. How he solicits heaven Himself best knows . A most miraculous work in this good king. p. as JamesIIL." How commonly angels were perforated for suspension in the time of James I. Which often since my here-remain in England I have seen him do. as those of Charles II. Similar pieceswere also struck by the Pretender.DOF ENGLISH GOLD COINS. and Anne. must be familiar to all collectors.3 who. 127. p. It is said that1 Henry VII. Act iv. was the first English sovereign who established particular ceremonyto be a used on the occasion of touching.. and Charles I. iL. from thedifficulty that existsin obtaining a specimen without a holethrough it.. All these later touch-pieces bear the legend SOLI DEO GLORIA. The mere despair of surgery he cures. What's the disease means he ? Malcolm.. Chron. Hanginga goldenstampabouttheir necks. pitiful to the eye.ON A HOAB. 191 evenin the daysof HenryVIII. In later reigns. 88. i. . 3 Num. where many interesting particulars on this sulgect wiU be found. angelsseem to have been expresslycoined to serve as touch-pieces. which does not occur on any of the angels destined for ordinary circulation. 3. and introduced the practice of presentinga small pieceof gold." vol. 3 Macbeth. James II. We find the custom thus alluded to by Shakspere: 2Macduff. 'Tis called the evil. asweknowto have been the casein later days. Put on with holy prayers. and 'tis spoken To the succeedingroyalty he leaves The healing benediction.the angelwas the piece of gold hunground patient's the neckat thetimeof hisreceiving the royaltouchfor the king's evil. This 1 See Chambers's " Book of Days. was presumedto possess hereditary the healing faculty. but strangely-visited people All swoln and ulcerous..vol..

Insomuchthat her Majestic. .000 persons. I cannot." p." Cant. ed. i. Pepys'I>iary. the King strokestheir facesor cheeks with both his hands at puce. they come up again in the same order. p. Alassepoor people..asin usein the time of Henry of VII.. Bopk ii.vol. 1854. how- ever. at which instant a chaplain in his formalities says. 105.. 35. in betwixtanger.and havingangelgold strung on white ribbon on his arm.6 Evelyngives the following account the cereof mony :7-" His Majesty. sec. and he healedthem/ This is said to every one in particular. and Henry VIIL. who puts them about the necks of the * " Church Hist. * Kary. s Op. 339. I am not aware of the nature or frequency of the ceremony touching. 1848. ed. I cannot cure you.5 So common was the practice. Friday appears have been the usual day for the purto pose. fall wordsto this let effect.. £He put his handsupon them. and the otherchaplain kneeling. 84. delivers them one by one to his Majesty.grief.eil. the ehimrgeons cause the sick to be brought or led up to the throne. and compassion.192 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.that in the first four years after his restoration Charles II. touched nearly 24. p. p. i. recorded by Puller : * " Making her progresseinto Cfto- cestershire. but at later datetherewasa set formof prayer. When they have been all touched.the practice touchingfor the evil until the day of of her death. it is God alone that can doe it!39 She continued.vol. sitting under his state in the Banqueting House. where they kneeling. legend bearreference a sayingof Queen may to Elizabeth's. 214. peopleaffected with this disease in uncivil did crowds presse uponher. e "Travels of the GrandPuke CosmoIII. which wasintroducedinto several editions of the English Book of Common Prayer. xi..

. lastly. and not that of his father. who no doubt was aware of the mathematical fact that their weight would be as the square of the diameter of the hole. This is the comparative abundance of the half-sovereigns with a youthful portrait of a seated monarch.andthen the Lord Chamberlain the Compand troller of the Household bring a basin. and only adaptedfor a thread by which possibly it was attached to a ribbon. now under consideration. ewer. ' That is the true light who cameinto the world. they seemto bear. aredisfigured. and towel for his Majestyto wash. appears havebeen necessary the white ribbon to to for pass through. the for blessing. bearingthe nameof Henry VIII. of I. I have little doubt of the coins having been minted in the reign of Edward VI. has been said on this subject.. 193 touchedas they pass. In the angels of Henry VIII. Enough.' Then followsan Epistle (as at first a Gospel). and I BOW turn to another feature in the hoard of more purely numismatic interest. The wholefigure. so that by doubling the size of the punch he increased his profits to fourfold.appearsto have been producedon the die by meansof the samepunchesasthose .whilst the first chaplain repeats. Its large size may also be in part due to the punchings havingbeen the perquisiteof the puncher. we may readily conceivethat objections would be felt to punching large holes even through the coins destined to be used as touch-pieces." The large hole in the touch-pieces. however.ON A HOARDOF ENGLISH GOLDCOINS. whoseportrait.with somealteration. At a time when severepenalties were enforced against those who clipped or minished the king's coin. and Though struck in the name of Henry. indeed.the hole is extremely minute. that by which and so manyangels James and CharlesI. with the Liturgy prayers thesick.

194

.

NUMISMATIC CHROM1CLE.

used for the well-known, though rare, early half-sovereign

of Edward viii., fig.4, Ruding,PL vii., No. 3; Snelling, (PL
PL in., No. 1). Not only is the faceyouthful and beard-

less, and quite unlike that on the undoubtedcoinsof Henry VIII., but the throne on which the monarchis
seated different also. The back of the throne is plain is and narrow, and not broad and cross-hatched; its sides are straight, and not curved \ it has a recessed top, instead of extendingto the inner circle ; and the figures at the side are distinctly Victories or Angels, which stand on plainer pedestalsthan do - the corresponding figures on the halfsovereignsof Henry VIII. The whole device, indeed, closely resemblesthat on the sovereigns of Edward VI. (Rudiiig, PL vii., No. 2; Suelling, PL iii., No. 12). Curiously enough, the mint-marks, and some of the minor details of the coins, appear to be more in accordance with the reign of the son than with that of the father, though any speculationsas to the meaning of such marks must, in the absence of direct testimony, be received with some degreeof caution.
It will be remembered that on his accession to the

throne on January 28, 1547, Edward VI. was but nine years old, and that Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, brother of the late Queen, Jane Seymour, the king's mother, was at once appointed Lord Protector. Before Edward's coronation, on February 20th, Seymour was created Duke of Somerset, and his brother, Sir Thomas Seymour,wasmadeLord Sudely and Admiral of England. This nobleman married, in May, 1547, King Edward's stepmother, Queen Katherine Parr (the only wife of

Henry VIII. who survived him, and who,by the way,
was twice a widow before she married him), and her

brother,the Earl of Essex,wasalsooneof those^who was

ON A HOARDOF ENGLISH GOLD COINS.

195

advanced in rank at the same time as the Seymours,

having been made Marquis Northampton*There of was
thereforea strongparty both of Seymours and Parrs at
the head of affairs, and though subsequentlythere was

greatjealousy between wife of the Protector and the the
Queen Dowager in the matter of precedence, in the yet

earlypart of the reign of Edward,the superiorauthority
of the Queen seems to have been great and undisputed. Under Henry VIII. she had already been appointed Regent during the King's absencein France, and her
banner and that of Queen Jane were alone allowed to

appear at his funeral, as these two were the only wives whom Henry chose to acknowledge.8 Her initial K appeared jointly with the royal H on the gold crowns and half-crowns struck under Henry after his marriage with her; and in the injunction issuedat the commencement of his reign by King Edward VI. and the Duke of Somerset, his subjects were commanded to pray first "for Queen Katherine Dowager/' and next "for my Lady Mary and my Lady Elizabeth, the King's sisters." Then followed " my Lord Protector's Grace, with all the rest of the King's Majestie's Council." 9 There can therefore be but little doubt that the K which is conspicuous under the shield of No. 9 is to be regardedasplaced there out of compliment to her, and that the monogram IK on the tablets, if rightly so read, represents the initials of Henry and Katherine. On a half-sovereign of this type in my own collection, the letter K occurs not only below the shield, but also as the mint-mark at the commencement of the legend on the reverse; while on a halfsovereign,with identically the same portrait, but bearing s Strickland's" Queens England," vol. v,, p. 95. " of 9 Fuller, " ChurchHistory," ed. 1655, p. 874.

196

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

the name of EdwardVI. (engravedin PI. viii., fig. 3) ; alsoin my collection, monogram the tablet is still the on EL Curiouslyenough,, have another half sovereign I
with the same portrait, hut bearing the name of Henry VIII., the reverse of which was struck from the same
die. The mint-mark is an arrow.

The mint-mark E, and the S below the shield on No. 1, may possiblyin like manner refer either to Edward Lord Protector or to King Edward, whose portrait appears on the coin, though associatedwith the name of Henry VIII. There are, however, silver coins with the portrait of Henry himself, which likewise bear the mark of E., so that the meaning of this letter seemsmore problematical
than that of the K.

Of the other mint-marks, the grappling iron (PL viii., fig. 5) reappears the half-sovereignof Edward VI., with on his profile, No. 3. The arrow is found on all his early silver

coins, wellason some his father's;andthemartlet only as of
on those with the name of Henry VIIL I am unable to trace any origin for the mint-mark of the grappling iron, which by some has been termed a pick-lock ," but this mark also occurson coins with the name of Henry VIII. But whatever may have been the original signification
of these marks, the undoubted fact remains that on all

these half-sovereignsthe portrait is that of a beardless youth, which, though associatedwith the name of Henry, is quite unlike his bearded, jovial face, and is identically the same as that which, on other coins of the samedenomination, is surrounded by the name and titles of Edward VI. We cannot conceive it possible that the naoneyers during the reign of the father could have associatedhis name with the portrait of the son. The coins must therefore have been struck during the reign of

ON A HOARD OF ENGLISH GOLD COINS.

19.7

EdwardVL, thoughfor some cause father'snamewas his
still retained on the coins. What this reason may have been it is difficult to say. Probably, however, the necessities of the mint prevented any discontinuance of the

coinage after the deathof King Henry VIIL, and therefore until the new King wascrowned coins continued to be struck, as appears to have been the usual practice in this country, in the uame of his predecessor. Under Henry VII. and Henry VIII., however, the new custom had come in of the portrait on the coins not being, as heretofore, that of a king in general, but of the reigning monarchin particular; and no time appearsto have been lost in producing a puncheon by which the portrait of Edward VI. could be placed upon the dies, which was accordingly done, though his father's name and titles were still retained. The variety of coins, however, struck after this fashion seemsto point to a considerably longer period than that which elapsed between the death of Henry and the coronation of Edward ; and possibly this system of coining in the name of the deceased king may have been continued until after the assembly of the Parliament of the realm. Possibly, also, as Edward, young though he was, took a particular interest in the coinage, and appears always to have contemplated its
restoration from the debased condition to which it had

been reduced by his father, he may have been anxious that, as an autpicium metioris avi, the first gold coins bearing his name should be of the improved standard of twenty-two carats fine, to which, in his third year, he reverted, and ^hich has ever since remained the standard of our gold coinage. Whatever the cause,it is singular that wehave in these
coins the usual course reversed.
VOL. XII. N.S. D D

On the earliest" coins of

198

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

Henry VIII., and on thoseof Charles we find the L,
father'sportrait andthe son'snameand titles-the legend on the dies having been more readily altered than the portrait. Here, however, have the legendpreserved, we and only the portrait changed. The causes which led
both Richard I. and John to continue throughout their

wholereigns to strike their short-cross pennies with the
name of their father Henry II. were of a different character ; but at that time portraiture was unknown upon
coins. The continuance in use of the dies for the reverse of the

coinageof one monarch into that of his successor by is no means rare. I have already called attention to the so rare noble of Edward IV. being struck -on the reverse from a die of Henry VI.;10 and the curious crown of
Edward VI, has its reverse struck from a die of

Henry VIII." The fact being establishedof some of the gold coins of Edward VI. having been struck in his father's name, the questionariseswhether some of the silver coins bearing the name of Henry VIII. may not also be posthumous, though they do not bear Edward's portrait* On this questionI am not at present prepared to enter, but if any silver coins were so struck, those with the novel and, -for a basecoinage,somewhat inappropriate legendof REDDE
CVIQVE QVOD SVVM EST. seem more in accordance

with the changeabletaste of Edward VI. and his mintmasters than any of the pieceswith the more common and ordinary legends.
Jtanr EVANS.

10NnHL Ohron., vol. xvi., p> 9®. 11Num. Gbyon.,vol. xx., p. 187, No.

XII.
ARABIC GLASS COINS.

ARABIC GLASS COINS have been greatly neglectedby
Numismatists of all ages.

Among recent writers, Soret,in his " Numismatiqne Musulraane/' dismisses subject with a single parathe graph; whilst, amongthe earlier writers of this century,
Marsden does not give to them, in the "Numismata

Qrientalia,"the placethey deserve from their exceedingly
curious and interesting character; in this respecthe would havedone well if he had followed Pietraszewski,who givesa very fair account of them, by examples, in his " Numi Mohammedani/' with many illustrations. The reasonof this neglect is partly the great rarity of glass coins, and partly the opinion expressedby many that they are not coins but weights (of which more presently), which has doubtless dissuaded many Numismatists from entering upon what they thus conceivednot to belong to their science* I have lately had the opportunity of examining tbe fme collection of these coins at the British Museum, and also a very interesting and valuable One belonging to the Eev.

Greville Chester; and I conceived should be doing a I
service to Oriental Numismatics if I made known a por-

copper. of any shape. metal. " .when a convenient.of the results obtainedfrom the studyof these collections.200 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. Again (2). of metal. And it would be impossible to cast glassweights exactlythe right weight(exceptby acciof dent) without subsequentadjustment by filing (asis done with copper) grinding\ but this abrasion or wouldbevery difficult for Easterns to . as it would efface the characters. and heavy. This is has beenascertained. whereas weights might be.perform in the case of glass.was at hand ? . Cambridge. tion.as our English bank-notes represent a certain number of sovereigns. rings. cheap.B. thin. material be used. British Museum. The considerations which support my view are the following:(1. or what ? My opinion is that they are coins. or weights. Gardner. and absolutely impracticable the case discswith inscripin of tions on both sides.) Their form and general appearanceis precisely similar to that of coins : they are circular. and of the NumismaticDepartment.1 seemsto me to show decisively and that they are not weights* 1 For this I must express my obligations to Mr. In short. In the first place. why should a very inconvenient. for the bulk of a weight in glasswould be nearly four times that of the corresponding weight in copper. and flat.used to represent goldor silver coins. P. glassis an extremelyinconvenient material for the purpose of weights. Fellow of Christ's. so as to be convenient for currency. which several have. But (3) it is clear that the point that would almost settlethis question the weightof eachglassdisc. or blocks. at least. and are. are theseimpressed discsof glass coins.A.

the buyer thus losing about 8 per cent. of course. But 21. 13. We find the weight 46 grs. 14. as I have said before. the glass discs would seemto agree almostexactlywith theseweights. impoverished the . this would be impossible. instead of 16'3 grs. 65 (which are all found among these glassdiscs)are sufficiently exact-91 being perfectly so. So.. On the other hand. too. the inaccuracy would soon be discovered. 19. were probably the following :- Weight a dirhem of V 45*5grs. if the merchant used a weight of 42. 42. 23.ARABIC GLASSCOINS. which. 126. 22. 47. which could only be done when. 90. My view is also supported (4) by the fact that by far the largestnumberof glassdiscsissuedby any oneruler were issued by the Flttimee Khaleefeh El-Mustansir bi-ll&h. in the case of discs with characters on both sides. 61. being only half-a-grain wrong. 43. 92. at first sight. 91. in whose reign there occurreda fearful famineof sevenyears*duration. in and 45 five times. the seller thus losing about 16 J per cent. the inscriptions did not extend to the extreme edge. 22-7 i double a 11-3 91 65-5 * * double 32-7 16-3 131 Now. 11.unlessthe edgescould be ground. eighttimes(amongthosedescribed this paper). 44. and the weight would be rectified\ and. are all far too wide of the mark to be admissible as weights. 12. It would be absurd to weigh with a weight of 19 grs. 201 Thesmall weights most commonly useat thetimeof in the issueof these glasscoins.. instead of 45*5.

and (with the ex- ception acouple of whichhave ^Lu>^tj*^.is exceedingly obvious. entertained by some. and none has a hole for suspending it-both of which are essential qualificationsfor a charm. 1) of the name of a place. El-Mustansir even felt himself obliged to distribute from his privateproperty. dispelthe popularalarm. so the only way of distinguishing them was by weighing them. or a fraction of either. for the material is the same..uponthem) they have not their denominationstated in their inscriptions.to an into calculable amount. Lane. for very few have any religious sentenceupon them.202 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. ii. countryof the preciousmetals. There was no distinguishing mark by which glass deenars could be identified as such. Mr. that theseare charms. theequal a of deendr.and rendered necessary it to substitute for them a cheap material. or a dirhem. The reasonof the rough approximation of the weights of theseglass coinsto thoseof metalcoins. ounce.as worthy of argument. and shown not to be dirhems.is the occurrenceon one of them (Fig. the Ukeeyeh." vol. or weighing nearly1£ oz. The centralfigurein the Plateshows ordinarycopper an weightof Cairo. such as glass. I do not consider the hypothesis. . avoird. It wasbrought from Egypt by my great-uacle.but would which on be objectlesson a weight. The drawing is fall size: the five-rayed star 2 Price's " Retrospectof Mahommedan History. El-MansQoreeyeh9 is usual coins.2 Another (5) strong argument for these being coins. and the approximation in weight would at once determine whether the coin in question was a deenar.

and in quality they are generally translucent.ARABIC GLASS COINS. such as reserving one colour for deenars. In most cases there are no legends on these coins. offering of and such supplementary explanatory and remarks may as seem necessary. but there are several instances of characters on both sides. but in some thereis one. on the other.D.) The hole in the middle is for conveniencein holding and stowing away. speaking roughly. The glass is of all qualities and colours. of mad'Alee. &c. I have been informed that They aresometimes in high relief. I shall now give examples the glass coins of this of dynasty. . though in colour green predominates. taking the Khaleefehsin the order of their suc- cession. It hasalreadybeenstatedthat theseglasscoinsarein shape similarto metal coins. on the one hand. sometimes cast in relief so slight as to be scarcely legible.H. beginning with the conqueror Egypt.. with the date45 (i. 203 of Turkey seen is upon andalsothe stamp Mohamit. The field containing the inscriptions is often deeply sunk in the glass. and one and one-fourth some exist still larger. of an inch. transparent.e. andwe meetoccasionally even with two. The inscriptions are generally restricted to oneside. El-Mo'tez of (who is the earliest of this line of whom I have seen coins in the collection the British Museum). 1245A. hetween one-third of an inch. They arefound of all sizes. but sometimes they are. There is no rule observedin colour. opaque. or.another for dirhems. 1829-30A. The dynastythat struck by far the greaternumberof existing glasscoins is that of the F&timee Khaleefehs.

on the authority of El-Makreezee. 4th Fatimee I. de -fiJs d'Abou-Taleh. IX. and^ according to M. and attributing all coins with that nameto Mansoorah in Lower Egypt. It existed as a fortress in the time of the cele- brated geographer El-Idreesee (Jaubert's ed.in his " Yie du Khalife Fatimite Moezz-li- din-allah. p.204 EL-Mo'lZZ NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 1).e. prince des croyants (snr qui reposele le salutI).*UX\ *~*J Interior legendArea-Five dots in form of quincunx." . LI-DEENI-LLAH Khaleefeh. at El-Mansooreeyeh'. vol..and which wasfounded by El-Melik Ei-Kamil tbe nephew Salah-ed-deen of (full a century and a half after the time of El-Mo'izz)." says (p. des apres 1'apdtre Dieu.3 fig.-" The Wt. li-deeniEl-Mo'izz In the name of God : *Abd-Allah Imam Ma'add Aboo-Temeen llah. ABOO-TEMEEM MA*ADD. 245.-(PI. which is neverpronouncedMansooreeyeh. 3 AH figures referred to in this paper will be found in PL IX.4 Mansooreeyeh is mentioned in the Kamoos as being near Kayrawan. to commemorate his successover tlie invading army of Jean de Brienne. par 1'ordre de Moezz]on afficha motsdanstoutes les rues de Fostat: ces Le plus excellent hommes. 61 grs. 95). after givingan account the Khaleefeh's of entry into the newlybuilt city of El-Kahireh (Cairo). i.H." 'Abd-Alidh was a son of El-Mo'izz. 341-365 A. Temir Abd-allah. estAli. Quatremere (" Vie de Moezz/' p. 4 M."Par sonordre [M.) M. et celui de son fiis. t. Exterior legend. On inscrivit partout le nornde Moezz-li-din-allah. 86) was the capital of the Fdtimees before the building of ElKahireh. Soret has undoubtedly erred in ignoring El-Mansooreeyeh in Afreekeeyeh (Tunis). commanded it. Quatremere.

but. but illegible. StanleyPoole. Legend- Area- Wt. signifies " an injunction. j^ (aportion vow as yet unpublished.who shared. " the successor virtue of his covenant/*6. ed. line who was born This was the first Khaleefeh of this in Egyptj for jie wasa nativeof Cairo: whereas father. to appoint by covenant a successor. covenant. " This is quoted frommy uncle's Lane's) (Mr. ofif JL^ VOL. for it was by the custom with these Khaleefehs. by the kindness of the author.). infinitive ofjL^ used a simple the noun as substantive. an order* a command. in a certain 5 Abu-l-Fida'sHistory." also 4ta compact... Egypty the modernpart of which was written by E. his El-'Azeez. Stuart Poole. but he failed in reading it. Eeiske. 65 grs.a bidding.S. was born at Mahdeeyehs (in Afreekeeyeh) before the conquestof Egypt by El-Mo'izz. p. " art.411. and the ancient by R. I.. " 6th Fatimee Khaleefeh. E B . opened to my reference). 386 . a charge.vol. (See the " Encyclopaedia Britannica .) This coin has been illustrated by Adler (" Museum Cuficum Borgianum Velitris/'lx. XH. havethe sameemineBt I authorityfor the renderings ^. 591.. Lexicon. as with others. ii.. The words J^Jjj(wa x<^ weleeyu maybe 'ahdiki) translated "and his successordesignate/' more exactly. EL-HAKIM " BI-AMRI-LLAH ABOO-'ALEE MANSOOB. 6 S^c. U. The reversehas characters..ARABIC GLASS COINS.

"the ruler by the commandof God/' it may be observedthat this Khaleefeh venturedto changeit into El-Hdkim bi-amrihi. thus signifying that he governednot by the command of God but by his own command. *b\ £s\^\ U« Wt. it be III. but in less clearandflowingcharacters. jy&* JLC y surname Aboo-'Alee was \j*j f£sUl Vt. The may here notice what I believe to be an error in Adler's ft Museum Cuficum Borgianum Velitris. degreethe state and privilegesof him who thus designated him. * $\ 'Alee the is favouriteof God. and Y. I On the reversethe word ajjl is distinguishable.) . It "willbenoticed a rendering *Jj is given this that of in case different thatin *j^ ^ : thereason that from is JJy is oneof those wide-ranging Arabicwords which canby no meansbe translatedalike in everycase^ but the meaning of which is regulated by authority. H.21 grs. *L ic.) as - whereas shouldundoubtedly j^A\9 &c. derived from Edh-Dhahir. On the name El-Hdkim bi-amri-lldh. (i^4iJ1^ 4& jifisUJt Wt. a ^jj&\j*\ 2) j^ IT." He reads and illustrates a glasscoin (Iviii. In the legend is seen the well-known symbol of the Shee'ees.206 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. grs. ^U ^UJI 56 (The rest is illegible. (fig. with a star beneath. 92 There is another exampleof this iBsmptkn. grs.

grs.) II. grs. grs. owing chiefly to the great famine. but .) of EL-MUSTANSIK.) and IV. Jj>p£=\\ Wt.ARABIC GLASS COINS. and it be on the reverse of the latter there are several dots between two concentricarcsof circles larger than the circumference of the coin*) V. Khaleefeh. III. side not legible. ^^\jJ\ &\ ^ j^fll U Wt. 22grs. 207 VI. Jit ^J jljfiSyjAfin Wt. (With a cross betweentwo dots above and below the name). 46 (The words ^ i aredoubtful. (fig3).83grs. ybl£i\ Wt.20grs. 411-427. (With two dotsabove two belowthe name. I. BI-LLAH 8th Patimee ABOO-TEMEEM 427-487.) . 46 (With a dot above and belowthe inscription the other . ^fclSH Wt. This mode of ornamentingby dots seems characteristic Edh-Dhahir. fUJl 91 (There is another with similar inscription. As has been said before. 7th Fatimee Khaleefeh.Jx EDH-DHAHIR LI-IAZAZI-DEENI-LLAH ABU-L-HASAN 'ALEE. but in the latter case might perhaps read*£sU^ *l* \ . this Khaleefeh is remarkable for the great number of glass coins pressed into currency during his reign. yblU Wt. (Another with similar inscription.

The separation <$IiU of of into two parts. &~*y&j*«\&\*j&&MA\Wt.in some degree. Coinswith this type areso striking in appearance that they may be ascribedto El-Mustansir at a glance. because the surfaces of the coins are smaller.208 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Theglasscoinsof El-Mustansirareverypeculiar. being chieflyof stronglymarkedtypes. This. again. There are five other examples it. Therearetwootherexamples this: In these letters of the are rather closer together. is a characteristic type : not on account of anymarks. Another noteworthy thing in this type is the tall naw. This may also be observedin the next type. and is carried out in all the examplesI have seen. 5). grs.whichdiffer but little in the various examples. of The peculiarity this type consists the distinctive of in ornaments(or Damghahs) at the end of the top line and the beginning the second.by putting b or 5bat the end of the second line and <dior <dat the beginning of the third. I. of course.37 4). LegendArea- Wt. JL (fig. . also. This is the most remarkable type of all.for the sake of gaining room by getting the loop out of the way.but by reasonof the invariablepositionof the various words composing the inscription. is also very remarkable. 46 grs.to the unusually long reign which he enjoyed. with its loop high above the two meems eachside of it: on this is. differingvery little inter se. (fig.

is like the last. who IT.(fig. 92 There are some glass coins of the 'Abbdsee Khaleefeh El-Mustadeenot unlike the one illustrated by fig. Wt.90grs £~u^fUSl readson a glass coin El-Mustansir bi-amm-ttdh.) Til. grs. Till. which. 7 will showthe resemblance and the difference. whereasof El-Mo*izzI haveseen only one. The latter is the moreprobable. VI. j*&*»A\ Wt. This resemblance has induced an error in Pietraszewski. 11 (Threedots beneath. I think. Wt.46 grs. i * (Thereare two otherslike this.ARABIC GLASS COIKS. grs.) This Ma? add may have been either El-Mo'izz Ma^add or El-MustansirMa'add. dlb^^l "Wt. ^^^j^i 4iUyoAr>M>Jl grs. This coin should have been read El-Musta<}ee bi-amri-lldL Fig. as his coins are very numerous. would be absolutely unintelligible [toj an Arab.of whichthere arethreeexamples.{^~«^\ji*\ aIlU/aXLw*Sl S**Wt.90 (fig*8). . 6. <jjjb and the ^^]^\ iscontracted in field into j^SU V. though euphonious enough to the ears of a European Numismatist. 209 IIL This type. u^j-Jl j*«\ &\> 6). except that in the legend is omitted. when comparedwith fig. j*M*+4J\ fUJ! Wt. J^* >%U31 11grs. 6.

11) ..22grs. Though they havenot so high an historicalvalueas gold and silver coins..61gn. (Two otherslike this. ll ^ji till Wt. their curiouscharacterandgreat scarcitygive yet thema peculiar interest. LI-DEENI-LLAH llth Patimee Khaleefeh. ABOO-'ALEE MANSOOR. **a*\ f UJ1 9). 495-524. IL(fig. I havenot seenanycoinsof El-Mustaaleewith anything but TheImamAfymad uponthem. and. 9th Fdtimee Khaleefeh. EL-MUSTAALEE BI-LLAH ABU-L-KASIM 487-495.22grs. which mightbe U|l or I hopethat I havenow shownthat Arabic glasscoins are as interestingas any other coinsin that language. I f. L (fig. BI-AHKAMI-LLAH 10th Fdtimee Khaleefeh...if my view of their usebe eormst.210 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. L (fig. on account of their inscriptions being shorter. they are very remarkable witnessesto the his- . 524-544 126 grs.. 10)*j*J\ UJH Wt.) IL EL-AMIR *UHIJi*>1 Wt. There is an indication of charactersat the top.

I may be able on somefuture occasionto communicate some more information on this subject derived from the collection the British Museum. LANE Worthing. and also to its great extent and severity. . Greville Chester. 1872. that time augmented. by that of the Rev. of by I hope. July 12*A.ARABIC GLASS COINS. POOLB. STANLEY E. 211 torical fact of the famine in TSl-Mustansir's reign.

In the Correspondance letters from M. to M. weights.struckin Ireland underJamesII. viz.by M. Mailliet returns to the subject of the Gun- money. J.. Louis IX. Chautard has undertaken to describe and explain. " Inedited Medalsand Jetons.. N. the Imitations des monnaiesau type esterlin. to replace the wretched coins of various types. which he treatedof on pp. respected throughout Western Europe on account of the purity of its metal and the accuracy of its weight. In the Melanges are reviews of recent numismatic publi- .. Meijer. J.with the reasons of their attribution. 1870. Col.relatingto thehistory of the seventeen ancient provinces the Low Countries (2ndarticle). "Imitations of Coins of the type of the Gros Tournois. restored to the royal money the privilege of universal circulation. the author of that excellent work. In this article. ChaJon. B. Theplanof this work is similar to that of his formerone.237-240 of this interestingseries articles. a description of the coins. He tells us that he has been enabled to do this by reading the excellent paper on the abovesubject by Dr. was the reformed coinage introduced by Saint Louis. and sizes which were issued by the feudal barons after the dissolution of the Carlovingian Empire. Chautard. as we may remind such of our readers who have not given much attention to the study of mediaeval numismatics.> are the following articles:- 1. 4. M.and he reof placesseveralerroneous descriptions by new ones." by M. " Noticeof the Baxneveld Find.or gros of Tours. Eltz and M. has here undertaken a similar account of the numerous imitations of the Gros Tour- nois. and made his celebratedGrossus Turonensis." by M." de Supplement article). In the Eevue de la Numismatique Beige. and lastly. le Comte Maurin Nahuys. F. The Gros Tournois. Chautard. 2. Hora are Siccama cations. "Catalogueof ObsidionatCoinsand Pieces Necessite.Part IV.NOTICE OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. Aquilla Smith.S. followedby the mention of the principal documents relating to the coinage in question. (6th P.: a shorthistoricalnotice of eachprovince. 3.which appearedin this Chronicle. 5me Serie Tome IV. Bmeliv. le Lieut-Colonel Mailliet. of " by M. Hence the innumerable imitations which M. G.

Mev. 4. Quadriga. near Mainz.S." by A. 520-460. 5. In 396." by the Baron v. 2. 896. 460-405. Gelawas rescued from the Carthaginian dominion by Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse. " Inedited G-reekImperial Coins. put in a clear and intelligible form.213 The Berliner Blatter. and PEAOKMST. Schubring takes as the first period the time between the years 520 and 460. Large V Small. distinguished by the forms more or less archaic of the letters of the legend PEAAS. but for the The coins of these three periods are distinguished the by convenience thosewho maynot beableto procureand study of the article itself. 3. Hoxse M. in 1863. Dr. Dr. Part II. forms of the letters. concerningthe historical classificationof the coins of Gela. 520-460. Here we have not space to follow him. Gela was founded about B. F F . of several thousandhohlpfennigeof good silver.. the sameletter is formed <f and the 0 is not yet replaced by D. in the third. Dr. j VOL. Koehne. PEAQION.Horseman. This is the close of the third period. but the town remained in a depressed condition until the year 338.SL Half bull. and then of thetypes. N. C 5 & the second.. we would say a few words. Headof youngRiver G-od. and the latest literature. F. The part concludes notices of the newestcurrent coins with and medals." by Dr. " The armsof the Eussian families descended from Rurik. Schubring arranges in three periods. " The Plonsk find of Coins. and 338-280. Schubring remarks that the direction of the inscription affords no criterion of the age -of the coins. and from this time it enjoyed great prosperity. we find the round gamma.C. by C. until its destruction by the Mamertines in 280. Dannenberg. XII. The second period closeswith the capture and sack of the city by the Carthaginians in 405.690.Schubring*view of the coinage we s in a tabular form :1st Period. TheseDr.Bull. Schubring next treats of the weights of the coins of the several periods. contains the following articles :1. but as the commencement its coinage of cannot be placed earlier than that of Syracuse.give Dr. " Note on the Find at Selzen. Trachsel. when it was recolonised by Timoleon. In the first period. Schubring. " The Coins of Gela. as it contains much useful information." by H. several of the latest period having retrograde legends. von Rauch. Band VI. and V. Biga. 1872. the ordinary P and & are in use.NOTICES RECENTNUMISMATIC OF PUBLICATIONS..Berlin. Rev. Of the second of these articles.

F. Schubring has done in this article for the coins of 6-ela. Half bull. Headof youngBiver. that she has nothing in common with the male daemonof the same name honoured in Elis. belonging Onremarkable (Mionn to the first placing a wreath upon the headof the bull. 460-405. B. we should like to s. Gelas. (Biga). and we cannot make an exception in the present case. The tetradraehm. All types except those mentioned above.-June.eedone for all the principal cities of ancient Greece. Wheel with four barleycorns. he ascribes to the period when Dionysius rescued the city from the Carthaginians.and indicating Syracusaninfluence* The types of the reverses of most of theseGeloancoinsallud. -#*>. and he identifies her with the foddess Persephone. tabular form. 1871. JE. 396-280. 205). Brd Period. S. Quadriga. Srdytar. the historical periods marked the very existence of the city of Gela. .are the followingarticles:and 1. Sosipolis. A Small.re generally unsatisfactory. Biga. Rev. JR. side by sietewith a view off by events such as those which affectedthe prosperityand of the coinage. Small. with especial reference pals&ography. to In the NumismatischtZeitsekrift.'1by Dr. Vienna Berlin.Bull. sheis represented as a tetradrachm uppl. M. It would greatly assist collectorsto have before them in a similar. and on the obversethe head of the young Gelas. Various.i. 2nd Period. With respectto the deity Sosipo7is. Bull.33.214 JfUMl&MATIC CHRONICLE. Jan. surrounded by three fishes. M. 3. 204). with the reverse legend TEAOION in the neuter singular. Schubring in his endeavour to connect the type on another tetradrachm (Mion. Schubringremarks Dr. Headof youngBiver. the fishes being suggested by the dolphins roundthe headof Arethusaon the Syraeusan money. period.eto the victories gainedby Gelon and Hieron at the Olympic and other games. Such attempts a. do. the saving goddess crowningthe city of Gela. Large. P^v. Rev. Large.e. 896. " On the winged representations of Athena and Nike on Coins. M. do.Horseman. Rev.with thebloodless victory obtained by the poet Simonidesat the river Grelas over the hostile armies of Hieron of Syracuseand Theron of Agrigentum. Half bull. Rev. What Dr. We cannotagreewith Dr. 1871. Horse.C.

.if it be only to pat them on their guardagainst and similar attempts fraud. Mutter's system of arrangement is adhered to.NOTICES OP RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. In this article.. J. should be attributed to Alexander the Great. Pamphylia.and which are now universally acknowledgedto be Egyptian. and the ports on the Gulf of Issus. Dr. " On three remarkable Coins of the Kings Agrippa I. sometimesa griffin. " Denarius of Yaballathus. which is sometimes a serpent. 215 2. Reichardt. ^Berenike L and Kleopatra Selene." by Dr. 6. He is of opinion that the choice of this ornament was not left to the caprice of the engraver. attempts still more than Miiller. *« Supplementary of inedited Gold and Silver Coinsof list Alexander the Great. "Fulvia Plautiana. " New forgeries of Roman Coins. Euergetea. Friedlaender argues that the coins bearing the name of Alexander and his head wearing the elephant's skin. and sometimes a sphinx. which Eckhel attributes to Alexander of Epirus.Phoenicia." by Franz Trau* Herr Trau here publishesthirty-nine forgeriesof Roman coins. and would give all the coins which have been ascribed to her. 7. the wife of Ptolemy HE.however. 4. to Berenike II. Friedlaender. The article is worthy of the attentionof the all collectors Roman of coins. A. In this article. Prokesch-Osten proceeds to attribute those with the serpent to Europe and the parts of Asia in frequent communication with Europe. Sallet doubts the attribution of any coins to Kleopatra Selene. which after all affords the only safe indication for a correct geographicalclassification. Thus much we may grant. this at .: to classify the staters of Alexander according to the ornament on the helmet of the Pallas upon the obverse of these coins. judging from the style. 8. and thosewith the sphinx and to Lycia. the exceptions are too numerous to allow us to accept any definite rule based on such a minor tioned* detail as that above men- 8. viz." by the same. but when M. von Ballet." by E. and that between the ornament and the place of emission there must be a relation which would explain and justify its adoption." by the same. and are the earliest Greek coins struck in Egypt. *«The Earliest Coins of Greek Kings struck in Egypt. Prokesch-Osten." by the Count Prokesch-Osten. while occasionallyit is without any ornament whatever. and IL. M. M. those with the griffin to Cilicia." by Dr. it appears to us that.of whichthirty-four are engraved four platesthat acin company paper. 5. Dr. C. Syria.

was referred to. " On two finds of Cufic Coins in Russia." by H. 11. as was natural. the medal struck by order of Gregory XIII. 18. Mr. in the course of which. " Two Medals in commemorationof the Journey to the East of the Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria. The part concludeswith Notices of recentNumismatic Literature. "A systematic description of the Venetian Coins according to their Types. THE ST. von Bergmaun. Blunt." by Dr. andholding in her right hand a drawn sword. of which two are dead warriors. 12. in a letter published in the Times on Sept.216 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. one a dying warrior. says that medal " is thus described by one of the first authorities on the subject :--Qbv. 1572. on the medal.9 GREGOEIYS XIII. The figure is more likely . " On the Coins of the Indschuides. the " figure drapedas a priest looking on" is not.and a figure draped as a priest looking on." by W. Under the head of the pope the letters * F. 10. 14. Before her are five figures. E.in the background femalefigure throwing up her a hands. von Wachter. 1572 was the year of the accession of Gregory XIII. ANN." by Dr. The date on the obverseshould be " AN." by C. Tiesenhausen. there seems no good reason for describing the destroying angel as a female. Dannenberg. MISCELLANEA." by J." as horror would scarcely be an emotion which a popish artist would desire to convey. II. PONT. apparently to express horror at the scene. An angeladvancing from the left. P. YGONOT- TORUM STRAGES. 15. Luschin." by the same. BAKTHOLOMEW MEDAL WITH VGONOTTOKVM STRAGES.and in her left the cross." This description is tolerably inaccurate. " Onthe Mediasval Coinsof Hoorn. however. " only five figures " are mentioned.-There has been a considerable discussion going on lately in the papers about the St. " Inedited Thalers. L".. 9. head and shoulders of the pope facing the left. MAX. "The Agleier. von Bergmann. A. the " female figure throwing up her liands" can hardly be intended " to express horror at the scene.7 Rev. IB. Bartholomew massacre. one a man trying to make his escape. though six are enumerated fact there are (in seven}.

" whoeverhe may be. in fact.. that the Museum contained treasures unknown . Blunt says.500 coins. or about 1.and is probablythe Department of Coins and Medalshave lately erectedin the G-old a handsome case public of a portion of the national collection of coins. the whole Museum collection will in time be passed through the exhibition case in batchesof thirty-two trays. The first is that the medal was executed more than a hundred and twenty years after the deathof Pisanus(Pisano). p. 364) for £4. of Sale. generally called Federigo di Parma. is here greatly in error. at a time. He worked for Gregory XIII..Sept. J." The medal (&>)is engraved in Numismata Pontificum. But I must remark that no one who had any acquaintance with that artist's style could possibly have attributed the medal to him. "the authority quoted considersthat F. executed by Federigo Bonzagna. 1690.P. 1872. ARNOLB. The reader who may wish to know more about him can refer to BolzenthaFs " Skizzen zur Kunstgeschichte der Modernen Medaillen-Arbeit. and also in Pembr.MISCELLANEA. each of which is so constructed as to contain a tray of coins. This last was bought by specimennow in the British Museum. and possibly maybe meantto typify the Protestant Church-if. 217 intended express to terror. wishing to give several apolo- geticreasons why the bells had not beenrung on the occasion of a visit by QueenElizabeth. It was. BBITISH Ornament MUSEUM. so probably the reader will not require any further proofs that this medal could not have been the work of Pisano. 34. As the mayor of a country town. which are to be found on several of his medals.1.P. This caseis divided into thirty-two compartments. indeed. Thus. LONDON. But it is chiefly with reference to the following remark that this note is written.No. so that any tray may be transferred from its cabinet in the Medal Room and placed under glass for public exhibition. 45. Eom. T. and was told by her Majesty that he need not proceed further. and the letters F. Gregory would have acknow- ledgedthat therewassucha Church..-We Room notice that for the the authorities exhibition of to the the Curt (Cat. mentioned as the first that they had no bells. may mean * Fecit Pisanus. and doubtless with some show of justice. which took placeabout 1480. stand for Fredericus Par- mensis. Mr.. and this can be shown by various reasons. and the three preceding popes. 4.' " The " autho- rity. who have complained. A stepof this sort haslong beencalled on the part foar of the public.

Why. it is needlessto say. and one which renders the exhibition practically useless to the Numismatist. On the whole. explanatory and historical labels might be affixed to each piece. which it ceasesto be when locked up for under glassin a public room. and. Electrotypes possessevery qualification necessaryfor educational purposes. might be amplified to any extent. The nationalcollection might thus be made doublyserviceable the gereral public to throughelectrotypes explanatory and labels. as we mentioned before. showing the portraits of the Roman emperorsfrom the time of Augustus the fall of the Empire. we ask. . lastly. instead of this coin-case. obversetwo hundred times repeated. all the finest coins in the Museum might be exhibited in electrotypewithout disarranging collectionby the removing them from their places in the cabinets. a far moreinstructive of to set pieces than the same numberof real coinsnow on exhibitionin this room-all of the sameEmperor(Hadrian). and this. the obverse and reverse of the coins can be seen side by side at the same time. is the fact that only one side of a coin is visible. and as the exhibition would necessarilybe a permanentone. or nearly the same. accompanied by a printed guide-book. This. an extension of the exhibition of electrotypes of coins erected in the same room some years since. and thus accessible study. on a very limited scale. The system of heading-cards adopted in the cabinets becomes most confusing when a large number of trays are placed at one time under the eye.andto thescientific Numismatist by its remaining intact in the Medal Room. which. could not be done in an exhibition which is being shifted at frequent intervals. has already been done in the Museum in the case of a few select Greek coins. and we should have greatly preferred to see. but we very much doubt whether the public will gain much information from coins exhibited in this way. Another drawback. therefore. What is required to make the exhibition intelligible is a separatelabel to be placed under each coin. The idea of such an exhibition. and in a series of Roman gold coins. while to the Numismatist such a method of showing coins is all but useless. An exhibition of electrotypes may be so arranged as to give at a coup d'ceil a complete view of each branch of numismatics. has been already adopted in the Museum. we should be inclined to affirm that real coins are not fitting objects for public exhibition.218 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. all presentand ing the same. should not the electrotype plan be carried out on a larger scale? A complete series of historical English medals would be of high interest if each were accompanied its appropriate by label. or inaccessible to all but a privileged few. they are exact fac-similes. As a matter of policy on the part of the Museum authorities this concessionis without doubt a wise one.

Anne two- guinea piece. Oxford treblesovereign-£6 2s. with plain edge-£35 Medal of William Bancroft.1820. wt. The " Jackson collection was dispersed Sothebyv " by Wilkinson. 1817. &c. &c. Lot 376. 1643£5 7s. Henry VII. George III. Gold . &.-The " Chetwynd " collection.on 30th July. BENDERTO CJESAR. 1836. 1790. from the Devon- shire collection-£11 5s. and three following days. CharlesI. 1656 -£5. 1658-£5 17s. Agathoeles. George II. William IV. Lot 409. GeorgeHI. Syracusemedallionor decadrachm.1820. Charles II. Lot 77. wt. Hercules . with 4-P at the sides of Britannia-£8 8s. 7 .. Silver:-Lot 127. Anne five-guinea piece.with plainedge-£19 10s. pattern groat. 1753-£7 17s. 10. Oxford pound. by and Woods. wi 280 grs. DECUS TTITAMEN. 1820. Lot £& Anns. Lot 392. 6<f. two-guinea piece.6J. by Pistrucei-£7 2s. decades. the usual griffin squatting. Cromwell crown. Cromwellbroad.-£21 5s. 1770. 259 grs. Lot 373. Lot 394.. was dispersed Christie. pattern two-guinea piece. with the magistrate's readKAAAIAAMAS-£5 12*. £7 17s.1839. 1831. pattern fiveguinea piece. Lot 31. by Yeo-£9 17s. by Simon. Lot 511. and shilling. proof groat. sovereign-£7 15s. GeorgeIlLpattern five-sovereignpiece. Lot 402. GeorgeIII. 219 SALE OF COINS ANDMEDALS.with the garter-£12. JR. pattern crown. groat Lord and for Maryland. Lot 377. 1688-£14."&> 7. Lot 275. Royal arms-£5 5s. Lots 523 to ET 580. George patIII. after the Union-£10. 1836. Victoria proof 10s. pattern crown. &c. pattern crown. on the 5th August. William IV. Lot 265. Lot 129. JB. 1872r and four following days. Lot 23. pattern two-sovereign piece. Lot 239. celebratedfor tokens of the eighteenth andnineteenth centuries. and realised the undermentioned prices:- Lot 50. Victoria pattern florins. FOEDUS INVIOLABILE-£20. Elizabeth portcullis crown and half-crown -£9 2s. Charles I. usual type-£6.MISCELLANEA.out it should have been . . Silver:-Lot 509. wt. Reddite crown. 6d. CaBcilius Baltimoreshilling. 7. 1817 . U. rev. 6d. tern crown. and Hodge. 1687-£6 10s. 1847. Victoria pattern five-pound piece. Lot 146. rev.by Pistrucci-£21.Archbishopof Canterbury. two-guinea piece. by Yeo-£25. GeorgeIII. inscribed on the edge. Qd. Lot 391. 6d. Gothic crown. by Droz. James II. 6<L Lot 372.-£8 2s. rev. Lot 101.pattern halfpenny. George III. 1663. sixpence. Qd. 1706. Tin:-Lot 426. Vis UNITATE.--Lot 234. 6d. Lot 85. Abdera. medallions of the SevenBishops. The most important piecessold as under:-Gold:-Lot 60.-£5 5s. Lot 531. name MA2KAAAIAA in the catalogue. INCORBUPTA FIDES.centums-£69 5s.Manson. 1709-£5. half-crown.6d.. 658J grs. 1768. Lot 274. George III. 1872.

n.-£10 15s. Lot 106. the Dioscuri riding to left. HVNTA.'*before" pro "-£12 5s. Lot 148. jR. Henry VIII. wt. aud Arsinoe-£26. head of the king to right. wt. 5 . JR.m.#". jrt wt. Lot 150. wt. rev. rev. Lot 57. head to right. George noble. 252 grs. rev. AINION. behind TPY (Tryphon)and H3P=year 168-£10: Lot 136.m. monogram of the king's name in the centre. wt. rev. . BASIAEQS ETOAEMAIOY. eagle standing on a fulmen.m. with K behind the neck. headsof Ptolemy II. fifteen-shilling piece. . Harthacnut. eagle on a fulmen. bust of the king to right. .crown. m.. Gold:-Lot 489. 9. &c. 428& grs. Ecgbeorht. ON . . wt. with petasus. m. rev.. Lot 525. 2. xii. wt. 274£ grs.. n.. 4-£17 10-9. Demeterstanding.7 . 8 . Lot 472. 7.. or double rial. IT. JT. Lot523.. Ptolemy IL octodrachm .-£18. Arsinoe octodrachm. holding a cornucopiae-£21. Philip V. radiatedhead of the king to right. veiled headof the queento right. Rud. 426£ grs. m.m. in the field HA in monogram-£10 10s. Alexander di-stater III. 6-£15 15s. Lot 40. rev. rev. lion. Cromwell pattern half-broad.. iv. wt. 271 grs. pentadrachm. goatstanding-£7. 6</. Rud. Hippostratus. varied from Snelling and Ruding-£10 15s. Victory-£8. 9£. M. with sceptre. at the sides a fleur-de-lis and rose crowned. +PVLPI . Perkin Warbeckpattern for a groat. wt. £ P^EeCS x. Lot 147. bust. Elizabeth rial. Lot 151. Richard III. 7-£9 7s.220 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.AngloSaxon English. and fleur-de-lis within a treasure of four curves-£11. 8J-.. Rud.. rev. 427 grs. crescent. &c. boar's head-£6. DOJIilHGC x* STVLYVm x raCE x EeCGGC^xjarms of England crowned. sovereign. AntiochusVI. to left. wt. 157-£10 2s.-£29 15s.. . Rud. Lot 431. Lot 492. &c. Head of Minerva. Lot 417.. and Berenice ..cornucopias. . rev. Lot 495. same m. Berenice . Ptolemy I. m. ©EON. Pegasus-£20. bustto right. Ptolemy VIIL. Huntingdon-^ 12s. AAEA$ON. heads of Ptolemy I. spur-rowel. 8. Lot 49.6d.. Lot 149.. head of Hermes. j[. pi. tasnia. 255 grs. usual type-£8 5s. xii. Henry VII..&. 7.-£13 18s. &c. n. full face. rev. AP3INOHS $IAAAEA$OY. 228 grs. hustto right. 264 grs.-£24 5s. ix. 146 grs. JamesI. -#") 7J. radiatedheadto right. 1658. James I.m. m. . BASTAEOSnTOAEMAIOY. wt.struck by the order of the Duchess of Burgundy. pi.m. JV.. rose. Lot 541. 248 grs. rev. grapes. King of Pontus. 418i grs. with pendent grapes.without " etc. Ptolemy V. 6. angel. veiled head of the queen to right. BEPENIKHS BA5IAISSHS. Lot 152. and GDBOR. Hks. spur rial. n. Simni£ TagSGCL double x 1494 lion. cornucopias. octodrachm. Mithridates VI. nTOAEMAIOYBASIAEOS. rose . rev. double cornucopias. rev.. Lot 510. rev. tsenia.

F. 25). as signifying " La Puissance" \vhen found on Phoenician 001418. xn.p. I HAVE read with considerable interest the valuable article of M. NOTE ON THE LEGEND pp. xii. on the expression. pp. ^76).linguseque Phoenicia. N. I am iuclincd to believe that the Phoenician characters dceipliercd Gcsenius by as VOL. 67). 65. Huber aud J.1837.Though fully agreeing with the learned writer of this article with regard to the meaning he attachesto that word as employed in Sacred Scriptures by the prophet Jeremiah (xlviii. p. cleSaulcy in tlie Numismatic Chronicle. edited by C. G a . I cannot affirm that the legendK is correctlyread.XIII. Not having seen the coin quoted by Gcseuius in his.. *' Scriptiuso. de Saulcy in this article (p.S. monumcntaquotquot supersunt"(Leipz.*TS . To the Editors of the Nu:nlsmatlc Chronicle. and published by me in the Numismatische Zeitschrift. 1870. vol. \Yien. but from the descrip"pp tion of a coin published by M. Karabaeck. yet I amentirelyat variance with the conclusions which at he arrives. and from a similar coin iu a perfectstateof pre* servation in my own collection. W.

Nuniis. which was known by that name up to the time of the Emperor Constantius. 2.tand much less to the promontory Tyre. according the to inscription. de Saulcy'sexplanation cannot be sustained. (whichareon my coin SO *Tp). y^T" (PP) on my co*nJ therefore. changed who it into Constantia HierokL. 582). instead of -^ .> tf-Tp. i. C.wehave theImperialcoins Writable on the ilaineof the town of Karne. EGYPT.and oneto the left (which on my coin is a <^)« If I amright in my supposition. in consequence.two the right of the cornufcopise. stand in no connection with pp . .has no reference whatever to Tyre. <.^O. signifying"^. I fear that M. I read clearly and distinctly.222 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. de Saulcy's specimen. that coin.a town is meant underwjioseauthority no the coinhasbeenissued. KAPNO^J and if so. » 1 SeeTaf. but are only the last of the three Phoenician characters forminga legendwhichstands underthe cornucopise letters to . HEN&Y AI/BXANDBIA. Zeitsch..we must assign these coins to the town of Karne of the Aradians. 1872.therefore. No. which at the sametime is called "The Holy. as on M. asfoundon Greek coinst No other town is known in the mother country of the Phoenicians by that name. RKICHARDT. With regardto the remarkson theImperial coinsbearing the inscription of CORNY PHENICES. called at present of Ras-el-Abiad. refers decidedly to a town. May CORNU not be aRoman corruption the Greek of name. signifying " Holy." The legend. belongsto Phoenicia. p. (It. Now on the coin in my possession. 1870. so that." thetermof IEPA. and that town.^TV i-e.except the naval port of the Aradians. doubt. By the legend. 22.

all likelihood of controversy is at an end. fewremarksare but necessary before I proceedto offer to this Society a list of some unnoted varieties of Richard's coins. 22NDJUNE. laststyle coinage in the of adopted by"his grandfather. cannot possibly be confused with thoseissued by Richard III. so simple a method of classification will not apply to the coinageof any precedingEnglish king. During Richard's reign no alteration occurred in the "weightof the money. With so simplea subjectto discuss.and in aii*f^f|Sts Acceptingname. from the fact that his name is always inscribed upon his coins. With the exception of Stephen.. Edward III.. No difficulty arises in determining the coinage of Richard II. nor did the type undergo any change mention-T-inshorl. which. . in weight.in portrait. They will help to swell the small number already gi^en to this king. UNPUBLISHED COINS ISSUED YABIETIES IN THE OF REIGN ENGLISH OF RICHARD SILVER II.. owing to a marked distinction in type and weight.XIV. 1399. 1377-29TH SEPTEMBER. and as these. from time to time. was repeated. which continued at the rate of 18 penny. haveaccumulated in my cabinet.

andsomepence very inferior workmanship of mintedat York. Willet's. yet it might be expected that the crown. An engraving of this halfgroat can be seenin Ruding. but at Durham and ." If the coin is not altogethera fabrication(it is a very suspiciouslooking piece).which of itself. His mints. he consideredit a coin of Richard IL.MisMATic CHKONICLE. ami on his authority collectors supposed that monarch to have struck Calais money. where it is now to be seenwith the following MS. was purchased for the British Museum. No.isj&t 'the present time. E. wereat London. but at one time it was supposed that he. the moneyof RichardII. of in The well-known patee the period cross of . is sufficient to show that it canflot be a genuine coin of Richard II. which once forming part of the Willet collection. like Edward III. H. Hawkins: . When offered for sale I discoveredit to be a half-groat of Henry IV. 6?but nevertheless theauthenticity thecoinis notadmitted tha|. is rare. coins from tlie JkrtM&g to the groat were issued. E."This imperfect half-groat wasMr. If weexcept Londonhalfpence thecommon the of type.and York.Durham. also coined money at Calais. pi. .. note by the late Mr..224 xr. V. Its weight is only 26-n>- grains... so far as our are knowledge extends.work.then it is altered from a rosette- mascle half-groatof Henry VI. "used his predecessor. the only mint-mark discoveredon the coins of RichardIL. or VI. This supposition was based on a certain half-groat. At London. But few othermarks are discernible°^ *&Bsilver moneyof Ui and thesemarks. . but purchasedit that collectors might always examine it and be satisfied that STichmoney of Richard IL is still a desideratum. . placed are %east of the kmg. and finecabinet specimens seldomprocurable.in raa$tinstances. by would have beencontinued.

ENGLISH SILVEK COINS.

225

Yorkpennies werestruck,thoseof Durham only being by far therarestof the series. They are of very neat and uniformappearance, astheyare notnoticed and in SuelHng's wemayassume theywere work, that unknown a century ago. In typetheyclosely resemble London the
money. Of the samegood workmanshipand uniform appearance a small portion of the York money; but is the majoi-ityof the pennies mintedat that city werestruck from diesverycoarsely executed, muchirregularity is and displayed their generalappearance, their weight,and in in in other particulars, somewell preserved specimens barely reaching15 grains. This markeddifference the design in of the pennies struck at York is so obviousthat, at first sight, they can readily be separatedinto two classes.
This want of resemblance is not alone confined 'to the

reign of Richard II., since the same broad distinction in the type of the York penniesis, though perhapsin a less degree, perceivable during the reigns of some of his immediate successors. Such dissimilarity in type ought not by right to have existed, for when the grant of issuing money was conferred on any particular city, it was at the same time ordered that a particular type, size,weight, and standard should be adhered to; and it was in order to prevent fraud, and to ascertainwhether the directions given
were not evaded, that the trials of the Pix at Westminster

were instituted. At those trials "pieces taken at random from the whole mass coined at each mint jvere melted

and assayed, if found to be of the prescribed and, weight
and fineness,the moneyers,masters, and workers of the

mint receivedtheir quietus, and were freest frcnp.all charges which might hereafter broughtagainstthem/'1 be
! Hawking, p. 881.

226

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.

Although it is admitted that the trials of the Pix occurred at irregular periods, still it strikes one as strange that the discreditablesystem, or rather the want of system, on which the York mint wasconducted for many years was allowedto passunchallenged. In one particular only is

any consistency displayedin the type of the pennies
issued at York during Richard's time. They appear,all of them, to have what is termed an open quatrefoil in the centre of the cross on the reverse. Mr. Longstafie asks:-Is there one York penny between the reign of Edward III. and the annulet coinageof Henry V. " which doesnot bear an open quatrefoil in the centre of the cross on the reverse?"2 My collection, I admit, does not con-

tain sucha penny. All my York pennies, from the reign of Edward III. to that of Edward IV., havethe open quatrefoil the centreof the cross the reverse. This in on
mark occurs,though certainly very rarely, on the coins of

Edward andII. A Londonpennyof EdwardIII. in my L cabinet the openquatrefoilon the breastof the king; has
but I have not seen a London coin with this mark on the

reverse. A York penny of mine, struck in the reign of
Edward III., not only has the-open quatrefoil on the reverse, but also on the King's breast and before the first

word of the obverselegend. Mr. Longstaffesuggests that the openquatrefoil the reverse theYork pennies on of originatedin the handle of St. Peter's key, and the inference he draws from his suggestion is, that all the

penniesissuedat York which have this mark in the centreof the reverseareprobablyarchiepiscopal. that If
dass of York penny which so exactly resembles"the

style of workmanshipis archiepiscopal, then * Num. Cbron., N.S.,vol. xL p.196;

ENGLISH SILVER COINS.

227

it stands to reason, in fact it can hardly be denied, that the dies from which they were struck must-in conse-

quence that minute resemblance-have of beendesigned and preparedby London workmen. Mr. Hawkinsis no doubt right when he remarks,p. 261, "It is probable that in manyinstances the dies were actually made in
London, and transmitted to the various mints where they
were used."

From a careful comparisonof English silver coinsstruck in London and in the country, I have satisfied myself that a somewhat large proportion of those issuedfrom the country mints were actually struck with dies made by London workmen. The very fact that coins with the usual country obverseshave likewise, in someinstances, the usual London reverses, may be considered as confirmatory evidencein support of the opinion that country dies were at one time in the possession the officers of of the London mint. Is it likely that the die or coining iron for a London reversewould have found its way into the country ? Admitting, for the sake of argument, that it did find its way into the country, is it likely, even then, to have been used there for the purposeof striking country coins ? Such an event is highly improbable. Par more

probable it that the dies for the country mints were is
sometimes made in London, and were sometimes used there in mistake for London dies, One thing at least may be taken for granted. In the time of Edward IV, some few groats got into circulation with the customary London reverses; but the obversesof theseparticular coins have the letters B, CC and 6C the King's breast, thereon

by denoting that the obverse dies from whichthey were
struck were intended for Bristol, Coveatay," and York.

Whilst on this subject,I mayby the way,call attention

228

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.
*

" Ancient coyning yrons/'3 communicated to this Societyin January, 1844. la that paper,the
to a paper on

author, Mr. John Field,, informs us that, about the begin-

ning of the year 1835, a number4of coiningironswere
discovered Westminster. in one of the vaults of the Record Office at

Thosecoining irons were dies for the *"'silver moniesof Edward III. and Henry VII.; viz., groat, half-ditto, and

penny,mostlyof the York mint."

This is a usefulpiece

of evidence; but after all is said, may it not just be possiblethat thosecountry coins, struck preciselyafter the London model, were in reality minted at London, and afterwards transmitted to the placesfor which they were

intended. Not only, as before mentioned,are they of
better workmanship and design; but they are also more carefully struck and of truer weight than any of the barbarousvarieties, none of which bear any similarity to the model adoptedat the London mint. Passing over the fact of the difference displayed in the execution of the dies,anotherquestionremains for explanation. It is this. If country workmen were capableof regulating the weight and of producing a good impression of a coin when using a die after the London model, why were they unable to do the like when the die used was madein their own city ? Although the country dies were very inferior to those which I hold were made in London, yet I do not see,if

all the coins were struck by country workmen,why the moneycoinedwith one setof diesshouldnot be equally
well struck and the weights as nicely adjusted as the moneycoined from the other set. The manner of cutting
8Num. Chron.j vol. vii, p. 18.

4 64 standards (obverse dies) and 163 trussells(reverse dies).

ENGLISH SILVER COINS.

229

a die could have little to do with the manner in which an

impressionwas taken from that die; neither would it
account for the surprising irregularity noticeable in the

weights. In someinstances barbarous the York pennies
of Richard II. are so defectively struck, that not a letter. of the King's name is visible, whilst others are little thicker than wafers, being often three or four grains below the proper standard weight. And these coins, too, are in the state in which they were issued from the mint. The addition I now make to the published coins of Richard II. still leaves the list of groats and half-groats far from complete. But I increase so considerablythe

publishednumber pennies of and halfpennies that, at all
events, the list of these pieces may now be looked upon as fairly complete.
GROATS.

All struck at the London mint. Thosepublishedin
Hawkins read EICOTED . DI (or DGCI) . GET* . ESX .

TtRGL. Z . FETmCC, iFETTOCCIO:, have no peculiar or and marks. The mint-mark is always a cross patee. To
these varieties I can add -

1. TTOGL ^ x FBTOttieC. A markof contraction DI, x over
and alsoover the final N in LONDON". Weight, 09 grs. 2, EETtnCC x- Three small pellets over the king's crown. A
mark of contraction after T^NGKL and PE71HCC,and over

thefinal N in LONDON,Weight,68grs. (PL X^ No* l:> la Captain Murchison's collection there was a groat reading FETTRCCL

The mark of contractionI frequently notice on tlie
coinage of Eichard II. is also in a few instances ob-

servable some the late moneyof EiMairdIII. on of
VOL. XII. N.S. H H

230

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. HALF-GROATS.

Prommyowncabinet amunable add to the pubI to
lishednumber thesepieces of issuedby RichardII.; but our nationalcollection containstwoslight varietiesof type
not before noticed.

Thosealready published read,EldTt&D Dl £ (HOT £ x
B6CX TtnGLieC x (Ruding,iv. 3); x D x G x BSX £ TTOGL

x ^ xFETV (Hawkins, 317); x DI £G x ES* £AKGLx <»
xFK7Vn(F(Ruding, iv. 2). Thoseunpublished are :1. Mark of contraction after EIG7TBD and over final N in LONDON, and also oyer Y in MGCV. Beads, TtHQLlCL

(PI. X., No. 2.)
2. Without mark of contraction. Eeads, TTRGrLIGC.!FE7t*

LONDON PENNIES.

Hawkins mentions only two varieties, EICC7VEDE6CXx x

TOOL Z x PETVa x (Ruding,iv. 4), and EiaTTRDYS £
E¬CX TVnGLieC. on king's breast; pellet at each x Lis sideof neck (Buding, Sup.,ii. 12). Both coinshavethe
Roman N in LONDON. To these I can add1. EICC7m> x B9X x TIHGL x ^ FETma. Lis on breast; mark of contractionafter TtftG-L; the letter N in LQNBON

of theEoman character; cross5 before CCIVIT7VS. Weight,
16igrs.

* In their works on Heraldry, Guillim mentions 39 different crosses; Leigh, 46; Edmonson, 109; and Eobson no less

than 222. Therefore may be worth while stating that when it I allude to a cross,I simply mean the plain c&tes,, tints,'+. The saltire is of this shape,x. As to me small crosses, or saltires,which divide the words of the legends,stops were

siKplyintended, it is unrea®0imble imagine and to that any
importance beattached a slight difference the shape can to in of
crosses; for I am satisfied none was ever intended.

I have seen five of these rare pieces. Largehead trefoil (?)on breast x . 18}. only mark *. qiaatrefoil or cross after obverselegend. crossbefore CCIYITKS. Weight. ftRGKL Z . EBOETOL Weight. pellet x x on a over each shoulder. 318.Weight.) DUEHAM PENNIES. (PL X. EICCKED x E6CX x T^RG-LIGC Small bust. No.and before eCBOETML Weight. No. 4. two crosses after aiVITflS. 18grs. Hawkins noticed a scallop. T^RQLIQ: S x. .) 4. 17^ grs.ENGLISH SILVER COINS. 5.Lis>or cross» Breast.. EiaftKDVS . No. Differs only from No.. Hawkins describes seven varieties. and three others. 17grs. 17i grs. and before. ' Weight. . Similar. 6. another. X. Lis on breast. 17 grs. 3. EICCflEDVS x B6CX x TtRGLIQ:. on obversea large crossafter the legend. 3 in having a mark of contractionover the final N in LONDON. Old English R in LORDOR. with sameobverse. 15£grs. before and after CClYI. EldftEDYS x E6CX x TtRG-LIGC. TtRGL . On one penny with the last reading . Apparently they are from the same die. 4. All with an open quatrefoil in the centre of the crosson the reverse.has merely a cross after QIYI. -One reads.. YORK PENNIES. 319). No. EICC7ERD EQX . EICITVED x B6X x TVnaLieC x ^. EQX .. another. 5. x 7VRQL S x FE7VR. No. £ KRGI0I . (PI. (PL X. No mark on obverse . . 16 grs. Another. 3. Weight. two crossesafter ffBOEftOL Weight. FEfiR. To these I can add1. nRG-IICC another. (No. Weight. T^RGLeCI (Snelling.ii. (PL X. small pellets at each side of shoulder.No marks on obverse. 231 2.) 3. RomanN in LONDON .) 2. but having only a lis (?) on tha breast and a trefoil after 6CBOE7VCI. but they offer no variation in type from Hawkins. 16grs. in one quarter of reverse. scallop after aiYITTO. Eeads. Z * FE7V.

pellet over each shoulder. Weight. Someare to without the cross after THlOLia. Similar type.232 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Saltire on breast. "Ifl.(PL X. reads BBOETVOX 16£ grs. may be taken for either letter. (?) Weight. 7VHGL: DHS . (PI. 7.. Those to follow. areafter just Nos. 14grs.Saltire breast pellet on . Others. 8. in truth. 6 and 7 are of very rude workmanship. eachshoulder. Comparatively good work. . Nos. 6. No. X.¬030. with a cross or quatrefoil after GCIVI. 9.) 9. Comparativelyfair work. . KICTttfcDVS x EaX £ 7mGLI¬C. .ll> Banging from fair (speaking comparatively) very inferior wqrlpnanship. scallop afterGEIVITTVS. 7. EldTVBD : E6CX. and. Same legend. 1 to 5. but inferior workmanship* A saltire on breast. 6CD (?). weigh respectively.18} grs. oyer eachshoulder. Both coins belongedto the Highbury find. 15grs.) I have varietiesof JJp. range from inferior to what maybe calledbarbarous workman- ship. These have the £ in EBOETiai of the proper shape. 6 to 12. Same legend. cross before and after CCIYIj pelletbefore eCBOET^ai.EIOCTtEBYS £ EEX g^tn. 10. after The weightsvary ftom 15| ta 17Jgrs. lis (?) on breast. 12} and 15} grs. No other marks. the London models. of barbarous workmanship.are and distinct fromtheIjondon types.15i grs. Another. U. but lis or quatrefoil instead of saltire on breast. The D looks somewhat like a roughlyformed B.. isFo.) Nos. Weight. No. Weight. TheYork pennies described. Reverse reads. Weight. 18 grs. without the scallop after QIVIT7VS. others are without the IBI-OSS aiVI. 8. (PL X.. Cross breastpeUet ^ BOX on . Cross after 7^nQ-LI¬C. The letters ¬CD the end of the obverselegend were probably at intended for tyB. cross after CCIYI.

Slipped trefoil on the king's breast. and whose designs are inferior to the others.. Very good work..ENGLISH SILVER COI^S. Hawkins. m. 2. 17. of 6. These halfpence the commonest are coinsof RichardII. Weight. 1 will not speakpositively.' EGCXTOG-. 7CRGLF. fair work. HALFPENNIES. thick coin. . Legend as No. . Beads Both N's in LONDON distinctly of the. (3) sometimesa cross theking's breast. but as the first N is slightly blurred. 9J grs. A mark of contraction afber BIGTtRD. 10£grs. m. 1. 3. the coins carelessly struck. and are equally rare. Weight. The bust of the king large . It seems me the first N in LONDON is Boman*tik&secoitd to Old English . Five. The coin reads7VRGL.Ending. They weight as they should do. Two small crossesin place of m. A small. 4.pretty of little coins. The halfpence the usualtype arewell struck.m. Two slight varieties. and the H in LOODORis always of the Old English character. on Snelling. (4) * T^nGLiec. I will now describethem :1. BIOCKRD . and (5) no mint-mark. . 6. . No. veil struck. £ Largehead. as a rule. are not well struck. Weights. 320.cross patee.. 10. iv. BSX x TCHGLieC.ii. These coins very closely resemble someof the halfpence coinedby Henry IV.) 5.but far more frequently with crosses (saltires). 8 and 10£grs.and weighs 7f grs.(1) BICOTRD vk. No. (PL X. Beads KRGL* x P.. varieties only appear to be published. Small ' bust . This is the only halfpenny of Bichard II.m. cross patee. 233 All struck at London. There are also some unpublished halfpenceof this king which.Boman character. Beads. with crossesbetweeneach word. Each coin weighs 8f grs. I have a JiaJft>eany Bfenry IY* with LOND017.m. (2) £ TtnGL. The words of the legend are sometimes divided with pellets. good work. Of great rarity.

TOLiec. King's headvery large.No. that the coins were most probably intended for trial or pattern pieces. reading. Hawkins only gives two varieties. (PL X. The coinstogethermake is the legend. A small rose after .both in weightsand workmanship. from that find. is of extreme and rarity. No.only 7 grs. and all those described. reads. 12. seems peculiar manyof the halfpence to from the Highbury find.) that has comeunder my notice with the Eoman N's in LONDON. BOX. 322). The British Museum specimen. Inferiorworkmanship. 321 has a small roseinsteadof pelletsin eachquarterof the reserve. NECK. viz... BICC7CBD BffX .What is wanting in the Museum specimen suppliedby mine. 7J grs.234: NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. but they have the name for being rarer than they actually are. "Weight. 11. andI continueto hold the opinionI ventured to express when giving a list of the halfpence Henry of IV. with the usual pellets in each quarter of the reverse.BIGOTED E6CX . A slight varietyof this type has lately been shown to me.whoseweights are unusually heavy unusually or light. Theirregularity. 5£ J. One. Hawkins' No. Beverse.andprobablyalso after BIGOTED. are rare. Old English JFs fe LQITOOn. Weight. but it so happens have a *coinfrom the same that makes I die 'up for its deficiencies.else. . from which the engravingin Hawkinsis taken. FBJBD.Mj specimen of weighs grs.Designdiffersfrom the otherhalfpenceof Bichard. . TtnGL. miQL : (see Hawkins. Rose in each quarter reverse. OIYITfiSLQRDOn. 7. (PL X. arefrom the Highbury find..why the unusual number of entirely new types and why the indifferenceevincedas to weights? Farthings of Richard II.) This coin. No. and V.is very imperfectly struck.

OF SCOTTISH COINS. 110. 4.. They present greatvarietyof type. H. THElongdouble-cross pennies Alexander or III. 3 having the common rudely formed stars. and 5 in the plate illustrate these varieties. with six points. No. et $eq. UNPUBLISHED VARIETIES No. . W. No. The general type of the reverseof these coins is well known. p. Lindsay. we find rudely-formed stars. though Mr. 3. and and regularly shaped^and almost like a closed mullet. 4 the neat 1 " View of the Coinage. form of IL a most interesting series of Scottish coins. No. almost of in every instance. Nos. and appear havebeen to minted by many different moneyers in almost every part of the country.XV." &c. havethe starsround. whereas. after correctly describing the difference between stars and mullets in the first note to page 15 of liis <e View of the Coinage of Scotland/' most unaccountably states that " mullets of six points *n are always foundin the angles the cross.of these coins struck at Berwick exhibit muchHeaterworkmanship. Scarcelyany collection of them canbe examined without finding varietieswhich are not to be found in any published work. however.

of the same mint.communicated me by the Bev. and is properly the concluding portion of the obverse legend* If this reading be the correct one. E. the singular variety which presents perfectly-formed mullets on the reverse. with sceptre. regular stars. B6CB. it of course assigns coin to Alexander the HI. H. is WI LAN6CB T6CB.-Long double cross. ALGCXANDGCE T¬RWI LAIGCB. Rev. OR HI. J. with sceptre.. are so just and to the point.-Long double cro§s. being equivalent to tertius. that I make no hesitation in quoting them. 5. II. with mullets of six points. 6. 5 the perfect mullets. with some other rare coins. Burns for the opportunity of adding to my collection. to after an inspection of the coin. . 0-C BOX. The following remarks. PENNY OF ALEXANDER II. Eev. No. . Obv.the TO.-Crowned head to the left. and No.) It will be observed that this moneyer is a new one. and I think it is. with stars of six points. Obv. Pollexfen.) The legend on the reverse is remarkable. (See PlateXI.-Crowned head to the left. I am indebted to Mr. Pollexfen. The following description of this peuny may be of interest:I. with his permission:-"The reading which I consider the true one. (See PlateXI. of the Rev.236 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. buf a different moneyer.2 Thenextpennyis a very singularand curious variety. and what makesthis more probably correct is that we have a is4ft It* eolation zA similarpenny. J. BEX. H.. No. ALGCXANDQ: AD6C . and the interpretation of it not altogether easy.. PENNY or ALEXANDER III..

UNPUBLISHED VARIETIES OF SCOTTISHCOINS. fig. reading it WILAN or WILAM.wherewe ftnd MBCd.more particularly when followed by an L in the next word. I I .have a new name of a moneyer.Terwi/ or <Terwiue. and read it T6CEWILANGCR TVC .' And the letters WI by themselves. tertiiis. The name TGCRIBI found as is a moneyer on some of the coins of Henry III. VOL. . by T6CBWI LINGER.. Henry III. but it seemsto me impossible to make anything out of 6CHT6CR as a place of mintage. and may prove to be the right one. we have certainly a very satisfactory moneyer's name. and that the WI LANER must be held to stand for the moneyer (William. as we already know." . XU. This doesnot seema very improbable rendering. 237 similar legendin the coins of his contemporary. but I cannotrememberto have seenanywhere the name.. . pi. v. whose name we already find as a moneyer at Lanark) and the mint. Suppose take T¬CE the first part of the reverse we as legend. The adoption of this reading will have an important bearing on the appropriation of those coins of the same type which do not bear the distinguishing numeral* The otherreadingsuggested Mr. 11. 6. Pollexfen. . The omissionof the usual ON. was a moneyer at Lanark. figs. fig. but it is proper to considerthe claims of other readingsalso. i. If we begin with WI. 9-13). are quite sufficient to indicate <William/ who. is sometimes found (vide Win gate. pi. N. and take the first two syllablesas the nameof the moneyer.S. of England. though not common. In considering the claims of thesevarious readings. I think it is the most natural reading we can adopt..i. pl. and Lanark still as the place of mintage. I incline towards thinking that if the T6CR forms part of the legendonthe obverse thereis a strongprobabilitythat (and it does) it should be read first. Sup.

(The dots marking the ends of the cross).238 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. mustbedetermined a comparison other specimens by with which may still turn up.. gives two specimens this mint. tyeCNRI. Mr.. E¬CX. Penniesof this mint are very uncommon. 85* p* * Lindsay. with sceptre. to ?v * Wingaie. bothby the same of moneyer. Oneof these reads STRIVff. 206) and""VYingate 27) at the (p. and with a different portrait* Another variety of the same mint is noticed iu the NumismaticChronicle. in his second Supplement. 192. p. is noted 4 ashavingonly fiveires*. &j£jEdmburgh half-groat with seven arcs. the other has the same legend as the one now noticed. Wingate's collection . to any III. TE. NS . No. xvi. highest degreeof rarity.No. 81. (See PlateXI. OF STI LING. . p.Crowned head to the left. veryrarely/ the in but groats are found with sevenatesy and. with six points.and is nowin Mr. .Four stars. OF II. Lindsay.vol. IV.) A new variety of the Stirling mint has lately occurred. Obr. but divided in a different way. Thegroatsandhalf-groats DavidIL haveusually of sixarcs the treasure* Occasionally." . \oiie fcAlf 'gfrQat. PENNY ALEXANDER ORIII.. . and are noted both by Lindsay (p. ter.. The notice of this coin may possibly induce those havecollections early Scottish who of pennies seewhether othersimilar onesstill exist. 205. RIO . which reads tiGKL ON STR.haslately beenadded my collection. is alsoa possible and the claimsof thesetwo legends one. 7.

J.and the die for the well-knownportrait testoons of Mary of 1561 was made in the early part of that year.though not unpublished.7 Obv* Arms of France and Scotland. Legends as usual. D. 5 " Scot. LEO . it maybe of is that interest to notice it.though a very fine specimen existsIn the Advocates' Library. 6Preface. Hist.6 Francis died on the 4th of December. (SeePlateXI. HALF-THISTLE . uncrowned. Rev. "Wingate (p. 49) had neverseen one. 10. with mullets of five points. V.1561. 10. R. Obu. as usual. with I . between a cross and a saltire. ME .crowned. of suchrare occurrence.-FM in monogram. .with sceptre. both crowned. Mr. p. Library.-The arms of Scotland.. 1560. 7 Another specimen in thecabinet theRev. thechapteron eoins5 medals in and in his " Scottish HistoricalLibrary/' givesthe date 1561. Q.) This very remarkable coin is from the Wigan collection.as usual. IMPVNE Small crown. Sevenarcs in tressure. ET .&c. NEMO . Rev. 1580. DOLLAR OF JAMES VI. R on each side. DE . . No. FEAN . GR. Pollexfen. Bishop Nicolson. 289 QbVf-Crowned head. so that the number of testoonswith the monogram and 1561 must bevery limited. MA. IACOBVS D SCOTORVM. The specimen described below. FRANCO . Edinburgh mint. IVDA VI. asfound on the testoousof Francis and Mary. crowned. H. SCOTOR .UNPUBLISHED VARIETIES OF SCOTTISHCOINS.-Thistle. noris the date givenby Mr. Rev. . in which lie is followed by Cardonnel. is of .-Cross. 97).between fleur-de-lys and thistle. mm. Lindsay (p. LACESSET . 322.." p. TRIBV . VICIT . crowned. Legend.

which has the thistle crowned. Thus.in fine condition. Mr.a small crown as a mint-mark. 57). pi. and differs entirely from the coins of 1581. 1578. 207). x. agrees and with the earlier. lot 202. = The acts of July 28.. ^ud givesthe same nameto the coin of 1581 (whichneverexceeds 175 8 Oneis noted in the Ferguson sale. 1579. unfortunately. 18.240 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLK. Lindsay (p. for example. It Las the thistle uncrowned. 172). A great deal of confusionarises from the difficulty of finding proper namesfor the various classes coins. cannot reconcile the weights with the acts. though about the same diameter. It is mentionedin Lindsay's Supplement (p. and is a very thick coin for its size. though Mr... and must uot be confounded with the thistle noble of 1581 (Lindsay. . order the coinageof piecesansweringexactly to the thistle dollars.while this half thistle dollar weighs164 grs. In all these respectsit differs from the later coinages. or with the half thistle noble of the samedate (Lind. These statutes authorise the half also to be coined. weighsonly 88^ grs.8 and that is in the Advocates* Library. 279. and llth November.pi. and it weighs. Lindsay calls the coin of 1579 (which weighs generally about340 gtains) a dollar. a mistake afterwards correctedin the errata to the second Supplement (p. confusing the French weights (then used in Scotland) with the English. The appearance of this coin corresponds exactly with that of the dollars of 1578-9. but is there erroneouslycalled the thistle dollar. poorpreservation. which. and I have no doubt but that this coin and the one in the Advocates' Library are the halves of the thistle dollar struck under these acts. No. x. 206). thoughonly. 169J grains. I only in know of one other specimen. 44). of at p.

and the coins of 1581. of the secondcoinagewith an unusual form of crown . . pi. or III.9with the crowned thistle and cross mintmark. 206*. 9Lindsay. R. 10Num. 283.merk. W. a penny of John Baliol. No. II. ^ noble and \ noble. a penny of Alex.. a halfpenny of David II. 207. 207*. or the double (silver) noble. 2. and it is difficult to seewhy this name(which also expresses value) was not retained. The addition of the date would sufficiently distinguish them from the merks of 1601-2-3. 8. No. No. of the secondcoinageand Roxburgh Mint. half plack of James VI. with its rare the half now described. or III. 10."UNPUBLISHED VARIETIES OF SCOTTISH COINS. (PL XL). The following coins figured in the accompanyingplate. Chron. 9. 1. weredescribed a10 in precedingnote :-No. 11.vol. the penny of Alex. This. 208. 241 grains).would thus form one series. J merk (or noble) \ J merk and J. II. another series representing the merk of 1581. The actcallstlie larger coin a two-merk piece. xL p. COCHRAN PATRICK. . noble. No.

5« Numis.." p." p. 200. Pinkerton6 appropriatesthe groats with bushyhair to James III.. 9 (Lond."pL clx. 1774). 7 " Arab.. Cardonnel5 thinks they were the only coinage of James II. ii. as his second coinage." No. Brit. all the fleur-de-lis groats j and to James IV. 312. OF THE SCOTTISH No. Ty. 4 " Yiew of the Silver Coinageof Scotland. i p. all the gold riders.. Cummyng7 correctlyconsiders 1 " Bib.- Almost everywriter onthe subject givena different has arrangement.1'vol. Scot. and does not think any of the gold lozenge lions belong to James I. Snelling4gives the crown groats to James I.2 who assigns to James I. 446.. Scot. 85.Nicolson. 3 " Scottish Hist.Theviews ArchbishopSharp1 of -the first writer on the coins of Scotland-were."vol. Library. Scot. . NOTES ON THE ANNALS COINAGE.XVI. HI. Anderson8 considers the groats with the arched crown to have been struck by James II. * " Dip. THE correct appropriation of the coins of the James's is one of the most difficult problemsin Scottish Numismatics. for the most part." p. 78. adopted by Bishop [. * "Essay on Medals. p.Thes.

is the disinclination to leave an uncertain type unappropriated till further evidence can be produced.1870. were strictly carried out. " . 242. and. fineness. and very often insufficient. 160. reigned in succession between 1406 and 1542.p. 78. 243 the groats with arched crowns to be the coinage of JamesIV.cannot now be found. as representing the date 1490. nor are any dates found before 1539. Another thing which has contributed very materially to the prevalenceof error in the classification of these coins. authorising particular coinages. and Wingate9 gives a new coinage to It is not difficult to accountfor this uncertainty. 10There is not sufficient evidence to warrant us consider- ing the XC. bearing the same name and style. Chron.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. and the fourth only occasionally. Three of these never used a distinguishing numeral on their coins. 9 "Illustrations of ScottishCoinage."p. Lindsay"assigns nearly all the gold lozenge lions to JamesI. yet even those which are still extant have not 8 " Yiew of the Coinage of Scotland. VideNum. James IV.and value. giving general directions as to weights. grounds are seizedon to make appropriations which more exact knowledge provesto be erroneous." p. Though it is greatly to be regretted that so few of the original documents relating to the coinage have been preserved.10 The times in which they lived were characterized by continual internal dissensions and constant changes in the government. on the unicornsof James IT. . Five monarchs. so that we have no certainty that the public acts. The most slender.which would haveenabled us to identify the coinagesthat were actually issued. while the greater portion of the more particular minutesand accounts..

Prior to the Appearance Mr. and his successor. But Mr. The last volume of the printed Chamberlain Rolls contains the first of these. they as are usually calledin the rolls) to JamesI. of which the coinages are recorded.at the closeof last paper.244 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. p. A careful search lately made11in the Historical Department of the Register House at Edinburgh hasresulted in the finding of a tolerably completeand exceedingly interesting seriesof the accountsof the moneyersduring the reigns of James II. are I havealready alluded.to the effectwhichRobertGray'saccounthadon the appropriation of part of the gold lozenge lions (or demies. . » K 132. Lindsay lays down a rule12for the separation the coinsof thesetwo kings. 14 181. The discovery of this moneyer'saccount.and which by has the practical effect of transferring almost all the demies-at least all without annulets-to James I.which is purely of arbitrary. were struck in the earlypart of the reign of JamesII. andthat the greatmajority of these by coins. 20. Lindsay's" View of the ScottishCoinof age. hitherto been made use of. iaLindsay's First Supp.13 and the doqum^nts lately brought to light show that it is not supported facts.. the re- mainingones nowfor the first time noticed. find tb&t & sjaaall we part of the w 1872. P. This arrangementhas alwajTsproved unsatisfactory. rendered it highly probable that a small proportion of this coinage had struck before the murder of James I.." these coins were always considered to belong to JamesII.and unsupported any evidence. however. Lindsay's statement that the demies were not ptrack before 1436 (though he admits a probability of their being coined in 14S414). AssumingMr.

1438.. Any other points of interest which occur in the MS. but the rule by which at present these coins are divided betweenthe two reigns cannot IMS .(troy) of silver into groats. 245 18 Ibs. it appears that 1 Ib. both in the previous and the present reign. 1436. RobertGray renderedan account17 Stirling. for each Ib.. 8 ozs.specially named for the purpose. and Christmas eve. and James II.was coinedinto demiesbetween Christmas eve.and 16^Ibs. Rojls in Register Houseat Edinburgh.a trial of the Fix is recordedin the Chamberlain Rolls16 having taken place at Edinburgh^ as in which all the coinagestruck by Robert Gray. K K .ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE.. and 55. Roll 194* VOU XII. of silver into pence and halfpence. on the 2nd September. fo*» each pound of gold. therefore. as the evidencegoes. s. certainly belongs to the reign of James I. This year. o. Edin.4d. In July. 1437.of gold wascoined into demies ("indimidiis") atEdinburghj 26 Ibs. to the date of the account. maintained. 1440. J oz. From this. of silver coinedinto groats. General Register House. Rolls. (which closedon the 20th February. was carefully tested in the presenceof various commissioners.11ozs. weight. 1450. 1441. N. and July. coined into pence and half15 MS. 17 MSS. 16Cbam. Rolls will be noticed under the years to which they belong* 1438. 5s.15 inclusive of any portion of the 18Ibs. As far. 1437.): but that more than 50 Ibs. The duty payable to the king was 16$.S. 1436. Thomas de Cranston was then the warden of the mint. p. of all the bullion coined at by him from 23rd June. in the meantime the demies must be considered as belonging both to James I. mentioned above. voL iii.and found to be true and good. of gold which is recorded to have been struck between the middle of September. 398. for each Ib.

pence. account The duties and fees noted are similar to thosein the preceding 1443. and it certainly seemssurprising that so few of the coins should have come down to us. Mr. 14 ozs.1441. 4d. 174. and the sameprovisionoccurs in all the moneyers* accountsof this period. Between December 25. 1437. of 18 P. John deDalrymple again appearsat Stirling on the 19th July. Roll 195.and 29 Ibs. 89 Ibs of silver were struck into pence and halfpence at the Edinburgh mint alone. and another considerablecoinageof these smaller coins is also recorded in this account. 195. 19 wll be seenfrom later accounts It tliat the poundof silver * MSS.. and ftecountssi for . 27 Ibs. 1442.. (in and 10 Ibs. The fee to be paid to the warden of the mint is one pennyfor every13ozs.of silverinto groats. ni$o contained sixteen ounces. 1443. and mentioned the in accountof 1436-38. of gold19contained 16 ozs. into pence and halfpence. of gold was coined dimidiis). It will be observed half-groatsarenot menthat tioned. and July. During the year it appearsthat 1 Ib. 6 ozs. The mint seems have beenin the house of one John Swift. Someother curious particulars are given in this account.246 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.of gold coined into demies. and embracesthe coinages from September. . Almost exactlya yearlater. Lindsay has alluded18to the amount of silver mintedinto pence halfpence. is allowed to him for the rent of it. to as 535.8 ozs. 8 ozs.of eithergoldor silverstruck: and the same sum is given to the graver of the irons.5Ibs. It is expressty stated that the Ib. The account20 this year was rendered at Stirling by John de Dalrymple for Robert Gray on the 17th July.

during the past year. p. 350-S60. which was used as the mint.18 Ibs. Tod. ' 23 Lindsay.of gold were 21 ' ' 23 MBS. of silver into groats. 1444* In the following year we again find records24 both of the Edinburgh and Stirling mints. into groats. Berwick. and Stirling.. . and is an exception to the general statement that the gold coinagewas struck at Edinburgh. 12 ozs. 1442. No. and I41bs of silver into pence and halfpence. The duties and expensesof the Stirling mint appearto have been the sameasthose of Edinburgh. John deLevingston is named as warden . It appears that he was constituted moneyer of the king in the town of Stirling on the 18th November. Thesameyearanotheraccount22 given in at Stirling.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. We know^ from the crown groats of the secondcoinage. «*MBS. like the preceding ones. and contains an account of all his receipts expenses and from the date of his entry into the office. p. Wingate. The coinage of gold is very limited. by on the 23rd June j and. Nos. p.confeans almosta year'scoinage. of silver into pence and halfpence. Roxburgh. It was renderedby Alex. Perth. is which is of considerable interest. Robert Gray's account is rendered. 361.that mints23 were established in this reign in Aberdeen. 92. and Robert Hakate receives 6s. and from that date to the time of giving in his account. Roll 107. but no records of any of them have as yet been discovered. Roll 196.in his absence. he struck one ounce of gold into demies. 15 ozs. on the 26th July. 247 silver. 8d.. during-which ozs. as the rent of his house. and ISlbs. John de Dalrymple. This account shows that the rare fleur-de-lis groats of Stirling were struck during the reign of James IT. 93. 67.

during the time. as appearsby his statement given in on the 14th July. * " Scots Acts. 1444. A memorandum is attached to this account. struck into demies. Roll 205. During that time seven pounds of gold were minted into demies. of silver into groatsduring the preceding year. but no smaller moneyappears havebeenstruck at Edinburgh. nor any gold whatever. and refers to an " act" made some time before by four-and-twenty commissioners specially appointed for 35 MSB.and 12J Ibs. 2fiMSB.jun. 5| ozs. Tod's coinages for at Stirling during the sameperiod. On the 7th September. ii. renders the account26 Robert Gray. to This is probablyaccounted by Alex. at Edinburgh. specified in the account.into groats. of gold. Roll 203. 1444..App. of gold. It was passedat Edinburgh in the month of January.248 " NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 1449. of silver into groats. showinga coinageof 4 Ibs." vol. coined into demies. and makes oath that no silver has been coined into groats.in which he accounts the gainfrom for 16 Ibs. . and not of 1 oz. for the next account25 discoveredis dated July. at of Stirling. 36. 1448. 4 ozs. and 26 Ibs. and contains the gains and expenses the Edinburgh mint from the 18th of September.and 92 Ibs. of silver made into pennies. 1447. No coinage into small money is recorded. p. 1447. 1448. 6£ ozs. p. Car. Thefoliowing yearwefind thefirst parliamentary enactment27 the subjectof moneyduring the reign of on JamesII.and 78Ibs. John de Dalryraple.which areentirely in the smaller coins.. 10.. of silver which John de Dalrymple gave to Alexander de Narn. stating that Robert Gray does wish to renderany account the 1Ib. The annual rendering of the moneyer'saccounts seemsto have been omitted for a year or two. 5 ozs.

This act of 1449also contains the important provision that no one in time to come shall strike money. of silver made into groats. while in 1452new moneyers and newdutieswill be found. as we find Robert Gray's last account rendered in 1450. no trace of this " act" can now be discovered. for each pound of silver when coined into groats. 1450. and 541bs. 249 the purposeof looking into the regulations for the supply to be of bullion. between 7th September. 1451. Unfortunately.and it is certainlythe longest haveas yet met we with. A search has been made to seeif any commissionsto moneyersare preserved the Reg. 2ozs. 14 ozs. 4d. of of gold coined into demies. Mr* Lindsayconsiders2? actof f 451oneof the the fullest and most important we have relative to the Scottish coinage. P. On the 21st July of this year Robert Gray and John deDalrymplefor the lasttime rendertheir account28 at Edinburgh of the gains and expenses 1 Ib.. 1448. unless they have the authorityof the king under the greatseal. Sig.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. Mag. 5s. viz. for each pound of gold (eachpound containing 16 ozs. I havealready statedthat there is a probability that the "Act" made by the four-and-twentypersons 28 MSB. or in the Privy Seal. thoughin all probabilityit did not take effect till 1451. Boll 209.whencoined into small money. but it will be observed immediatelyafter the passing that of the act of 1451 the rate is considerably lower in the silver coinage. and 55.: 16s. . and the date of the rendering.). and of considering the " new straik" made.. in but none have as yet been found. In all these accountsthe *' gain to the king " is at th:e same rate. 29 28. with the usual charges and duties.

30 this is but not certain. 40. and jun. alludedto in the parliamentof 1449. 28* . was probably moneyer someof the othermints. and Alex. The penniesminted by the*king's moneyersare allowed to have coursetill the new one§ are issued.32 It provides for a new coinage groats(at eight to the ounce)with half-groats. No mention is made in the accountswe have just examinedof the coinage of half-groats. " A careful perusalof this act raises severalvery curious points. *l Pp. sen. 28. recordsarenowJost. The values of various foreign coins are also set forth. The *' John Spethy/* whosename does not occur in the Rolls. to be called a lion. The enactments now to be noticed are headed in the originalrecord:-"The avisement the.and farthings in proportion. 89. Among the moneyerswho are mentioned we recognise Robert Gray. 188.&c. of pence. » P. John de-Dalryniple. It will not be the necessary enterinto the detailsof this act as its proto visionsare givenby Lindsay31 and a part of the act in full in CardonnePs Appendix.of which. It settles the courseof the old coinage and orders a new gold piece. the It is alsoprovidedthat trusty men shouldimmediately *'««Scots Acts./' and apparently occupy whole session. pp.250 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 10 Appendix.Deputies of of the threEstatis.p.. The groats here called the sixpenny groats are generally considered^ to be the groats with the fleur-de-lis of which no half has everyet beendiscovered. . and to be equnl in weight to the half English noble. ii.d.halfpence. at thoughthe coinsarepreserved. M Lindsay.did not take effect till after it was authorised by the parliament which was heldat Stirling on the 25th October 1451. And yet *fthe half-grotethat now rynis" is more than once mentioned.tuichingthematerof the money." vol. To.

4L 87It is to he observed that wo eannot consider that these accounts record all the coinageswhich took place. in his "Annals. and the gold from £3 to £<! 19s. and these were to be destroyedin presence the king and his council. An important differenceoccurs in the seignorage. the ounce to 8$.180. on the day preceding the rendering of. the account " vij assais of gold. No coinage of gold is recorded. xxxiiij grotis of xij£ grotis and 35 in a lokfast box quhilk was of the assaisof silver and of gold syn the xvij day of Male the year M?. 4d. The following year a new moneyer. which is now stated to be 2*. ii.an act waspassed ordering the English penny to havecourse for three Scottish onesuntil the next meeting of parliament. Balfour. 12 ozs. « MSB. Provost of Edinburgh.of silver wereminted but into groats and pennies. 1452. Naper. Theact closes with some sensible provisions for the payment of obligations incurred during the time of the course of the old moneys. it is evident that some must have been coined. p. Sd. formerly invariably found in the accounts. 14-52.John Laundale. 251 be sent to collect all the old coining-irons and also the letters of graving from the gravers. 1453..cccclii. it is stated that the Auditors of the Ex- chequer delivered to Alex. rendersan account36 Stirling on the 19th June of at his gains andexpenses since 17th of May." 34saysthat in this parliament the king raised his money from 5s.. 1452.35held at Edinburgh the 26th of August. 338Ibs. per Ib.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. Boll 216. Though no gold is accountedfor by Laundale." This and the following gold coinageswere probably the lions ordered 341. » " Scots Acts/' vol. and of newonesgivenout within the mint. . In the next parliament.37 in a for memorandum. instead of the 5$.

.of gold. « MSS. 46 .and the townswhere they in carriedon their operations specified. andSQlJozs. in which severalprovisions about the money were enacted. The following year certain lords were nominated by parliament the month of March40 convene the in to in next pla^e where the " chekkar" may be held. and asRobertGray's namedoes appear not again.. at of all the money coined by him from 15th November.orderingthat to whoeverarrests a false coiner shall have ten poundsfrom the king besides escheat him that is forfeited. He accounts lOf oas.252 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. p. ii. to commune upon the matter of the money. the of A parliament39 heldat Edinburghin October." vol. thoughthe denomination thecoin' of is not stated. As it is not statedto havebeen struckat Stirling. After giving the number of the ouncesof silver. and it is forbidden.of for silver.. was 1456. The new groat in particular was ordered to pass for \2d. c." vol. the record proceeds centinario contmentesexcies *' viyintL" 38" Scots Acts/' vol.. p. 1457. and in the meantime it is ordered that the striking of money ceaseuntil other provision be made for it. Tod giving in his account4'1 Linlithgow. p.possibly Tod may have been transferred to the metropolitan mint. hold good for three years. * **g&otsActs. 58. 1456. App. Immediately after this wefind Alex. 48. Boll 2*6. 13. A curious provision may be noticed occurring in this account.In 1455another are act38 passed. 48. p. bytheactof 1451. ii. About this period a great amount of forged money seems to have been current. on pain of death for any coiner to strike either demiesor sixpenny groats. ** **Scots Acts. notwithstanding that the act of 1451 fixed it at 8rf. ii. Certain false coiners are mentioned the act of 1451. Car. .

* MSB. The bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle in 1460 put a sudden and unexpected closeto the life of a prince who had done much to correct the abusesunder which the country suffered. Five years elapsebefore wefind any notice relating to the money. VOL'. 12ozs. N. it is difficult to say what coinageis recorded here. As the act of 1456 forbids. 1459. At Perth. on the 20th of July. . those ordered by the act of 1475. Roll 230.44 thus showing the pound of silver to contain 16 ozs. SiL the Ib. on pain of death. still current at the rate of 12d. 1464. in all probability. 253 1459. but the denomina* tion of the coin is hot stated. ^ tt MSS. XII. Alex. twelve of which were to be coined out of the ounce. A similar difficulty occurs with the silver coinage in this account. the ounce. Three hundred and eighty-five pounds. we find a mention of gold coined in this reign " in scutis" As both "Rydaris" and "uniearnys" are also specially named in subsequentaccounts. 2^-ozs. 1464. the same moneyer gave his account42 the coinages August in of from of the precedingyear. fourteen ounces of silver are struck f'ingrossis duodedm denariorum et se& denariorum" for which the seignorageis stated to be 2d. Four ouncesof gold are accounted for. of silver were struck into groats. L X .ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. of silver into small money (" in minuta pecunia") No other notice relating to the coinage is found in the reign of James II. Tod accounts43 for the coinageof 12Ibs. 270 Ibs. 44 The duty on silver is elsewhere given at 2s.of gold. any future coinagesof the sixpenny groats (of the fieur-de-lys type). As will be afterwards seen. In June. The account of 1476 contains a mention of "new groats. the groats here mentioned were probably the crown groat.SRoll 252. and its half.S." which were. and 204 Ibs..

"vol. 94 Ibs. per ounceis fixed as the price to be paid to exporters of wool. of theActs). $d. 4 ozs.12|ozs. &c. The next acts about the moneywere passed the by parliament47assembled Edinburgh in October.. Thisaccount differsonly in the quantities fromthat last noticed. bat this account seems to render it probable that this was the case. p. It has not hitherto been supposed that these crown groats of eight to the ounce were minted by James III.. groats. and 4s. ii. 1466. or half only of that payable for the groats and half-groats. (not printed in the folio ed. 1464.» Roll 254. and if so.. Edin. 86. and searchersare appointed at each port to seethat none takeout of the realm more moneythan is necessary for their expenses. who were obliged to bring a certain amount of bullion to the mint. c. and the forfeiture of the money 45 MSB.to the presentdateat Edin- burgh.. Alex. 11.254 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. . per pound. it affords another exampleof the type of one reign occurring at the commencement the succeeding of one.App. In at the first a penalty of £10 is imposedon any who shall take moneyout of the kingdom.4d. Four pounds. six and three-quarter ouncesof gold were struck. being struck into penceand halfpence. Register House.and 66 Ibs. and 1466. 1465* In July of this year. In the minutes of the parliament of 1464-5 45certain provisionsare made for bringing in bullion. Car. 47 Scots " Acts. 13 ozs. 10. The "lew" is proclaimedto'14s. The coinageof small money given in this account is also very considerable.12 . 13. 69 Ibs.of silver into pence halfpence. and 6d.p. 46MSS. 4d. The seignorage on theseis fixed at 1$.of silver into 12d. Tod renderedhis account46 from 14th of June. appointed by the act of 1456.

C&V0J. to the 18th of June. and the new English rosenoble. \ but that the exporter shall bring two ouncesfor every (' sek " taken out of the country. Three thousand poundsare ordered of this coinage.and the rest of the money. groat of the fleur-de-lis.which is to passfor twenty-fiveshillings. In reference to the expression now found in the accounts " inminutis denariis" there is a statement ia Pinkerton's ccAnnals 50 Scotland. Provision also madefor the trial andpunishis ment of any " clerkis " who may be guilty of this offence. which is to go at the rate of four to the penny . 49 MSB. . in small pennies and halfpence. IV. The duties.. weigh only 48 grains(Hawkins. showsa coinageof 17 ozs.112). coinage. 1466. The secondprovides that the exporters of wool or hides out of the kingdom shall receivefor every ounce of silver 4s. Boll 254. both gold and silver. The moneyer'saccount49 from the 3rd of July.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. i.and the lords appointed by parliament are to have power to make what rules they may deem proper about the 6d. This may refer to the copper money of four to the pennyauthorised the actof 1466. a coinage of which no specimen has as yet been discovered." that the penny was of so diminished in this reign that it could not be cut into halvesand quartersfor small change..after his fourth year. 7d. &c. 1465. The last act providesfor the coining of copper money. rendered at Linlithgow by Alex. 257. billon farthings so were introduced. Tod. 13 oz. 14| ozs. 255 besides. p. Black by money(cona nigremonete) for the first time mentioned is *8 The groatsof Edw. are similar to the former accounts. of silver in groats. is to passat the current rate except the new groat of Edward of England's coinage48 which should pass for ten pence.of gold j 10 Ibs. and 121 Ibs.

The result of this commissionis embodied apparently in the act of 1467. 1466. and certain lords were appointed to prepare the Articles. foreign and native. in this account. it is further enacted that payment of debts. 1467. contracts. and to look to the matter of money. In October a parliament52 assembled at Edinburgh. . No quantity is specified the sort of (or coin). at Perth. George Grinlaw. No change occurs in the other provisions. Twenty-three and a quarter ounces of gold werestruck: 9 Ibs. and 53 Ibs.. 88. * » Scots Acts/' vol. entered into before the passing of this act. hut it is stated to have heen made by an agreement enteredinto between the king (with the consentof the council) and the money ers. and to fix the valuesof the English pennies and of the groat of the crown. warden of the mint. rendersthe account61 Alex. are to be made of the samevalue as the money wasbefore the act passed and thus all obligations made in the past which . which are to have courseas they used to have.into small pennies.. The black penniesare to ceasebeing issued. &c. Tod. and as loss and annoyancehave beencausedthroughout the kingdom by the continual change in the value of money. 15 ozs. This agreement may still be discovered.Roll 258. and how many black pennieswere to be taken in the pound.of silver into groats. p. contain payments to be made in the usual money of aiMBS. In June. how many Scottish. All are raised except the white Scottish penny and halfpenny.3 ozs. 1467. which fixes the values of all the various coins. More especially. ii. for the of year from June.256 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. which were then commonly current. they were deputed to determine how many English.

92 .were all formerly known as *' lions. 89 . In the parliament 55of 1468 which assembledat Edinburgh. In January of the sameyear a parliament was con53 venedat Stirling. The old English penny is fixed at 4d. fourteen commissioners. vol. They recommendedcertain provisions which are embodied in an act of the sameyear. Cardon. shall be paid as the moneyhad courseat the time of the passingof this act. and acts were passed.App.that is to say.chosenfrom the prelates.. App. Roll 260. This act is interesting as giving a list of the " Scottis money. Andrews. Cardon.. p.and the commissionersof boroughs." vol. p. 57MBS. 16.1* Scottish or crowns." And all these are to go at the rate they went at before October. * P. p. . p. 56 would appearthat the gold coins now commonly called It St.the barons. The act is given. raisingthe groat of the crown to fourteen pence. i. but not with accuracy. 1467.. instead of three. on the 22nd of June. 15 (where he says it wag raised from twelve pence).ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. in CardonneFs Appendix : and Lindsay makes two shillings5 worth of farthings. were appointedfor the Articles and the money. Tod and William Goldsmith rendered their statements 67from the 53 "Scots Acts. 56 Scots " Acts. and the half to seven pence. and the small peny and the fardyng. the lyone/6 the grot of the croune and the grot of the flour de lice." vol. 257 Scotland. till 1468. p. Balfour "An. The white Scottish penny is to have course till the next parliament. ii. ii. and the new penny of Edward IV. at 3d. Alex. 81. the demy. Lindsay 64 erroneouslyattributes to this parliament an act which wasnot passed the following year. go to the pound. the same values which were fixed hy the act of the preceding year. At Edinburgh.

* £-179. the keeping money in the realm. 1467. i. The act of October." vol.59 A commission was again issued to certain prelates. 13£ozs. p. as if it were of billon. 1471. 97. p. ordered the coinageof the black money to cease." vol.yand its half in proportion* What this coinwasis not satisfactorily settled. 1473. and the course it is to have. ii. 100. This act is omitted by Mr. as it is stated that at the commencement the coinage the coin was to passfor of one halfpenny. certain provisions were made against bringing in any foreign black money into the country. though the " new allayed groat" of 74. of gold and 83 Ibs. 1469. it will be remembered. but afterwards it was reduced to a farthing. and yet is called alloyed. " . Balfour's" An. 196. though it is given correctly in CardonneFs Appendix. 1471.it wouldappear of that these commissioners had not arrived at any determination. and commoners consider concerning the importo tation of bullion. and account for 21bs.3Jozs. Mr. In the parliament5Sof this year. It is to run at very nearly the samevalue as the groat of the fleur-de-lis. 2nd of June. barons.. The reduction seems to have been one-half. p. * *¥.258 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. * "* ** Septs Acts. In July of this year parliament62-assembled at Edinburgh and passedthe acts given in Lindsay's Appen68" Scots Acts. p. Lindsay61 considersit equal in value to the half of the crown groat. the arrangementsare delayed till for next Parliament." vol. 1467. of silver coined into groats. Lindsay. 17 . 62 ScotsActs/' vol. 105. as a sum of £45 is allowedthe moneyersto make up the loss. ii. From the act60 May. is reducedto 6d. ii. From a memorandumin this account it would appear that the black moneyhad been reducedin value.

ANNALSOF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. p. The other money as 63 P. the act continues. which orders groats to be coined.. " And because the matter of the mone is ryt subtile and gret. M From a MS. .as wasordered the king." vol. twelve to the ounce. 259 dix63 continuingthepresent values thevarious of coins. 1474. it is thot speidfull that the three estates commit their power to certane wyseand discret persouisto the nowmber of x. to awise and set the course of the mone. In the same by parliament M it was provided that in every town where there are goldsmiths.forbidding the further coinage the placksandnewpennies. it appearsthat the price of silver at this time was 12s. In May. of and providing that three personsbe appointedto see whether they contain five shillings of fine silver in the ounce. &c. in the Advocates1 Library. That they did devisea new groat is I think probable from the tenor of the act passed at Edinburgh the next year. the ounce. or xij. which is not noticed an by Lindsay.t( of the sarayn prent that the new grote is now/' and to be of the samefineness the newEnglish groat. salmon. 1474. arid may not haistely be set. ii. of Sir James Balfour's. 106. 65" Scots Acts. parliament65again met at Edinburgh and passed important act. hides. that they should depute and ordain a warden and a deacon of the craft who are to be sworn to examine and mark all articles of gold and silver if of sufficient quality and good workmanship. 227.." Every searchhas been madein the Historical Department of the Eegister House for anyrecord of the doingsof these " discreetpersons unfortunately without being /' ableto find anything to showwhat they did. After fixing the amounts of bullion to be brought in by the variousexporters of wool. and to devise new mone as thai think maist expedient.

** Sir J. 8 ozs. 1476. 185. of of gold coined " in scutis et noms denariis vulgariter dictis Rydaris:"-of 273 Ibs. (mentioned along with the demy in the act of 1467. I have been unable to decide the point satisfactorily. The only Scottish ones mentioned are the " demy " of which the value is fixed at 135.260 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. in the Advocates' Library. in the later accounts of the same reign. they had probablynot yet beenstruck. distinct mention of gold coined into unicorns. The question therefore arises.. Boll 271.67 As neither Unicornsnor ScottishRidersare mentioned. « MBS. when Alex. part of the coinage being " in scutis " and the rest in Riders..'* and of 140 Ibs. though from the entry about the latter. and besides the shield is not so prominent on the unicorns as on some of the other gold coins. what were the gold coins called " scuta? w We find. of silver coined into groats " et in dimidiis grossis novis . 5 ozs. in the moneyers' account of the following year. . it is therefore not likely that two nameswould have been employed in. it is evident they had been in circulation before August. Sd. acts of this parliament forbid the melting of any coined money whatever and raise the courseof the current gold coins. and elsewhere). Balfour's MS.it is evident that two sorts of coins were struck. the public accountsfor the same coin. of silver coined into small pennies. Mr. and the "Scottis crowne" also fixed at 13$. 4d. 4rf. Levyntoune and Thomas Tod render their account^ at Edinburgh. and the gold at £6. For at that time they accountfor the profit and expenses 13 Ibs.. Lindsay thinks66 the latter is the samecoin as the lion. says that in November of this year the ounce of silver was at lls. The discovery of this record shows that the appropriation of the Riders 66 P. With regard to the gold coinage.

MONETA NOYA JACOBI TERTII DEI GRATIA REGIS SCOTIJ3. to trace any record of it. Jean Baptiste.on Medals. as 1478. is beyondany question. tried in 1484. 72u Scots Acts. Twoyears afterthis.havingbeen taken away. with the usual legend SALVVM." vol.S. the legend IN MY DEEPEN j above the canopy. andapparentlymore than onetype. p." we find a case. XII. great inconvenienceand 69 the " Acta Dom. King James causedvery III.. which is not given either by Cardomiel or Lindsay. in the other a shield with the arms of Scotland. This remarkable medal wasstolen during the first French revolution. It was apparently the work of some artist of the mint at Berwick. and was 2$ inches in diameter. throned. Andrew on his cross. It is particularly described by Du Cange.and melted into bullion to provide for the coinage ordered by last parliament. Wingate.ANNALS OP THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. The legend is in Gothic letters. " Ac. with long hair. VILLA BERWICI. yet we have here a very considerable coinageof them. In the month of June the Scottish parliament72 passed an act.as they are described the new half-groat. which was in operation71during this reign. 118. 94*." p. vol. 143.as yet. On the canopy abovethe throne.p. Com. N. &c. and holding in one hand a naked sword. though I havebeenunable. 72. and sent to the shrine of John the Baptist at Amiens.p. Com. VOL.in his " Traits Historique du Chef de St. a fine medal in gold to be struck. M M . It begins by stating that the money.. On the obversewas a beardlessking. p. both of the realm and of othercountrieshavingcoursetherein. in Gothic letters. ii.69 Half-groats of the Edinburgh mint are very rare. Dom. in which 70 Pinkerton. 96. 71 Lindsay. In «* Seottis Ridars " are again mentioned. 261 to James III."70 It weighed nearly 2ozs. On the reverse is St. ii.

316 (seealsoApp. but apparently not yet issued.76 sitting at Edinburgh. In 1482. and the coiners shall forthwith deliver up their*coining-irons: and as soon as sufficient bullion is collected. Later on in the same year73 the lords of Articles are recommended look into the matter of the money* to 1482. 1814)." (ed. and to passfor 14rf. .76 In February. ii.." ii. with advice of his council. washanged over the bridge at Lander." i. Pinkerton's " Au&aXs. " ScotsActs. p." p. This act shows that between 1474 anti 1478 an extensiverecoinage had been ordered. 71«PitscotticChron. 122. 183 (note). Tfi "Scote Acts.Earl of Mar. damagehas resulted. the king.. and of the samefinenessas the old English groat.262 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. and the king is to 73 9th March. 84. calling it in. shall make regulations for the weight. 166. p. gret or small/* shall cease.immediately after his death. vol. and a groat of silver. as the chronicles relate/f to strike base money. ordered a pieceof gold to be struck of the weight and fineness of the rose noble \ also the third and two-thirds of it. the unworthy favourite of the king. ten to the ounce.vol. Permission had been given to him. and this was one of the principal chargesbrought against him. silvyr. " gold. Proclamation was made. t5Burton's "Hist." vol. i.with a half-groat corresponding. For which reasonthe several acts relating to the import of bullion and the keeping of money in the realm areto be put into " sharpexecution and "" in the meantime.theparliament. until a sufficient quantity of bullion is gathered into the country. the king ordains that all coining and striking of money. fineness. Cochrane.1483.and value of the gold and silver moneyj and shall also appoint a warden and master of the mint to see these regulations properly carried out.). of Scot.

but placed another act of this year. 78 35. p. 1483. not exactly in terms of the act. Lindsay?7 doubtswhetherthis act wasevercarried into effect. out of every forty ounces of silver minted. After] again ordering a new coinage of gold and silver. but without any date.80 gives the act correctly. Cardonnel. 263 choosea -wise man for warden of the mint. as is apparent from the moneyers' account. the act goes on to provide for bringing in bullion.ANNAT. The latter part of the act refers to the coinage of placks and half placks. shall have courseas formerly ordained. p.'1 vol. shall strike one into small pennies. and directs that they and all other money.p. 7fl Lindsay. word for word. Lindsay should not only have entirely overlookedit. which recapitulates. In this parliament81 provisionwasmade the better for regulation of goldsmiths* work.. and it is certain that no gold coins of the weight of the rose noble have as yet been appropriated to this reign. who shall assay the gold andsilver. P. and heavy penalties are directed against those who disobey. 20. the act of 1483. This act is of great importance for the billon coinage of this reign. to Mr. and directs that the coiner. and eventhen.thoughthe act of 1485(omittedboth by Cardonneland Lindsay).79 and specifies the duties of the warden of the mint. And the wardenand coiners are to havethe same they had in the two preceding fees reigns. under the date February. P. renders it likely that the coinage did not take place till after the later date. 80App.S OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. beappointed each and to in 77 138. ii. He seems think. and it is surprising that Mr. and the seignorage the king is likewiseto be the same. B1 Scots Acts. in his Appendix. however. 172.78 to that the silver coinage took place. and it was ordained that in future the deacon searchers. « . 31.

From the Act. of gold into unicorns (in denariis aurtis vocatis unicarnys).which is madeso by it is impossibleto detect it. p. c. 83 Scots Acts. Counterfeit money appears to have been largely introduced about this period. which are noticed neither by Cardonnel nor Lindsay. and those who bring them to the mint are to receivethe value of them at the rate of twopence each. and the mark of the town j and that the silver shall be elevenpenny fine. 11. The first ordains that.264 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. it appears that new officersfor the mint.were shortly afterwardsproposed. 85 "Scots Acts. goodand sufficient work the workman's privy mark. that keeps neither the 82 is doubtfulfrom the wording of the act. borough the realmwheregoldsmiths shall placeon of are. Roll 292. this year. which will be noticed immediately. p. 132. of silver into 14& groats and half-groats. ii. 1487. for at the closeof this parliament83 was enactedthat in consequence the loss it of " subtellie " that caused the bad money. Thomas Tod and Alex. 10. This is the last entry which occurs in the Chamberlain Rolls relating to the coinage. and of 181 Ibs. and newregulationsfor the coinage.82 the deacon's mark.." vol. Levington presented their accounts84 the 7th from October. On the 18th of August. of the profits and expenses connectedwith the coinageof 8 Ibs. 1 oz. if this is not to It be the searcher's mark. The parliament85 that assembledat Edinburgh on the llth of January. ii. in consequence the loss and of damage sustainedby false money. passedsome important enactments. 9. 1486. the new placks are withdrawn from circulation. " 84 MBS. 174. 13. . I oz." vol.

Secretaryto the Soc. The master of the money shall answer to the warden and changer in all things as is wont. who shall bear the whole charge of it. so that Inehaffraymust be deleted from the list of Scottish mints. (1872). and Antonia) and one Byzantine..Num. of the kingdom. out R NOTE.D.of Ant. and that they shall render their accounts to the Exchequer.Constantius. Sec. Chron.. and also becausein times bygone there were two masters of the money. Noticedat p. $. Chron. The few found later were Roman(of Valens. I am indebted to Dr.. and also that a warden and a changer shall be appointed. COCHRAN-PATRICK. as in former times.for the due carrying out of the acts about bullion. Stuart. and that assays shall be made when required. 19. My attention has been drawn to the fact that the coin of Alex. W. and for preventing of the exportation of money. It appearsfrom the statements made to him that all the first find were meltedbeforeany record couldbe got of them. . II. (1872). is now read ICCFRAION IN. 265 weightnor the fineness orderedby the act of parliament. and that these shall perform the duties and receive the fees.. Other acts provide for the punishment of resetters of false money. or III. which renderedit difficult to fix the responsibility -it is now ordered that in all time coming the king is to depute a trusty person to be master of the money. and also by counterfeit money by false coiners.ANNALS OF THE SCOTTISH COINAGE. a. of Scot. At page79 of the second of Ms work on the " Sculptured vol. for some iiiformation about the coins foundin Nome's Law. alluded to at page 81 of the Num. LL. Stones of Scotland" he gives all that can now be learned about them.

1869. ^ Head of Napoleon laureate. I now give a full description of the one just referred to. ET EOI. On the truncation. r. ON December 16. Blades most kindly presented-mewith two other similar medals..S. remarked that the exergual inscription which the medal bore: " Frappe & Londres. DENON ANGLETEEEE.-DESCENTS EN A naked male figure strangling another. but which varied from No.NAPOLEON EMP. I remember. vol. Proceedings. 1.p. DIEEXI over a stylus. x. 1.XVII. with one of the ribbons of the wreath hanging across the neck. ." l and took occasion to make some observations on the audacious mendacity of the great Napoleon." seemed to throw some doubt on its authenticity. Below. A gentleman present. ON THE TENDED FBENCH INVASION MEDALS STRUCK ON THE OF ENGLAND BY NAPOLEON INI. As the account of these medalshas somehistorical interest. I exhibited at the Numismatic Society of thesemedals one with the legend" Descents en Angleterre. 3. DEOZ FECIT. In the exergue FEAPPE(sic)A LONDEES I EN 1804. a». and whose legs terminate in fishes' tails.. 1N.-. Oh. A short time afterwards our friend Mr. whom he is holding aloft.

which is wanting in the copy. FE | 1806. and the French work is certainly superior. false in grammar as in fact. as I thought they were not altogether void of interest. In the exergue. who knows something. it is of the ordinary character in the English copy. Same inscription in the truncation . and. I rather hastily cameto the conclusionthat the English copy. with its blustering legend and its false exergual inscription. This is. 1 . DENON DL JEFFB. if I had had leisure. It is as well perhapsthat 1 did not. Franks of the British Museum. There is a sort of scaly ending to the trunk of the otber figure on this medal. . 2 From Virg. 267 2. A similar group. 3. and that not a little.he informed me that the English medal was really copied from a French one.this did not much matter. except that round the rim it bears this inscription . though hebelievedDenon had deniedthat any suchFrench medal had ever been struck. The hair of the standing figure is short and curly . Last summer. Same legend and similar. EC. Still. on every subject.. but not the same head. DIVISOS OBBE BBITANNOS. Obv.in a conversation I had with Mr. and the head itself a trifle smaller.FRENCH INVASION MEDALS. was a deliberate falsification of the French medal. there was a cast of the original in the British Museum. the disposition of the ribbons being different. 67. but with some slight variations. indeed. and that I had done the great man an injustice . I should have communicated these facts to the Numismatic Chronicle.COPIED FEOM THE FBENCH MEDAL. exactly like No. i. but DENON DIEEXIM | DGGGVI. but as what I had said had not been reported.2 below.

and beneath it the inscription JEUFFROY FECIT | DENON DIREXIT. are clear traces of EN.after the failure of the Treaty of Amiens. with the exact type of No. which seemingly haveformed a part of other letters j in the V in DIVISOS there is the lower limb of a letter. It may be worth while to consider the circumstances under which this original medal was devised. From these factsit is probablysafeto conclude in that 1804 the die at least of a medal was prepared. between the O and D. from an impression of which the English copy was made. On the obverse is the head of Napoleon without any legend.263 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. which may have been that of an E . and there I find two casts of the original French medal of 1804 and one electrotype of the reverse of the same. 1803. Napoleon. formed what was called the Army of England for its invasion. Lately I have taken an opportunity of examining the medals in the Museum.though imperfectly. or Bonaparteas he was then called. This set me to examine carefully my French medal of 1806 with the legend TOTO DIVISOS ORBE BRITANNOS. But it is quite clear that there has been another legend. but beyondthis nothing was actually .furious against this country. thus. and in the A in BRITANNOS there is the trace of someletter which is not distinguishable. the last and first letters of the first two words. and I found in this legend traces of other letters. in the two first letters of ORBE. 3. The reverse the two on casts and the electrotype has the legend DESCENTE EN ANGLETERRE. and in theexergue inscriptionFRAPPEEA LONDRES | the EN 1804. war was declaredbetweenEngland and France. are two dots. and with the blunder of Frappe for Frappee. In May.

below.-EN LAN XII 2000 BARQUES SONT CONSTRUITES.FRENCH INVASION MEDALS. About this time too. but I am sure I havemet with it. This state of uncertainty continued for a year. ready to be struck in London. Napoleon.S. This last-mentioned medal. 4. extant and common. it is properly designatedas a " lion leopard. as the descenton England never did take place.-NAPOLEON J. and Napoleon was " wanted w elsewhere. DENON DIBEXIT | 1804. 1804. F.andin July he left Paris to visit the camp of Boulogne and the Army of England. DROZ.when the victorious French army should arrive there. squeezing an animal of the leopard species between his legs and throttling it with a cord. Head laureate. A naked male figure to left. the die was prepared to commemoratethe Descent on England. This design seemsto have been copied from an antique gem engravedin Worlidge.he took the title of Emperor. At this time then. And I believe that. heraldically. Thiswasquite in keepingwith the finger-posts at Boulogne that were inscribed " Ohemin de Londres/*3 In the meantime.it is well known. An. XII. In the exergue. I think it is in a life of Ugo Foscolo. or flat-bottomed boats and gun-boats that were to convey the army acrossthe Channel for the subjugation of England. r. P. with his head as Emperor. On that occasion distributed Legion of he the Honour to his soldiers. M. In May." Why^ heralds only know. were Oiv. VOL. No. wasstruck in this year. still struck as follows : EMPEBEUB.and a I cannot refer to my authority for this statement. therefore.to commemorate construction of the flotilla the ofprames. loved to call the lion on the arms of England a leopard. 269 done. medals. 1804. N N .

But here there were no accessories of Hercules^ and France was meant to be represented the successfulwrestler. J. T. 3 with precisely the samemarks of alterationsin the letters. and also of the English copy No.October. the battleof Trafalgarhad beenfought. " The writer states that there are but few specimens exin istence. is in . AKNOLD. 1838 (p. is described as being there.as they were. with the inscription round the rim. to In the Museum there is a specimenof the medal No. 452). 1. with an alteration of the legends and date. Mr. and instead of the by earth-bora Antaeus." as the lawyers would say. in which the medal No. England wasportrayed as a very fishy party. on the Boulogne Museum. but there is none of No. 2. and the desire at least of the former to subjugatethe latter. it is said. 1 without such inscription.1872.the design the for medal commemorating "such descent as aforesaid. which possibly may have been erased from this and other specimenswith the fraudulent intention of passingit off as the original medal. I fear I have made this a very egotistical paper. was struck in 1806.270 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. And so the medal. But the type was good to mark the hatred of France towards England. however. with the legend FRAPPE A LONDRES.The specimen in the Museum. suppressed. It was a modification of the type of Hercules destroying Antaeus. NOTE. Henfreyhasbeengood enoughto refer me to a paper in the " PennyMagazine for November24. rather than its history from the beginning.is obviouslythe English fabrication. The reverse engraved the magazine. LONDON. Suchappears be the curious history of this affair. giving rather an accountof how I have traced the history of this medal to its source. But I trust this may be excused. becamecomparativelyuseless.

Here in thesecomparatively undisturbed Asiatic centres. The crude and imperfectly-finished Indo-Scythic gold and copper pieces. on the surfaceof its coins. (Continued from p. so many curious vestig-esof the contrasted types of Western worship in associationwith the cognate or otherwiseindependentlymatured developmentsof Eastern religious ideals. the conflicting emanations of crude Shamanismand more elaboratelymatured priestcraft.XVIII. on and around the main highways of chance conquest and hazardous commerce. and Buddhist symbolizations of the recognised divinities of each creed. 119) of the Sassanian coins figured in Mr. and had preservedfor modern investigation. 119. Mithraic. at a givenperiod. if they did not find a dominant home. which fortuitously had concentrated within its limits so large an infiltration of Greek mythology as acceptedby the Bactriaus.conventionally known as the Kanerki series. SASSANIAN COINS. at least secured a safe abiding-place in the full and free exercise of their sacred rites.) THE concluding section of my second notice in this volume of the Numismatic Chronicle (p. Steuart's plates.in a fixed locality. present us with numerous forms of pure Greek. Vedic. introduced an extraneous element in the contact of the Imperial issueswith the provincial mintages of a borderland. Brahmanical. .

Rdsti. Bev. 309-380. apart from the interruption of the main purpose of the consecutive treatment of the Sassanian series of coins to which I am primarily pledged. any extendedremarks it might otherwise be desirable to offer on the general question. A. " Truth. I had proposedto continue the illustration of this singular pantheistic assemblage the present occasion. SHAPUK II. 1. Zu'laktaf.. On the shaft of the altar is inscribed the word £^J*. from which two curious cross-barsproject." Marginal legends obscure. Legend. Obv. The ordinary tiara and globe are altogether dispensedwith. 41. Fig. Q**^(j. when I may claim the aid of independentengravings.D. No. Gold. The beard is elaborately dressed. Headof Sapor.u.. where they finally lost their pastoral characterin the coalition with the more materially civilised races of Turanian descent. within the limits now assignedto mein this journal. **£ Wy^G -^J3 right left ^ULU )» * * M&zdisanBagi jSAahptihari Malkdn MalM. who had previously domesticated themselves in Northern India. Thetransitoryinfluence the primitiveAryanshadlong of since passedon to new and richer fields on the banks of the sacredSarasvati. PL IV. So that I prefer to postpone to a more suitable opportunity. and terminates in a pendant jewel. imperfect.with closely curled hair arrangedin masses over his head. The likenessis clearly imitated from the profile of the king on the obverse. on -but I feel that I could scarcely do justice to so large a subject.Fire-altar. Shah- .272 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. with the head of Ormazdissuing from the flames.

de Longperier. and a like disregard of home traditions seemsto be indicated in the reproduction of his likeness in the bust issuing from the flames of the altar on the reverse. what is here exhibitedmay be the genius of the king himself brought to view by the performance of religious rites. " On remarque au revers desmedailles d'Hormisdas un busteplacesur Fautel au milieu desflammes. 441). goeson to add. but they do not seemto havearrogated divine attributes. qu'on retrouvera sur les medailles Nos. 115). the feruar. M. perhaps of Persian mythology 5 .u» (?)" A gold coin of ^s this type in the British Museumhasthe word Malki inserted on the reversefield (seea similar entry in No. p. .suggests differentexplanation this mysterious a of appearance. Cette addition au type ordinaire. a et£ fort bien comprise deMarsden. " In the humanheadplacedon a fire-altar. which in to at the monarch himself so frequently appearsin the act of officiating in his own proper person. en decrivant la medaille No. or existing amidst flames" (i. I attribute this unwonted departure from established usage the styleof Sapor's in head-dress the influenceof to Western associations imbibed during his varied intercourse with the Eomans .(f Sir William Ouseley. such as should have causedtheir images to appear response a prayer or a sacrifice.in support of Marsden'sview. 36." II faut dire encore . may discover we Qrmuzd> the Divinity. 36. indeed. concludes. IAN. de Longperier was under the impression that this device alluded to the king's Ferohar. 273 jouhari. 36. M. &c. and the mint a». s'exprime ainsi : eIt might be considered the represenas tation of a figure beginning to ascendfrom the flames. however. ante.and he goeson to say. We have seenthat these Sassanian kings claimed a divineorigin. qui. wherehe says.' " Marsden.SASSAN COINS..

and the ferohar supposition seemsto be negatived conclusively by the fact that we find such expressions the followingin as the Parsi sacredtexts now accessible: I [Zoroaster] " will now tell you . Obv. who appearsin its blazing flame/*1 Further illustrationsof this question afforded the advanced are by devicesof the classof coins representedby No. 1. . The similitudes here pointed out indubitably exist. up &c. que son ferouer. . IV.on congoit tres-facilement sarepresentation. . 161. 55 (pis.. 5.. 49. And moredistinctly in thecontents the Yasna of Haptanhaitiyw]iich prayers are offered to Ormazd. 5) [VarahranV. M. in a spirit of Oriental flattery. . quelesmedailles je decris sousles Nos.2.-Head Sapor with araised of II." Bombay. 42.141. surmounted by the ordinary globe. andVologeses] presentent au centre de Tautel un buste ajuste commecelui du roi Test au droit des memes medailles. but the larger questionremains as to their application. noticed in Fig.1862. PI. que viii. and as to whether these godlike forms were not intentionally imitated. Pp. La personnedu roi etant Ized (Burnouf Yagna 218).274 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE... No. The point of the beard is tied and decorated with the curiouscross-barsalready 1Dr. Haug. . soit confondu dans Padoration des hominesavec le feu d'Ormazd*' (p. the wise sayingsof the most wise . "to the fire. Pig. the sublime truth which I see arising out of these sacred flames/5 (GathaAhunavaiti). crown. 37). from the living busts of royalty. 59 in this article. Cette similitude est decisive. ix. The earlier representationsof Ormazd's head have nothing in common with the concurrent image of the king. " Essays the SacredLanguage on and Religion of the Parsees. as the symbolof Ahuramazda.

at Mazdisan Bagi Shahpuhari Iforkan.S. K. 1. the two Hindi letters HR. . if intentional at all.restored from better specimens Fig. 3. 44. PL IV." Rev.SASSANIAN COINS. and in settling the geographical distribution of the mints affecting this exceptional process. with Rasti on the pedestal.. Similar coin. 3. IV. Fire-altar. and the indication itself may prove of much importance in the future classification of these and other undetermined series. vol. 4. in well-defined characters of the old Girnar type. Degraded type of the coinsof Sapor.) :(see Mazdisan Bagi Sliahpuhari MarMn Markd Airdn wa Anirdn. No. 155 161) dating from proximate localities. as in the previous examples. I may notice that a similar piecein the British Museum has inscribed on its reverse. Fig. Fig.King of Kings of Iran and non-Iran.. with the legend disposedso as to read from the outside the piece. 275 Legend...insteadof the ordinaryarrangement. is greatly subdued. PI. and portions of Shahpuh&riNuwazi on the margin. as in Fig. " The Ormazdworshipper. It will be rememberedthat this peculiarity of the exterior definition of legendswas common to several classes of oriental coins (see Numismatic Chronicle. &c. pp. 43. No. As a minor contribution to this end.divine Shahpur. Legend. x. commencing the front of the king's crown. The likeness of the head issuing from the flames to the profile on the obverse. of wherebythe foot-lines of the epigraph encircle the bust of king.

but the legend arranged is in double lines.276 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE.. (PL III... 13. but already more distinctly developed 2Br.. 45.3 his unpublished in plates. and Fig. Figs. . erroneouslyassigned Ardeshir II. Steuart's specimen here engraved. 5.. " (The Ormazdworshipper. 1.. 46. infra. of M. Obv. PL TV. PL IV. de Bartholomsei.. PL IV. vii. No. No legends. of his illustrations." Rev. 2. pi.D. 3 Prinseps' Essays. (Mazdisan Bayi) ArtasJiatr Harkdn Market Airan. only partially indicated in Fig. 47. Fig.2 Olv. Fire-altar and supporters. 1. the pattern of the crown adopted by Varahr&n III. M.. PL Y. 8.. wearing a cap-shaped tiara. Fig. 6. 6. vii. Similarto Figs. surmounted by the usual globe. ii. No. ante). with swords at guard. belongto Yezdegird (see to I. de Longperier'swork. King of Kings of Iran. PL IV.Mordtmann givesastamped reproductionof a similar coin of Ardishir II. Supporters (coarselydefined)facing the altar. In the inner circle the name of Shah- puJiar is distinct. 2. AKDESHIB II. under fig. pi. No. A. Half piece.divine) Artaxerxes. Fig.Crudely executed bust of the king. 30. The intention would seem to have been to follow. The three coins. 380-384. One of the peculiarities of the palaeography. 2 and 8 . gives severalexamples of the money of this king. The ordinaryfire-altar (withoutthe headof Ormazd). with as Rasti on the pedestal of the altar. No.Nos. Rosen's. which are distinguished by better defined outlines of the tiara than Mr. in Figs. 40. 3. 10-13. The impression is taken from a coin of Dr. 6. Rev. with slight modification. &c.. 1.

Snirara No. divine Shahpur.. O O . PI. ante). (No. Rev.a^ AtiXx).U2g). " Truth (see. for while 1 did duty for r or w. Zing of Kings/' Rev.S. Legend. VOL. Similar coin. r3 in MaZka. for the preof I. Legend. identical with the restored legend abovegiven. surmounted flat by the usual globe. Supporters facing the pyre.SASSANIAX COINS. #$£ distortedMazdisan Bagi Shahpuhari Malkdn MalJca.iJ«^)£12^11 Aturi Shahpuhari. embodying the two words." On the pedestalof the altar are to be seen traces of the ante. " The Ormazd worshipper. IV. 48. &c. 4A referenceto the Table of Alphabets prefixed to this series now conventional 3^ adjunct &u\ Rasti. with a better defined tiara and more legible epigraph. Bustof king. 277 iu the gold pieceof HorraazdII.. 7.D. "Fire. Obv. A.Fire-altar.4 III. 49. a more definite approach to the full inscription to be found on the better specimensof this mintage. Fig. PL IV. This innovation is prominently establishedby the more perfect specimens in the Russian collection. is the gradual substitution the Pehlvijj <=b. 8. 384-386. M. N. viously conventional 2 « "I. (Sacred)" fire of Shahpur." No. with ornamental tiara. 36.. Legend. " ofpapers remind reader will the that b = ^ stood r and/. with Ormazd in the flames. coin 39). Fig. XII.

however."5 5 This combination of a Chaldaic form of legend with the simple altar may perchance indicate that the adoption of the Ormazd head was typical of the Eastern provincial coins. 48 and 49 in the the flames of the altar. and I have vainly sought for the original in the British Museum. 51. King of Kings.-Head of king. partially legible). " The Onnazd worshipper divine. A nearly identical piece. 2 and 3.in the retention of the simple fire-altar of the intermediate period. with the elegant tiara.D. with Ormazd's headissuing from the flames. The legendis illegible in. curtailed is to Malkd or Malkdn.The conclusionof the epigraph. Shah.where many of Mr.278 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE." Rev. as . in Legend (imperfect). 112 as out of place. On the shaft of the pedestal Rastt.* * * * MazdisanBagi Valcthlan MarJedn (Markd). Fig. previous to the introduction of the image of Ormazd> and the insertion after the king's name of the Chaldee relative pronoun.supported duplicaterepresentaby No. varying. sofrequently occurring in Pehfai legends..or zi. the engraving.. head from Kerrnan No. 2. PL III. " Truth " (only tions of the king. 386-397. as if the sentence was intended to run " of kings/' or " who (is) king (?}. on these occasions. which was noticed at p. with his conventional crown. Obv. or sign of the genitive. 50. PL IV. PL V. PL V. those of Nos. 11. Steuart's coins are preserved. Fig. Thecoin figuredas No 7. A.-Fire-altar.). 9. would appear to belong to Sapor II.. The reverse varies from absence of Ormazd's VABAHBAN IV. officially recognised as his device (which may be seen to better advantage coinsFigs. Varahran.

398. whichobviouslyassociates with "itself the ancient mint of Darabgird. forms -S..3. Sir H._£U> A.x.). and of the usual Rdsti on the shaft of the altar. which seeminglystand for the initial letters As. may be seen the letters JJ.SASSANIAN COINS. written in someinstances. 113) in associationwith Ms expedition towards KabuL 6 J. 3.vi.Soc. On other specimens find the we biliteral J^. (Longperier. jji^ A). whichmaypossibly standfor " of Shfz" (Canzaca)6 and " of Kan. aroundthe sacred in the orderquoted. The most interesting varieties of Varahran IV. (1840). In addition to these simpleforms. and JOJA. xiii. 2J). p.U22j Vamhrdnaturi. Geog. Jour." Above the altar.u. 279 No. No. pjiija fire and X RastiValahldn. retains traces of the elsewherecompleterecord of 322^djj )j*2. 30 mint. we have the compounds. obverse* in addition to the remains Similar coin as regards the The reverse reverts to the Ormazd's head.77=. "Varahran's fire.H. to the left of the fire. Fig. **&(Le.p... on oppositesides of the flames. as thus repro- No.. R. Js coins are those which revive the ancient form of the fire-altar of Ardeshir Babak (PL L.. 398.S. PL V. (No.) Thesepresent us with the con- trasted legends of422^041 Valahlan arranged )^3jj)2.p. 34. A.M. .= - $3 zi duced.u." &c. Kar ij(j Shi zi and . of which we already have imitative reproductions under SaporII.. 6-12). Kawlinson. Aturi. B. of the name of the mint.. so the devicewasfirst introducedby HormazdII. 52.. i. 53.

. Chron. p.uJ2 rcrctc&c." . King's last edition of hig in " Antique Grems. but in othersdisposed in the form represented the of in subjoined Pehlvi type-^j>J. during the lifetime of his father. 7 The more elaborate and finished cut of the same head intertedabove. It hasbeenreproduced with my permission.-VABAHBAN Kerman Malka ban Mazdisan Bagi Shahpiihali Malkdn MaUcd Allan wa Anildn Minuchatali Min Yazddn. by I insert it in this place for the purpose of showing the comparative freedom of the forms of the letters in contrast to the more stiff and formal alphabet in use upon the coins. 1868). In the sixth volume of the Num. Williamsfor my " Essay by on Sassanian Inscriptions" (Triibner. [Transcript]. As the woodcut of the legend which surrounds the main devicehas beenpreserved our publishers. Mr. Rdsti the reading from the opposite point of view to the associate name of Valahldn. 241. I publisheda woodcutof the head of Varahran Kermdn Shah?taken from the celebrated Devonshire Amethyst whichproved havebeenthe officialsealof stateapperto taining to his local government. wasengraved Mr.280 NUMISMATIC CHKONiCLB.

R. The cut appeared in my " Sassanian Inscriptions. of celestial origin from God. The present seal was clearly engravedafter Varahran's accession to the throne of his father^ and 8 This sealis now in the British Museum.8 which competesin historical interest and artistic treatmentwith the morevaluable gem just noticed. son of the Ormazd worship- per.£1&&teJ»i49 to & Ib " VAHAHRAN." and in the Jour. King of Kings of Iran and nonIran. in the Punjab. with the surface -fiTn? of white carefully preserved. Williams." A singularhazardhas preserved us a second to official seal of this monarch. The engraving is the wort of Mr. 381 . The stone is a dark onyx. having beenoriginally obtained by G-eneralCunningham at Eawal Pindi. King of Kerman. . Asiatic Society for 1868. the divineShahpur.SASSANIAN COINS. but it has necessarily lost some of the finer and more artistic touches of the original. which declaresits own merit.

D.Aturi (?).as above. P. Simple fire-altar.by Dr. 9BaTiramfilius Saporis. a prostrate Roman soldier. 39. 397-417. On the pedestal of the altar Bdsti. St. " The Ormazd worshipper. globe above.. amid the archives of the state. The crown of the youthful monarch will be seento be identical with that figured on the coins. with the king and a Mobed ministering at the service. with a more completeobverselegend.cognomento Kirmanschah Yestis CBBrnlea acu picta. Fig. Obv. King of Kings.282 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Gottwaldt.and crescentin front. Pig. with close-fittinghelmet. On the shaft £22^*1. 1B46. PL IV. 54. Similar coin. PL IV.tiara. Legend (restored)#$£ LJX* Mazdisan Bagl Izdakirti Malkdn Malkd. 12.." Eev. sinistragladioinnizus. (Translation from the Arabic text of Hamza Isfahani. braccserubrse itemque picturatse. Hev* Fire-altar. 10. No. Petersburg. stat dextra manuhastem tenens. and the position of the figure and the weapons he bears are authorized by the traditional portraits preservedto a comparatively modern date. presentsus with a full-length portrait of the king in the act of spearingone of the national enemiesof his race. Headof theking. est. 55. to the left of the flames. Above the altar. No.9 YESDEGIRD I. A. eoronaviridis inter tres apiceset lunulam auream .) . divine Yezdegird.

». if. .. IV. Theusual fire-altar.SASSANIAN COINS. Legend (head-lines inwards)£^ facing Eam&hatri Izdakartl Kadi. «J . Legend3^_j->3 . Fig. .Head as usual. h. .. the on sides of the fire - No.Altar as above. Left.*-£». 283 onthe margin right 3^>)^ij-^? Izdakarti. No. right. Obv. . On the sides of the Flames JJM Wr . Obv. Rev. J[i. Izdakarti. PI. fight. 58.Fig. No. Aturi.. Fig. &c.Fire-altar usual.. 1. Y. 57. Legend- . Left. 554J. The usual head.S £ <^1Atishi here takes the place of the older form of Aturi. Obv. PL IV. 13. as above the altar. PI. 11.As in the last coin. ^«. 56. As. Rev.

MI.84 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 417-438. 438 . PL VII.. 61. KR. Pig. A. Kg. Head of king." Rev. No. PLI or PRI. with the head of the king inserted in the upper section of the pedestal. Longperier. The mint-mark in these examples is above the altar. BR or BU. No.. that have come under my observation :AS. VARARHAN V. it constitutes a part of the altar itself. No. To the right the mint monogram Ai. immediately below the fire. Legend- Valalildn MalMn Malkd. 5. Rev. Pig. It will be seen that in this casethe king's head occupiesa very different position from the Ormazd head of the previous currencies. ValaJddn. PL YIIL. AE. ZEV or ZEE. Gor. in the centre of the flames of which appear the crescentand globe of his tiara. Valahlan aturi.D.D. King of Kings. VH. Obv. PL V. 4. To the left of the device. 8. LD or RD. 60.with bis conventional tiara. KA.more lesscomor pletely defined. similar to that -of his father. which the earlier legendshave taught us to recognise.and the legendof 01))Jj3l>32. 59. Conventional representation of the king. usually supplemented - with the word Easti on the shaft. LS or US. with tnrreted tiara. The following comprise the initial mint records of Varahran V. Obv. [Otherspecimens Macjdlmn acid. The ordinary simple fire-altar. Headof the king. AT. Varahran V. thus indicating more clearly the monarch's personal ownership of the fire. In effect. Barji Rfim-shatrL] " Varahran.457. . YKZDKGIRD IL A. Obv. Fire-altar.

Ai.10 FIROZ. Simplefire-altar and supporters. Obv. XII. 64. Nur. " fire/' *' light/' &c.. MI .D. 459-486. or " Yezdegird's fire. 10Seecoin in Ariana Antiqua. Izdakarti Narki. Nos. Mint. Gold coin of Firoz. Dr. Figs. N. usually of crude execution. the left varies from Atwr and Izdakar to a new term expressed the Pehlviletters$m.'s mints are limited to the Pehlvi initials correspondingwith the English letters BABA. 71) reads this word as Nehi. No. No." Hev.S. 62. Y. King Yezdegird. A. P P . and the Gemin J. p. and may be taken as a mere modification of the Izdakarti Aturi. " Of the Ormazd worshipper. The term occursin combination. as Bd~narki on a gem in the British Museum. 6. with winged tiara. to the place ordinarily occupiedby the mint-mark .S. The latter in wordis sometimes transferred the right of the field. xiii.the central deviceof which is an ibex suckling two infants.RA. AV. Eomulus and Remus fashion. Mint (to the right). 5.. Z0K. [Merve . VOL. Tracesof Basil on the shaft. Narki (?). "but less finished execution. 15. Mordtmann (p. AH.] No. xiv. in which case the tenor of the legend runs." the Narki being apparently some of the adaptative derivatives of N r. Mint.. 63. Yezdegird II. Head of Firoz. 10 and 11 are attested and farther defacedby subsequenthall-marks. " good/' but the u is clear on the better specimens. PI. 421. 285 LegendMazdisan Kadi Izdakarti. As. Coin of similar character. The reversesare irregular in the arrangement the legends the inscription to of .SASSANIAN C^INS. in. pi. Baba.

supporters. Sata 6.11. No. seemingly marking. PL V. THOMAS. 7.286 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. Figs. 6. Legend. The numbers observedare the Syriac Arba 4. the space in devoted in the other variety of coins to the repetition of the name of the king. and crescentas ahove. Small coin of similar types. Rev. Skoda7. with starandcrescent abovethe altar. Rev. To the right the mint initials.^gaJ^g) \ Behind head ty*) the traces °^ Mazdisan. Legend .. which are entered on the left of the field of the reverse. FirucU.to the left. &c. 0&v. Walt Ead or Lad (?). Legend as above. the currencies the metropolitan of provinces. crescent. globe. in the contrast with Nos. 65. This classof coinsintroducesus to the noveltyof the first insertion of the dates of the reign...Fire-altar. Mint. star. No. 8.Head of king. EDW. . L&-JJ** ' *r?^ Kadi FirucU. As.. follow- ing more closelythe conventional tiaras of his predecessors. with crown. and the Persian Duwazdah 12. 66. Simplefire-altarand supporters. As.

Berliner Blatter. of. notice of. found 120 medal. of. coins of. and coins of.r>.S. of. 238 " DescenteenAngleterre. 9 <rela.:" On a hoard of English coins found Ajtavasdes coinof. coin of. J. Escu. coinsof. 63 Fii'oz. coinage 84.. Finds of coins:- EVANS.. Crondal." &c. COI&INGWOOD.:- Coining of. coins of. JOHN.in Chios.219 3oins.. 190 CUNNINGHAM. 2fi6 intended invasion England of by Ephesus. 228 irons.A. Alexander 236 III." the legend. 48 David of Scotland. 150 at St.S.. Canterbury.INDEX. Amyntas Nicator. 285 239 Francis Maryof Scotland. 69. Ardeshir coins 266 II. Rev.UCB. coin 177 Aradus. T. coins found at. Agrippa I. of. 158 Thorngrafton. 6 221 Alexander Jannaeus. ARNOLD.. 120 Sonipat. M. 78 Darne.. 199 Antigonus. Esa.:-~ BB.GENEHAL MAJOR A... B. 63 0. of Scotland.4 coins Apollophanes. triens gold struckat. 67. 176 B. of. OORNV PHENICES.. 23. G. coins 67 of. coins by 152 Glass coins. noticed. 152 coins GARDNER. 9 II.186 F. 157 D. gold 78 Arabic glass coins. 161. 6 Ardeshir Babak. II. coin of. 213 British.F.Bartholomew 216 Ephesus. 166. Ajrtemidorus. 72 Ephesus. Esq.. MuseumGuide to the Greek coins exhibited at. noticed. 62 Exhibition of coinsat. sales Dornillano. F.221 coin 3hios. of.S. The The Thorngraffcon find. Mediaeval of.. the legend. of. Onthe Frenchmedals struckon the NapoleonI. coinsof. 2 Crondal. 213 Genoese.A. 199 . Hants. of. II. coin of. 188.171 Angels used as touch-pieces. 217 LL.Alban's. India. F. Anglo-Saxon coins. Hants. and coins of. coins of. 167. Arabic. :Coins Alexander's of successors in the East. 266 E. 72 Alexander coins 2 n.E..138 coins On an unpublishedcoin of Artavasdes king of Armenia... Archelaus. PERCY. J. II.193 On theSt. Seljukcoins struckat.A.:name. struck the. coins at.R. Edward coins withhisfather's VC.

coins. coinsof. 143 Stirling. Scot. 83. 112 Jewish coins. the mint at. coins of. coins by. 242 Q. 80 RobertIII. 139 PONTON D'AMECOURT. coins of..STANLEYE. 73 Phoenicia.105. Naples. Thorngraffcon the. 60 Revue Numismatique Beige. VICOMTE IE :Further notes onthe gold coinsfound at Orondal. Note the on legend 221 pp. 179 Herod I.H.:- Unpublishedvarieties of Scottish Arabic glasscoins. Deodato coins 135 de.coins of.Bartholomew. R.R. Telephus. II. ESQ. medals struck on the Norses.2 coins K. 149 Marsal. . coins of. 1 Sapor coinsof. of 266 T. Scottish coins. and II.S. St.. Gozon. 72 ST.. James I. coinage 99 of. noticeof.gold medal of. Revue Numismatique. 1 coins John. 7 261 PATRICK. Lens. F* DE MONS.A.. Seljukcorns struckin. 199 coinage 100. N. Notesonthe Annalsof the Scottish coinage. of Scotland. St. C. trims struckat. 2 J. 72 POOLE.235 Phocas. 75 London. J.the order of. Hermaeus. 238 Sub-Parthian coins.105. 242 coins. coinsof.271 coins.. of Scotland. 61. F. :Renseignements numismatiques sur Texpression 65 71p.190 NECK.155 An account a hoard coins of of found atEphesus. H. silver coins Richard 223 of IL. :Magnesia. Papalcoins. 163. notices of. Touch-pieces. Hants. Jewish. of. Quentowic.R. trientes of. of Scotland. 16. 69 Pins.notice of. of Jerusalem. 212 Kalliope and Hermaeus. LANE. coins of. the 216 Merovingian coins.. coins of. 1 Jews. A.W. 277 Sapor. :.. S. F... revolt of the. of. 74 Mary of Scotland. Roger de. IV. 113 Hyrcanus II. HL.COCHBAN.F. REICHARDT. of. :- P. 271 SATTLCT. ESQ. coins of.. 223 Robert I.42 intended invasion England. GBUEBEB.242 16.. trims struck at. 120 H.. 33. EDWARD. JamesIII. 55 Sassanian coins. coinsof.:ESQ. coins of. gold trwntesstruck at. touching for..:THE REV. 239 coins Medal. 87 " L. 167. 235. Sapor III. ESQ. coins of.coins of..131 struck Judas Aristobulus.coin of. ESQ. coins of.178 coin THOMAS.S. R. of. of. 75 John Hyreanus. HenryVIIL. Seljuk dynasty. 168 King's evil. 10r5 Hormazd II. 190 Richard IL. 167. 122 Napoleon I. coins 187 of. 272 IL. 83. :Unpublished varieties of English Nmnismati8che Zeitschrift.noticed^ find. of Scotland. 63 Sassanian 33. 175 Hormazd I. 7 Hippostratus the Great. coinage of. W. ESQ. of..coins of.288 INDEX.

V. coius of. 278 Wood. 284 THB END.. coins of. J. coins of...£R*I?TEBS. criv ROAJD* ... coins of. of... the Lion. T. 132 Yesdegird I. Varahran III.INDEX. 120 Y. 22 Varahran V. Varahran coins 108 II. coins of. coins of. of. coins of. 284 Villeneuve. 282 Yesdegird II. 111 Varahran IV. Elion de.Mr. W. his discoveries at Ephesus. AND CO. William 289 Varahran coins 107 L..

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in the Chair* The following presents were announced and laid on the table :- 1. 6. vol. 5me Serie. From the Society. Nos. From 5. and xxx. Librarian. 19.. Bulletins de 1'Academie Royale de Belgique. the Society. 6 and 7. W. Esq. 1871. 4. for 187k From the Society. III. Eevue de la Numisniatique Beige. 4th Series. Aarbogerfor NordiskOldkyndighed Historic.tomeiii. 8.1871. i. 2. Vols. From the Society. 3. OCTOBER 1871. Smithsonian Exportfor 1869* From the Smithsonian . with Index and Part I. 2me Serie. xxix. 1869. for 1870. Comptes rendues dela Societe Franchise Numismatique de et d'Archeologie. The Journalof the Historicaland Archaeological Association of Ireland..> 8me livraison.. 1870.PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY.. BLADES. Parts og II. and IV. Society. Annuaire I'AcadSmie de Eoyalede Belgique. From the Society. Bulletins de la Societedes Anti^uairesde TOuest. 7. lre trimestre de 1871. NUMISMATIC SESSION 1871-1872.. From the Society. tomei. From the Society. 1871..

Mr. ex- tracted from the Chinese Annals. Mr. By W. lately discovered near Larnaca. Frentzel exhibited medals of Francis JosephI. Mr. struck at Milan. Esq. Longstaffe contributed paper entitled. both found at Caerwent. F. Appleton. xi. This stater was one of a large hoard of gold coins of Philip II. the vol. Charles Lefehvre." of which he exhibited impressions. H. Gardner contributed a paper " On some Greek coins bearing LettersTP3H. p.Esq.S. From the Author. Chron. From the Author. " Did the Kings a betweenEdward III. xi. W. of Austria.'and nearly the whole of which has come into the possession of Mi*.. by himself.2 PROCEEDINGSOF THE 9. 11. Head read a paper. " On some rare Greek Coins recentlyacquiredby the British Museum. p. . Chron. From the Author. Seevol. vol." whichis printedin theNum. in 1869.M. P. From the Author. 12. 10.in Cyprus.E. By J. and a denarius of Sept. and Henry YI. Barclay Y.? p. Severus. of Macedon. 162. Mr. F.. N. in Cyprus. By John Williams. struck in commemoration of the opening of the Suez Canal. 611-A. Les Squelettes des Arenes de Paris. A detailed account of the hoard is given in the Num.A.. 193. 166. in the sameyear.C. 229. Alexander the Great... Medals.S.C.D. 1640. Observations of Comets from B. which he was of opinion was coined at the mint of Salamis.. coin Moneyat York on their own Account?" It is printed in vol. Mr. xi. Esq.. S. Fleming. Clasps.. Golding exhibited a solidus of Arcadius. By M. Lang.S. p. bearing a star and the monogram SA on the reverse..B. Mr. and of his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Description a Selection Coinsand Medals of of relatingto America. Consul for Cyprus. Lang.and Crosses. exhibited a gold stater of Alexander the Great. xi. and Philip III.

were elected Members of the Society. Mr. Esq. at Vienna. By Dr. Esq.K. Munz-sammlung des Stiffces Florian in Ober-osterreich.. chiefly struck at London. From the Society. W. with a new countermark. S. p. Author. SeeNum. VATJX.. W.vol.A.and Philip the Arrhidseus. in RobertW. E. W. S.was elected a Member of the Society. 3 NOVEMBER 1871. Alfred J. the Chair in P. VAUX.. M. 229.. The Thorngrafton Find. CochranPatrick.. H. M..Conservateur Cabinet du Imperial des Medailles.. and Joseph Ripley. W. 3. F. xi. lately foundat Larnaca. 157. H. Collingwood Bruce. President. Lawson. 2me de trimestre de 1871. .Esq. the Chair. M.President. Esq. xi... Esq. Percy Gardner. Chron. . Lang. B. Consul at Cyprus.M.» p. Esq. St. having on the obversea head of Helios. Scot.S... Esq. DECEMBEE 1871. From the Author. From the. communicated a paper. 16. Esq. Nicholson. . Bulletins de la Societ6desAntiquaires 1'Ouest. J. Evans exhibited some pennies of William Bufus. Jones exhibited a drachma of the island of Rhodes." Printedin vol. The following presents were announced and laid on the table :- 1. giving an account of the treasure of gold staters of Philip the Second Macedon. Esq.. 2..NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. of Alexander Great. FredericKenner.B. de Saulcycommunicated paper "On the Coins of a the Zamarides JewishDynastsof Bathyra. F.A.. T. 21. BerneyBrown. Mr. By M..

and of a silver coin of Naxos. Keraklea. Ballymore Eustace. Chautard..Faun. Mr. Henfreyexhibited. Mr. Evans communicated a paper. II. at Oxford.. Head exhibited enlarged plates of a set of fine Greek coins of Kroton. Evans'sproposednewclassification the above-mentioned of coins. Thasos. IL. and three foreign sterlings. reverse. Sim also contributeda short account of the Dornoch Treasure-trove. and III. after a detailed examination of this hoard.4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The following present was announcedand laid on the table :- Imitations des Monnaies au type Esterlin frappeesen Europe pendant le xiii.. From W. in fine preservation: obverse. seventy-sixEnglish pennies of Edwards L. on behalf of Mr. Sim sent for exhibition impressionsof a silver coin of Alexanderof Epirus. Mr. on a find of some two hundred coins of Edwards L.. and IV. et xiv.on behalfof Mr. Vaux exhibited.head of Dionysos. Mr.in March. Dorof noch. arrived at the conclusionthat the usually accepted distinction between the eoins of the first three Edwards. and IL. Elis. . and a Bactrian copper coin of Azes. Siecles. Neck madesomeremarks upon Mr. Mr. county Kildare. Evans. Sherman. according to the more or less lengthened form of the King's name and titles upon the obverse. &c. By J.. J.. Mr. A.a set of English silver coinsof EdwardsI. struck at Tarentum. Mr. II. xi. printed in vol. V. impressions of six Carlovingian coins found at Mullaboden. weight.. in the courseof which he expressed opinion that it was based his upon a more scientific theory than that which has generally beenadopted.. by documentaryevidencebearing upon the and question. in Sicily. Esq. &c.. A. Charles I. 264. J. which consisted of one Scottish pennyof Alexander III. 1871..considerationof the style. and HI. of the coins themselves. p. must be considerably modified by the . Mr. Blades. Mackenzie. printed by the new Heliotype process. B.

" pp. T. wereelected Members the Society. 8me de trimestrede 1871. President.. U . Mr. W. Cochran Patrick communicated a paper " On someUn- publishedVarietiesof Scottish Coins. Neck exhibited a groat of Edward in. the Chair. in the Chair. The Rev.NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. xii. Gardner communicated a paper " On an Unpublished Coin of Artavazdes King of Armenia. Esq. de Saulcy.. of The following presents were announced and laid on the table :- 1.. 1872. Baker. F. Seevol xi. YAUX. Mr. From the Society. Bogers. S. Eevue de la Numismatique Beige.. and weighs sixty-nine grains. Esq. By M. lately found in Sussex. . R. 9.waselected Member tfee Gill. Esq.. Esq. 288 and 258. J. 5me Serie. VAUX. and E. Menioire sur les Monnaies Datees des Seleueides. -|-EDWAR' DEI x GRA'x BEX x ANGI*' x x DNS'x HIB' x Z'AC. Verica. 3.. S. W. P. JANUARY 18. lre livraison.Arthur John Evans. FEBRUARY15. 1872. Mr. a of Society.. Bulletins de la Societedes Antiquaires FOuest. W. President.tome iv. W..and having an annulet on each side of the head. W. in vol. F. Rogersone *' On a Dinar of Bedr. the Son of Husnawiyeh..Esq." which will be found II. From the Society.. Mr. reading on the obverse. instead of the ordinary trefoil at the end of the cusps of the treasure.. This coin was struck at London. in HenrySeptimus Esq. From the Author. p." and Mr. 2. Gordon exhibited an electrotype of an unpublished coin of the British chief.

58.the Rev. Dnnbar.Alfred H. 1st vear. of Husain ed-din Melek Diarbekr. The following presents were announced and laid upon the table:-. Henry and "Webb.. Esq. were elected Members of the Society. No. p. S. found In Hertfordshire. 1872. Monnaiesau type Esterlin. N. From the Society.. 65.. Part II. Chautard. on MajorHay exhibitedcoinsof the Ortokiteclassof Nejmeddin Melek Diarbekr. from the Greek. By J. A bronze medal commemorative of the munificent be- quests of the late Mr. From the Stationers'Company. From the .of which an impression be givenannuallyto a scholar will of the Stationers'School. Power. Cummlngs. The reverses of the first two of these coins were imitated Mr. and with BKXTANNIA the reverse. In the Chair. Henry Clark.. £c.. W. 2. Mr. Oct.metaphorically. 3. vi.. vol. 1871. . de Saulcy communicated a paper " On the Term pp employed in Holy Scripture to designate. MARCH 21. 1867. M. at Earcudbiight. and Lanark. and of Alkamil.6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The following present was announced and laid on the table :~~ Proceedingsand Papers of the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. From "W. siL. Eeporfc. Sultan of Egypt." It Is printed In vol.Esq. President. Sim communicated coins In Scotland. an account of four recent finds of G. of the Liverpool Numismatic Society. Thomas Brown to the Stationers' Com- pany.Proceedings. Evans exhibited a second brass coin of Hadrian. VATJX. W.S. Esq. Blades. 1. Esq. Leith Harbour.

October. From the Society. VATJX. Esq. Yerhandlungen des Vereins fur Kunst und Alterthum in Ulin und Oberschwaben. APRIL 18. 1872. Revue Numismatique. From the Commission.231 mediaeval silver coins. N. Frentzcl exhibited the two varieties of the Prussian -war- medals givento combatants non-combatants and duringthe late war.S. in the Chair. i. vol. 6. 1869. and thus suggesting that the name in full was EPMOKPATHS. 7. From the Society. By Edward Thomas. 5mc Serie. This paper is printed in vol.avecun Atlas. Medals. The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. J.S. S. 365) in giving EPMOKPA instead of EPMOK... W. Eevenue resourcesof the Mughal Empire. of a hoard of 2.R. 2. 4th Series. From the Society. Part I. 4. xii. with the reverse. at Ephesus. p. Wood.probably taken from a die of Philip the First. and severallumps of the same metal. 120.. xiv. 3. by Mr.' Presented by Colonel Guthrie. Revue de la Numismatique Beige. Beule (p. 7 Mr. .NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. F. and not EPMOKAHS.... 2melivraison. He also exhibited a plated coin of Gordian the Third. and Tokens of the Dominion of . iv. 1871. From the Society. 5. S. differing from one describedby M. S. The following presents were announced and laid upon the table:- 1. W. Esq. T. Herbert Grueber gave an account of the discovery.. The Rev.S. Vol. Mr. Compte rendu de la Commission Imperiale Archeologique pour Tannee 1869. in his excavations on the site of the Temple of Diana.. President. TRANQVILLITAS AVGG. N. Lewis exhibited a tetradrachm of Athens. The Coins. vol.

V.. 4th Series. Esq. 16.8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Canada. Sheriff Mackenzie sent for exhibition a rubbing of an un- publishedLondon penny of Edward III. 2.. By Jeronimo de Yries and J. Bulletins de la Societedes Antiquaires 1'Ouest. From the Society. Esq.. Blades. By Alfred Sandham. 4me de trimestre de 1871. Esq.- 1. 1872. W. Six CanadianMedals. W. in the Chair. From the Society. 8. From W." It is printed in vol. The Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland* KS. with a Supplement. lately found in Sutherlandshire.D. The words of the legend on the obverse are divided by small saltires. By A. x.. VAUX. v.. Sandham. CochranPatrick communicated a paper " On the Annals of the Coinage of Scotland. Vol. of The following presents were announced and laid upon the table. Esq. Esq.Head. A Guide to the Select Greek Coins exhibited in electro- type in the Gold Ornament Room of the British Museum. xii..Esq.. By Alfred Sandham. 3. the Rev. vol. ii. MAY 16.of considerable rarity. Mr. By Barclay V.No. Henry Christie.. Pearson exhibiteda secondbrass coin of Augustus. The MontrealTrade Tokens. Esq. From the Author. President. Part IL From the Society. de Jonge. 4. of England.were elected Members the Society. 9. . R. Fxom the Author. Esq. Nederlandsche Gedenkpenningen. 9. D. From the Author. C. Mr.. 10. S. French. with the type of Victory placinga laurelwreath upon the head of the Emperor on the obverse. p. Mr. The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. and the same mark occurs between three of the pellets on the reverse. and Henry James.

The minutes of the last Anniversary Meeting were read and confirmed. The Report of the Council was then read to the Meeting. and Frederic Wilson." Seevol.Esq. ANNIVERSARY MEETING. Count de Satis. John Francis William. Henfrey exhibited. in Campania. HIB. dated 1658.sco. Simkiss.. reverse.. PEO. p.X. 1872.NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. President.-a forgery cast from ... W. Major Hay exhibited two copper coins of Aesernia. and. with the following curious additions made in the mould : obverse. of Wolver- hampton. from the Death of Alexander III. the numerals I. W. as follows :GENTLEMEN. by resignation. in Magna Grsecia. 86*5 grains. weight. of the sevenfollowing Members:Henry Cane.. 83. YAUX. xii.. Esq. Mr. Golding exhibited a coin of Neapolis. . a cap of Liberty and an anchor. Esq. weight. on either side of the shield. 9 Mr. and reading on the obverse ANG. patternfor a sixpence a (commonly called ninepence) a of Oliver Cromwell.and a Roman silver coin of the Csesia family. in 1286. S.one of Dyrrhachium. to that of James L. Esq.-also a cast from the usual shilling of 1658.Esq. one of the preceding. in 1487. The Councilregret to have to announce their lossby death of the four following Members:Henry Frederic Holt. JUNE 20. Edward Wigan. under the bust. 99 grains. on behalf of Mr. and one of Samos. in the Chair.-TheCouncil again have the honour to lay be- fore you their AnnualReportas to the stateof the Numismatic Society. CochranPatrick communicated a paper " On the Annals of the Coinage of Scotland. Mr.

Esq. B. Esq.. Esq. Uxbridge. . » * . Esq. Henry Christie.10 PROCEEDINGSOF THE Charles Clay. on the 7th August. Arthur John Evans.. Cuminings. our numbers are thereOriginal.. with which he was seized about three years previous to his death. AlfredJ. 1872 . W. Henry Clark. Lawson.. R. Esq. A. de Salis. . Esq. Esq.Esq. Cochran Patrick. Esq. Joseph B. Elected. Esq. Bev. B.June.A. Hillingdon Place. H. Henry Septimus Gill. 1871 . and Edward Wigan. Total. K. of paralysis. - - 7 4 - 7 4 Members. M.D. as follows i- Henry James. upon whose father the title of .. Members. On the other hand they have much pleasure in recording the election of the sixteen following Members :W. Bolfe. Eev.A. D. . Bogers. Corkran. John Francis William. According to our Secretary's Report. . Nicholson. 5 137 38 180 We proceedto give a brief notice of our deceased Members. Esq. Sutton F. Esq. E. Leigh Sotheby. Mr. Esq. P. Bipley. M. June. T. fore.H. M. C. . H. B.D. W.Esq. Esq.. Mrs.. Baker. V. BerneyBrown. Esq.. . Captain Stubbs. Henry Webb.Esq.Esq. .. Percy Gardner. Count de Salis. 1871. Turner. was the son of Peter John Fane de Salis. who died at his residence.. 5 5 136 152 4 38 38 - 179 16 195 4 Deceased Besi^ned Erased . and Captain F. French. Honorary. P...

he bestowed especial study* We may herementionthat it is a matter of greatregret to all who take an interest in Roman coins that Mr. 11 Count of the Holy Boman Empire wasconferred 1748. entirely abolishing the old alphabeticalclassification according to families. the chronological arrangementof Mornmsenand the Duke de Blacas. The authorities the Medal by of Room. He amassed immense an collection of Roman coins.NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. only and forty-five years of age at the time of his death. . de Salis did not live to complete greatwork which he had in hand.rangingfrom the earliest specimensof the Consular period down to the latest Byzantine. where he spent his time in perfectingthe arrangement the Roman of Series according to a system of his own.by in the Emperor Francis. it is. Ostro-Gothic.in which he the intended explain his reasonsfor assigning to certain coins to certainlocalities their fabric. acknowledged all that the by . together with the Merovingian. inasmuch it is not alwayseasyto find a givencoin as at a moment's notice. and an unwearied student of the Roman branch of the subject. in reward for his servicesas Envoy and Plenipotentiary at the Court of Queen Anne.and he was for years a daily frequenter of the Medal Room. although it possesses certain disadvantages a public for collection. The barbarous imitations of Roman coins he treated in a similar way. with certain modifications. deSalis the on basedhis arrangement. In the Consular Cabinetshe adopted. The coins of the Empire he arranged under the mints at which they were struck. by their style and fabric. His collection.respecting scientificprinciples which Mr. and in default of these.however.he presented to our National Museum. Our deceased Memberwas a Justice of the Peacefor Middlesex. which forms the link between the Roman and Mediaevalmoney. and upon this class. have maintainedhis classification intact. dividing the coins of each Emperor into geographical classesaccording to their mint-marks. and Visi-G-othic imitations. consistingof many thousand specimens. He was an ardent lover of the scienceof Numismatics.

and Thomas having furnished many of the finestspecimens.12 PROCEEDINGSOF THE system the only really scientificone. The Romanlarge brass. consistingof Greek. Edward Wigan. of the cabinetsof Pembroke. which we hope some day to see completed. His Roman materially assisted. all that is needed is being a thorough index to it. are magnificent.he would doubtless have furnished some such index in the work upon which he was engaged. Wigan. Dupre*. Roman.in the forty-ninth year of his age. which took place at Hastingson June 30th. and miscellaneouscoins.Jewish. while the collection of his uncle. Gibbs . de Salis been spared.materiallyaddedto .English. also much enrichedby coins from the cabinets of the late M.hasleft an irreparable in the smallbodyof numismatic gap collectors. and with highly cultivated taste.the late Mr. not in somecases if founded.chiefly coins of the greatest rarity. The death of the late Mr. 1871.amongwhom he stood pre-eminent. and though he never contributed any papersto numismatic literature. The Jewish seriesis basedon the collectionsof M. throughout by not but Europe. Devon. Dupre.and the Baetrian on those of Mr. Had Mr. Baetrian. he made his name great as one of the most enter- prising and enthusiastic collectors. With a full appreciation of of the historical value of a coin. which wasadded collection to the of the lateM. Thoughhe could not be classedamong the ran'ks of literary Numismatists. the acquireby ment of the cabinets of well-known goldwasformed fromthefinest collections thelastcentury. His collections embraced nearlythe entire range of numismaticstudy. apart from its beauty of design or its excellenceof execution. he never hesitated to add to his cabinets any pieces which might prove of value to the numismatic student. and his loss will be deplored Numismatists. of East Mailing. only in England. He contributed many valuablepapersto our own Chronicle and to the French Revue. de Saulcy. Many portions of his collections were coin collectors.

to the Trustees of the British Museum. have been laid before numismatic students in the pagesof the Numismatic Chronicle (vol. and the pick of the Greek and Roman portions has subsequentlybeen acquired by the Department of Coins in the British Museum. the whole of which sum will. " nearly the wholeof the seriesof the Roman gold. 1865). Wigan. With an unbounded liberality he presented. by means of a special Treasury Grant of £10. his entire collection was purchasedby Messrs. only two which at present the havebeenthoroughlystudiedand laid before publicare the the Roman gold and the Jewish. xix. however.000. both numismatically and intrinsically. have to be returned to the Treasury by meansof an annual deduction to be made from the usual Grant for the purchase coinsand medals. of The Councilare gladto be able to congratulate Society the on the satisfactory condition of its finances. 1864).NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. whilst the Jewish coins have been published in Madden's " History "of Jewish Coinage" (London. in 1865. Of all his collections. 13 his stores. Rollin and Feuardent. On the death"of Mr. The Treasurer's Report is as follows :- .. The great value of this collection. and the number of the coins required for the Department of Coins and Medals. with the exception of the quinarii.

. Vaux...... &c Mr. Wells & Grant............. Mr.. Treasurer.. J. Collector.....Statement ReceiptsandDisbursements the Num of of Dr.. Vaux. Lees... Head... to Messrs... Rent andExpenses Midsummer .. Messrs.for Bookbinding . Printing . 9 To Messrs.... P. 3 0 2 0 0 12 1 7 0 236 26 12 0 40 15 0 17 6 0 0 40 34 14 6 3 5 £432 12 7 ..... &c Ditto paidDulau& Co........ Postage Stamps two years . 18 0 0 0 ... J. d...for Postage.. Davy & Sons. .. for Printing Chronicle. on Mr. Commission Postage for and ... . Virtue & Co... Rent to Christmas ...... for Fire Insurance £500... for and Balance ... THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY IN ACCOUNT WI s.for Engraving Mr..... Part 41 Ditto ditto ditto Part 42 11 0 10 B Ditto Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto Part43 Part 44 10 13 9 2 10 Mr. Head......for Postage......

. . J. BEV.A. ESQ. F..C. F. A.S. F.A.S.. S.S..ESQ. HERBERT GRUEBER. SMALLFIELD. S. ESQ.G. JOHNYONGB AKEKMAN. D..A. F. ESQ. W.A.ESQ.ESQ.. BT.S.F. Vice -Presidents. S.A. ESQ. H.D. ESQ. M. SIR HENRY DRYDEN. BART. W.S.. F..S.S.B. HON.ESQ. MAJOR HAY..G.A.M. BLADES. ESQ. Secretaries..S.A. ESQ. J. F.F. Librarian..A. J. F. F. NECK. 15 The Meeting then proceeded to ballot for the officersof the ensuing year.S.L.B. VAUX.PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. B.. B. M.A. BEEGNE. STUART POOLE. F.. BIRCH.A. Hon. F. JOHNEVANS.B.S. ESQ.B.C. LL.. ESQ. PERCY GARDNER.S.S.EJ.ESQ. BAECLAY VINCENT HEAD. J. WILLIAMS.. Members of the Council* THOMAS JAMES AENOLD. THEEARLOF ENNTSEILLEN. W. Treasurer. Foreign Secretary. F. when the following gentlemen were elected:President. ASSHETON POWNALL.S.

1872. .LIST OF MEMBERS OP THE NUMISMATIC 03? LONDON. SOCIETY DECEMBER.

Rawden.. HENRY.. Suffolk.Sudbury..A.St.W. WILLIAM. *COENTHWAITE. F.A.S.S. British Museum.. St.. H&vre.E. Librarian.A.R. Kensington Park. St. .Walthamstow. St. TOrangerie. ARTHUR...COLONEL TOBIN. THOMAS JAMES. *BABINGTON... ESQ.Edinburgh. 1872. 2.E. CharlotteStreet. ESQ. Forest.A. REV. WILLIAM..H. MONTAGUE.M.75. Hertford. ESQ. ESQ.. Dorchester. HENRY.S.S. BAYLEY. W.EDWARDH.G. Abchurch Lane.. ESQ.ESQ... (o. Q. ESQ. 1. M.S.A.11.CHURCHILL. 45.)=OriginalMember.Leeds.L. BIRCH. ESQ. PROP.LIST OF MEMBERS 03? THE NUMISMATIC OF LONDON. AUNOLD. Child's Place.....TempleBar. BTTRNS. Islington.. Bayfordbury. R.. Sunnyside. *BRIGGS. CARLOS. COOMBS. India.25. Leamington..ESQ. ESQ.. TuLLiE. South End. ALLAN. CAVE. LAURENCE TRENT. ESQ.ForeignOffice.M. Cockfield Rectory. (O.Cambridge. Dorking. CHRISTIE. CLARK.. F. Rue de 14.D.M. BAKER.. SAMUEL..C. ESQ.WILLIAM. JOHN F.ESQ. ESQ. B.S.A.M...N. MACKENSIE. B.S.'and M.A.LL. REV.D. Lunatic Asylum. ESQ. James's Square.. Arlington Square.. F. M.D. ESQ.M. BUSH. GrevillePlace. Asaph Villa... ChesterSquare* CHAMBERS. Alban's. M. Arundel Gardens. OLIVE. High West Street. BLADES. W.A.. P.I. and 20... G.C.D. Fulbourn. ESQ. BUNBURY. REV. EDWARD. Cragg Royd. F. Le CAMBEINO. BBKNEY.. ALLEN. ARTHUR. ESQ. SOCIETY DECEMBER. James's Street. BHOWN.S.C.. An Asterisk prefixed to a nameindicates that the Memberhas compounded for Us annualcontribution.) BERGNE. 35..R. BACON. DowningStreet. M.

Clifton Gardens.E. CAPTAIN J. ESQ. F. F. Market Place. F. HERBERTA. Jf'ormosa. JULES.... D. 16. REV. J. CHARLES SETON.R. H. Markfield.near Halstead. PETER. V. Victoria Street. HENRY. HOLT.Secretary. JAMES MURRAY. Highgate.R.Birmingham. THEEARL OP. A.S. Record Office. AddisonRoad.H.. REV. 103.L... D. Vice-Consul^ Tanisay. Kensington.C.Cambridge. F.Brunswick. ESQ. M. Durham. Fingal Place. Helston. Worcestershire..... HemelHempstead..Tiverton. HENRYFIIED. Evesham. WILLIAM. Enniskillen.. British Museum.A.D. Collumpton.107.RUDOLPH.F. ESQ..75. Fox. ESQ.Cornwall.I. . GILL. ENNISKTLLEN. H. CUMMINGS. ESQ.4 LIST OF MEMBERS.. ESQ.. ESQ. EVANS..Edinburgh.British Museum. Daventry.COL. FOSTER..S. Wallingford.R.C. British Museum.A. MAJOR. New Broad Street. EDWIN..R. Fetter Lane. Nash Mills.M.I. PERCY.L. ESQ. WILLIAM^ Esq. FREUDENTHAL..G. Huntingdon..ESQ..A. WILLIAM.GEORGE. Grammar School. GRUEBER. MAJOR-GENERAL 18. R. Devon. ESQ. M.L.S.B.ESQ. Old Bailey...S. HENRYWILLIAM. DAVIDSON. ESQ. Florence Court. Leipziger Street.E.. CUNNINGHAM.. W. M.D.. A. Vicarage. Hyde Park Corner.. ESQ. .. Essex. DAVIES. AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON. H. 5. GASTON.. CHARLES. GREENWELL. MORLEY.. Gordelinger Street.S.S.D. Place.A.. LL. Westminster Chambers. JAMES. St. JOHN. Victoria St. RIGHTHON. 14. F.ESQ. NashMills.. 23.. Master of CaiusCollege. ESQ. DOUGLAS.. ARTHUR ESQ. EVANS.. and65.A. HEAD. LL.A. Vice-President. EVANS.. ESQ.D. HAY.M. Junior United Service Club. HON... FRENCH. *GUEST. BARCLAY VINCENT. DRYDEN.M.. 28.. Great Russell Street. WILLIAM RUSHER. ESQ. HENRY SEPTIMUS. 7. FONROBERT. Kensington. ESQ.ESQ.S. Blomfield Terrace.C. and BridgewickHall. Secretary. Great Russell Street. FRANKS.Victoria Street. GARDNER. SIR BART. Herael Hempstead. FRENTZEL. M.ESQ. F..P. 61. Clarendon Road.. George's JOHN. ESQ. FEUARDENT..A. GENERAL. Baidon Lodge. SEBASTIAN.C.S. 145. Ireland. GUTHRIE.. D. Chapel.. FERGUSON... Maida Hill. ESQ.A.Canon'sAshby.. F. Gunwalloe REV. 103.R. EADES. 2.S..Leicester. HARDY. FARROW.Berlin.R. GOLDING....

Godalming. C.. Lancaster Gate. Cambridge. ESQ. ESQ.M.) NICHOLS.S. Jos. R. HYLTON DYER.407. Montreal. F. ESQ. Michael'sCollege. J. ESQ. GEORGE BROKE.S. HENRY.A.. Strand. Great Oakley Rectory. 25. Gardens.ESQ.S.. ESQ. 156. ESQ.ESQ.. ROBERT. SIR N. BART. 68. MORRIS... JONES.D. MACLACHLAN. NECK. W.. Cyprus... ESQ. MIPDLBTON. Lewes. ESQ. Victoria Street... Watford. FREDERIC WILLIAM. Tenbuiy. Sussex..A.. JUDD..F.A. 9. B. Cheltenham. Broadstairs. Westholme.. C... ESQ. Oscar Villas... H. H.B.Harwich. CHARLES. ALFRED ESQ. LlanerchrugogHall. LUCAS. L.S.M. MADDEN. LAWSON.ESQ. CHARLES FRANCIS..Temple. Junior U. .L. 2. J. New Oxford Street. ESQ. R. [Box 94&] ' Mu-RCHisoN. ESQ. 4.A. CAPTAIN. W. ESQ.. JONES. J.LIST OF MEMBERS. ChestnutRoad... HENRY.S... and Broke Hall. Southampton. MAYER.S. MLDDLETON..R. and 2. New Bond Street. Lane... Lord Street. DICKSON. N. Kent. F. Stoneleigh ESQ. MORTIMER.GENERAL.J. MOTT. REV. LANG... B. 23. F.. THOMAS. Club. M. Kilburn. 10.. Christi College. ImperialOttomanBank. REV. MILLS.C. JONES. ESQ. Warwick... Downham Market. JENNINGS. JOHNSTON. GEORGE.Essex. SAMUEL SAVAGE. JOHN JOSEPH..S. Catherine Terrace. A. Portsea. ESQ. HUNT. H. W. Gray's Inn.. Hereford Chambers. ESQ. JAMES COVE. KEARY. J. 462.Tottenham. St.FREDERICK W. ESQ... Parliament Street.. 5 HUNT. REV. GOUGH. ESQ. 20. C. Wellesbourne.. Portsmouth. STAVENHAGEN.. Park (O. Catherine Street.. Villas.Smyrna. F.ROBERT HAMILTON.. Wales. ShrublandPark. K. 22. Hereford 12. *LAMBERT. Loxley. JOHN. Plowden's Buildings.JOHN CLAY. Gateshead.B. 1 and 2. Liverpool. The Terrace. JOHN. MARMADUKE F. Fellowof Corpus ESQ.DR. North Grounds Villa. F. NICHOLSON... M.A. Junior United ServiceClub. LONGSTAFPE. LINCOLN. *LEWIS.. Verulam Buildings. W. Oude Commission. St. J. MARSDEN.. CoventryStreet. ESQ. EastPark Terrace.M. MOORE.594. JAMES. Consul. LOEWE. British Museum. Kingswood. ESQ. Suffolk. LEATHER... ESQ. Brook House. Worcestershire.Montreal.A. ESQ.

Rugby. Lewes.ESQ. Lauriston Lane.. Croxteth Road.. Cumberland ESQ. E.Boston. "Wolverhampton.W. Pall Mali.L. UniversityStreet.A. M.A.M. Clifford's Inn. ROSTRON..... ROGERS. WALTER.. SMITH. Yorkshire. W. 217.S.A. JOHN..A. Regent'sPark.Beith.. Bingham's Melcombe.Temple. M.. ESQ.A. LAKE. Queen'sCollege. E. 32... 189. ESQ. ESQ.S.and33A..Eore 7. 14.. San Valetta. ESQ. GratzStyria. Edinburgh.S. ESQ.S. SHARP. H.R. B.S. PQOLE. Lincolnshire. PRICE. JOHNMAXHELD. *STREATIIEILD.. REGINALD STUART.. JOHNGEORGE. RICHARD.H. Gower J. Street. STRICKLAND. Snoass. Northampton. THOMAS MARTIN.British Museum. DallingtonHall. Terrace..Scot. Godalmmg. ESQ.A. near SWITHENBANK.Lincolnshire. U. ESQ. Keighley. Prince's Park.M. MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY C. Bedale. SPICE FREDERICK. SIM. 32. BerkeleySquare.E. Spalding..GEORGE SYDNEY. T. Esq.E. SAMUEL. (o. 15. REV.. SMITH. EDWIN.G. Liverpool.G. TJ. POLLEXFEN. PTJLLA. T. W.ESQ.. K. M.61. ESQ. SPENCE. East Witton Vicarage..S. MRS. Dockroyd. SAMUEL SALTER. Ayrshire. Surrey. CharlesStreet. Street. ESQ... EloridaStreet. SMITH. British Museum. T. South Kilworth.C....ESQ. Houghton-le-Spring. HON.. MARTEN.A.A. PEARCE. SIR P. READ. Wisbeach.ESQ. Durham. King's Bench"Walk.. ESQ. Ramsgate. GEORGE ESQ. E.6 LIST OF MEMBERS. SUGDEN.B.. RAVLINSON. JOSEPH ESQ. EDMUND... STANLEY LANE. RIPLEY. GEORGE.. Cambridgeshire.11.. SAMUEL. PROKESCH-OsTEN.R.. POOLE... ASSHETON.JUN.D..S. *PATRICK.S. Prince's Street.Cairo. 5. SIMPSON.Buenos Ayres. *PERRY. 3.N. COUNT. POVTNALL.. ESQ... ROBERT. RosellaPlace.B. M. PEARSON. ESQ. 21. SMALLHELD. Strada Paolo... ESQ. ESQ..S. E. E. J. SAMUEL. Sion Hill. Savannah. RASHLEIGH.. &c.. Dorchester.B.A... WILLIAMCHARLES. 4. F.J ROBINSON. ESQ. Malta.. ROBERT COCHRAN. D.. SALAS... West Street. Newcastle-on-Tyne. &c. Consul. 9. JONATHAN.. . REV.I. North Shields. GEORGE REV.C.) PPISTER. Compton ESQ. ESQ. SIDNEY. Road. E. ESQ. B. MIGUEL. ESQ. ESQ. British Museum. E. M.. Cork. OLDFIELD.

Camden Square. BARON. 30.. SHEPHERD. J.. Munz-undAntikea Cabinet. * WHITE. Chatham. EDWARD.. ESQ.Kent. M. Covent Garden.R. Cheapside. WYON. 6.HUMPHREY. ESQ. ESQ. ESQ.. North Bradley. Brighton. *WIGRAM. Giessen. WILLIAM HENRY. Eaubourg Honor6. ESQ. CASTELLANOS. Henrietta Street. 294. Oswald 2. LanghamChambers.P. F.. ADRIAN. Buildings. 47. HENRY. BOND. WEBB...39. Madrid.F.) WILLIAMS. Royal Exchange 4. Somerset House. BERGMANN. GEORGE SETON.S.. WILKINSON. JAMES. The Abbey. St.. DONBASILIC SENOR SEBASTIAN.H.. JOHN. Royal Exchange..S. WYON.. KentishTown. City Road. VEITCH. Paris. ESQ. Esq.LEWIS. Greenfield. WHINITELD.R.Glasgow...JAMES SPRENT.Kensington. Cantelowe's Road. ESQ.RoyalAstronomical Society. A. 11.S.. WINSER... *WINGROVE. C.. President....A. TSsQ.. Wellington Street.A.S. Park Crescent. ESQ.Edinburgh. J... M.I. BARTHELEMY.. WORMS. 14. Regent'sPark.nAlljjliS»l.A.C. SANDYS WRIGHT.ALFRED BENJAMIN. 27. Rue Fortin. (o.Vienna.. WINGATE.A. Portland Place.. RegentStreet.A. WEATHERLEY.E. Royal Exchange B. Abingdon.Wilts. ESQ. "VIRTUE.S. Wood Street. DR. F.. YictoriaRoad. E.. lluiitCii iqUdiC.. M. Woodlawn. THOMAS ESQ.Shrewsbury.S. WOOD. VAUX. Kingswinford.. SU'UC. Paris.W. M. Bickley. ESQ.Direstor of the ILK. ESQ.. DRTJMMOND ESQ. ESQ. Chichester Terrace. M. Argyll Street. ESQ. Assurance.. W. 2.Berkshire. AKERMAN.. Rue d3Amsterdam. Strand. F. H. J. Rue S.2. 14.. 13. Bernardo* SO.S. CHARLES.. WILLIAMS. *«Iu»fC£tiL: «. MRS. REV. LanghamChambers.F. HONORARY MEMBERS. Road. SAMUEL. ESQ. DE. JOSEPH DR. WADDINGTON. ESQ.. W. YONGE. RITTER VON. *THOMAS.A. ESQ. WEBSTER. JOHN. ESQ.JAMES.A..S. D.. . *WooD. Athenaeum Club.

St. du Museed'Antiques et du Cab. HOLMBOE. LE. SE^OE DON V. Antwerp. d'fitat et Conseiller du Muse*e TErmitage de Imp6riale.R. COHEN. SAUSSAYE. Actuel d'fitat. P. M. HEINEICHS Berg.. Petersburg. 128.. Direct. St. A. J. LAPLANJE. ADEIEN DE. GUIOTH.L. DON ANTONIO. Thiiringen.Paris.A. 24. FaubourgSt. . AQUILLA.Brussels. Hanover. KtEHNE. du Mus^ed'Antiquites. L.I. France. GBNNAEO. MJBYEE. 54?^ M. Rue'de la Senne. ^ M. Direct. Amsterdam. DE. GKOTEPEND. GITJLIO. M. C. Conseiller DE. M. CONEAD. Dieppe. DR. COLSON. Brussels.. EDOUAED. J. M.Rome. du Cab. fi. J. TemplePlace. ESQ..S. im MINERTINI. Via delle Terme. Liege. Florence. 16. SAULCY.Membrede 1'Institut. CAV.desM^dailles. Noyon(Oise). Insp. DR.Leydcn. LE M. Ex Place. ROACH. LEITZSIANN. M. M. Paris. HILDEBEAND. M. Hanover. du Cab. Zurich. 46. Rue de la Tour d'Auvergne.Kent. RueFortin. GEOTE. ALEXANDEE.Copenhagen. Mus^e du Louvre. St. CAT. L'ABBE". DE LA.... PEOP. HENRI.. Six.A. M. DR. ESQ. VEKACHTEE. Naples. GONZALES. LONGP&UER. Paris. DR.. DR. LEEMANS. DE. WITTE.Strood. Lis Y RIVES. DE. Christiania.. PEEDEEICK. CARLO. PROP. M. Baggot Street. M. SMITH. Paris. New York. SMITH. RENIEK.St. M. BE. M. CHAION. des Medailles. Stockholm.Faubourg Honor^. BABON 5.a IL Tlorence. LEON. DR.. SMIL BEOR. BEETEAN DE. Rue d'Ecossc. WELLINGTON. Palazzo Ricasoli. des Medailles. Honore*. C.Direct. DOEN.Petersburg. YALLERSANI. DELGADO. COCIIET. Paris.. Omer. HEERPASTOR Weissensee. Madrid.8 LIST OF MEMBERS. F.Saxony. HAET. BEENHAED. F. Dublin. GLEECQ. 34 Rue de 1'Universite. 121. LE BAEON Actuel Conseiller M.

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