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CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES

Use of a graphic calculator to graph a given function Relating the following equations with their graphs

Effect of transformations on the graph of

**y = af ( x) , y = f ( x) + a , y = f ( x + a) , y = f (ax) , and combinations of these transformations eg . y = f (ax + b) 1 and y 2 = f ( x) and y = f ′( x) to the graph of y = f ( x) Relating graphs of y = f ( x ) , y = f ( x ) , y = f ( x)
**

as represented by Simple parametric equations and their graphs

Characteristics of graphs such as symmetry, intersections with the axes, turning points and asymptotes Determining the equations of asymptotes, axes of symmetry, and restrictions on the possible values of x and/or y

ax + b ax 2 + bx + c x2 y 2 ± 2 = 1, y = , y= dx + e cx + d a2 b

y = f ( x)

GRAPHS OF PARABOLA Parabolas given by the equation

**y 2 = kx (k > 0) are symmetrical about the x-axis and those given by x2 = ky
**

y

(k > 0) are symmetrical about the y-axis.

y 2 = kx

x

x 2 = ky

GRAPHS OF ELLIPSES 2 2 Graphs of the form ( x − h ) + ( y − k ) = 1 are ellipses with coordinates of centre (h, k). a2 b2 y These ellipses are symmetrical about the lines x = h and y = k . b

y b a

a

(h, k)

Special case: a = b

(h, k)

x a<b x

a>b

Circles are special cases of ellipses, just as squares are special cases of rectangles. When a = b = r, equation of the ellipse becomes ( x − h )2 + ( y − k )2 = r 2 which is the equation of a circle centered at (h, k) with radius r. Alternatively, it can be given in the form x 2 + y 2 + 2 cx + 2 dy + e = 0 . GRAPHS OF HYPERBOLAS [refer eg 1]

2 2 2 2 Graphs of the form x − y = 1 or y − x = 1 are hyperbolas. These hyperbolas are symmetrical about both c2 d 2 d 2 c2 axes and the lines y = ± d x are the asymptotes of the graphs. y 2 x2 c x2 y 2 − =1 d − =1 y = x d 2 c2 c2 d 2 c d

y=

−c

Axis/Point of Symmetry

d

c

x

c

d y=− x c

Graphically

−d

y=−

d x c

Algebraically

Equation of the curve remains unchanged when x is replaced by –x. eg. replaced by −y. eg.

y-axis x-axis

origin

If (x, y) is a point on the graph of y = f(x) then (−x, y) is also a point on the same graph. If (x, y) is a point on the graph of y = f(x) then (x, −y) is also a point on the same graph. If (x, y) is a point on the graph of y = f(x) then (−x, −y) is also a point on the same graph.

y = x4 y2 = x

eg. y = x 3 , y =

1 x

Equation of the curve remains unchanged when y is Equation of the curve remains unchanged when x is replaced by –x and y by –y.

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Transformation

Description of transformation

The graph of

Geometrically

y = f ( x ) → y = −f ( x ) y = f ( x) → y = f (− x) y = f ( x) → y = f ( x) + a

y = −f ( x) is the reflection of the graph of

y = f ( x) in the x-axis.

The graph of y = f ( − x ) is the reflection of the graph of

( x , y) → ( x , − y) ( x , y) → (−x , y)

( x , y) → ( x , y + a) ( x , y) → ( x , y − a)

y = f ( x) in the y-axis.

The graph of y = f ( x) + a is the translation of the graph of

y = f ( x) by a units in the positive y-direction.

y = f ( x) → y = f ( x) − a

y = f ( x) → y = f ( x + a ) y = f ( x) → y = f ( x − a ) y = f ( x) → y = af ( x) y = f ( x) → y = f (ax)

The graph of y = f ( x) − a is the translation of the graph of

**y = f ( x) by a units in the negative y-direction.
**

The graph of

y = f ( x + a) is the translation of the graph of

y = f ( x) by a units in the negative x-direction. The graph of y = f ( x − a ) is the translation of the graph of y = f ( x) by a units in the positive x-direction. The graph of y = af ( x) is the scaling of the graph of y = f ( x) by factor a parallel to the y-axis.

The graph of y = f (ax ) is the scaling of the graph of y = f ( x) by factor 1 parallel to the x-axis. a

( x , y) → ( x − a , y)

( x , y) → ( x + a , y)

( x , y ) → ( x , ay )

( x , y) → ⎛ ⎜

x , ⎝a

⎞ y⎟ ⎠

Modulus:

⎧ f ( x) , f ( x) ≥ 0 | f ( x ) |= ⎨ ⎩ −f ( x ) , f ( x ) < 0

⎧ f ( x) , x ≥ 0 f (| x |) = ⎨ ⎩f ( − x ) , x < 0

Composition of Two transformations: [refer to eg 6] y = f (kx + a) is a composition of y = f ( x + a) followed by y = f (kx) ; • or a composition of y = f (kx) followed by y = f ( x + a ) . k

•

y = mf ( x) + b is a composition of y = mf ( x) followed by y = f ( x ) + b .

**SYSTEMATIC CURVE SKETCHING
**

(1) Intercepts on Coordinate Axes (2) Linear Asymptotes : Vertical / Horizontal & Oblique Asymptotes (3) Stationary Points • First Derivative Test Given dy = 0 at point where x = a. We test the value of dy at points around x = a. dx dx

x

dy dx

a−

+

a

0

a+

−

x

dy dx

a−

−

a

0

a+

+

Shape

( a, f ( a ) ) is a maximum point.

x

dy dx

Shape

( a, f ( a ) ) is a minimum point.

a−

−

a−

+

a

0

a+

+

x

dy dx

a

0

a+

−

Shape

**( a, f ( a ) ) is a stationary point of inflexion.
**

y

increases as

Shape

Note:

If dy > 0, then f is strictly increasing, i.e., dx

x

increases.

**If dy < 0, then f is strictly decreasing, i.e., dx
**

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y

decreases as

x

increases.

•

Second Derivative Test If

dy =0 dx

at x = a and Or Or

d2y > 0, then ( a, f ( a ) ) is a minimum point. dx 2 d2y < 0, then ( a, f ( a ) ) is a maximum point. dx 2 d2y = 0, no conclusion can be drawn, so use 1st derivative test dx 2

ax + b ax 2 + bx + c and y = , a≠0 dx + e cx + d

as a proper fraction, i.e.,

**GRAPHS OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS y =
**

Given a rational function f ( x ) = P ( x ) , we express Q (x) values of x where Q(x) = 0 and

f ( x)

f (x) = g(x) +

R (x) , Q (x)

where degree of R(x) < degree of Q(x). Then, the horizontal/oblique asymptote is

y = g ( x) , and the vertical asymptotes are

R( x) ≠ 0 .

y = ± f ( x) [refer Eg 6 for y 2 = f ( x) and y 2 = −f ( x) ]

GRAPH OF y 2 = f ( x) ⇒

Graph

y = f ( x)

can be obtained from

y = f ( x) , by considering the following features:

The graph is defined only for values of x on the graph of

y = f ( x)

where

f ( x) ≥ 0 .

Graph of y =

Graph of

y = f ( x)

f ( x) f ( x)

increases. decreases.

f ( x)

f ( x) f ( x)

let

increases. decreases.

b > 0:

( a, b ) is a maximum point on

y = f ( x) . y = f ( x) . y = b.

( a, b ) is a maximum point on y =

( a , b ) is a minimum point on y =

y = f ( x)

f ( x) . f ( x) .

( a, b ) is a minimum point on

let

b > 0 : y = f ( x)

has a horizontal asymptote at has a vertical asymptote at

**y = f ( x) has a horizontal asymptote at y = b .
**

has a vertical asymptote at

y = f ( x)

Note:

x = a.

x = a.

y 2 = f ( x) ⇒ y = ± f ( x) . Hence the curve y 2 = f ( x)

is symmetrical about the x-axis.

GRAPH OF y = 1

f(x)

Graph of

y = f ( x)

1 decreases. f(x) 1 increases. f(x)

Graph of y = 1 f(x)

f ( x) f ( x)

increases. decreases.

let b ≠ 0:

**( a, b ) is a maximum point. ( a, b ) is a minimum point.
**

has an x-intercept at

1 ( a, b ) is a minimum point. 1 ( a, b ) is a maximum point.

y = f ( x)

y = f ( x)

x = a. x = a.

y= 1 y= 1

f(x) f(x)

has a vertical asymptote at has an x-intercept at

x = a.

has a vertical asymptote at

x = a.

**CURVES DEFINED BY PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS
**

At times it is more convenient to describe a curve using a parameter. The pair of equations for parameter

t

are called parametric equations of the curve, i.e., we may write

x = g(t )

and

x and y given in terms y = h(t ) instead of y = f ( x) .

of a

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Eg 1. Sketch ( x − 1) 2

22

−

( y + 1) 2 2

2

=1

and find the equations of the asymptotes.

Eg 2. 2008 J1 Term Exam Q10 A curve has parametric equations x

= cos3 2t , y = sin 3 2t , for 0 ≤ t ≤

π

4

. (i)

**Sketch the curve.
**

3

[1]

(ii) Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the curve at the point P

( cos

2θ ,sin 3 2θ ) , where 0 ≤ θ ≤

π

4

.[4] [3]

(iii) The tangent at the point P meets the x- and y-axes at S and T respectively. Show that distance ST is a constant. Eg 3. SAJC07/I/7 The curve C has equation y = * (i) (ii)

**a x 2 + 2 where x ≠ 1 and a is a non-zero constant . x − 1
**

[3] [2] [3]

Show that if C has no stationary points, then −2 < a < 0 . It is given that the line y = – x – 1 is an asymptote of C. Find the value of a.

(iii) Sketch C, showing clearly asymptotes & coordinates of any intersections with the axes. Eg 4 SRJC2007/I/10 modified The curve C has equation y =

y-axis at –2.

(i) (ii)

ax 2 + bx + c . It is known that C, that has asymptotes x = 3 and y = x − 1 , cuts the x+d

Find the values of a, b, c and d. [a = 1 , b = - 4 , c = 6 , d = - 3] [4] * Sketch the curve C, stating clearly the turning points, asymptotes and any intercepts with the axes. Hence deduce the 2 range of values of k such that the equation ax + (b − k ) x + c − kd = 0 has two distinct real roots. [5] Sketch graph of y =

(iii)

ax 2 + b x + c stating clearly turning points, asymptotes and any intercepts with axes [3] x +d

2 Eg 5. The curve has equation f ( x ) = ( x − 9 ) . Sketch the curve if (i) C = 0 (ii) C < 0 (iii) C > 0 and state the equations of all the 2

asymptotes of C and the coordinates of where C cuts the axes. Eg 6 YJC 2007/I/9 (modified) The curve shown in the diagram has equation and has a maximum point at

x +c

1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 3.5, ⎟ . 9⎠ ⎝

y = f (x ) . It intersects the axes at x = 3, y

x = 4, y = 3

3

1 ⎛ ⎜ 3 .5 , 9 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎠

y=2 x

0

3

4

On separate diagrams, sketch the graphs of: (i)

x=2

(iii)

y = f ( 2 x − 1) ,

(ii)

y = f ( x)

2

y = − f (x ) ,

2

?

x=5

(iv)

y=

1 . f ( x)

**What should you do if you need to sketch
**

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y=

1 f ( x + 1)

Eg 7 NJC2007 /I/6

y

y = f ( x)

−3 −2

−1

x

−1

points, where possible. (i)

A (2, −2)

*(ii)

Sketch, on separate diagrams, the following graphs, indicating clearly any asymptotes, axial intercepts and turning

y = −f ( x ) − 1 ;

y = f (− x ) ;

*(iii)

y = f '( x) .

[6]

Self Practice TPJC 2007/I/8 (modified) On separate diagrams sketch the following graphs showing the axial intercepts, stationary point and equations of asymptotes. a)

y=

x (3 x − 10)

( x − 3)

2

b)

y=

x (3 x − 10) ( x − 3)

2

c)

y2 =

x (3x − 10) ( x − 3) 2

[6]

CJC 2007/I/12 (modified) The curve C has equation

f ( x) =

**Q R ( x − 9) 2 . Express f(x) in the form P + , and state the + ( x − 3)( x + 3) x −3 x +3
**

[6] [9]

equations of all the asymptotes of C and the coordinates of where C cuts the axes. Sketch on separate diagrams, (a)

y = f ( x) ,

(b)

1 y= , f ( x)

(c)

y = − f (2 x − 1)

making clear the main relevant features of each curve. HCI 07/I/13 The curve

C

has equation

y=

x 2 + ax + 4 . x+b

x = −1

and a stationary point at

It is given that (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

C

has a vertical asymptote

x = 2.

[3] [1]

Determine the values of

a

and

b.

Find the equation of the other asymptote of

C.

Prove, using an algebraic method, that C cannot lie between two values (to be determined). [4] Draw a sketch of C, showing clearly any axial intercepts, asymptotes and stationary points. [3] Deduce the number of real roots of the equation

( 4 − x ) ( x + 1) = ( x

2 2

2

− 4x + 4

)

2

.

[2]

ans:

1) y + 1 = ±0.707( x − 1)

2) y − sin 3 2θ = − tan 2θ x − cos3 2θ ; y − sin 3 2θ = cot 2θ x − cos3 2θ ; ST = 1 5) (ii) asym : x = ± c , y= 1 (iii) asym y= 1 6) (i) (0.5,3) (2.25, 0.111) (2,0) (2.5,0) y = 2, x = 1.5 , x = 3 (ii) (3.5,0.333) (0, 0.111) (0,1.73) (0, -1.73) y = 1.41, y = -1.41, x = 2 , x = 5 (iii) (3,0) (4,0) x = 2 , x = 5 (iv) (0,0.333) (2,0) (5,0) (3.5,9) x = 3, x =4 , y = 0.5 7) (i) x = -2 , y = 0 , A(2,1) (ii) (-3,0) (-1,0)(1,0)(3,0) (0,-1) x = -2, x= 2, y = -1 (iii) x = -2, y = 0, (2,0) HCI : a = -4 , y = x -5, C cannot lie between -12 and 0; (0,4) (2,0) (-4,-12) y=x-5, x =-1; 2 roots TP: (a) y=3, x=3, (0,10/3),(0,0) (b) y=3, x=3, (0,10/3),(0,0) (c) y = ± 3 , x=3, (3.75,±2.89)(0,0) CJ: = 1 +

(

3) a = – 1

)

4) k > 5.46 or k < −1.46

(

)

6 24 , x = 3 , x = -3, y = 1 min(9,0) max (1,-8) ; (-3,0) (3,0) x =9,y=1, min(1, -1/8) − ( x − 3) ( x + 3) min(1.45, 8.065), max(5,0), y = -1, x = -1, x=2

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Refresher Topic:

CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES

FUNCTIONS

Concept of function, domain and range Use of notations such as f ( x) = x 2 + 5, f : x

x 2 + 5, f −1 ( x), fg( x) and f 2 ( x)

Finding inverse functions and composite functions Conditions for the existence of inverse functions and composite functions Domain restriction to obtain an inverse function Relationship between a function and its inverse as reflection in the line y = x

1. ONE-ONE FUNCTIONS

A function f is one to one if no two elements in its domain have the same image. We can prove that a function is one-one analytically or graphically. Analytical Method: If we can prove that for any x1 , x2 ∈ Df : x1 ≠ x2 ⇒ f ( x1 ) ≠ f ( x2 ) or equivalently,

f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒ x1 = x2

Graphical Method (Horizontal line test): The horizontal line y = k , for all k ∈ Rf , cuts the graph of y = f ( x ) once and only once, then f is a one-one function.[Note: The graph of y = f ( x ) must be sketched when using horizontal line test.]

2. INVERSE FUNCTIONS

The inverse of function f is such that if y = f ( x ) , then x = f −1 ( y ) . The inverse function of f (denoted by f −1 ) exists if and only if f is one-one.

Notes: • Domain of inverse function f −1 , Df -1 = Rf , Range of function f.

• •

**Range of inverse function f −1 , Rf -1 = Df , Domain of function f. Graphically, the graphs of in the line y = x.
**

y = f ( x)

and

y = f −1 ( x )

are reflections of each other

3. COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS

**Let f and g be functions. gf is defined as gf ( x ) = g ⎡ f ( x ) ⎤ . ⎣ ⎦
**

Important Notes:

Df

f

Dg

g

Rg

1. Dgf = Df .

Similarly, Dfg = Dg . gf is a composite function if and only if Rf ⊆ Dg.

Rf

Rg f

2. gf may or may not be a function. Similarly, fg is a composite function if and only if Rg ⊆ Df. 3. To find the range of the function gf we can either • • sketch the graph of gf and read off its range or if the graphs of g and f are available (and especially if the graph of gf is very difficult to sketch), then we can use the range of f as the restricted domain of g and read off the corresponding range to find Rgf . i.e. Rgf = Set of images of Rf under g . gf

**4. gf ≠ fg in general, i.e. composition of functions is not commutative.
**

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HCI 07/I/12

(i)

The functions f and g are defined by

f :x→

( x + 3)( x − 1)

− 3− x

4

,

x ∈ , x ≠ −3, x ≠ 1 x∈

g:x →e

,

Sketch, on separate clearly labelled diagrams, the graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) . Hence, or otherwise, show that the inverse function of g does not exist. [3]

h : x → g ( x ) , x ∈ A , where A is the maximal subset of the

(ii)

The function h is defined by

interval ( 0, ∞ ) such that the inverse function h −1 exists. State the set A and give the rule and domain of h −1 .

(iii) Determine which of the following is a function: a) f g b) f h -1 In each case, if the function exists, give its domain and range.

[4]

[3]

NJC 07/I/7 The functions f and g are given by (i) (ii) (iii)

f :x g:x

( x − 2) 2 − 3, x ∈ R, x ≤ 2 a − e− x , x ∈ R

Show that f −1 exists and express f −1 in similar form, stating the domain clearly. [3] Determine the largest integer value a such that fg exists. [2] For the largest value of a obtained in part (ii), determine the domain and range of fg. [2]

Self Practice

Term Exam J1 2008 Q6

The functions f and g are defined by

f : x → ln( x + 1)

g : x → ex

2

,

,

x > −1 x∈

−

The function gf is defined if the domain of f is restricted. State the largest possible set of [2] values of x for which gf is defined. (ii) Using the restricted domain of f, define gf and state its range. [3]

(i)

**PJC 07/I/10 The functions f and g are defined by f : x → x2 + 6x − 9 , x ∈ − , 1 g:x → 2 , a > 0, x ≠ a, x ∈ , a − x2 h : x → 2 − 3x − 1, x > k . (i) Sketch, on separate diagrams, the graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) .
**

(ii) (iii) (iv)

[2]

State the maximal domain of g for which its inverse function exists. [1] Find the range of values of a for which the equation h(x) – g(x) = 0 has two real roots, giving your answer in exact form. [3] Find the least value of k for which the function fh exists. [3] 4 , x ∈ (0,1] , range 1/3 (6 − ln x)(2 − ln x)

, Rfg = ( −3, ∞ )

HCI: [3, ∞) , h −1 ( x) = 3 − ln x, x ∈ (0,1] , f h -1 ( x) = NJ: PJ:

f −1 : x 2 − x + 3, x ∈ R, x ≥ −3 , a = 2, Dfg = Dg =

11 5 , k= 18 3

2

(−∞, 0] or [0, ∞) , a >

Term Exam: (-1,0) gf ( x) = e[ln( x +1)] , x ∈ (−1, 0) , Rg f = (1, ∞ )

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