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Presented by M. Aditya Hananto email: aditya@hananto.net website: aditya.hananto.net YM: aditya.hananto hp: 0815 834 8430

Routing-Protocol [ RIP / OSPF / EIGRP / BGP ]
Untuk saling bertukar informasi mengenai jaringan, dengan router tetangga a. Menentukan jalur terbaik menuju tujuan contoh: RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, BGP

3 class routing Protocol: 1. Distance vector, contoh: RIP, IGRP 2. Link state, contoh: OSPF, IS-IS 3. Hybrid, contoh: EIGRP

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AS Number Autonomous System adalah sekumpulan jaringan yang dikelola oleh sati pihak missal ISP, pemerintah. 1 s.d. 65535 1. Private AS: 64512 s.d. 65535 2. Public AS: 1 s.d. 64511

The Best Path: Ini terkait dengan bagaimana caranya rute dapat di tuju se efektif mungkin, dan pertimbangannya berdasarkan 1. Lowest Administrative Distance Artinya AD adalah nilai default dari setiap routing protocol tertentu, bisa dilihat di daftar dibawahnya 2. Lowest Metric Artinya penghitungannya terkait seberapa banyak Hop Count, dari satu router ke router lain sampai ke tujuan 3. Load Balancing Jika semua kriteria AD, dan matric sama nilainya, maka penentuan rute / paket nya dibagi merata, (semua link akan digunakan secara bergantian, Ada pada EIGRP)

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Administrative distance Atau ranking dari setiap jenis rute Conected / C Static/S EIGRP / D OSPF / O IGRP / I Is-Is / i RIP / R = 0 [langsung terhubung] =1 = 90 = 110 = 100 = 115 = 120

Classful Routing Protocol (RIPv1, IGRP): Rule: Pengirim memberi routing update tanpa subnet mask, misal 10.1.1.0. penerima yg akan meng-assign subnet mask di routing table nya, Sesuai dengan subnet mask interface penerima, yaitu /30 Hanya bisa digunakan di jaringan FLSM (fixed length SM) TIDAK bisa digunakan di jaringan VLSM (variable length SM) Hanya support auto-summary --> jika info jaringan yg dikirim berbeda jaringan (10.1.1.0/24 --> 10.0.0.0) dengan jaringan penerima (172.16.1.0/24 --> 172.16.0.0) maka info yg dikirim adalah jaringan aslinya (10.0.0.0) Hanya bisa digunakan pada Contiguous Network TIDAK bisa digunakan pada Discontiguous Network

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Classless Routing Protocol: Rule: Pengirim memberi routing update beserta subnet mask, misal 10.1.1.0/24. penerima akan mencatat di routing table nya sesuai subnet mask dari pengirim BISA utk jaringan FLSM maupun VLSM Manual summarization (no auto-summary) bisa digunakan pada Contiguous & Discontiguous Network

Distance Vector: 1. 2. 3. 4. Periodic update Update berupa seluruh isi routing table Utamakan jarak hop terpendek dan vector arah, Metric RIP = hop count Contoh routing protocol RIP, EIGRP

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Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Support load balancing ==> meneruskan paket melalui 2 jalur atau lebih yang metricnya sama-sama terkecil Butuh convergence / singkronisasi informasi ke s emua table routing, agar isinya konsisten Penting: RIP memilih jalur terbaik berdasarkan hop count terpendek (max 15), sehingga bisa dipastikan jalur tersebut lebih cepat. RIP diperkenalkan untuk homogen network. Jika semua network nya terkoneksikan medianya sama, dan berpengaruh juga dengan jumlah bandwidth penghitungan metric nya akan diperhitungkan selain hop count. RIP sangatlah cocok jika kondisi jaringannya seperti ini Algoritmanya berdasarkan Bellman-Ford algorithm

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Fungsi command "network" pada (config-router)# 1. Untuk mendaftarkan jaringan yg akan di-update ke router tetangga 2. Mendefinisikan interface yg send-receive update

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Command di RIP Show ip route

RouterA# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR T - traffic engineered route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, fastethernet0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets

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R C R 10.2.2.0 [120/1] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/2 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/2 192.168.1.0/24 [120/2] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/2

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Debug ip rip

RouterA# debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on RouterA# 00:06:24: RIP: received v1 update from 10.1.1.2 on Serial0/0/2 00:06:24: 00:06:24: 10.2.2.0 in 1 hops 192.168.1.0 in 2 hops

00:06:33: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via FastEthernet0/0 (172.16.1.1) 00:06:34: 00:06:34: network 10.0.0.0, metric 1 network 192.168.1.0, metric 3

00:06:34: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial0/0/2 (10.1.1.1) 00:06:34: network 172.16.0.0, metric 1

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Link State Routing Protocol: OSPF
Menggunakan SPF algorithm/Dijkstra algorithm Sifatnya multicast Router kirim LSA yang berisi kondisi nexthop dan informasi routing dalam bentuk paket LSA disimpan di database routing dan router buat peta network (SPF) Updatenya Unperiodic, jika ada perubahan topologi atau router down baru kirim LSA nya

LSA: link state advertisement Routing update yang berisi jaringan yg dimiliki oleh router tersebut, event triggered artinya routing OSPF akan mengirimkan log jika ada sesuatu error yang terjadi di routing nya baik konfigurasi atau router nya down.

3 jenis table di Link State 1. Neighbor table/adjacency database: berisi router tetangga yg menggunakan LS routing protocol 2. Topology table/link state database: berisi semua LSA 3. Routing table/forwarding database: berisi the best path

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Ada empat jenis Router di OSPF: 1. BBR/backbone router : Router utama yang dijadikan backbone OSPF namun masih dalam satu AS 2. ABR/area border router : Router yang menghubungkan router backbone ke router dibawahnya / Area 3. Internal router non backbone : Router yang bersentuhan langsung dengan perangkat LAN customer 4. ASBR/autonomous system border router : Router yang menghubungkan antar AS di cloud OSPF

Hello packet neighbor table: A -- f0 B -- f1 D -- f2

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LSA-c + LSA-a,b,d --> Topology Table --> SPF tree --> Routing-table: C to Boston via f3 O to NY via A, metric 2 O to SF via B, metric 2 O to LA via D, metric 2

OSPF cost = 100/BW (mbps) asumsi: semua link FE, cost = 100/100 = 1

OSPF (open shortest path first)
Mengenai OSPF bisa di indikasikan dengan hal sebagai berikut: Untuk membangun koneksi dengan tetangganya dengan mengubah hello packet Menyebarkan LSA lebih banyak dibandingkan routing table updates a) Link: Router interface b) State: Deskripsi dari sebuah interface dan keterkaitannya dengan router yang bersebelahan Flood / membanjiri LSA ke semua OSPF router di area yang ada bukan hanya ke router yang directly connected Memecah bersamaan semua LSA yang di generate oleh OSPF router untuk membuat OSPF link-state database Menggunakan SPF algorithm untuk menghitung shortest path ke setiap tujuan dan menempatkannya di routing table Tujuan: untuk memaksimalkan IGRP metric yang ada. Ingat : Bandwidth dan delay adalah yang perlu diperhitungkan Note: mengubah IGRP metric bisa member dampak yang signifikan untuk network performance. Ini mempertimbangkan aspek dalam IGRP 24-bit metric field, yaitu: a) Bandwidth—Minimum bandwidth dalam rute, dalam kilobits per second. b) Delay—Rute delay, dalam tens of microseconds. c) Reliability—Sukses tidaknya paket di kirimkan dalam satuan integer dai 0 sampai 255. d) Loading—Efektif bandwidth dalam suatu jalur. e) MTU—Minimum MTU dalam jalur tertentu satuan bytes. Untuk menghitung matric : RUMUSNYA metric = [k1 x bandwidth + (k2 x bandwidth) / (256 - load) + k3 x delay]

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3 Jenis Area di OSPF 1. Normal area (default) 2. Stub area 3. Not so stubby area (NSSA) www.almuhibbin.com |All

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Tujuan: dari algoritma SPF bagaimana caranya membagi beban untuk meningkatkan throughput dan reliability. Ingat: hanya jika jalur nya tertentu saja bisa menggunakan IGRP load sharing. Load-balancing: adalah metode pembagian beban rute berdasarkan mode switching terkait struktur data untuk proses switching, fast switching, dan autonomous switching tentunya teknis nya berbeda. Jika process switching yang di load balance nya adalah peket per paket. Jika fast, autonomous, atau silicon switching, load balancing nya berdasarkan tujuan ke tujuan.

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PENTING, Konfigurasi dulu Interface Loopback baru setting OSPF nya…

Router-ID di OSPF digunakan sebagai ID pengirim pada hello packet & LSA: 1. Command "router-id" 2. IP address tertinggi di loopback interface 3. IP address tertinggi di physical interface (default)

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Ketentuan:
#router ospf [Router ID] #network [ip][wildcard][area][0/1/2]

Note: wilcard adalah nilai setelah mengurangkan 255.255.255.255 dengan nilai Subnet Mask dari suatu network

cara 1:
router ospf 100 network 10.1.1.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.0 area 0

cara 2:
router ospf 100 network 10.1.1.2 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.255 area 0 *asumsi subnet mask = /24

cara 3:
router ospf 100 network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

cara 4:
router ospf 100 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0

Yang biasa muncul di router ketika ketik command: sh ip ospf neighbor : lihat informasi router tetanggan yg nempel

R-SBY(config)#do show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID 10.100.100.3 10.100.100.4 10.100.100.1 Pri 0 0 0 State FULL/ FULL/ FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:34 00:00:32 00:00:37 Address 10.0.0.10 10.0.0.6 10.0.0.1 Interface Serial0/0 Serial0/2 Serial0/1

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sh ip ospf database : lihat topologi

R-SBY(config)#do show ip ospf database
OSPF Router with ID (10.100.100.2) (Process ID 101)

Router Link States (Area 0)

Link ID 10.100.100.1 10.100.100.2 10.100.100.3 10.100.100.4 10.100.100.5 10.100.100.6 10.100.100.7

ADV Router 10.100.100.1 10.100.100.2 10.100.100.3 10.100.100.4 10.100.100.5 10.100.100.6 10.100.100.7

Age 121 119 120 120 450 801 504

Seq#

Checksum Link count

0x80000007 0x006004 6 0x80000002 0x00241C 8 0x80000009 0x009F69 4 0x80000006 0x00D23F 4 0x80000006 0x006180 8 0x80000005 0x00B333 4 0x80000004 0x006487 4

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sh ip protocol : lihat keseluruhan protocol yang digunakan

R-SBY(config)#do show ip protocol
Routing Protocol is "ospf 101" Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Router ID 10.1.2.1 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 10.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.0.0.5 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.0.0.9 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.1.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 10.100.100.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps Passive Interface(s): FastEthernet0/0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway 10.100.100.3 10.100.100.1 Distance 110 110 Last Update 00:01:18 00:01:18

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10.100.100.6 10.100.100.7 10.100.100.4 10.100.100.5 110 110 110 110 00:01:18 00:01:18 00:01:18 00:01:18

Distance: (default is 110)

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sh ip route : mengetahui rute dari pengirim sampai ke tujuan

R-SBY(config)#do sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 20 subnets, 3 masks C O C O O C O C O O O O O O O C O O O 10.0.0.8/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 10.0.0.12/30 [110/112] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.100.100.2/32 is directly connected, Loopback0 10.1.3.0/24 [110/58] via 10.0.0.6, 00:02:50, Serial0/2 10.100.100.3/32 [110/49] via 10.0.0.10, 00:02:50, Serial0/0 10.1.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 10.1.1.0/24 [110/58] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.0.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 10.100.100.1/32 [110/49] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.100.100.6/32 [110/161] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.1.7.0/24 [110/170] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.100.100.7/32 [110/161] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.1.6.0/24 [110/170] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.100.100.4/32 [110/49] via 10.0.0.6, 00:02:50, Serial0/2 10.1.5.0/24 [110/122] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.0.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2 10.100.100.5/32 [110/113] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1 10.1.4.0/24 [110/58] via 10.0.0.10, 00:02:50, Serial0/0 10.0.0.16/30 [110/160] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1

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O 10.0.0.20/30 [110/160] via 10.0.0.1, 00:02:50, Serial0/1

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sh ip ospf

R-SBY(config)#do sh ip ospf
Routing Process "ospf 101" with ID 10.1.2.1 Start time: 03:12:25.816, Time elapsed: 00:17:10.292 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS) Supports area transit capability Router is not originating router-LSAs with maximum metric Initial SPF schedule delay 5000 msecs Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 10000 msecs Incremental-SPF disabled Minimum LSA interval 5 secs Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Number of areas transit capable is 0 External flood list length 0 IETF NSF helper support enabled Cisco NSF helper support enabled Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 5 (1 loopback) Area has no authentication SPF algorithm last executed 00:02:24.680 ago SPF algorithm executed 18 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 7. Checksum Sum 0x037BD9 Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless LSA 0

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Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0

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debug ip ospf event : mengetahui aktivitas routing yang terjadi / realtime

RouterX# debug ip ospf events OSPF:hello with invalid timers on interface Ethernet0 hello interval received 10 configured 10 net mask received 255.255.255.0 configured 255.255.255.0 dead interval received 40 configured 30 OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:200.0.0.117 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:6AB2 aut:0 auk:

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debug ip ospf packet : mengetahui paket yang dilewatkan ke router

R-SBY#debug ip ospf packet
OSPF packet debugging is on R-SBY#terminal *Mar 1 03:46:34.083: OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:10.100.100.4 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:ED0 aut:0 auk: from Serial0/2 R-SBY#terminal *Mar 1 03:46:36.187: OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:10.100.100.3 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:ED1 aut:0 auk: from Serial0/0 R-SBY#terminal *Mar 1 03:46:38.731: OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:10.100.100.1 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:ED3 aut:0 auk: from Serial0/1 R-SBY#terminal m *Mar 1 03:46:44.071: OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:10.100.100.4 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:ED0 aut:0 auk: from Serial0/2

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sh run | s router

R-SBY(config-router)#do sh run | s router router ospf 101 log-adjacency-changes passive-interface FastEthernet0/0 network 10.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0

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network 10.0.0.5 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.0.0.9 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.1.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.100.100.2 0.0.0.0 area 0

R-SBY(config)#do debug ip ospf adj
OSPF adjacency events debugging is on R-SBY(config)# *Mar 1 04:19:57.406: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 10.100.100.1 on Serial0/1 length 56

LSA count 1 *Mar 1 04:19:57.502: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 10.100.100.1 on Serial0/1 length 56

LSA count 1

R-SBY(config)#undebug all
*Mar 1 04:25:58.782: OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:10.100.100.1 aid:0.0.0.0 chk:ED2 aut:1 auk: from Serial0/1 *Mar 1 04:25:59.674: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 10.0.0.10, Serial0/0 : Mismatch Authent

ication type. Input packet specified type 0, we use type 1 R-SBY(config)#do undebug all All possible debugging has been turned off

O (intra-area): jaringan tujuan ada di area yg sama O IA (inter-area): jaringan tujuan ada di area lain O E1/E2 (external): jaringan tujuan ada di AS lain

Debug ip ospf packet: rcv: receive v: version t: type (1=hello packet) l: length (Bytes) rid: router-id pengirim aid: area-id pengirim chk: checksum (utk mendeteksi error) aut: 0 --> no authentication aut: 1 --> simple password www.almuhibbin.com |All

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aut: 2 --> MD5 hash auk: authentication-key (hanya dipakai pada aut 2)

Otentikasi di OSPF

R-SBY(config)#interface s0/0 R-SBY(config-if)#ip os R-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf a R-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf authentication me R-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest R-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digestR-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest-k R-SBY(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest-key 7 telkom

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Hybrid: EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
proprietary Cisco tidak ada konsep area multicast (224.0.0.10) triggered updates 3 table: NT, TT, RT algoritma DUAL (diffusing update algorithm) multi L3 protocol routing (IP, IPX, AppleTalk)

Ada istilah yang perlu diketahui di EIGRP yaitu a. b. c. d. Advertised Distance : metric tetangga menuju tujuan Feasible Distance : metric kita menuju tujuan Successor : primary route, lowest FD --> TT & RT Feasible Successor : backup route, AD < lowest FD --> TT

Contoh: AD rtr-B 1500 < FD terkecil 2000 ; maka rtr-B bisa jadi Feasible Successor

EIGRP metric: [256* 10^7/BW(kbps)] + [256* total delay(us)/10]

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Delay: Serial: 20.000 us Ethernet: 1.000 us Fast ethernet: 100 us Gigabit ethernet: 10 us

Perlu diingat: RIP & OSPF hanya support equal-cost load-balancing (metric sama) EIGRP default-nya support equal-cost load-balancing, tapi bisa support unequalcost load-balancing dengan cara mengubah nilai variance (integer) the best path , metric-nya < variance x lowest FD

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Command di EIGRP: show ip route eigrp show ip protocols show ip eigrp interfaces

R-SBY# show ip eigrp interfaces IP EIGRP interfaces for process 109 Xmit Queue Mean Interface Peers Un/Reliable SRTT Di0 0 0/0 0 Et0 1 0/0 337 SE0:1.16 1 0/0 10 Tu0 1 0/0 330

Pacing Time Un/Reliable 11/434 0/10 1/63 0/16

Multicast Flow Timer 0 0 103 0

Pending Routes 0 0 0 0

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show ip eigrp neighbors [detail]

R-SBY#sh ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 65000 H Address Interface 2 0 1 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.6 10.0.0.10 Se0/1 Se0/2 Se0/0

Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 10 00:00:37 125 13 00:11:15 114 10 00:24:46 118

RTO

Q Cnt 750 0 684 0 708 0

Seq Num 51 24 22

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show ip eigrp topology [all]

R-SBY# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for process 77 Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 172.16.90.0 255.255.255.0, 2 successors, FD is 46251776 via 172.16.80.28 (46251776/46226176), Ethernet0 via 172.16.81.28 (46251776/46226176), Ethernet1 via 172.16.80.31 (46277376/46251776), Serial0 P 172.16.81.0 255.255.255.0, 2 successors, FD is 307200 via Connected, Ethernet1 via 172.16.81.28 (307200/281600), Ethernet1 via 172.16.80.28 (307200/281600), Ethernet0 via 172.16.80.31 (332800/307200), Serial0

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show ip eigrp traffic

R-SBY# show ip eigrp traffic IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics for process 77 Hellos sent/received: 218/205 Updates sent/received: 7/23 Queries sent/received: 2/0 Replies sent/received: 0/2 Acks sent/received: 21/14

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debug ip eigrp [EIGRP routes are exchanged only when a change in topology occurs]

R-SBY# debug ip eigrp *Mar *Mar *Mar *Mar 1 00:35:20.039: EIGRP: Sending HELLO on Serial0/2 1 00:35:20.043: AS 65000, Flags 0x0, Seq 0/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

1 00:35:20.599: EIGRP: Received HELLO on Serial0/2 nbr 10.0.0.6 1 00:35:20.603: AS 65000, Flags 0x0, Seq 0/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

peerQ un/rely 0/0

Otentikasi di EIGRP
R-SBY#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. R-SBY(config)#key chain jakarta R-SBY(config-keychain)#key 9 R-SBY(config-keychain-key)#key-string telkom R-SBY(config-keychain-key)#interface s0/1 R-SBY(config-if)#description otentikasi ke jakarta R-SBY(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 65000 md5 R-SBY(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 65000 jakarta R-SBY(config-if)#end End with CNTL/Z.

R-SBY#sh key chain
Key-chain 1234: key 9 -- text "telkom" accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] Key-chain denpasar: key 9 -- text "telkom" accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] Key-chain jakarta: key 9 -- text "telkom" accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now]

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R-SBY#sh run interface s0/0
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 236 bytes ! interface Serial0/0 description interface yg tehubung ke router lain bandwidth 2048 ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.252 ip authentication mode eigrp 65000 md5 ip authentication key-chain eigrp 65000 1234 clock rate 2000000 end

R-SBY#sh run interface s0/1 Building configuration...

Current configuration : 224 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 te description otentikasi ke jakarta bandwidth 2048 ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.252 ip authentication mode eigrp 65000 md5 ip authentication key-chain eigrp 65000 jakarta clock rate 2000000 end

R-SBY#sh run interface s0/2 Building configuration...

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MPLS - [MULTI PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING]

Mekanisme switching dimana paket di forward / disampaikan berdasarkan label

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Peer-to-peer VPN: 1. Shared PE: 1 PE terhubung ke banyak CE Advantage: hemat cost Disadvantage: Performance PE turun karena harus filtering tiap paket menggunakan ACL IP addressing customer tidak boleh overlap P router harus menyimpan routing customer

2. Dedicated PE: 1 PE utk tiap customer Advantage: performance PE bagus, karena tidak perlu filtering tiap paket Disadvantage: IP addressing customer tidak boleh overlap P router harus menyimpan routing customer cost mahal

4. MPLS VPN: 1 physical PE dibagi menjadi beberapa virtual router atau membuat beberapa routing-table (vrf) utk masing-masing customer advantage: IP addressing customer bisa overlap P router tidak perlu menyimpan informasi routing customer

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Label Switch Routers (LSR) Fungsi utama dari LSR adalah untuk memforward paket yang telah diberi label (swap label) Edge LSR adalah bisa dibedakan menjadi dua sisi yaitu Impose Label (memberi IP paket) dan meneruskannya menuju ke domain MPLS dan Pop Label (yang melepaskan label / remove) dan meneruskan IP paket tadi keluar ke domain MPLS / sisi customer. Kita kenal istilah LIB, LFIB, FIB, LDP, selengkapnya akan dijelaskan di bawah ini.

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Label Exchange Protocol: 1. LDP (label distribution protocol)  atau secara singkatnya bisa dikatakan label of exchange / protocol yang digunkan untuk mengubah bentuk label sehingga bisa di terjemahkan oleh LFIB yang nantinya label ini akan di pop. 2. TDP (Tag distribution protocol)  proprietary Cisco

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Contoh Konfigurasi
R-SBY(config)#interface s0/1 R-SBY(config-if)#mpls ip R-SBY(config-if)#mpls label protocol ldp R-SBY(config-if)#end R-SBY#confi R-SBY#configure t Enter configuration commands, one per line. R-SBY(config)#int s0/2 R-SBY(config-if)#mpls ip R-SBY(config-if)#mpls label protocol ldp R-SBY(config-if)#end End with CNTL/Z.

R-SBY#sh mpls ldp discovery
Local LDP Identifier: 10.1.2.1:0 Discovery Sources: Interfaces: Serial0/0 (ldp): xmit/recv LDP Id: 10.1.4.1:0; no host route Serial0/1 (ldp): xmit/recv LDP Id: 172.16.1.1:0; no route Serial0/2 (ldp): xmit/recv LDP Id: 10.1.3.1:0; no host route ============================================================

Untuk mengetahui alur atau rute di domain MPLS LDP diarahkan ke mana saja, Local LDP Identifier: 10.1.2.1, Discovery Sources: ke interface yang terhubung langsung di router kita

R-SBY#sh mpls ldp binding
tib entry: 10.0.0.0/30, rev 8 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 18 tib entry: 10.0.0.4/30, rev 10 local binding: tag: imp-null

Untuk mempilkan semua informasi routing yang ada di jaringan MPLS yang kita bangun, semakin banyak routernya semakin banyak informasi yang ditampilkan

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.0.0.8/30, rev 2 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 16

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tib entry: 10.1.2.0/24, rev 6 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 17 tib entry: 10.1.3.0/24, rev 4 local binding: tag: 16

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.4.0/24, rev 12 local binding: tag: 17

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 19 R-SBY#sh mpls ldp binding tib entry: 10.0.0.0/30, rev 8 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.0.0.4/30, rev 10 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 21 tib entry: 10.0.0.8/30, rev 2 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 22 tib entry: 10.0.0.12/30, rev 16 local binding: tag: 19

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 21 tib entry: 10.0.0.16/30, rev 18 local binding: tag: 20

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 22 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 22 tib entry: 10.0.0.20/30, rev 20

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local binding: tag: 21

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 23 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 23 tib entry: 10.1.1.0/24, rev 14 local binding: tag: 18

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 20 tib entry: 10.1.2.0/24, rev 6 local binding: tag: imp-null

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 23 tib entry: 10.1.3.0/24, rev 4 local binding: tag: 16

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 25 tib entry: 10.1.4.0/24, rev 12 local binding: tag: 17

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 24 tib entry: 10.1.5.0/24, rev 22 local binding: tag: 22

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 24 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 24 tib entry: 10.1.6.0/24, rev 24 local binding: tag: 23

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 25 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 25 tib entry: 10.1.7.0/24, rev 26 local binding: tag: 24

remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.4.1:0, tag: 26 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.3.1:0, tag: 26

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tib entry: 172.16.0.0/24, rev 27 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 172.16.1.0/24, rev 28 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 172.16.2.0/24, rev 29 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 172.16.3.0/24, rev 30 remote binding: tsr: 10.1.1.1:0, tag: imp-null ============

Untuk menampilkan daftar forwarding table yang ada di jaringan MPLS kita, tag degenerate secara random oleh system, lihat prefik tunnel id nya dan sejenisnya

R-SBY#sh mpls forwarding-table
Local tag 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Outgoing tag or VC Pop tag Pop tag Pop tag Pop tag 19 20 18 17 16 Prefix or Tunnel Id 10.1.3.0/24 10.1.4.0/24 10.1.1.0/24 10.0.0.12/30 10.0.0.16/30 10.0.0.20/30 10.1.5.0/24 10.1.6.0/24 10.1.7.0/24 Bytes tag switched 8052 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Outgoing interface Se0/2 Se0/0 Se0/1 Se0/1 Se0/1 Se0/1 Se0/1 Se0/1 point2point point2point point2point point2point point2point point2point point2point point2point Next Hop

Ingat dalam konfigurasi awal di jaringan MPLS ada istilah CEF. =================== Dan perintah ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui konfigurasi 24 16 10.1.7.0/24 2064 Se0/1 point2point detail dari jaringan MPLS kita, mulai dari router yang bersebelahan, ada berapa IP CEF with switching (Table Version 77), flags=0x0 kemungkinan rute yang bisa dilewati, algoritma sharing rute 31 routes, 0 reresolve, 0 unresolved (0 old, 0 new), peak 0 31 leaves, 13 nodes, 18232 bytes, 96 inserts, 65 invalidations / opsional. Dn masih banyak lagi. Semakin komplek jaringan 0 load sharing elements, 0 bytes, 0 references MPLS makan data yg universal per-destination load sharing algorithm, id 47D8426C ditampilkan semakin banyak
2064 Se0/1 point2point

R-SBY#sh ip cef detail

3(0) CEF resets, 0 revisions of existing leaves

Resolution Timer: Exponential (currently 1s, peak 1s) 0 in-place/0 aborted modifications refcounts: 3687 leaf, 3584 node

Table epoch: 0 (31 entries at this epoch)

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Adjacency Table has 7 adjacencies 0.0.0.0/0, version 0, epoch 0, attached, default route handler 0 packets, 0 bytes via 0.0.0.0, 0 dependencies valid no route adjacency 0.0.0.0/32, version 1, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.0/30, version 19, epoch 0, attached, connected, cached adjacency to Seria l0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: implicit-null via Serial0/1, 0 dependencies valid cached adjacency 10.0.0.0/32, version 11, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.2/32, version 10, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.3/32, version 12, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.4/30, version 20, epoch 0, attached, connected, cached adjacency to Seria l0/2 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: implicit-null via Serial0/2, 0 dependencies valid cached adjacency 10.0.0.4/32, version 14, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.5/32, version 13, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.7/32, version 15, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.8/30, version 18, epoch 0, attached, connected, cached adjacency to Seria l0/0 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: implicit-null via Serial0/0, 0 dependencies valid cached adjacency 10.0.0.8/32, version 8, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.9/32, version 7, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.11/32, version 9, epoch 0, receive 10.0.0.12/30, version 71, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set

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local tag: 19 via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {} 10.0.0.16/30, version 72, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 20 fast tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {19} via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {19} 10.0.0.20/30, version 73, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 21 fast tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {20} via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {20} 10.1.1.0/24, version 70, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 18 via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {} 10.1.2.0/24, version 17, epoch 0, attached, connected 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: implicit-null via FastEthernet0/0, 0 dependencies valid glean adjacency 10.1.2.0/32, version 5, epoch 0, receive 10.1.2.1/32, version 4, epoch 0, receive

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~ 43 ~
10.1.2.10/32, version 28, epoch 0, connected, cached adjacency 10.1.2.10 0 packets, 0 bytes via 10.1.2.10, FastEthernet0/0, 0 dependencies next hop 10.1.2.10, FastEthernet0/0 valid cached adjacency 10.1.2.255/32, version 6, epoch 0, receive 10.1.3.0/24, version 69, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/2 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 16 via 10.0.0.6, Serial0/2, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.6, Serial0/2 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/2, point2point, tags imposed: {} 10.1.4.0/24, version 67, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/0 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 17 via 10.0.0.10, Serial0/0, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.10, Serial0/0 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/0, point2point, tags imposed: {} 10.1.5.0/24, version 74, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 22 fast tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {18} via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {18} 10.1.6.0/24, version 75, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 23 fast tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {17} via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency

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tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {17} 10.1.7.0/24, version 76, epoch 0, cached adjacency to Serial0/1 0 packets, 0 bytes tag information set local tag: 24 fast tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {16} via 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1, 0 dependencies next hop 10.0.0.1, Serial0/1 valid cached adjacency tag rewrite with Se0/1, point2point, tags imposed: {16} 224.0.0.0/4, version 16, epoch 0 0 packets, 0 bytes via 0.0.0.0, 0 dependencies next hop 0.0.0.0 valid drop adjacency 224.0.0.0/24, version 3, epoch 0, receive 255.255.255.255/32, version 2, epoch 0, receive

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~ 45 ~

PHP / Penultimate Hop Popping
Fitur di MPLS utk menghemat proses di egress edge/PE. caranya: egress PE memberi informasi via LDP dengan label =3 (implicit-null)

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BGP yg membawa update selain IPv4 address, disebut sebagai MP-BGP RD hanya utk membedakan IP address yg kemungkinan overlap RT digunakan sebagai VPN identifier

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BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
Sekilas tentang BGP: Untuk komunikasi nya ada di port 179 Sifatnya trigger update / informasi table routingnya akan disampaikan ke tetengga jika ada perubahan topologi atau ada route yang down Keep alive /periodic kerja router lebih maksimal menginfokanupdaterouting nya Khusus untuk wide atau rute yang sangat luas dan membutuhkan resources yang besar dari sisi router dan kompleksitas setingan routingnya Sangat cocok jika dalam perusahaan skala besar yang tidak mengandalkan satu link saja untuk koneksinya, perusahaan skala multi nasional / dunia atau istilahnya multihoming, yang tentunya biasanya punya blok IP sendiri atau nomer AS sendiri Dalam pertukaran informasi ke router tetangga nya menggnakan protocol TCP jadi lebih reliable (ada acknowledge di setiap sesi komunikasinya) Biasanya lebih advance dengan dilakukan policy routing di jaringannya.

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Contoh Konfigurasinya:
R-SBY(config-router)#router bgp 65001 R-SBY(config-router)#neighbor 10.0.0.1 remote-as 65000 R-SBY(config-router)#neighbor 10.0.0.6 remote-as 65001 R-SBY(config-router)#neighbor 10.0.0.10 remote-as 65001 R-SBY(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 mask 255.255.255.252 R-SBY(config-router)#network 10.0.0.8 mask 255.255.255.252 R-SBY(config-router)#network 10.0.0.4 mask 255.255.255.252 R-SBY(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0 R-SBY(config-router)#

Coba lihat hasil settingannya:

R-SBY(config-router)#do sh ip bgp
BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:23 Last read 00:00:22, last write 00:00:22, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Message statistics: InQ depth is 0 OutQ depth is 0

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Sent Opens: Notifications: Updates: Keepalives: Route Refresh: Total: 1 0 2 4 0 7 Rcvd 1 0 3 4 0 8

Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds

For address family: IPv4 Unicast BGP table version 18, neighbor version 18/0 Output queue size: 0 Index 1, Offset 0, Mask 0x2 1 update-group member Sent Prefix activity: Prefixes Current: Prefixes Total: Implicit Withdraw: Explicit Withdraw: Used as bestpath: Used as multipath: ---5 5 0 0 n/a n/a Rcvd ---6 (Consumes 312 bytes) 6 0 0 6 0

Outbound Local Policy Denied Prefixes: Bestpath from this peer: Total: -------6 6

Inbound ------n/a 0

Number of NLRIs in the update sent: max 3, min 2

Connections established 1; dropped 0 Last reset never Connection state is ESTAB, I/O status: 1, unread input bytes: 0 Connection is ECN Disabled, Mininum incoming TTL 0, Outgoing TTL 1 Local host: 10.0.0.2, Local port: 12410 Foreign host: 10.0.0.1, Foreign port: 179 Connection tableid (VRF): 0

Enqueued packets for retransmit: 0, input: 0

mis-ordered: 0 (0 bytes)

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Event Timers (current time is 0xE0FD0C): Timer Retrans TimeWait AckHold SendWnd KeepAlive GiveUp PmtuAger DeadWait Linger ProcessQ Starts 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wakeups 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Next 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0

iss: 2246735827 irs: 1875301042

snduna: 2246736060 rcvnxt: 1875301324

sndnxt: 2246736060 rcvwnd: 16103

sndwnd: delrcvwnd:

16152 281

SRTT: 146 ms, RTTO: 1283 ms, RTV: 1137 ms, KRTT: 0 ms minRTT: 24 ms, maxRTT: 300 ms, ACK hold: 200 ms Status Flags: active open Option Flags: nagle IP Precedence value : 6

Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes): Rcvd: 8 (out of order: 0), with data: 5, total data bytes: 281 Sent: 9 (retransmit: 0, fastretransmit: 0, partialack: 0, Second Congestion: 0), with data: 5, total data bytes: 232 Packets received in fast path: 0, fast processed: 0, slow path: 0 fast lock acquisition failures: 0, slow path: 0

BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.6,

remote AS 65001, internal link

BGP version 4, remote router ID 10.1.3.1 BGP state = Established, up for 00:16:53 Last read 00:00:53, last write 00:00:46, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Message statistics: InQ depth is 0

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OutQ depth is 0 Sent Opens: Notifications: Updates: Keepalives: Route Refresh: Total: 1 0 3 19 0 23 Rcvd 1 0 1 19 0 21

Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 0 seconds

For address family: IPv4 Unicast BGP table version 18, neighbor version 18/0 Output queue size: 0 Index 2, Offset 0, Mask 0x4 2 update-group member Sent Prefix activity: Prefixes Current: Prefixes Total: Implicit Withdraw: Explicit Withdraw: Used as bestpath: Used as multipath: ---9 9 3 0 n/a n/a Rcvd ---1 (Consumes 52 bytes) 1 0 0 1 0

Outbound Local Policy Denied Prefixes: Bestpath from iBGP peer: Total: -------2 2

Inbound ------n/a 0

Number of NLRIs in the update sent: max 5, min 1

Connections established 1; dropped 0 Last reset never Connection state is ESTAB, I/O status: 1, unread input bytes: 0 Connection is ECN Disabled, Mininum incoming TTL 0, Outgoing TTL 255 Local host: 10.0.0.5, Local port: 57156 Foreign host: 10.0.0.6, Foreign port: 179 Connection tableid (VRF): 0

Enqueued packets for retransmit: 0, input: 0

mis-ordered: 0 (0 bytes)

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Event Timers (current time is 0xE10678): Timer Retrans TimeWait AckHold SendWnd KeepAlive GiveUp PmtuAger DeadWait Linger ProcessQ Starts 21 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wakeups 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Next 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0

iss: 3856188480 irs: 4116275608

snduna: 3856189090 rcvnxt: 4116276070

sndnxt: 3856189090 rcvwnd: 15923

sndwnd: delrcvwnd:

15775 461

SRTT: 298 ms, RTTO: 528 ms, RTV: 230 ms, KRTT: 0 ms minRTT: 32 ms, maxRTT: 396 ms, ACK hold: 200 ms Status Flags: active open Option Flags: nagle IP Precedence value : 6

Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes): Rcvd: 38 (out of order: 0), with data: 19, total data bytes: 461 Sent: 26 (retransmit: 0, fastretransmit: 0, partialack: 0, Second Congestion: 0) , with data: 22, total data bytes: 609 Packets received in fast path: 0, fast processed: 0, slow path: 0 fast lock acquisition failures: 0, slow path: 0

BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.10,

remote AS 65001, internal link

BGP version 4, remote router ID 10.1.4.1 BGP state = Established, up for 00:19:27 Last read 00:00:27, last write 00:00:27, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Message statistics:

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InQ depth is 0 OutQ depth is 0 Sent Opens: Notifications: Updates: Keepalives: Route Refresh: Total: 1 0 7 22 0 30 Rcvd 1 0 2 22 0 25

Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 0 seconds

For address family: IPv4 Unicast BGP table version 18, neighbor version 18/0 Output queue size: 0 Index 2, Offset 0, Mask 0x4 2 update-group member Sent Prefix activity: Prefixes Current: Prefixes Total: Implicit Withdraw: Explicit Withdraw: Used as bestpath: Used as multipath: ---9 10 0 1 n/a n/a Rcvd ---2 (Consumes 104 bytes) 2 0 0 1 0

Outbound Local Policy Denied Prefixes: Bestpath from this peer: Bestpath from iBGP peer: Total: -------2 1 3

Inbound ------n/a n/a 0

Number of NLRIs in the update sent: max 5, min 0

Connections established 1; dropped 0 Last reset never Connection state is ESTAB, I/O status: 1, unread input bytes: 0 Connection is ECN Disabled, Mininum incoming TTL 0, Outgoing TTL 255 Local host: 10.0.0.9, Local port: 179 Foreign host: 10.0.0.10, Foreign port: 42311 Connection tableid (VRF): 0

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Enqueued packets for retransmit: 0, input: 0

mis-ordered: 0 (0 bytes)

Event Timers (current time is 0xE119E8): Timer Retrans TimeWait AckHold SendWnd KeepAlive GiveUp PmtuAger DeadWait Linger ProcessQ Starts 29 0 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wakeups 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Next 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0

iss: 3755825166 irs: 2203269787

snduna: 3755826019 rcvnxt: 2203270362

sndnxt: 3755826019 rcvwnd: 15810

sndwnd: delrcvwnd:

15532 574

SRTT: 303 ms, RTTO: 388 ms, RTV: 85 ms, KRTT: 0 ms minRTT: 52 ms, maxRTT: 352 ms, ACK hold: 200 ms Status Flags: passive open, gen tcbs Option Flags: nagle IP Precedence value : 6

Datagrams (max data segment is 1460 bytes): Rcvd: 52 (out of order: 0), with data: 24, total data bytes: 574 Sent: 32 (retransmit: 0, fastretransmit: 0, partialack: 0, Second Congestion: 0) , with data: 28, total data bytes: 852 Packets received in fast path: 0, fast processed: 0, slow path: 0 fast lock acquisition failures: 0, slow path: 0

R-SBY(config-router)#do sh ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 10.1.2.1, local AS number 65001 BGP table version is 18, main routing table version 18 11 network entries using 1320 bytes of memory 12 path entries using 624 bytes of memory 5/4 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 620 bytes of memory

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2 BGP AS-PATH entries using 48 bytes of memory 0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory 0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory Bitfield cache entries: current 3 (at peak 3) using 96 bytes of memory BGP using 2708 total bytes of memory BGP activity 12/1 prefixes, 13/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.6 10.0.0.10

V

AS MsgRcvd MsgSent 8 22 25 7 24 30

TblVer 18 18 18

InQ OutQ Up/Down 0 0 0 0 00:01:45 0 00:17:12 0 00:19:44

State/PfxRcd 6 1 2

4 65000 4 65001 4 65001

R-SBY(config-router)#do sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 18, local router ID is 10.1.2.1 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, r RIB-failure, S Stale Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network *> 10.0.0.4/30 *> 10.0.0.8/30 * i *> 10.0.0.16/30 *> 10.0.0.20/30 *> 10.1.1.0/24 *> 10.1.2.0/24 r>i10.1.3.0/24 r>i10.1.4.0/24 *> 10.1.5.0/24 *> 10.1.6.0/24 *> 10.1.7.0/24

Next Hop 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.10 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.6 10.0.0.10 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.1

Metric LocPrf Weight Path 0 0 0 100 32768 i 32768 i 0 i 0 65000 65002 i 0 65000 65002 i 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 65000 i 32768 i 0 i 0 i 0 65000 65002 i 0 65000 65002 i 0 65000 65002 i

R-SBY(config-router)#do sh ip ro
Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2

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i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 12 subnets, 2 masks C D C B C B B B C D B B 10.0.0.8/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 10.1.3.0/24 [90/1764352] via 10.0.0.6, 00:29:29, Serial0/2 10.1.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 10.1.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:04:48 10.0.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 10.1.7.0/24 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:05:18 10.1.6.0/24 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:05:18 10.1.5.0/24 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:05:18 10.0.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2 10.1.4.0/24 [90/1764352] via 10.0.0.10, 00:29:29, Serial0/0 10.0.0.16/30 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:05:18 10.0.0.20/30 [20/0] via 10.0.0.1, 00:05:18

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