WSSS Newsletter Spring 2011 | Water Resources | Combined Sewer

The Annual Newsletter of the Tufts University Graduate Education and Research Program in Water: Systems, Science and

Society

In This Issue
Letter from the Faculty Steering Committee WSSS in the Middle East: Faculty and Student Research Second Annual WSSS Symposium Tufts Announces Water Diplomacy Workshop and PhD Program WSSS Practicum 2011 WSSS in the Field Alumni Update 2010-2011 WSSS Fellow Profiles WSSS Fellow Spotlight Water and Global Health Student and Faculty Publications 3 5 8 10 12 13 14 16 19 20 21

Support WSSS

Interested in supporting the WSSS program? You can now donate directly online through the Giving to Tufts website. For more information, visit www.tufts.edu/water/Giving_to_WSSS.html

Water: Systems, Science and Society

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Water: Systems, Science and Society is a graduate research and education program that provides Tufts students with interdisciplinary perspectives and tools to manage water-related problems around the world.

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Letter from the Faculty Steering Committee
Dear WSSS Alumni, Faculty, Students & Colleagues,
Welcome to the second annual WSSS newsletter. Water problems abound globally, nationally, regionally and even locally. It takes a university (this year’s WSSS motto) to address many interdisciplinary water issues. Here we describe several new WSSS initiatives in the areas of (1) water diplomacy, (2) water and health, (3) integrated water resources planning and management, and (4) a new practicum project in the Mystic River watershed. These initiatives are in addition to numerous other ongoing programs outlined on our website. We are very excited to announce our new Interdisciplinary Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) grant in the area of water diplomacy. Over the next 5 years, this $4.2 million grant from the National Science Foundation will support 25 PhD students as they train to be the next generation of water diplomats. WSSS participating faculty member Shafiqul Islam, the principal investigator of this grant, is also working with faculty from Harvard, MIT and colleagues at Tufts to organize a water diplomacy workshop for international water professionals to be held at Tufts this June. This new field, pioneered by Professor Islam, blends two areas of true excellence at Tufts: water and diplomacy. No other university has such strength in both areas.

Richard Vogel

One of our most exciting water diplomacy initiatives, led by visiting scholar Annette Huber-Lee, is titled, “Collaborating Versus Competing for Survival: Water Tim Griffin and Livelihood Security in the Middle East.” Dr. Huber-Lee’s joint research with economist Franklin Fischer at MIT has shown that three-way cooperative water management among Jordan, Palestine and Israel would generate enormous monetary benefits for all; however, it takes a university to figure out how to implement this cooperative strategy. Participants in this effort include faculty from Fletcher, Engineering, Biology, Anthropology, Economics, Nutrition, and Biomedical Sciences, as well as colleagues from the Stockholm Environment Institute and the Tufts Positive Deviance Institute. Second-year WSSS students are charged with organizing our annual symposium. This year’s symposium, “Water in 2050: The Infrastructure to Get There,” took Rusty place on April 1st. With keynote lectures by Gene Stakhiv, the senior international Russell water advisor for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Dan Sheer, the founder and president of Hydrologics, the symposium advanced our understanding of a central challenge of water management and environmental policy. The symposium featured three panels with faculty from Harvard, MIT, Tufts, and the University of Massachusetts, as well as colleagues from Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), Geosyntec, the Cadmus Group and Oxfam International. (continued on page 4) Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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Graduate students from Tufts, Harvard and Boston College had an opportunity to present their research at a lunchtime poster session and network with representatives from symposium sponsors Geosyntec, CDM, AECOM, the Cadmus Group, and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).

In another WSSS initiative, newly appointed Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering Elena Naumova is leading a group of faculty from the Schools of Engineering and Medicine and colleagues from the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of the Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) in an effort to develop a framework for securing funding for training grants in the area of water and health. WSSS students in the Practicum Track are working on a stormwater management initiative with the Mystic River Watershed Association (MyRWA), a regional advocacy group, on the Alewife River sub-watershed adjacent to the Medford campus. This project was developed through a Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis (PIPA) exercise in the WSSS course “Integrated Water Resources Management” taught by Dr. Huber-Lee in fall 2010. PIPA is a relatively young approach that draws from program theory evaluation, social network analysis and research to facilitate organizational development and foster innovation.

“It Takes a

You’ll find descriptions of these and many other exciting developments in this newsletter. As we grow, the vision and mission of the WSSS program remains unchanged: We continue to educate and nurture Tufts graduate students to be attentive to the issues affecting water resources management and to create a thriving intellectual community dedicated to addressing interdisciplinary water issues. In closing, we wish to give a special thanks to John Foster, former CEO of Malcolm Pirnie and a Tufts alumnus (CEE ’52), for his the long-term and continuing generosity. Along with the Tufts administration, John is the single biggest supporter of our WSSS programs.

University”

Thanks for your support and interest in WSSS!

The WSSS Faculty Steering Committee Rich Vogel (Director), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Tim Griffin, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Rusty Russell, Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning Water: Systems, Science and Society

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WSSS in the Middle East: Faculty and Student Research
Annette Huber-Lee Studies Conflict and Cooperation
Annette Huber-Lee is a visiting scholar in Engineering. She spoke with TIE intern Libby Mahaffy G’11 in March about her research and vision for the future of interdisciplinary work and water. You’re an engineer by training who works with economic models. What is it about economics that seems especially suited to the interdisciplinary work you do? What really drew me to economics – when I was absolutely sure I needed to study economics and not just engineering – was coming back from the Peace Corps in northern Thailand and working for the US EPA in Washington, DC, doing risk Annette Huber-Lee in her office at Tufts assessments. The most compelling way to persuade decisionmakers is to have dollar signs associated with your proposal. So I realized I’d better understand these dollar signs to influence policy. It’s still a very pragmatic engineering approach: I want to make a difference in the world and simply understanding technology and people is insufficient – I need to understand the economics, politics and the greater systems that we’re all a part of.

What attracted you to working with the WSSS program? It’s very unique. I don’t know of another program like it in any university. It’s sweeping: six different schools are involved; the opportunity and the challenge that it gives students who are in the social sciences to take engineering courses and vice versa; and the faculty that are willing to go the extra mile to help students who are taking classes that they wouldn’t otherwise take. I think it’s a fantastic program. I would love to replicate WSSS in Africa and Asia – to work with universities to create this kind of program all over the world. This is exactly what we need to tackle global water issues and climate change. You taught a course in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at Tufts last fall, and are now teaching a course in Water and Environmental Resource Systems Analysis. Why did you choose to teach those courses? What do you enjoy most about teaching them? I really enjoy teaching both of them partly because they’re so challenging. I’m drawn to complex problems, and using IWRM and systems analysis tools to try to unravel some of that complexity. These are messy problems; in the IWRM course, we are really focused on tools that help integrate the quantitative with the qualitative. I love teaching partly because I’ve learned so much in the process. The thrill of watching the students make progress over the course of the semester in appreciating the complexity of these problems, being exposed to problems from all over the world, and then seeing where they take all of that. It’s been a really gratifying experience. Annual Newsletter: May 2011 Page 5

(continued on page 6)

Tufts in the Middle East: Faculty and Student Research
You’ve shown that cooperative water resource management among the countries of Israel, Palestine and Jordan would lead to enormous benefits for all three countries. What will it take to make this happen? How can your research be used to facilitate cooperation in the Middle East? The economic value for Israel, Palestine and Jordan to collaborate or coordinate or cooperate is on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars per year -- so there’s no obstacle from an economic standpoint. What are the obstacles? One that comes to mind is trust. You can’t have collaboration or coordination or cooperation without a foundation of trust. How do you go about building trust? As Richard Vogel puts it, “It takes a university.” My hope would be to create a true interdisciplinary program of research at Tufts where we “In the end, it’s would have faculty and students working jointly to try to address these not going to be issues. It would be a joint Water Economics Project and Tufts University one single thing; [effort] and then, ideally, it would join with universities in the Middle it really does take East. For example, the Arava Institute in Israel is unique in that it has the university.” Jordanian, Palestinian, and Israeli faculty and students. Partnership at the university level is, in some form, a trust-building activity. We’ve put together an internal proposal at Tufts that would use concepts from the Positive Deviance Initiative. The idea is to find a deviant (in a positive way) example of a behavior, and then see how you can replicate it. For example, in border towns that are typically West Bank and Israel – would there be some degree of cooperation [between the two parts of these communities]? Are there examples at the national scale where we see cooperation working?

Simcha Levental Studies Wastewater Treatment Solutions
Simcha Levental G’11 focuses on the Middle East, using his GIS and remote sensing expertise to research the urban aspects of water management, poverty and conflict. WSSS student Simcha Levental, a Master’s student in Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, received a WSSS research fellowship to travel last summer to the Middle East, where he conducted a pre-feasibility study for a wastewater solution in the town of Battir in the West Bank.

Over 8 weeks, Levental interviewed local stake holders and interviewed families. The goal of the field work in Battir was to map a protection area around the spring and study its pollutants with the goal of lowering the risk to human health from the spring’s water. Levental collaborated with the Arava Institute for Environmental Studies and with Palestinian Wastewater Engineers Group to gather data for this project. In a manner similar to the WSSS Water: Systems, Science and Society Page 6

Could we find, at multiple scales, positive deviance? I am very interested in looking at this scale issue and how we can build from there; understanding the ecology, the anthropology, the economics, to try to get an inroad into what seems, economically, to be in everyone’s best interest but doesn’t happen. Every little inroad we can make, let’s make. In the end, it’s not going to be one single thing; it really does take the university. What do you see as the future of interdisciplinary work? The role of this first wave of WSSS students will be to break new ground, to gain access to decision-makers, and to advocate for other disciplines in government ministries, in consulting firms; creating opportunities to work in an interdisciplinary or trans-disciplinary way. Those opportunities aren’t sitting out there right now; we need to create them. Because the need is growing – seven billion people on the earth, limited resources, climate change, globalization, rapid change – we need people who can look at the multidimensional aspects of problems. Tufts is definitely on the cutting edge in terms of really encouraging this kind of interdisciplinary work. My wish would be to see more of it – there’s still a lot of room for us to improve in terms of actually carrying out interdisciplinary work.

What will be the issue that puts water on the forefront of people’s minds? Climate change? The increase in food prices may be more of a trigger in the short term than climate change. Water is connected to energy via biofuels; by growing more biofuels, we’re growing less food, and that’s having ripple effects. In Tunisia and Egypt, one of the underlying causes of discontent may have been high food prices, though it’s hard to place attribution. Bahamas project, Levental developed a community based water monitoring program for the regional council of Bethlehem.

“After doing calculations, modeling, and creating a water budget, we learned that, contrary to popular belief, only a small percentage of the water coming out of the Battir spring is groundwater. Most of the water is coming from the black- and graywater leaching through the limestone from residents’ boreholes, so the levels of pathogens in the spring are really high,” he says. In his final report, The Battir Spring: The Road to a Safe Water Resource (available at www.tufts. edu/water/pdf/SimchaLevental_Paper.pdf ), Levental details the extent of human influence on the spring and offers precautions for future development of the area. “A localized solution,” he concludes, “doesn’t solve the problem.” Rather, regional cooperation is the key to a successful, healthy water system. Annual Newsletter: May 2011 Page 7

Second Annual WSSS Symposium Highlights Infrastructure
Building upon the success of last year’s efforts, the second annual WSSS symposium brought over 150 students, faculty and water professionals from 10 universities, including Cornell, George Washington University, MIT, Harvard, UMass Amherst and Boston, NYU, Clark University, Sienna College, and the University of Maine, as well as representatives of various public and private organizations, to Tufts on April 1st to discuss the future of water infrastructure. By Ellen Parry Tyler F’11 The symposium opened with a keynote address questioning the relative importance of climate change in relation to other pressing waterrelated challenges in the near future. WSSS faculty director Rich Vogel commented, “For me, the WSSS symposium was a resounding success because it stimulated and even initiated an extremely important debate, which I hope we will continue.”

The conference sessions addressed many impending challenges including the appropriate scale of water and sanitation infrastructure, water scarcity, flooding, aging infrastructure and securing safe and sufficient water in the US and in developing countries. “I was pleasantly surprised to find out that the panel topics were broad enough to apply to many disciplines, even outside of water,” said one attendee. “Water was, of course, the theme that tied everything together, but I really appreciated that many of the larger concepts could be related to other areas, and fit into a big picture.” Water: Systems, Science and Society

The day’s agenda included panel discussions, keynote speeches, poster presentations and networking sessions. Panelists provided diverse perspectives from a wide range of academic disciplines and professional fields. A lunchtime networking reception and closing cocktail hour gave students an opportunity to present their research posters and to meet representatives from the symposium’s sponsoring organizations, including Geosyntec Consultants, AECOM, the Stockholm Environment Institute, CDM and the Cadmus Group.

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2011 WSSS Symposium Agenda
Keynote Address by Gene Stakhiv Does National Security Depend on Environmental and Water Security? Panel 1: Scaling and Infrastructure: How big is too big? Panelists: John Briscoe, Paul Kirshen, Susan Murcott Moderator: William Moomaw

This panel focused on the role of scale in infrastructure development. Panelists discussed the benefits and limitations of large-scale versus smaller, modular-style infrastructure development. In light of the pressing infrastructure needs in developing countries and their emerging economies, it can be argued that large-scale solutions are advantageous due to economies of scale. However, many large-scale infrastructure projects have failed in the past and are increasingly difficult to implement. Panelists were asked: Locally-adapted, smaller-scale, community-level solutions may be an effective alternative, but at what cost? Panel 2: Aging Infrastructure in the United States Panelists: Stephen Estes-Smargiassi, Richard Palmer, Marcus Quigley, Chi Ho Sham Moderator: David Gute

A 2009 report by the American Society of Civil Engineers assigned an overall D grade to America’s infrastructure. Replacing and repairing aging infrastructure is a daunting challenge for the United States. Panelists were asked: What strategies should be used to address this issue? What approach can be leveraged from recent advancements and research? Lunchtime Networking Reception Student Poster Session Second Keynote Address by Dan Sheer Designing and Implementing Water Management Strategies: Understanding Values, Changing Perceptions, Changing Behavior Panel 3: Meeting the Growing Needs of Developing Countries Panelists: John Ambler, Jeffrey Griffiths, Casey Brown, Kenneth Strzepek Moderator: Annette Huber-Lee Developing countries have pressing needs for water infrastructure that will only increase with population growth, urbanization, and climate change. Domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors will all face increasing demand and potentially less supply.Yet access to water has the potential to improve livelihoods for the bottom billion(s). Panelists were asked: How can these needs and opportunities be met without compromising ecological integrity in a resource- and finance-constrained world? What role does infrastructure play? Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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The Confluence of Water and Diplomacy
In a warming world with an uncertain climate and growing population, water is a hot-button issue. A vital but limited resource, water can cross physical and political boundaries, leaving division in its wake. Water diplomacy, a burgeoning field being pioneered at Tufts University, is poised to deal with the increasing conflicts surrounding our water resources. “Our goal is to create actionable knowledge,” says Dr. Shafiqul Islam, Bernard M. Gordon Senior Faculty Fellow in Engineering and Professor of Water Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the principal investigator of a new $4.2 million grant awarded by the National Science Foundation to create an Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) doctoral program at Tufts. By Libby Mahaffy G’11

This “Water Diplomacy” program will admit its first cohort of PhD students this fall. Students may come from “The goal is to create a unique blend of Tufts water scholars either the “natural” domain – e.g., biology, chemistry, who are well-versed in the engineering – or the “societal” domain – e.g., economics, law, international relations, political science, urban natural, societal and political planning, anthropology. The goal is to produce students dimensions of water issues.” that are “deeply grounded in a particular discipline,” Islam says, but with a thorough understanding of other domains, as well as the political context in which they interact. The goal is to create a unique blend of Tufts water scholars who are well-versed in the natural, societal and political dimensions of water issues.

The “societal” and “natural” domains intersect to explain the context of water diplomacy issues.

This effort has already germinated interdisciplinary cooperation at Tufts. The IGERT proposal was conceived by a team of 17 faculty members from three schools at Tufts and benefited from the contributions of over 15 national and international partners. But why haven’t these contributors worked together before? According to Islam, it’s the notion of “Adjacent Possible”: this program is the realization of potential that existed previously but lacked the creative synthesis and enabling infrastructure to make it real. There has always been “water, arts and sciences, engineering and diplomacy,” he says. “[But] with the IGERT we have brought them together. Now it’s unstoppable.”

Water: Systems, Science and Society

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Tufts’ Role in the Future of a Flexible Resource

But Tufts’ Water Diplomacy efforts will extend beyond the IGERT program. This June, Tufts will team up with Harvard and MIT to host a Water Diplomacy Workshop to be held at Tufts. “You think and then you do,” Islam says. “The IGERT is the thinking and the Water Diplomacy Workshop is the doing.” The goal of the workshop is to “train the trainers” to think water as a flexible resource and synthesize explicit and tacit information to create actionable knowledge. Co-taught with Professor Lawrence Susskind of the Program on Negotiation at Harvard University and MIT, this workshop is the first of its kind. Framing water science, policy, and politics as networks of relationships allows them to be managed through mutual gains negotiations. In this inaugural venture, participants will spend five days participating in interactive lectures, problem-solving clinics, and role-play simulations in order to integrate learning into practice.

The overwhelming response – the workshop has already received many more applications than the 35 available spaces – is a testament to the need for this type of knowledge and training. Participants will be mid-to senior-level water professionals from around the globe. Representatives from the United States, Israel, Palestine, Mexico, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Peru, Pakistan and Russia have already committed to attending. Islam takes the long view, imagining each participant teaching 20 others: “In 20 years, we will create several thousand reflective water professionals who’ll think like this. We are in the game of changing the way we think about water.”

“In 20 years, we will create several thousand reflective water professionals who’ll think like this. We are in the game of changing the way we think about water.”

Shafiqul (“Shafik”) Islam is the first Bernard M. Gordon Senior Faculty Fellow in Engineering and Professor of Water Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. He is the Director of the Water Diplomacy Program at Tufts University that involves over twenty faculty and fifteen national and international partners and is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Dr. Islam’s interdisciplinary research and educational interests are to understand, characterize, measure, and model water issues ranging from climate to cholera to water diplomacy with a focus on scale issues and remote sensing. His research group, WE REASoN, integrates theory and practice to create actionable knowledge.

Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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WSSS Practicum Team Makes a Splash in the Mystic
The 2011 WSSS Practicum team has just completed a set of projects designed to address water quality and related health concerns in the Alewife Brook and surrounding communities. The Alewife is part of Tufts University’s home watershed, the Mystic River. The inter-disciplinary practicum team has undertaken this research in collaboration with the Mystic River Watershed Association (MyRWA), a regional advocacy organization. The focus of their efforts includes the water quality challenges posed by the continuing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) that afflict the Alewife, and efforts by adjacent communities - Somerville, Arlington, Cambridge and Belmont - to implement a complex set of stormwater remediation measures that are mandated by the federal Clean Water Act. Eight combined sewer overflow outfalls remain along Alewife Brook, and during moderate to heavy rainfalls these CSOs release raw sewage into the brook and then into the Mystic. By Julia Ledewitz G’12 MyRWA has asked the four-student WSSS practicum team to analyze the impact of the water body classification variance under which the CSO reduction projects have been completed and to examine how future reduction projects would be affected if current water quality standards were downgraded. The WSSS team has also been asked to identify best management practices (BMPs) for decreasing the overall amount of stormwater feeding the sewer system. To do that, team members are reviewing stormwater BMPs from across the state and country, examining their relative costs and benefits, and identifying practices that The WSSS Practicum team takes a chilly February tour of the Alewife Brook, led by MyRWA stormwater guru Roger would be most effective in the Alewife Brook Frymire (second from left). Others, from left, are Practicum and its adjacent municipalities.

This year, the Practicum team consists of four graduate students from across the University: Samantha Weaver and Julia Ledewitz from the Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning (UEP); Sara Blankenship from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy; and Maggie Holmes from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and the Public Health Program at Tufts Medical School. Each student brings a different knowledge base and set of skills to the projects, which has helped to broaden the initial scope of the work and allowed the projects to be fashioned around individual and group interests. The practicum, which carries course credit, is taught by Rusty Russell, J.D., a faculty member at UEP. Water: Systems, Science and Society

team member Maggie Holmes, Tufts instructor Rusty Russell, MyRWA Assistant Watershed Scientist Katrina Sukola, Practicum participant Julia Ledewitz, MyRWA’s Mystic Monitoring Network Director Patrick Herron, Ph.D., and Practicum participants Sara Blankenship and Samantha Weaver.

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WSSS in the Field

During his summer internship at the U.S. EPA in the Ocean and Coastal Protection Unit, Peter Kelly-Joseph served as a scientist on the EPA Ocean Survey Vessel Bold for a sixday coastal nutrient survey in the Gulf of Maine. The water quality data collected during the survey will help the New England states develop numeric nutrient criteria for estuarine and marine waters. In the fall he was awarded an EPA/Department of Energy fellowship to continue his internship during the year where he has worked on coastal and marine spatial planning in New England; climate adaptation in the EPA Office of Water; and nutrient criteria development in New England.

Student Field Study

Peter Kelly-Joseph aboard the Bold.

WSSS Field Trip to the Mystic
Officer Patrick Johnston of the Everett Police Department gives a tour of the Mystic River for a WSSS student/faculty field trip on October 16, 2010.

Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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WSSS Alumni: Farming and International Development
In November 2010, WSSS graduate Racey Bingham F’07, N’07 spoke with TIE intern Libby Mahaffy G’11 from the Central African Republic (CAR), where she’s living and doing development work on a contract with the World Bank. What have you been up to since graduating from Tufts and finishing the WSSS program? Two years ago, I realized that the more I advanced in my career in development, the farther away I got from the farmers and producers that I loved working with. I’m not somebody who likes to sit in the office all day long – I was really getting frustrated – so when my job finished I decided to take a break and try actually farming myself. I moved to the town in upstate New York where my dad and step-mother had retired to and started working for a local farm called Essex Farm. I loved it, and decided to try and juggle farming for 8 months of the year and work in Africa doing international development work during the winters when there’s less activity on the farm. I may want to come back to work full-time in Africa, so I’m keeping my international development resume current as a mid-level consultant. How are you using what you learned in WSSS in your current job? My first winter in CAR (20092010), I worked on an urban water and sanitation project that dealt with drainage and water systems. I definitely used my WSSS knowledge working on that project in terms of water systems and GIS. There was a lot of flooding here in Bangui in 2009, and I was researching flood risk and preparedness, so it helped to have a basic sense of the engineering and the different kinds of water systems.

I was more able to use my WSSS background in Mali, where I worked for two years after Tufts on a large-scale irrigation project. Here (in CAR) I’m more focused on agriculture products, and CAR has abundant rainfall, so it’s all rain-fed agriculture. There is no lack of water, but there is a lack of infrastructure to ensure the right quantities of water consistently over time. Both the World Bank and the International Fund for Agricultural Development are preparing projects in CAR that are likely to fund small dams and infrastructure improvements to support to small rural farmers.
Racey Bingham on the New York farm, spring 2011

WSSS helped me to look at agricultural systems from a broader perspective, both understanding and keeping in mind the engineering side of these systems: How do you grow the food? What’s the Water: Systems, Science and Society

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water system? Is there a way to better manage the rainfall and waste? I look at problems from a very holistic perspective even though I am dealing just with agriculture projects right now.

What were your expectations coming into the WSSS program? When I started WSSS, I was looking for a more practical program. Fletcher was focused on agriculture and rural development policy and I had not yet started the Friedman nutrition degree. Water became the linking factor between policy, agriculture and nutrition. Holistic water management that took into consideration people’s domestic and productive needs was relevant to both the nutrition and the agriculture parts of my studies. It’s a nexus that I wish I could find in my work in the field, but I have yet to. Essentially, most organizations do not have the programmatic mechanisms, the expertise, or the money to design projects that prioritize the connection between agriculture and nutrition. Was interconnection a priority in the WSSS program? That is the core of WSSS: six schools are involved, so you get a global sense of how water is an interconnecting factor across different disciplines. As a WSSS student, you take it for granted that everyone is on the same page because you’re self-selecting -- you all think it’s important to learn about water from all angles -- but when you leave, you realize that other people don’t think like that. If WSSS were a Jelly Belly, what flavor would it be? I’ve been overseas too long to know what flavors even exist! Well, wouldn’t it be the whole box? There are hundreds of different kinds – you can’t just pick one because it’s multidisciplinary.

Racey Bingham, left, is a Mickey Leland International Hunger Fellow, providing technical assistance to a Malian team implementing an irrigated agricultural project under a grant from the Millennium Challenge Corporation, a U.S. government agency.

Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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Meet the 2010-2011 WSSS Fellows
WSSS Fellowships provide financial support to students to encourage and foster interdisciplinary water-related research; to provide financial support to WSSS students for research that will produce scholarship; and to increase participation of WSSS faculty in research projects related to WSSS objectives.

Amanda Beal and Ellen Parry Tyler N’11: “By Land and By Sea: Connecting Maine’s

Farming and Fishing Communities” Building off shared input from farmers, fishermen and representative organizations throughout the state of Maine, we presented results from a series of statewide forums we convened in early 2010. By Land and By Sea project stakeholders, including representatives of state agencies, organizations and community members brainstormed cross-cutting challenges and formed a sub-committee to draft and distribute a policy brief to gubernatorial candidates. This document, “Maine Food Security, Jobs and the Environment,” outlined a list of action steps and recommendations to the next governor. Member organizations of the Eat Local Foods Coalition also met with candidates to discuss the By Land and By Sea project. Both of these documents can be found at: http://www.eatmainefoods.org/forum/topics/elfc-releases-by-land-by-sea

John Parker F’12, N’12: “The Adoption and Diffusion of Soil and Water Management

Innovations: A Case Study of the Quesungual Slash-and-Mulch Agroforestry System” With rising food demand and mounting constraints on water resources and arable land, how can the resilience of agricultural systems be strengthened to produce more food while using less water under increasingly uncertain conditions? Recent studies have highlighted the potential to achieve significant gains in crop yields and water productivity through improved soil moisture or “green water” management. Achieving these gains requires the widespread adoption of on-farm soil and water management innovations by smallholder farmers, which has been limited in many of the regions where the greatest potential lies. My research examines the Quesungal Slash-and-Mulch Agroforestry System in southwestern Honduras to better understand the factors that influence farmer adoption of soil and water management innovations and the determinants of how local innovations are catalyzed and scaled-out to achieve large-scale impact. My preliminary results indicate that secure land tenure, participation in community groups and collective action by heterogeneous actors significantly influence the rate of generation, adoption and diffusion of soil and water management innovations among smallholder farmers. Water: Systems, Science and Society

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Environmental surprises are bound to occur. Surprise is induced by uncertainty and chaos in environmental systems and exacerbated by anthropogenic attempts to gain control over these systems. In my thesis, I review the concept of surprise and its role in ecosystem management and financial markets. In particular, I focus on the connection between surprise and resiliency. I explore methods in which integrated adaptive management and critical thinking embrace uncertainty and absorb surprise impacts, and I explain how regional preparedness is critical to mitigate adverse effects of climate-induced surprises. Lastly, I review the quantification of surprise and its applications to water resource management, while stressing the importance of integrating non-quantifiable notions of surprise into decision-making for a more sustainable approach to management.

Jeff Cegan E’11: “Resilient Water Resource Systems: Managing Surprise”

Gogi Grewal G’11, N’11: “Assessing the Short-Term Impact of School-Based Safe Water
Points on Childhood Diarrheal Disease and School Attendance in Somali Region, Ethiopia” My interest in water is primarily related to how access to safe and sufficient quantities of it intersects with health in developing countries where infrastructure tends to be lacking, and determining what technologies are best-suited to particular settings. With the help of funding from the WSSS Fellowship, I was able to spend a semester in Ethiopia researching barriers to the use and sustainability of school-based water and sanitation facilities. This involved a mixture of qualitative methods to examine experiences with use and maintenance of different types of water points, ranging from roof water catchments to pipe extensions from municipal supplies. Speaking with students, schools staff, and government health and water officials from 6 different regions of Ethiopia and examining drinking, handwashing and latrine facilities first-hand was a valuable insight into what is and is not working in schools.

Lauren Caputo E’11: “Use of a Decision Support System for Stormwater Management

Planning” My research project examines stormwater management strategies under a changing climate. With the acceptance that precipitation patterns change over time comes the reality that the “static design problem” no longer holds. How should we design stormwater management practices under a dynamic climate? Or more importantly, how should we retrofit stormwater management systems in urban areas that are already prone to flooding or have combined sewer overflows? I use the combined sewer system in Somerville, Massachusetts as a case study to explore the possibilities of LID control under different climate scenarios using EPA’s SWMM software. Annual Newsletter: May 2011 Page 17

Laura Kuhl F’11: “A Comparative Study of Adaptation to Coastal Flooding and Sea Level
Rise in La Ceiba, Honduras and Boston, MA” My research examined disaster management, flooding and climate change on the northern coast of Honduras. In collaboration with a local environmental NGO, Fundación Cuero y Salado, I conducted in-depth interviews with over 100 stakeholders including government officials, NGOs, donors, community leaders and residents. Through these interviews I sought to understand the current system of disaster management, as well as local coping strategies for flooding and local knowledge of climate change. Based on my research, I examine the question: how can Honduras transition from a culture of disaster response to a culture of adaptation? Recognizing that moving from a reactive to a proactive preventive approach to disasters is quite challenging, I identity potential leverage points and opportunities in the current system, as well as challenges for this transition. I highlight the importance on working across scales, and argue that by utilizing a disaster risk reduction framework, it is possible to begin this transition and develop a robust adaptation framework. I am researching “systems approaches” to urban stormwater management. Stormwater impacts like pollution and flooding result from complex interactions between the hydrologic cycle and the built environment. I want to learn more about systems approaches that offer holistic approaches to problem identification and policy making. I have been reading literature on decision support systems, public participation, clean water policy, and systems science in support of this interdisciplinary thesis. I recently presented a poster on this work at the 2011 WSSS Symposium at Tufts and at the 2011 WRRC Conference at UMass, Amherst.

Jack Melcher E’11, G’11: “Systems Approaches to Stormwater Management Planning”

Karen Claire Kosinski E’11: “Diagnostic Test Accuracy and Spatial Heterogeneity of

Urinary Schistosomiasis in the Eastern Region, Ghana” My research focuses on the primary prevention of infections and diseases related to water, sanitation, and hygiene. Specifically, I work with the organism Schistosoma haematobium and conduct fieldwork in five communities in Ghana, West Africa. S. haematobium is transmitted via skin contact with surface water contaminated with human waste. In 2008 and 2009, my research team and I designed and constructed a water recreation area to reduce contact with contaminated water in one of our partnering communities, Adasawase. School-aged children are particularly at risk of infection. In 2010, we collected data about the efficacy of the structure in preventing reinfection with S. haematobium. Currently, we are analyzing the data via a logistic regression model. Water: Systems, Science and Society

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WSSS Fellow Spotlight: Eric Vaughan
Civil and Environmental Engineering Master’s candidate and WSSS student Eric Vaughan E’11 completed WSSS-funded research on agricultural demand for water in the West Bank in summer 2010. Eric Vaughan: I came to Tufts to explore issues related to water use in developing countries where it is often limited not by quantity, but by lack of infrastructure, limited economic development, and poor governance. My advisor, Rich Vogel, recommended I read Liquid Assets by Franklin Fisher (economics professor at MIT) and WSSS participating faculty member Annette Huber-Lee. I read the book and was blown away because it demonstrated such a strong link between economics and water use; a link I had witnessed firsthand in my time working in Africa! I wanted to be involved with their research, and it happened to be in the Middle East, which was exciting! My research supports Annette’s work, which seeks to improve the understanding of tradeoffs in water allocation, taking into account social and economic objectives. We use systems analysis tools to help guide water allocation decisions that stimulate cooperation and development in the Middle East. I just submitted a conference paper based on this research for the ASCE World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, 2011. My research focuses on characterizing uncertainty in the agricultural demand for water in the West Bank, Palestine. Understanding demand for water is a critical first step in guiding socially beneficial water allocations, infrastructure development, and cooperation between Palestine, Israel, Jordan, and even Lebanon and Syria.

The focus of my research emerged while I was collecting data for my agricultural water demand model in the West Bank. I noticed there was a lot of fluctuation and uncertainty in the agricultural and economic influences on irrigation water use. When I returned to Tufts, we reformulated the model to characterize this uncertainty and explore its effects on agricultural water use. I gathered data through statistics published by the Palestinian government and focus groups with farmers in different regions in the West Bank. Data collection was an amazing collaboration between the Palestinian Water Authority, the Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture and myself facilitated by Annette’s contacts. It was a fabulous experience working with experts in the field; people dedicated to solving very complex problems under very difficult conditions.

“Interdisciplinarity is critical to my research; it could not be done by a specialist from any one field.”

I’m not a research or teaching assistant here at Tufts, which means my research is unfunded. There are two aspects to research: advancing the techniques and characterization of a place. In order to do the second part effectively, you really have to go directly to the field. I applied for and won a WSSS research fellowship in order to do this fieldwork in the Middle East last summer. It wouldn’t have been possible without WSSS financial support. Annual Newsletter: May 2011 Page 19

(continued on page 20)

Data collection was a very enriching experience. Personally, I’m driven by problems in the developing world. I’m interested in going to places, interacting with people, and learning about the issues firsthand. As an American, I was unprepared for how welcoming and social the Middle East was to me. That experience was such an amazing part of my education at Tufts. I hope other students take similar opportunities to connect their work with the world.

Interdisciplinarity is critical to my research; it could not be done by a specialist from any one field. My research committee includes Richard Vogel, who has a background in statistics, hydrology and systems, Timothy Griffin, an agronomist, and Annette Huber-Lee, who has background in economics, water resources management, and mathematical programming and understands the context of our work in the Middle-East. Each committee member has made substantial and necessary contributions to this work. There are so many problems that require this type of multidisciplinary approach and this is why WSSS is so important! As told to Libby Mahaffy G’11

Elena Naumova Studies Water and Health Internationally
By Libby Mahaffy G’11

Elena Naumova, a faculty director of the Tufts Institute of the Environment and director of the Tufts Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Diseases at the Friedman School of Nutrition, recently moved from the medical campus to Medford to begin an appointment with the School of Engineering. A mathematician and statistician by training, Dr. Naumova is hoping to develop a “more sophisticated analytical methodology” to uncover the “intrinsic relationships between health and the environment.”

Elena Naumova, right, with members of the Vellore research team

These projects are funded and ongoing, and Naumova is looking for students to join the research team. There are also internship opportunities with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Group of Earth Observation in interdisciplinary research where, according to Naumova, “students from the engineering school and the medical school can cooperate very effectively.” For more information or to apply to join the research team, contact her at Elena.Naumova@tufts.edu. Water: Systems, Science and Society

With projects running in both India and Siberia, Naumova, who is Russian-born, quips, “One is too hot for me and one is too cold for others!” But these two seemingly disparate places are related: they have a striking resemblance in the seasonality of their infectious disease outbreaks. The Siberian project, with funding from the U.S. EPA, involves collecting longitudinal data on environmental contributors such as water quality and water availability associated with drinking water in the larger cities of Siberia. At a very different scale, the India project requires collecting data from individual households in the city of Vellore to understand factors that can contribute to waterborne diseases: “personal hygiene, water usage, water quality, water availability and water scarcity” among them.

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Selected WSSS Student and Alumni Publications
Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., Siddique, A.K., Alam, M., Sack, R., Huq, A., Colwell, R. and Islam, S. 2011. Hydroclimatic Influences on Seasonal and Spatial Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A.S. and Islam, S. 2009. Dual peak cholera transmission in Bengal Delta: A hydroclimatological explanation, Geophysical Akanda, A.S, Jutla, A.S., Eltahir, E. and Islam, S. 2011. Hydroepidemiology of Cholera Transmission in Bangladesh: A Spatially Explicit and
Implications for Climate Change. Proceedings of AGU, Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, CA. December 13-17. Policy, Chappel Hill, NC, October 25-26. September 27-30, Jackson, Wyoming. Seasonally Varying Cholera Prevalence Model. General Assembly of the EGU, Vienna, Austria, April 3-8. (Accepted) Research Letters, 36, L19401, doi:10.1029/2009GL039312. Cholera Transmission Cycles: Implications for Public Health Intervention in the Bengal Delta, Water Resources Research (Paper in Press)

Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A. S., Huq, A., Colwell, R. and Islam, S. 2010. From Fall to Spring, or Spring to Fall? Seasonal Cholera Transmission Cycles and

Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2010. Climate Change, Hydrologic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics. Water, and Health: Where Science Meets Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2010. Remote Sensing Based Forecasting of Cholera Outbreaks, Remote Sensing and Hydrology Symposium, Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2009. Rivers as Corridors of Diarrheal Disease Transmission: Role of Coastal and Terrestrial
Hydroclimatology. Proceedings of the AGU Americas Meeting, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil. August 8-12. Symposium, University of Washington, Seattle, WA March 24-26 transmission in South Asia and sub Saharan Africa. Proceedings of the UNESCO Xth Kovacs Colloquium, Paris, France, July 3-4.

Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2010. Hydrology, Climate and Human Health: a hydroclimatological approach to understand cholera Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2010. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century. Steve Burges Retirement
AGU, San Francisco, CA, December 14-18. of the EGU, Vienna, Austria, April 19-24. WP-US-1103

Akanda, A.S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2009. Dual Peak Cholera transmission in South Asia: A Hydroclimatological explanation. Proceedings of the Akanda, S., Jutla, A.S., and Islam, S. 2009. Climate Extremes and Infectious Diseases: Large Scale Hydroclimatic Controls in Forecasting Cholera
Epidemics. Research Day on Global Health and Infectious Disease, Tufts University, USA. October 5. Environmental Law Section. Winter 2011. 8-15.

Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A. S., and Islam, S. 2009. Bimodal Explanation of Cholera in Bangladesh: A hydroclimatological explanation. General Assembly Cegan, Jeff. “Estimating Regions’ Relative Vulnerability to Climate Damages in the CRED Model”. Stockholm Environment Institute. Working Paper
Islam, S., Jutla, A. S., Akanda, A. 2011. Hydroepidemiology: A Synthesis of Micro- and Macro-Scale Processes For Predicting Cholera Outbreaks in Platform to Resolve Water Conflicts. General Assembly of the EGU, Vienna, Austria, April 19-24. Remote Sensing Data. Proceedings of the AGU, San Francisco, CA, December 14-18. revision, Remote Sensing of Environment) South Asia and Africa. NSF Ecology of Marine Infectious Disease Workshop, San Juan, PR, February 11-13. Islam, S., Gao, Y. and Akanda, A.S. 2010. Water 2100: A synthesis of natural and societal domains to create actionable knowledge through Islam, S., Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A.S., Lin, C. and Gao, Y. 2009. AquaPedia: Building Intellectual Capacity through Shared Learning and Open Access AquaPedia and water diplomacy Pp 193-197; Proceedings of the UNESCO Xth Kovacs Colloquium, Paris, France, July 3-4. Association. 46(4):651-662. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00448.x. Islam, S., Jutla, A.S., Akanda, S. and Islam, S. 2009. Integrating Terrestrial Hydrology and Coastal Ecology: Understanding Cholera Dynamics using

Blankenship, Sara. “Georgia’s Red Clay: A Scientific and Regulatory Overview.” Perspectives on Georgia’s Environment. State Bar of Georgia

Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S. and Islam, S. 2010. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations. Journal of American Water Resources Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S. and Islam, S. 2011. Tracking Cholera from Satellites: Space-Time variation of chlorophyll in Northern Bay of Bengal. (in

Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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outbreaks. (submitted to American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene) Environmental Health). UNESCO Xth Kovacs Colloquium, Paris, France, July 3-4.

Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S. and Islam, S. 2011 Predicting Seasonal Cholera Outbreaks from Satellite Data (in revision, Remote Sensing of Environment). Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S, Griffiths, J. Islam, S. and Colwell, R. 2011. Warming oceans, phytoplankton, and river discharge: Implications for cholera Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S., Mazumdar, M., Colwell, R., and Islam, S. 2011, Predicting Cholera Outbreaks: Where is the Next Haiti? (submitted to,

Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S and Islam, S. 2010. Satellite remote sensing based forecasting of cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta. Proceedings of the Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S and Islam, S. 2011. Hydroepidemiology of Cholera: Predicting Outbreaks using Satellite Derived Global Cholera Index. Jutla, A.S., Akanda, A.S and Islam, S. 2010. Hydrology and Human Health: Predicting Cholera Outbreaks using Remote Sensing Data. Proceedings of Jutla, A.S., Akanda, S. and Islam, S. 2009. Satellites and Human Health: Potential for Tracking Cholera Outbreaks. Proceedings of the AGU, San Jutla, A.S., Akanda, S. and Islam, S. 2009. Tracking Cholera Outbreaks from Satellites: Space-Time Variability of Chlorophyll in Northern Bay of

AGU, Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, CA. December 13-17. Francisco, CA, December 14-18.

General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, Vienna, Austria, April 3-8. (Accepted)

Bengal. Research Day on Global Health and Infectious Disease, Tufts University, USA. October 5. Austria, April 19-24. General Assembly of the EGU, Vienna, Austria, April 19-24.

Jutla, A.S., Akanda, S. and Islam, S. 2009. Relationship between Phytoplankton, Sea Surface Temperature and River Discharge in Bay of Bengal.

Amherst, Massachusetts, April 7, 2011.

Klonsky, Lauren, and R.M. Vogel, Effective Measures of “Effective Discharge”?, The Journal of Geology, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp 1-14, 2011.
in La Ceiba, Honduras. Resilience 2011 Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, March 2011.

Jutla, A. S., Akanda, S. and Islam, S. 2009. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Chlorophyll in Bay of Bengal. General Assembly of the EGU, Vienna,

Kuhl, Laura. From a culture of disaster response to a culture of adaptation: flooding in Honduras. 8th Annual Water Resources Research Conference, Kuhl, Laura. Institutional arrangements for resilience in the face of climate change: An analysis of disaster preparedness and response for flooding Kuhl, Laura and Tirrell A. Reflections on The Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change. IDEAS Journal (International

Development, Environment and Sustainability) Issue 7, February 2011.

Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Program. Medford: Feinstein International Center. 2011 (web).

Maxwell, Daniel, William Masters, Peter Walker, Patrick Webb, John Parker, and Arthur Ha. (2011) “A Scoping Study on Climate Change and Food

An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater, Environ. Sci. Technol, February 18, An Assessment and Plan of Action”. Resilience: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Science and Humanitarianism, Vol. 2.

Neumann, R.B., St. Vincent, Allison P., Roberts, L.C., Badruzzaman, A.B.M., Ali, M.A., and C.F. Harvey (2011). Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology:

Security.” Report commissioned by Columbia University’s International Research Institute for Climate and Society as part of CGIAR Climate Change,

Kuhl, Laura and Sheridan M. Stigmatized property, clams and community in coastal Ecuador. Journal of Ecological Anthropology 2009; 5(1): 17-38.

Parker, John, Eric Vaughan, and Jeffrey Bate. (2011) “Resilience and Sustainability of Water Resources in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil: Parker, John. (2011) “Understanding the Dynamics of Adoption and Diffusion of Land and Water Management Innovations: A Case Study of the Parker, John. (2011) “Can Integrated Land and Water Management Strengthen Agriculture’s Resilience to Climate Change and Natural Resource

Quesungual Slash-and-Mulch Agroforestry System.” Resilience 2011 Conference, Tempe, AZ, March 11-16, 2011. (accepted for presentation) MA.

Constraints? Lessons Learned from Southwestern Honduras.” IDEAS Journal: International Development, Environment and Sustainability, Medford,

Water: Systems, Science and Society

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Matt Ridley (2010).” Resilience: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Science and Humanitarianism, Medford, MA. (forthcoming) ning and Management, Vol. 136, No. 1, pp. 37-47, 2010.

Parker, John. (2011) “Book Reviews: Managing Without Growth, by Peter Victor (2008) and The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves, by

Ray, Patrick, P.H. Kirshen and R.M. Vogel, Integrated optimization of a dual quality water and wastewater system, Journal of Water Resources PlanSt. Vincent, Allison P., Milando, C., Zhu, S., Zamore, W., Brugge, D., Durant, J (2010). Evaluation of the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) St. Vincent, Allison P., Trull, J., Zamore, W., Brugge, D., and J.L. Durant (2010). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Highway-generated Air
highway-generated air pollution in a residential urban neighborhood [oral]. Urban Environmental Pollution, Boston, MA, June 2010.

2010.

Modeling System to Predict Ultrafine Particle Levels in an Urban Neighborhood near a Highway. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 15 December

Pollution in a Residential Urban Neighborhood [oral and paper], ASCE/EWRI Congress, Providence, RI, May 2010.

St. Vincent, Allison P., A.P., Trull, J., Zamore, W., Brugge, D., and J.L. Durant (2010). Modeling spatial and temporal variation in the distribution of
in a Residential Urban Neighborhood [poster]. 2010 Joint Conference of International Society of Exposure Science & International Society for

Environmental Epidemiology, Seoul, Korea, Aug. 30, 2010.

St. Vincent, Allison P., Trull, J., Zamore, W., Brugge, D., and J. Durant (2010). Modeling the Distribution of Highway-Generated Air Pollution

America Annual Meeting, “Global Warming: The Legacy of our past, the challenge for our future” Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 1-6. Research Institute Annual Meeting. “Wildlife Conservation in a Changing World” Arusha, Tanzania, December 2-5. and quantity. Research Day on Global Health and Infectious Disease. Boston, Massachusetts. October 5.

arid, African ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments, 75: 795-803.

Strauch, Ayron M. and A.M. Almedom. Traditional resource management and water quality in rural Tanzania. 2011, Human Ecology. in press.

Strauch, Ayron M., Kapust, A.R. and C.C. Jost. (2009) The impact of livestock management on water quality and stream bank structure in a semiStrauch, Ayron M. Jost, C.C. (2010) Fish health and community assemblage during drought in lower Zambezi tributaries. Ecological Society of Strauch, Ayron M., Rurai, M.T., and A.M. Almedom. (2010) Traditionally protected catchment forests and ecosystem services in semi-arid, East

African highlands. Society of Ethnobiology Annual Meeting. “The Meeting Place: Integrating Ethnobiological Knowledge” Victoria, B.C., May 5-8.

Strauch, Ayron M. (2009) Water quality as the physiological cue initiating the northward movement of the Serengeti migration. Tanzania Wildlife Strauch, Ayron M. (2009) Traditional water resource management as a determinant of human health in rural Tanzania: Examining water quality Strauch, Ayron M. and F.S. Chew. (2009) Water quality as an environmental cue for large mammal migratory behavior in the Serengeti National Strauch, Ayron M. and A.M. Almedom. (2009) Using qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the effectiveness of traditional resource
the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1-15. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00534 management (TRM) on reducing contaminants in surface water resources in rural Tanzania. Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meeting,

August 2-9.

Park, Tanzania. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. “Ecological Knowledge and a Global Sustainable Society” Albuquerque, New Mexico,

“Global Challenge, Local Action: Ethical Engagement, Partnerships and Practice” Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 17-20.

Tsai, Yushiou, Sara Cohen, and Richard M. Vogel, 2011. The Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use: Four Case Studies. Journal of Vaughan, Eric S., Huber-Lee, A., Griffin, T., Kemp-Benedict, E., Vogel, R.M. (2011). “Uncertainty in Agricultural Water Demand in the West Bank:
Policy Implications for a Developing Economy”. ASCE-EWRI, Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Palm Springs, CA (In Press). the Ipswich River Basin, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol 136, No. 5, pp 566-575, Sept/Oct 2010.

Zoltay, Viki I., P.H. Kirshen, R.M. Vogel and K.S. Westphal, Integrated Watershed Management Modeling: A Generic Optimization Model Applied to

Annual Newsletter: May 2011

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Water: Systems, Science and Society
Contact Us:
(617) 627-3645 c/o Tufts Institute of the Environment 210 Packard Ave Medford, MA 02155 http://www.tufts.edu/water

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