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DOTE Anatomy topics
1. Arteries, veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. The epithelial tissue. The development of blood vessels.
Posted in Head & Neck by Sahaja on December 1, 2008 1. Arteries, veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. The epithelial tissue. The development of blood vessels. Anatomy: Arteries, veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. Arteries of Head & eck For this topic, you will need to discuss the branches of common carotid a, subclavian a, the veins that follow them, and superficial and deep lymph nodes of the head and neck. In this topic, if you have time, you may want to review infratemporal fossa, carotid triangle, scalenotracheal fossa, scalenus hiatus & tent Common Carotid a: General Info: Emerges from brachiocephalic a on R side, and aortic arch on L side ascends in carotid sheath, w/ CN X, Int Jugular v and number of other structures (will discuss soon) divides into int/ext carotid at superior border of thyroic cartilage Has two receptors: Carotid Body located at the bifurcation of common carotid (Body = Bifurcation) chemoreceptor = sensory receptor to detect levels of O2 & CO2 Or, remember that since it is located lower to the sinus, and closer to the lungs than the sinus – lungs = O2,CO2 Carotid Sinus located at the beginning of the int carotid a (Sinus = Internal carotid) baroreceptor = detects blood pressure Remember that it is the one closest to the head, so need to keep track of blood pressure in the head. Int carotid a: no branches in the neck, ascends in carotid sheath w/ CN X and IJV enters skull via carotid canal only major branch to head and neck region is ophthalmic a – exits skull via optic canal Ext Carotid a emerges @ upper border of thyroid cartilage runs in carotid sheath, then to neck of mandible pierces the parotid glang, where it gives its 2 terminal branches = maxillary, and superficial temporal 8 main branches = Superior Thyroid, Lingual, Facial, Asc Pharyngeal, Greater Auricular, Occipital, Maxillary, Superficial Temporal.
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SCM branch of sup thyroid a decending br – has 2 branches superficial – anatomosis w/ superficial br of transverse cervical a deep – anatomosis w/ deep br of deep cervical a (from costocervical trunk of subclavian a Maxillary a – Max lies in infratemporal fossa many many branches = How to remember them? DAAM I Bite SPAIDS. deep to post digastric m & stylohyoid m hooks around lower border of angle of mandible @ ant border of masseter (jsut deep to platysma) run diagonally to the medial corner of the eye.Apt in carotid triangle asc b/w int carotid & wall of pharynx branches = pharyngeal. divided into 3 parts by lat pterygoid m Part 1 = Mandibular = DAAM I . can stop bleeding from branches of lingual a Borders: ant = mylohyoid m post = post digastric m sup = hypoglossal n (CN XII) floor = hyoglossus m part of the Submandibular triangle (see salivary gland topic) branches = suprahyoid a.is an abbreviation for facial and all its branches F = facial A = asc palatine T = tonsillar SI = Sup/Inf labial S = submental Asc Pharyngeal a . anatomosis w.. Sounds stupid. glands Lingual a – Louis emerges @ level of greater horn of hyoid bone passes deep to hyoglossus m. terminates with angular a. auricular. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. sublingual a. sup laryngeal (which peirces the thyrohyoid membrane). The epithel. Max Stein.5 branches Deep auricular a Ant tympanic a Acc meningeal a Middle meningeal a – can be shown in practical exam Inf alveolar a – can be shown in practical exam 2 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . Superior Thyroid a – St. deep lingual a supplies most of blood supply of tongue Facial a – Fatsis emerges just above lingual a. goes forward.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly.it works. NOTE: How to remember all the branches? St.. Louis FATSIS Apt to GO to Max Stein —. http://anatomytopics.wordpress.like fat people from St. Louis need to go to this famous weight loss instructor. dorsal lingual a. Arteries. but hang on . inf tympanic. to infrahyoid m. branches = FATSIS . br to SCM. palatine.1. and occipital branches Occipital a – O emerges just above the hyoid bone –> passes deep to post digastric –> occipital groove –> on mastoid process branches = a to SCM – over CN XII.. br to cricthyroid m. emerges at level of greater horn of hyoid bone also in carotid sheath branches = br.. located w/in Pyrogov’s Triangle – Clinical note – by pushing at the location of triangle. running deep to zygomatic major & levator labii superiorus major blood supply to face. meningeal branches Greater (Posterior) Auricular a – G arises just above post digastric –> deep to parotid –> runs superficial to styloid process branches = stylomastoid.
Cervial part = lat to ant scalene m – 1 branch.e. veins have an extremely variable branching pattern.3 branches.. Part 1 has 3 branches. sometimes dorsal scapular a .com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. Arteries. frontal/parietal br transv. 3 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM .runs parallel to clavicle w/ a/v/n — anatomosis w/ circumflex scapular a Inf thyroid a – asc along thyroid gland and anatomosis w/ asc cervical a Muscular part = behind ant scalene m. sup temporal v branches = transverse facial a (b/w zyg arch & parotid duct). of pterygoid canal Infraorbital a Desc Palatine a Sphenopalatine a Superficial Temporal a terminal branch emerges on face b/w TMJ and ear runs w/ auriculotemporal n. Also. – 2 branches. sternal br musculophrenic – gives the ant intercostal arteries 7-10 Thyrocervical trunk – 3 branches again Transverse cervical a – under SCM –> occipital triangle –> runs below trapezius m Suprascapular a . duct. and Part 3 has 1 branch (sometimes) 123=321 Thoracic part = medial to ant scalene m . draw it on the exam. Part 2 – Pterygoid = Bite (Bite = muscle of mastication) – 5 branches lat & med pterygoid a massteric a buccal a deep temporal Part 3 – Pterygopalatine = SPAIDS – 7 branches Sup (post/mid) alveolar a Pharyngeal a A. Part 2 has 2 branches. http://anatomytopics. = Costocervical trunk Supreme IC a – gives 1st 2 post IC a Deep cervical a – blood supply to deep m of back.wordpress. Hell. masseter and skin of face Subclavian a br of Brachiocephalic trunk on R. OTE = to remember the # of branches – its opposite of part # – i.runs along the inside of thoracic wall 1st 6 ant intercostal a sup epigastric – medistinal. so there is no need to go into each branch. thymic..1.. b/w trachea and ant scalene m Vertebral a – has a med/sup path –> goes thru transverse foramen of C6-C1 –> thru post occipital membrane –> foramen magnum Int Thoracic a .only present if suprascapular a is missing usually no branches here Veins of Head & eck Veins mostly follow the arteries. arises from arch of aorta on L Pathway: enters neck behind the sternoclavicular joint –> runs towards the apex of pleura along the mediastinal surface –> over the apex –> turns forward and down along sternocostal surface of apex –> exits neck to enter thorax @ scalenus hiatus w/ brachial plexus has 3 divisions. asc along levator scapulae m. facial a gives blood supply to parotid gland. so your body may be different from what is laid out here.. The epithel. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. separated by ant scalene m. We’ve seen a body with 2 Ext Jugular v! To learn veins of any area – just draw the picture a bunch of times.
. tongue –> submental. nasal cavity/ pasanasal sinuses –> submandibular. scalp.1. Superficial lymph nodes of Head: In general. The superficial lymph nodes and vessels run with veins. retropharyngeal.n.n. buccal.called angulus venosus. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. retroauricular. superficial cervical l.n. submandibular. and middle temporal v. and parotid gland Lymph Drainage of Head & eck The head and the neck. deep lymph nodes and vessels run with arteries. runs thru parotid gland drains side of scalp. prelaryngeal l. specifics: Doubt you have to know this.n.. and ear –> drains into occipital.n. Superficial cervical lymph nodes: lie along the ext jugular v in posterior triangle & along ant jugular v in anterior triangle drain into deep cervical nodes Deep cervical lymph nodes: 4 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . has ext carotid a behind and facial n in front of it drains masseter m. Here’s an “in general” flow pattern of the veins: Supraorbital v + Supratrochlear v = angular v at the corner of the eye angular v + deep facial v = facial v Maxillary v + Superficial temporal v = Retromandibular v ant branches of Retromandibular v + Facial v —> flows into IJV. ext nose.n. sup/inf labial v branch of it anatomose w/ superior ophthalmic v drains ant scalp. http://anatomytopics. upper/lower deep cervical l. superfical temporal v. is much straighter than than facial a receives pterygoid venous plexus (via deep facial v).n. paratracheal l. forehead.n.. the face. a branch of it passes through supraorbital notch to anatomose w/ superior ophthalmic v Together. also where major lymph ducts of the the body drain into EJV can flow into Subclavian v OR IJV OR angulus venosus itself (the intersection of the 2 veins) Other vein info. but rather give u extra info. w/ a bunch of other v post branches of Retromandibular v + Post Auricular v = EJV Ant Jugular —> flows into EJV Subclavian v collect veins that follow the arteries that branch off subclavian a Subclavian v + IJV = Brachiocephalic v —. central lower lip –> submental l. Arteries.. lips. parotid. upper deep cervical l. each have a set of superficial & deep lymph nodes and vessels. goes thru parotid gland.wordpress. lat face. drain ant part of scalp and forehead Facial v = runs from medial angle of eye and inf border of orbit. thyroid –> lower deep cervical. that run w/ IJV. The epithel. submental.. where it connects w/ branches from supratrochlear. chin. lat lower lip –> submandibular l. including eyelids –> parotid l.n. than not at all. ant cheek. pretracheal l. eyelids.. submandibular.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. Deep lymph nodes of Head: middle ear –> retropharyngeal & upper deep cervical l.n upper lip. larynx –> upper/lower deep cervical l.n. –> deep cervical l. ext ear Retromandibular v = formed by union of superficial temporal & maxillary v is post to ramus of mandible. starting from angular v.n. these 2 v. upper/lower deep cervical l. superficial aspect of temporalis m. submandibular gland Superficial temporal v = receives a number of v of scalp/zygomatic arch. All lymph from head and neck drains into deep cervical lymph nodes. pharynx –> retropharyngeal. chin.n. Supratrochlear v = begins as a collection of veins connected to the frontal branches of superficial temporal v Supraorbital v = begins also in the forehead.
nasal cavity. absorption Cell-Cell Junctions Occluding/Tight Jxns: impermeable and allow epithelia cells to functions as a barrier form primary intercellular diffusion barriers b/w adjacent cells located @ most apical part Proteins: occludins .maintain barrier b/w cells. and nerves open communication – quicker exchange of ions. polysaccharides rich layer Lateral side: intracellular junctions = tight. Remember that it is avascular . Arteries. trachea. regulatory molecules. by linking cytoskeleton of 1 cell to adjacent cell. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. axillary nodes Histology: The epithelial tissue. small metabolites easier to coordinate activity Proteins = connexons.glands and ducts. w/ claudins. not in all tight jxns claudins . & structure of surface cells Functional groups: Lining epith – formation of barrier on surface of body. interactions b/w endothelium & monocytes Anchoring Junctions: mechanical stability to epithelium. The epithel. ex/ skin. Basal side: attached to basement membrane = basement lamina + reticular fibers has hemidesmosomes protein. lateral adhesion Macula adherens (desmosomes) . form various organs. interact w/ both actin & intermediate filaments lateral cell surface. inner stomach Glandular epith – production/secretion of substances to extra cellular territory in high amt Sensory epith – for special sensations. olfactory Epithelium has what is called functional polarity = basically. near subclavian v receive lymph from ant jugular. cell-cell recognition. and angulus venosus on R Inferior lie on the IJV. this means that different sides of the cells have different functions. cardiac m. desmosomes Apical side: microvilli – inc surface absorption kinocilia – move substances across apical surface stereocilia – sensory function.. morphogenesis Zonula adherens – interact w/ network of actin filaments inside cell.1. Superior lie along int jugular v.. cell differentiation. in carotid triangle of neck receive: lymph from back of head and neck. transverse cervical. thryroid gland. smooth m. @ apical/lateral domains.. palate.interact w/ network of intermediate flaments Communication Junctions (Gap): direct communications b/w adjacent cells by diffusion of small molecules epithelia. in 6 subunits of 2 = connexin 5 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . adherent. form extracellular H2O channels for ions and small molecules JAM (Junctional adhesions molecule) – immunoglobulin. ex/ taste buds..wordpress.form backbone of each strand.no blood vessels! Epithelium can be classified in 3 ways: functionally.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. http://anatomytopics. Epithelium = sheets of cells that cover external surfaces of the body. tongue. # of cell layers. & esophagus efferent vessels that join those of the inf deep cervical nodes to from jugular trunk –> thoracic duct on L. larynx. pharynx. line internal cavities. basal domain signal transductions capability.
surrounded by 9 doublets of microtubles. Apical Modifications: Microvilli small. heart. lymph vessels. actin filaments. fascin. and minor/major calices – NOT IN URETHRA Cell Types: Umbrella cells – binucleated.. Arteries.1. LI – tend to have microvilli Stratified columnar – limited in body. or peritoneum... flat when full Piriform cells – in the middle Basal cells . fimbrin. uterus. http://anatomytopics.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. anal canal. non motile projections that cover all absorptive cells in SI and prox convoluted tubules in kidney proteins = villin.e. esophagus. digestive organ == i. vagina. right above BM Embryology: The development of blood vessels Blood vessels develop in two ways: vasculo genesis – vessels arise from the combination of blood islands aka angioblasts – mainly dorsal aorta. SI.flat cells Simple squamous called mesothelium on the outside surfaces of lungs. so appear stratified Classification by morphology squamous . all attached to basement membrane. called endothelium on the internal surface of arteries. there is mesothelium anatomically – Histo wise. very common in glands Stratified cuboidal – not as common.. and alpha -actinin in base Classification by layers Simple – one layer of cells only. ducts of salivary glands and pancreas Columnar – height > width Simple columnar – characteristic of digestive organs. non motile branched microvilli of sorts that cover cells in epididymis & vas deferens absprption! Proteins: actin filaments. attached directly to basement membrane Stratified – multiple layers of cells Pseudostratified – one layer of cells. erzin. w/ dynein. but not on external areas of body ex/ oral mucosa. all cells of epithelium alive – located in areas exposed to outside elements. ducts again Transitional Epithelium = Urothelium located in urinary system. & cardinal veins angiogenesis – vessels arise from existing vessels 6 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . where-ever there is pleura. Cuboidal – height = width Simple cuboidal – excretory ducts. pharynx. and internal surface of heart Stratified squamous – keratinized – top cells are dead & have no nuclei.wordpress. like in stomach and gallbladder. pericardium. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. are instead filled w/ keratin protein – located in external areas of body ex/ skin non-keratinized – live surfaces. repiratory system move substances across a surface dark line @ apical surface 2 microtubules in center. The epithel. like bladder and ureter. & nexin Sterocilia long. like prox convoluted tubules of kidney. myosin I in core. is dome shaped when urinary structures are empty. but have varying heights. and spectrin & myosin II in base sit on intermed filaments Kino cilia motile structures that are found in uterin tubes.single layer on bottom . this is called a serosa covering. fimbrin in core.
inf mesenteric a *NOTE = unpaired visceral arteries of abdominal aorta Umbilical a = part of Int Iliac. http://anatomytopics. and part of aortic arch on L Arch V = disappears Arch VI = part of R &L pulmonary a. The epithel. Development of arteries Aortic sac develops from distal part of truncus arteriosus sac gives a set of aortic arches. and ventral a Posterolateral a = a to upper and lower limb. Arteries. one to each pharyngeal arch arches terminate in two (R&L) dorsal aortas aorticopulmonary septum divides outflow part of truncus arterious into ventral aorta & pulmonary trunk dorsal aorta b/w 3rd and 4th arch disappears (carotid duct) R dorsal aorta disappears b/w 7th segmental aorta and L dorsal aorta heart is pushed into thoracic cavity by folding of embryo because of the heart movement – this is why recurrent laryngeal a is in diff location in R & L side Aortic Arches: Arch I = part of maxillary a. R common iliac v Subcardinal v = drain kidneys –> renal v. umbilical v. and ductus venosus. lateral a. L brachiocephalic v Post = drain rest of embryo initially –> part of IVC.wordpress. gonadal v Sacrocardinal = drain lower limb –> sacrocardinal part of IVC. part of IVC.. inf mesenteric v. superior vescical arteries. and cardinal v —> empty blood into sinus venosus vitelline v = carry blood from yolk sac become hepatocardiac part of IVC. hepatic v &sinusoids. is ligamentum arteriosum in non fetal life Dorsal Aorta R & L dorsal aortae combines into dorsal aorta. = PELVIS Coronary a – from 2 sources angioblasts formed elsewhere and sent over the heart surface from epicardium – some of its epithelial cells will become mesenchymal cells due to some reaction from underlying mesenchyme new mesenchyme and neural crest cells create smooth m cells in these arteries endothelial cells from these arteries push into aorta Development of Veins develop mainly from three pairs of veins = vitelline v. ductus arteriosus – connection b/w pul a & arch of aorta. and gonadal arteries *NOTE = paired visceral arteries of abdominal aorta Ventral a Vitelline a = celiac. from dorsal aorta. sup mesenteric v. IC v. ductus venosus. run in medial umbilical ligaments. by day 27 Arch II = part of stapedial a & hyoid a Arch III = part of R &L common carotid a. some connect to sinusoids only L umbilical v remains to carry blood from placenta to liver — becomes ligamentum teres of liver. cardinal v = drains embryo itself Ant =drain cephalic part of embryo intially–> SVC. pushing into liver to form sinusoids the duodenal plexus becomes the portal v umbilical v = from chorionic villi and carries O2 blood to embryo pass on each side of liver.. suprarenal. to become ligamentum venosum in life. int jugular v.. lumbar and lateral sacral arteries Lateral a = renal. splenic v form plexus around duodenum and pass thru septum transversum.1.. azygos 7 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . IC. R&L int carotid a Arch IV = part of R subclavian a. portal v. originates posterolateral a. L common iliac v Supracardinal v = drain body wall via IC v (takes over fxn of post cardinal v) –>part of IVC. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. superior mesenteric.
The development of the neurocranium.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. 2009 at 1:17 AM just a little correction. development of veins. macula adherens. http://anatomytopics. system Anim = Development of Aorta. dorsal aorta. mesothelium. Arteries. columnar eptihelium. 2010 at 10:49 AM May God bless you for superb hardwork done. on May 10. 1..wordpress.good job guys Reply 2. nonkeratinized..It will help many. dr. veins of head and neck.Good luck Reply Leave a Reply Name (required) E-mail (will not be published) (required) Website 8 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM .apart from that. microvilli. epithelium. Dr. zonula occludens 3 comments 2. Reply 3. The somatosensory and somatomotor innervation of the head and neck. Abigail said.omprakash said. external carotid. cuboidal epithelium. on January 10. lymph drainage of head and neck. this is the best anatomy summary anywhere……. subclavian a. carotid sinus. kinocilia. The cells of the connective tissue. endothelium. pyragov's triangle.1. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. gap junctions.. 2009 at 4:14 PM simply superb and really educative and very much important not to forget this tips . Pulmonary Trunk. development of arteries. squamous. sterocilia. thanks for giving us this. on February 2. pseudostratified epithelium. the stomach is the foregut and is supplie by the ciliac artery and not the superior mesenteric. and Interventricular Septum Anim = Aortic Arch Vessels Possibly related posts: (automatically generated) First-Ever Recording of Blood Vessel Development During the Formation of an… Tagged with: carotid body. urothelium. Aman Biswas said. The epithel. superior mesenteric is for the mid gut…….. keratinized v. » 3 Responses Subscribe to comments with RSS..
) We are adding more info by the day. links. isn’t it? We’ve added pictures. Thorax. and GOOD LUCK! (P. and we will fix or add it. We combined Practical class notes. On the left are the newest topics we’ve added. scroll down and click on the Category you would like to see: Head & eck. Embryology class in 2nd yr. We believe it to be all inclusive of the material you will need for your test. All theoretical topics are listed as described on the website of the Anatomy department. we decided to post them here.parsa[at]gmail. The epithel.. DiFiore’s. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. Notify me of new posts via email.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. or want to add info. so check back in with us! Created by Sahaja Parsa and Anne H. Histology. If you find mistakes. Moore. Abdomen. Hope this helps you. contact: sahaja. There! That’s easier. Board Review Series textbooks of Gross Anatomy and Embryology. else we’re working on it. Langman’s. To see all the topics we’ve done so far. Arteries. Notify me of follow-up comments via email.. or find something we missed. and emailing them seemed next to impossible. so you can search for the item you want. http://anatomytopics. About This Site: This site was made for the Anatomy. But the best way to find the topic that you want? Scroll down and click on the “Link to Topics” Page. as well as the Lab manual for Histology at Semmelweiss. please comment below the post in question.. & Pelvis. we’ve started/finished it. and animations where we have found them. but since people asked for them. If a link to your topic of choice exists. We made them for ourselves.1..com 9 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM .wordpress. Added a search box in the sidebar.s. 1st semester at the University of Debrecen. There is the list of all topics.
.. December 2008 S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Jan » 10 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck.. http://anatomytopics..com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly.wordpress.1. Arteries. The epithel.
org 11 of 12 1/31/2010 9:57 AM . Helpful Links Blue Histology Embryo Animations part II Embryology Animations Histology Video Lectures Histology World Medical Histo Atlas Shotgun Histology Videos Blogroll WordPress. Gastrulation. The formation of the placenta.Autonomic innervation of the abdominal and pelvic organs. urinary vesicle and urethra.com WordPress. early differentiation of the intraembryonic mesoderm 38. histology and development of the penis.1. histology and development of the ureter. The cartilage tissue. http://anatomytopics.. veins and lymphatic drainage of the head and neck. The epithel. The anatomy. The blood vessels and nerves of the pelvis.. S M T W T F S Jan » EW!!!! Flash Cards for Practical Exam anatomy cards Pages About / Contact Flash Cards For Practical Exam Links to Topics Categories Abdomen Head & Neck Pelvis Thorax Recent Posts 40. Fetal membranes. The bone tissue. 36. Amniotic fluid. The structure of the matured placenta. The perineum. The anatomy.. Fetal circulation.wordpress. 37. 39. Umbilical cord. Bones. Arteries.com/2008/12/01/1-arteries-veins-and-ly. muscles and ligaments of the pelvis..