THE WRIGHT CENTER FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION
Innovative Curriculum Series,
Edited by Cathleen Banister-Marx
The Camera Obscura & Pinhole Photography
Jim Kosinski Wright Center for Science Education, Tufts University
Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium
Fondation H. Dudley Wright
Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Foundation for the Future
Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (617) 627-5394 • FAX (617)627-3995 • email@example.com http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center
The Camera Obscura and Pinhole Photography A Hands-on Process Approach
Jim Kosinski Wright Center for Innovative Science Education Tufts University Medford, MA
Table of Contents
Introduction......................................................................................1 A Brief History of the Natural Camera ....................................2 Constructing the Camera Obscura............................................5 Observing the Basic Image in the Camera Obscura............8 Additional developmental Activities.................................... 11 Student Assessment..................................................................... 17 Meeting National Science Education Standards.............. 18 The Pinhole Camera...................................................................... 19 Constructing a Film Can Camera........................................22 The Black & White Darkroom Process............................... 25 Demonstrating the Darkroom Process.............................28 Contact Printing.......................................................................34 Disposal of the Chemicals.................................................... 36 Materials.......................................................................................... 37 References....................................................................................... 38
In the teaching of arts and science, the creation of a room–sized giant camera and the use of pinhole cameras generates a high degree of enthusiasm for learning in students of all ages. The images formed by the camera obscura are fascinating. No special technology is required and the entire event can succeed on even the smallest budget. Knowledge and appreciation of light and image formation are gained directly in a hands–on, interactive environment. This project will work well in elementary, middle and high schools. The activities included here are developmental and designed for success. A giant camera can be demonstrated in one or two class periods using only recycled materials and tape, or the project can last a week or longer by adding a pinhole camera and darkroom component. With small cameras made from recycled film canisters and pie tins and the use of small sizes of photographic materials, the darkroom component is very manageable and can be amazingly low in cost. Black and white processing can even take place without a darkroom if you have a film developing tank and a photographer’s changing bag to load the camera and to transfer the paper into the tank for developing. Since it’s completely dark inside the changing bag, you can manage the whole creative process in any location, either outdoors or in room light. The term camera obscura (Latin) means “dark chamber”. Centuries ago it was found that a small aperture would naturally form an image inside a dark space such as a cave, nomadic tent or room. Artists would bring their materials into such a room to draw the surrounding scene in great detail and people would entertain themselves by watching the images move in real time (the first movies).
Entertainment & education in a Victorian camera obscura http://www.brightbytes.com/cosite/cohome.htm
The camera obscura evolved into a portable tentlike device. This trend continued and cameras became smaller and more boxlike. Apertures shrank along with camera size in order to maintain sharp focus, finally reaching the diameter of a pin. This served as the prototype for the first cameras that used chemical means of recording images. Lenses were added to brighten and sharpen the image, but pinhole cameras have always been part of photography. In our time, there is a widespread renewal of interest in photography without lenses.
A Brief History of the Natural Camera
The camera obscura is thought to be one of the first three optical devices used by man. The second is the shadow. The third is described with an ancient joke that goes like this: “Hey, I’ve invented a device that can see through walls!” “Really, what do you call it?” “A window!” It has been known for centuries that in nature a small hole can form an image. This method of natural image formation predates the use of lenses. Early recording of the image was done by hand. At first, an artist or astronomer would create a dark room with a small aperture that would cause an image to be formed inside the room. The image formed could be quite large and could easily cover more than one wall. In fact, the image existed throughout the room but was only visible when light was intercepted by a solid object, such as a wall, paper or canvas. Translucent materials like onionskin also showed the image quite well. At first the image baffled the artist-scientist. It was upside down and backwards compared to the way the eye saw the scene outside. It was then discovered that a straight line could be made from any point on the image, through the aperture to the corresponding point in the subject. It held true for every point. These observations consolidated our understanding that light forms rays that travel in straight lines.
Camera obscura showing light rays traveling in straight lines, Reinerus Gemma-Frisius, 1544 http://www.cinemedia.net/SFCV-RMIT-Annex/rnaughton/CAMERA_OBSCURA.html
The artist could intercept the image anywhere inside the room. If it was captured close to the aperture, the image had a wide angle of view. If an image farther back from the aperture was chosen, the angle of view was decreased. From these early exercises the theory of perspective drawing was developed and applied.
1646 http://www.net/SFCV-RMIT-Annex/rnaughton/CAMERA_OBSCURA.net/SFCV-RMIT-Annex/rnaughton/CAMERA_OBSCURA. which was achieved when the screen was placed perpendicular to the axis of the aperture.html 3
. It was built as a portable tent or room. which could focus light using a relatively large aperture and form a brighter image. further shrunk to the size of furniture and finally made small enough to be carried by hand and placed on a tripod or solid object. However.html
Most early practitioners were concerned with images showing normal perspective. The portable camera obscura with a lens is the first prototype of today’s view cameras. images that looked distorted from one point of view might look quite normal from another. some experimenters placed the recording media at different angles resulting in distorted perspective. was introduced. Athanasius Kircher. This gave rise to the art of trompe l’oeil. French for “fooling the eye”. The camera obscura underwent the process of miniaturization. Interestingly enough.An artist working in a portable camera obscura. As camera size decreased.
An artist drawing on a desk-sized camera obscura in the 18th century. This problem was overcome when the lens. it became difficult to see the image.cinemedia. it was necessary to reduce the diameter of the aperture in order to maintain sharp images. As apertures became very small.cinemedia. http://www.
edu. The pinhole camera became an important tool in education and the arts and also evolved as a useful tool in science. takes a ray of light from a point in the subject and bends it so that it is completely refocused at a single point behind the lens. This sharply focused range is called depth of field. on the other hand. producing very sharp details. images formed by lenses have areas of sharpness and areas that are not focused sharply. The materials were placed in devices with and without lenses in order to make photographs. The rays are small and once passed the aperture continue to widen inside the dark chamber. The heritage of the camera obscura along with pinhole cameras made by amateurs. whether near or far. is focused exactly the same way by the aperture. the camera obscura and pinhole camera are said to have “infinite depth of field”. Apertures of this size have been made by countless amateurs using pins. It can only focus a range in the middle ground of the subject. The lens. Every point in the subject. professionals and camera manufacturers continues to be rich and active and is undergoing something of a renaissance at the present time.newcastle. early 1800s.
Box camera obscura. 1820). Since objects from the camera to infinity are in sharp focus. with the introduction of chemically based photographic emulsions (c. However. The images are also upside down and backwards unless optically corrected by prism devices. Finally. it became possible to capture a permanent image in a short time and reproduce the image easily.htm
. A round hole does not focus light but allows rays of light to pass through.au/department/fad/fi/woodrow/anal-2. Thus. prototype of the view camera still in use today http://www. the ability of a lens to accomplish this task does not extend to all objects in front of the camera. which shifts as the lens is focused on subjects nearby or far away. astronomy and space exploration.The round hole and the lens produce two very different kinds of images. Lensless cameras were small with apertures close to the size of a pin’s diameter and became known as “pinhole cameras”.
. the room-sized camera can also be used as a photographic darkroom for further study. etc. flags. Also. The view outside the camera obscura should be bright and a room with an outdoor window works best. rivers. it is a big advantage if the sun shines on the window.Constructing the Camera Obscura
Choose An Appropriate Room:
(You can do this at home!)
Interesting environments make interesting images. Black tape can be used to cover any small holes where light comes through. The outside should be accessible so that students can go out and get into the picture themselves.
This bathroom is good for a camera obscura because it has a small window and the walls are white.
Here is the scene outside the way a digital camera sees it:
Cover the Windows: The room must be dark inside in order to see the image clearly. If you like. Small sections can be taped together. A higher interest level will be gained if there are objects moving in the view. such as vehicles. Many different materials can be used to cover windows.
Cut a 2-inch square pilot hole in the window covering.
The window is covered. a handmade cardboard structure. such as black paper. The picture on the wall is blurry because the pilot hole is large. They can be cut with a scissors. structure and architecture themes. rectangles. A large cardboard box. all sources of white light must be eliminated. Metal apertures need to be sanded for safety to remove any burrs and sharp projections. a van or school bus along with many other options are at your creative fingertips. aluminum baking pans or soda cans. Apertures: Different apertures are used to show different properties of image formation. This will integrate the project with design. etc. Basic apertures are round and the size of the apertures should vary. stars. ellipses.
Even the pilot hole will form a simple image inside the room.Materials: Here are a few materials that are inexpensive and easy to find: Black plastic Recycled cardboard Photo-backdrop paper Heavy duty aluminum foil on wide rolls Black cloth Wood panels In some situations you might have to put on two layers to achieve sufficient darkness in the room. These include a quarter or dime. just about in the middle of the wall. The shape of the apertures can also vary. A pilot hole is cut out near the center of the cardboard. More than one pilot hole can be placed in the window to allow for more than one group of students to be active or to study the optical effects of more than one opening. If you want to use the room as a photography darkroom. Try squares. Simple materials should be used to make apertures. Common objects can be used for reference. slits.
It is not actually necessary to use a room for this project. Apertures with more than one opening can also be created. An assortment of washers can be used to make small apertures. X-acto knife or can be drilled. cardboard. depending on the capabilities of the students and teachers. These apertures need an opening to be set into. Washers and other readymade objects will provide smaller apertures without the need for tools. triangles.
The aperture on the left was made by tracing the shape of a coin with an X-acto knife. the apertures can be taped onto a sturdy cardboard mount that is about 4-inch square with the center removed to allow light to pass through the aperture. It can be any size. Viewing Screen: Viewing screens can be made from reflective or translucent materials like white paper. Screen material can be taped onto a frame cut out of cardboard. The one on the right was made with a hole punch.
. They should be easy to work with and the pilot hole must be covered so that light only comes in through the aperture itself. tracing paper or drafting film. foam core or any other rigid material at hand. To accomplish this. but a two-foot square is adequate for most demonstrations. A translucent screen is easier to use in demonstrations because the image can be viewed from both sides.
Apertures are placed over the pilot hole in the window.
Where is the image? Without a screen. the image is located on all the surfaces that the light encounters.Observing the Basic Image in a Camera Obscura
Once you have placed an aperture in the window and can see the image. How is the image oriented? The entire image is upside down and backwards. the following questions can be used to help students understand what is physically happening in the camera. Light rays from objects in the scene travel in straight lines through the aperture to form the image. At first the image will be hard to see.
How bright is the image? It may take several minutes for your eyes to adjust to the light level in the camera.
The aperture used to project the image on the left has a larger diameter than the one used to create the image on the right.
. What about colors? On a white wall the colors are accurate but they will pick up the tint of other colors on the wall or screen. After the eyes adjust. This happens at the speed of light! Students enjoy watching each other. Start with an aperture about the size of a dime for rooms about ten feet deep. Larger apertures can be used for bigger rooms. Sharpness changes with aperture size. A hand-held viewing screen will show that the image can be formed throughout the room. How sharp is the image? Discuss the relative sharpness of the scene. it will be much easier to see the details. Is there any motion in the picture? Objects moving outside will move in real time inside the giant camera. Brightness changes with aperture size. Image sharpness increases as aperture diameter decreases.
How is the image oriented?
3. How bright is the image?
5. Where is the image?
2. Is there any motion in the picture?
6. How sharp is the image?
4. What about colors?
Observing the Basic Image in a Camera Obscura
such as a magnifying glass. Smaller apertures focus closer to the window. The distance at which far away objects are focused by a lens is called the focal length of the lens. • Encourage students to try a simple experiment of their own choice. • Change the distance from the screen to the aperture to show that angle of view increases as you approach the aperture. Different sized apertures will focus an image at different distances. seeming to defy gravity. • Put snow or water on the outside of the window and watch the movement in the camera. Try to find a place where the image does not form. • Pass the viewing screen around the room to show that the image forms almost everywhere. • Send a group of people outside to move around. over the aperture to see how a lens makes a sharper and brighter image. You’ll have to move the screen back and forth to find the correct focusing distance from the pinhole. They are easily accomplished in one class period.Activities for the Camera Obscura: When the basic image is realized these follow-up activities can be helpful. When these slide down the window over the aperture. • Place a simple lens. • Insert apertures of different sizes to show that image sharpness increases with smaller apertures and brightness increases with larger apertures.
. they will be seen as “sliding up the wall” on the image. Continue until everyone has had a chance to participate.
Take the drawing outside and compare it to the scene. Make apertures with more than one hole. Here are some ideas:
• Place the viewing screen at different angles to the axis of the aperture for ‘special effects’. • Invite a photographer into your classroom. • Make a curved or bent viewing screen. Your own ideas:
.Additional Developmental Activities
Basic Activities: • Make apertures with different shapes. Objects outside that are close to the window will be magnified in the camera. • Draw the projected image on a large piece of paper (a good group activity).
You can cover the objects with white paper to see the image clearly. • Search the web for camera obscura installations.html
Here’s a playful one in San Francisco. • Your own ideas:
This Victorian era camera obscura in New York’s Central Park was photographed with a stereo camera so it could be seen with a 3D effect. ice cream cone. Color mixing can be studied. • Take some photographs with a lens camera of the image inside the camera obscura.com/cosite/collection. such as a baseball. • Will a tube form an image? Hold a bundle of straws together with a rubber band and place it over the opening in the window.cinemedia. For example.html • Take a class trip to an existing camera obscura installation. http://www. gels or filters over the aperture to change the color of the image. • Draw portraits of people sitting outside the window. http://brightbytes. How does a mirror change the orientation of the image? • Measure the angle of incidence of the sun (the angle between the ray and the floor). • Place colored cellophane. constructed a century later.net/SFCV-RMITAnnex/rnaughton/CAMERA_OBSCURA. glass of milk or other objects. • Use a mirror to redirect the image.Intermediate Activities • Explore what kind of images form on the surface of different objects. blue + yellow = green.
• Explore the optical properties of different lenses. • Start a project to design and build a camera obscura in your community. people walking. • Design a system for determining the speed of objects outside the camera obscura using the image that is projected on the inside. This technique can be used to make a solar clock. Cardboard and duct tape are the easiest materials to use. If this is extended over a period of time. Encourage students to try their own ideas. • Your own ideas:
. Include image formation. you will have a “sun track” for that day. ants. • Design and build a cardboard camera–obscura room that can be carried from place to place. you will be able to chart the path of the sun over the course of a season or year.Advanced Activities • Mark the location of the sun at different times of day. focal length. What do you think will happen? This activity turns space into a camera obscura and is a good analogy for microcosm and macrocosm. When the marks are connected. • Start a photography club. bikes. • Try this at night if you are in a dark neighborhood. dogs. combinations of lenses. cats. Bring the viewing screen outside and hold it near the aperture. etc. • Make a camera obscura at home. Turn on the lights inside the camera obscura. Try cars. etc.
Draw this scenic landscape as it would appear inside a camera obscura.
Draw this cup of coffee as it would appear in a camera obscura.
Draw this scenic landscape as it would appear inside a camera obscura.
Draw this cup of coffee as it would appear in a camera obscura.
Start very close to the window.
Distance from Aperture (centimeters or meters) Angle of View (Degree)
Angle of View
Measure the angle of view at different distances behind the aperture. Graph your results.
For a series of round apertures of different sizes.
Aperature Diameter (centimeters or millimeters)
Distance to Plane of Sharoest Image (centimeters or milimeters)
. Graph your results. measure the distance from the aperture to the plane where the sharpest image forms.
Concept Image Formation Basic Level A small aperture naturally forms an image in a camera obscura.
A smaller hole makes a sharper image.
The images formed at right angles to the axis of the aperture have normal.
The distance at which a sharp image is formed is a function of the aperture diameter. Beyond the Basics The image forms throughout the chamber and must encounter a reflective surface to be seen.
Images Formed by a Lens
A lens forms a sharper image The image formed by a lens than a simple aperture.
Images are formed upside down and backwards because light rays travel in straight lines.
Angle of View
An image closer to the Angle of view is a function of aperture has a wider angle of the distance from the view.
Perspective can be distorted by changing the angle of the viewing screen or other surface the images fall on.
You can see things moving in the camera obscura. onepoint perspective.
Image colors can be modified with filters.
Images can be reoriented with mirrors and prisms. is restricted to a very small volume of the room.
Motion is projected in real time at the speed of light. aperture to the image.
The image colors are the same as the subject if you use a white surface for viewing.
Hine.Meeting National Science Education Standards
The combination of a camera obscura and making black and white photographs with pinhole cameras is an ideal way to present a project that meets all of the educational standards in a manner that is easy to implement and is designed for success in elementary. total darkness – full spectrum Chemistry: chemical reactions. silver Extended to other fields (art.? • I can record the world around me
• • • • • • • •
Acids & bases Process control Time. history. light. recording growth in the womb (Nilsson)
Earth & Space Science
• Study of the Earth’s path. solutions. Topics are easily integrated. Here is a brief list of topics for each standard of science content. Farm Securities Administration) • Photography as holistic education • Self discovery & communication • A very interesting time line can be constructed using the resources cited
History and Nature of Science
. middle-school and high-school programs. Individual teachers can add to this list according to the uniqueness of their educational environment. fraction of a second . what if I…. Unifying Concepts • • • • Biology: vision and model of the eye Physics: optics. journalism)
• Hands on learning of how things work • Opportunity for personal inquiry. sunspots • Viewing an eclipse with a camera obscura • Use of pinhole cameras on space mission
Science & Technology
• Creating tools based on natural phenomenon • Integrating diverse physical systems • Study of high energy particles with pinhole cameras
Personal & Social Perspectives
• Photography is used to help resolve social issues (see work of Lewis W.year Recovery of silver from used fixer Image formation by living creatures Pupil dilation related to apertures Chemical recording of images in the brain Medicine. Margaret Bourke-White.
if not years.The Pinhole Camera
A pinhole camera is a logical projection of the camera obscura. diffraction and interference effects will cause the image to become unsharp. Shorter distances require smaller diameters in order to maintain sharp details. as long as it’s dark inside! A tiny hole is needed for this type of photography. These observations lead us to the idea that there is an optimum pinhole diameter for each camera length when it comes to image sharpness. The image will also be out of focus if the aperture is too large. Pinholes have been made with gold. The most common metals used are brass and aluminum. The important thing is to make sure it is the best pinhole for your application. A few minutes of care in drilling. of enjoyable photography. The focal length is the distance from the pinhole to the paper or film. There are a range of materials available for making pinholes. it should be thin. If the hole gets too small. The pinhole is an important part of the camera because it forms the image. silver or lead worked into a thin sheet. slices and other configurations will form images unique to their shapes and are worth experimenting with. It only takes a little extra time and attention to turn an okay pinhole into a really good one. For sharp pictures there is a direct relationship between the pinhole diameter and the distance from the pinhole to the emulsion. If paper is used. Aluminum baking pans or soda cans are widely used (foil is too flimsy). The two main variables that affect image formation are the diameter of the pinhole and the focal length. so be careful. the round pinhole is the true workhorse of this genre. opaque and sturdy enough to withstand the penetration of a pin. Making pinhole cameras from recycled materials is a rich tradition in photography and in classrooms around the world. It can be anything from a hole quickly made in a piece of paper with a common pin to one that was calculated by a mathematical formula and tooled with high-tech instruments. It is best to take time in making the pinhole in order to get the best results. Silver can be placed in selenium toner for a few minutes for a protective coating. Here are a couple of handy ones:
. They can help in getting started. Both paper and metal pinholes can be darkened with permanent marker to absorb stray light. Thin brass and aluminum stock can be purchased at hobby shops. It does not have to be round to actually form an image. and you can try out different sizes to suit your whimsy. The numbers in the formulas are oriented to very specific units. A photographer uses these concepts creatively! Very Precise Pinholes (optional) There are so many published formulas to calculate the optimum pinhole diameter that it may lead you to believe it does not exist! The reason for so many formulas is that they were derived to fit the specific conditions of light and geometry used in the numerous experiments of each practitioner. If the material is thick. These are not errors. again forming a more softly focused image. the light acts as if it is passing through a cylinder instead of a plane. The camera body can be made from anything. The hole should be as round as possible and free of debris. Slits. However. sanding and checking the hole will result in many hours. The most common are paper and metal. they are attributes.
A = the square root of [55 times F] A = 7. 1971. A = 7.3 inch divided by 13 = 0.23 inch. The needle diameter is 0. you can easily measure the diameter at any point on the needle using this method. p9-29) Let’s see what happens if we want to design a ten-inch camera using these two formulas (the square root of 10 = 3. Your precision will increase as more needles are added. They are not of uniform diameter from tip to eye! The very tip has one angle of taper while the rest of the needle is tapered at another angle altogether. in his studies of light. p118) and D = the square root of [0.0084 x 3. 1995. With a good ruler.162 = 0.
. Where does the diameter listed in the chart apply? Suppose you have needles and don’t know their size? A simple technique can be used to measure diameter quite accurately. These needles were placed on a magnet. the father of classical physics. It was used by Isaac Newton.5 thousandths = 0.0266 inches These figures differ by about 11%. The most accurate arrangement is when every other needle faces in the opposite direction and they are taped together to keep from moving.0235 inches D = 0. It took 13 needles to precisely measure 3/10 of an inch on this architect’s ruler. In practice.0084 times the square root of V where D = the aperture diameter in inches and V = the focal length of the camera in inches (Photo Lab Index.162).416 x 3. this difference is nothing to worry about when you make pinholes with a sewing needle! Measuring Pinhole Diameters Close inspection of a needle reveals quite an interesting fact.162 = 23.00007 times V] D = 0. Simply line up a number of needles until they equal a measuring unit and then divide the total length [span] by the number of needles. You can enlarge this demonstration on an overhead projector if you use a transparent ruler and clear tape.416 times the square root of F
where A = the aperture diameter in thousandths of an inch and F = the focal length of the camera in inches (Renner.
Sand it down. the needle often pushes through on the first try. Use a fine grit sand paper to remove the dimple. In practice. especially with younger folks. Not to worry! It will still form a pleasing image. You can put the pinhole in an enlarger or a slide projector to check it. Alternatively. For thinner metals. makes an excellent magnifier when you look through the front. The needle can be pushed into a pencil eraser or a small piece of wood or it can be placed in an Xacto knife holder. Be extra careful of sharp edges when you bring that piece of metal close to your eye to check it! If there is any debris in the hole. The best pinholes are made a little at a time. Then place the needle on the same point and repeat the motion. This can be seen when you check the pinhole closely with a magnifier. it can be removed using the point of the needle and sand paper. Another problem shows up when the needle misses the first hole and makes another one right next to it. A camera lens. Sand both sides for smoothness and also to reduce the metal’s thickness. Start by pushing and turning the needle until it just pokes through the pinhole plate if using soft materials (or a small dimple is formed on the back side if using hard materials). Since needles are very hard to handle it is best to make a simple tool to accomplish the task. 240 grit) while final sanding should be done with very fine material (400 or 600 grit). An overhead projector works. you can push the needle with one hand while rotating the metal with the other hand. Some people just wrap masking tape around the eye end. detached from the body. use very fine grit only.Creating Pinholes In forming the pinhole a combination of pressure and rotation is used to make the hole. too. making it easier to hold. reading glasses or loupe. Keep repeating the process until your hole is formed and the needle is far enough through the hole to create the diameter you need. initial sanding can be done with a medium-fine material (e. For thicker metals.
For these small cameras. Students can each make more than one camera for flexibility and experimentation. The one on the left is for the shutter and was cut to make a revolving slit: Remove the bottom completely and then cut a vertical slit about 1/8-inch wide all the way from the top to the bottom. These cameras can be made quickly with no special tools. alternating sanding and drilling.
. etc. Photo shops like to give them away for recycling. keeping the pinhole diameter to a minimum. the needle should penetrate just a little. You can work outdoors with exposures less than fiveseconds if it’s a bright day. (3/4" square) Sand paper (Very fine-240 or 400 grit) Needle (size 9 or 10) inserted into a pencil eraser Mat or thick piece of paper to work on so your table won’t get scratched
Procedure: To drill the hole: rotate and push the needle into the pinhole plate until it goes through the metal. Due to its short focal length the exposures are relatively fast. Materials: • • • • • • Scissors or other cutting device and black vinyl tape Small rectangle of metal (the pinhole plate) cut from a soda can. The film canisters can be cut with scissors. A pointer of some sort placed on the cap helps to locate the pinhole when you are ready to take a picture. There are some advantages to this camera size. Make sure the cap fits tightly. Aluminum baking pan. Open the hole a little at a time. a pinhole and some black vinyl tape are all you need to make this whimsical camera.Constructing a Film Can Camera
Two black plastic film canisters. Use the second canister to make the camera body. Punch a small hole (use a one-hole punch) near the center of the canister. This acts as a window for the pinhole plate. Sand the metal until it is smooth. Film cans are readily available.
To start an exposure the shutter is rotated to allow light into the camera through the pinhole. etc. it has sharp edges. Black vinyl tape is placed all around the pinhole plate before it is placed into the camera body. If the pinhole is not clean you can gently work the tip of the pin to remove any debris.Hold the pinhole up to a light and check it for roundness and clarity. You can use your eye.
. a magnifier. A satin or matte surface paper is recommended to reduce glare inside the camera. a pair of reading glasses.
The pinhole shows through the round window that was made with the hole punch.
The camera can now be loaded with photographic film or paper in your darkroom. Clear the pinhole by blowing air through it.
Cover the pinhole with the rotating shutter.
The pinhole plate is surrounded by black vinyl tape and placed in the camera. The tape must keep all light from coming into the camera around the edges of the pinhole plate. Be very careful if you bring that piece of metal close to your eye. At the end of the exposure time the shutter is rotated to cover the pinhole up again. Set the pinhole in the center of the punched hole and press the tape down inside the camera to make a good seal all around the plate. Sometimes you have to sand the back and front to get a completely clean pinhole. During an exposure the camera is pointed at a subject.
When a photographic emulsion is exposed to light. It is necessary to remove all remaining silver salts if the image is to be permanent. They are applied in emulsions on film or paper. This is done by placing the emulsions of the negative and the new sheet of material in direct contact and passing light through the back of the negative in order to expose the positive. dissolves all of the unused silver salts and leaves only metallic silver. is directly proportional to the intensity of the light reaching the emulsion. They are removed by placing the material in a third bath called the fixer. the negative tones from the original image needed to be inverted. Lighter tones in the image are created where less light from the subject reached the emulsion. or it can be water. although still invisible. Passing light through the negative will invert the tones in the negative’s emulsion to positive values similar to those seen in the original subject. they must be carefully handled in the proper light environment to preserve their usefulness. In conventional black and white photography a continuous gradation of gray tones from white to black can be formed on an image.THE BLACK and WHITE DARKROOM PROCESS Background Conventional photographic emulsions contain silver salts of the halide family (Cl. the positive image can be formed without a lens using a method known as contact printing. What looks bright in the subject will look dark in the image and vice-versa. The amount of silver formed by the reaction is also directly proportional to the amount of light that reached the emulsion at every point. Br. When development reaches the desired level.) In black and white photography the image is brought into view by placing the exposed material in a developer solution. the image is permanent. which forms on either film or paper. the material is placed in a second solution to stop the reaction. I) that are sensitive to light. The fixer. there are two forms of silver in the emulsion—some of the original silver salts that did not participate in image formation and silver metal that formed the image. which is in the red to amber range. which is alkaline. Darker tones in the image are areas of dense silver build-up and are created where an abundance of light from the subject’s bright zones reached the emulsion. The developer reaction converts exposed silver salts into elemental silver. If the silver salts are left they will become exposed to light and turn dark on their own. is called a latent image and can last a very long time (I have developed film that was exposed forty years previously and obtained excellent results. which dilutes the developer enough to halt chemical activity. a disturbance takes place in the molecules of the silver salts. At this point. all films are handled and processed in complete darkness and black and white papers are handled and processed in darkroom safelight. also acidic. which neutralizes the developer. Generally speaking. The image becomes visible during development. The resulting effect. There are exceptions for both films and papers. If the positive is to be the same size as the negative. Since the materials are light sensitive. The tones on the first image are an inversion of the tones perceived in the physical subject. from point to point. A new piece of photographic material is positioned to capture these positive values and then developed to create a positive image. Since most people preferred to see tones as they are perceived in the subject.
. The second solution is called a stop bath and can either be properly acidic. After washing the fixer out of the emulsion. This is called a negative. This disturbance.
• If breathing is difficult. • For eye contact. If you have any form of contact dermatitis. dizziness.
. a positive image can be made by taking a picture of the negative using film for prints or photographic paper. as a small amount of ammonia may form. metol. They can be adapted from items easy to find in local stores or they can be made from recycled materials. open the door frequently to let fresh air in. through the skin and in the eyes. is known to cause an allergic skin reaction. The negative must be positioned above the new sheet of material and focused onto the material by an appropriate lens before the new sheet of material is exposed. Interestingly. There are four ways chemicals can interact with you. but this is not common. Safety in the Darkroom Before you begin. but a stand-alone fan inside a small space does not. This project is designed to use small amounts of chemistry and a water stop bath for maximum safety. In practice. One ingredient in many photo developers. using photo chemicals might be a problem. Induce vomiting and seek medical attention if this occurs. An exhaust fan helps a lot. A good ventilation arrangement is to have clean air coming in at the bottom of the space and exhaust air flowing out at the top. go out of the darkroom into the fresh air.If the positive is to be a different size from the negative. rinse with cool water (not cold!) for 15 minutes. a method of measuring temperature and a device for keeping track of time. rubber or plastic gloves and an apron are the maximum personal protection recommended industrywide when working with black and white chemistry. Good air quality is important. containers for developing prints. vomiting or headache. take a few minutes to become familiar with safety procedures in the darkroom. the new image must be formed by projection. • Rinse with plenty of water for skin contact. Proper disposal of the small amounts of chemicals in the kit will not harm the environment. mixing and storing chemical solutions. which could prove to be unpleasant. the Black and White process is not dangerous. Many products found in a supermarket pose more of a health hazard! Safety glasses. swallowing. Fortunately. Darkroom Preparations The items you will need for a functioning darkroom can be purchased from a photo or science supplier for convenience. so if your space is small. • If chemicals are swallowed you may experience nausea. breathing. This includes containers for measuring. Photographic concentrates should be washed off skin right away with plenty of water. However. do not mix developer and fixer directly. This does not hold true with slide film or digital cameras. I have not encountered one medical problem in over 20 years of teaching photography to students from kindergarten to adulthood.
PET (sometimes marked PETE) and PP. Recently. Glass is fine but not recommended as it breaks easily. For Ilford’s “Bromophen” mix one part stock with three parts water. Solutions can be refrigerated to extend their shelf life. Plastics are the best materials for photographic solutions. Temperatures above the range may damage papers by softening the emulsion. LDPE. those making direct contact with the photo materials. but in general. Beyond the upper limit of time print density remains constant. but not frozen. Dilution also plays an important role in print development. which is further diluted to make a working solution. The minimum time would be the length of time it takes to develop a full black on the paper. Different papers have slightly different ranges. a minimum of 1/2 minute and a maximum of 2 minutes can be used for developing resin-coated (RC) papers. Additional dilution can also make the image contrast softer. but this depends on the particular components of the developers. or stock solutions. you can mix the chemicals the day before use and leave them in the room overnight. For Kodak’s “Dektol” mix one part stock solution with two parts water to make a working solution. The shelf life of solutions can be extended if you remove as much air from their containers as is possible. you can squeeze the container before placing the cap on or add glass beads and marbles to the container in order to displace the air. which lengthens the developing time.
. Solutions have a finite shelf life. This is usually stated on the concentrate’s package or in the directions. which are more conveniently stored and further diluted with water to make working solutions. The chemistry should be mixed long enough in advance to allow it to reach the right temperature for processing. Look for these letters on the bottom of containers: HDPE. They are fairly flexible to work with in terms of processing time and temperature. Since this is often room temperature. This is especially useful if you want to make just a few prints or if you’re trying to spread a project out over several days (less concentrate is used). Notes on Black and White Print Developers Print developers are different from film developers. Chemicals come in concentrated form. Working solutions can be further diluted. Developers oxidize more quickly than fixers. To accomplish this. as powders or liquids. They are mixed with water to form solutions. Powdered developers often mix to form a stock solution first. Warnings • Do not store chemicals of any sort in food or drink containers! • Keep chemicals well beyond the reach of children! • Always provide adult supervision and guidance! Solutions should be mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and used in the range of 65°F to 80°F. This can be determined from a fully exposed piece of paper. a test with glass beads showed that a developer with a two-week shelf life expectancy was still good after ten weeks when enough beads were placed in the container to eliminate all the air. Most developer packages provide a standard dilution. Polyethylene and polypropylene are recommended.Metal containers should not be used with photographic chemistry with the one exception of photo grade stainless steel. Each solution has a specific capacity for processing prints or films. You will encounter both working solutions. Many developers will not fully develop prints if the temperature is below this range.
There are two types: Fixers labeled rapid fixer employ ammonium thiocyanate to dissolve silver salts and they have more capacity in addition to working more quickly. it will produce prints that are not dense and are discolored. water and fixer. One method of processing is to pour the solutions in and out of the developing tube. It developed to the maximum black tone that the paper can produce. Use separate tongs for the developer and fixer. Prints should stay in these baths for two to five minutes. Alternatively. DEMONSTRATING THE DARKROOM PROCESS The black and white process is easy to set up and fits in a small space. Bring the sheet of paper into room light for observation. This photo shows that the whole process can be done in a space the size of an 8" x 10" tray.
Place a solid object over a portion of the paper to demonstrate light sensitivity. Cover half of this piece with a book or other opaque object and leave it there for several minutes. 28
. The 500 ml beakers hold developer. A Note on Black and White Fixers Fixers can be used for both film and paper.When print developer is exhausted. Tear a small piece from the paper and place it on a table. Reclose the bag to protect the remaining paper supply from exposure. Fixers without any special rapid designation use sodium thiocyanante to remove the salts. or mottled or have a combination of these symptoms. The developing container is made from a recycled quart-soda can. Papers should be fixed in one minute after being placed in a rapid fixer bath.
This paper was fully exposed to light before placement in the developer solution. A good test for fixer exhaustion is to place a small piece of unexposed black and white film in the fixer.
Here is a way to demonstrate the sensitivity of photo paper to room light as long as you keep the paper supply from being exposed to white light: In safelight or in total darkness take out a sheet of photographic paper from the black bag. you can move the paper from solution to solution using tongs which requires fine motor control. Water for rinsing is at the side. which is more of a large motor skill. If it does not clear in one minute then the fixer is almost saturated with silver and should be replaced.
it will be fully exposed.
Close-up: fully exposed and developed piece of photographic paper in the developing “tube”.
The fixer removes any silver salts left on the paper after the image is formed. Rinse the paper thoroughly before handling. Hold the paper up to the light to check the difference in the reflectivity of each side. The emulsion will also absorb moisture. Place a piece of exposed paper in the tube and add the developer solution. After you pass the paper around to the students for inspection. The emulsion side reflects more light. The next two exposures are 4 and 8 minutes. When you remove the book from the small piece of paper you put on the table you can easily see the effect of light sensitivity. after exposures are made in the camera. the emulsion may begin to turn gray because the silver salts are light sensitive. This can be demonstrated by placing the paper in the fixer first. about 1" x 2" in size. Next. The picture below shows a piece of paper exposed to room light by sliding the book farther along the paper every four minutes.
Cut the larger piece of paper into small sections. In fact. You can create a human experiment with exposure time and sensitivity by putting band aids on your skin and spending time in the sunshine!
Photo paper exposed to room light for 0. 8 and 12 minutes. proceed with the water stop bath for 15 seconds. The darkest tone is 12 minutes exposure. rinsing thoroughly and then placing it in
. followed by the fixer for one minute. Watch the photochemical reaction until the paper turns fully black. The lightest tone is no exposure. 4. has texture and usually has a creamy color. If you hold your finger in one place it will feel a little bit sticky after a few seconds. This effectively demonstrates the process of development exactly as it will take place under safelight conditions later. Pour the developer back into its own container. The emulsion side must face the pinhole in order to capture the image in the camera.Look at both sides of the larger piece of paper and identify the emulsion and the back. Gentle agitation should accompany each step of the process.
The camera must be recapped and the shutter must be rotated to cover up the pinhole. Almost all other films require total darkness. A print with a long wash time will last longer.
A camera loaded. This can be done with a paper cutter or scissors in the darkroom. A single piece of paper is removed from the opaque. It is much easier if the paper is precut to fit the camera. Very little washing activity takes place in RC papers after ten minutes. The emulsion side of the paper must face the pinhole in order to capture an image. closed and ready to use.
A piece of paper inserted properly in the camera. Black and white photographic paper is the easiest material for beginning students to use as it is designed to be handled in safelight. With the camera light tight and safely sealed the white light may be turned on again. Wipe excess water from the surface of the print with a squeegee or sponge and air dry it on a line with clothespins. 30
. shuffle the prints continuously to bring clean water to the surface of every one and exchange the water in your tray often. Line up the pointer on the cap with the pinhole to make it easier to aim the camera. A more direct method of demonstrating the role of the fixer is to place a small piece of unexposed black and white film in the solution until the emulsion is dissolved and you can see through the film base. After RC prints are fixed and rinsed they need to be washed for two to five minutes.
Reseal the black bag to safeguard the remaining paper supply. Make sure the paper does not cover up the pinhole itself. Loading the Camera Takes Place in Safe Lighting Conditions At this point the darkroom safelight is turned on and white light must be extinguished. A good size for the film can camera is 1 1/2 " x 2 1/2 ". Do not stack prints with wet spots because they will stick together permanently. The emulsion side must face the pinhole to capture an image.the developer. If you have a batch. black bag and placed inside the camera opposite the pinhole for exposure. on a fiberglass/nylon screen or with a hair dryer set on low. Reverse the process to demonstrate the role of the fixer.
beakers (or other containers). these small pinhole cameras can be loaded and unloaded in a photographer’s black changing bag. paper supply and photographer’s changing bag. or if you do not have a darkroom space.For fieldwork. The paper can be moved from the camera into the developing tank inside the changing bag for processing in daylight or room light. extra buckets and soap are also handy. funnel. one for unexposed paper and one for exposed paper. garbage bags. daylight film developing tank (stainless steel). Also shown is a daylight film developing tank made from stainless steel.
A simple but effective darkroom field kit for black and white photography: paper or film. Paper towels. photographer’s black changing bag.
Items for photographing in the field include camera. developer working solution. pinhole camera.
. fixer working solution. lots of water. The paper should be precut to size and stored in separate light-tight holders. clothespins and line.
It really is helpful to line the pointer up with the pinhole when loading the camera. dance. but some suggestions follow. shake their heads.
The pinhole is uncovered during the exposure. etc. Moving vehicles and people walking by will not be recorded in a long exposure.
• Look for good contrast such as light objects against a dark background or dark objects against a light background. during the exposure. The shutter is rotated to allow light through the pinhole to start the exposure and rotated to cover up the pinhole again when the exposure is finished. Suggested exposures for getting started with the film–can pinhole camera and RC paper negatives: Bright sun Open shade Indoors near a window Classroom with fluorescent lighting 2-4 seconds 6-8 seconds 30 seconds 2 minutes
Bright subjects need less exposure and dark subjects require more exposure. Interesting Photo Experiments Exposure time (a science approach): How long must an object be exposed in order to record an image? Line up several similar objects for a photograph. For good results in the beginning: • Select subjects that are easy to identify by shape. Although this may seem a little impractical for small cameras because daylight exposures are so short to begin with. the solution is to make the test in subdued light or indoors.Taking a Picture With the Pinhole Camera The photographer selects a subject and points the pinhole towards the subject.) Motion (an arts approach): Photograph objects moving at different speeds. • Pick a subject with bright. if you have a 20-second exposure place five objects in the scene and remove one object every four seconds. Have someone standing in one place for the first half of the exposure and move to a different place for the second half. jump. Remove one object at a time at regular intervals during the exposure. Have people wave their arms. • Keep the sun behind the camera.
. The exact exposure time is usually determined from experience. You need to be in the scene for about half the exposure just to make a ghostly image. When your exposure is finished the paper is ready for developing in the darkroom. medium and dark areas. (For example.
Many positive prints (bottom) can be made from one single negative. Adjust the exposure time to get the results you want. the exposure was too long (overexposed). Keep good notes!
. and dark objects appear light. Put black tape around the seal if you can’t get the top on tightly. If it’s too dark. It only takes a few tries to master each type of light. will have details that are easy to see in the areas of the picture that are most important to you. If it’s too light. If it’s all black you might have a light leak in the camera or darkroom.
Check the negative for good exposure. The pinhole could be uncovered or the top could be loose. Once you have determined a good exposure in a particular light condition you can use it all the time.
A good negative. like this one of a coffee pot sitting on a windowsill. Light objects appear dark. the exposure was too short (underexposed).Evaluating the Negative
The first image from the camera is a negative (top).
This reverses the tones to make a positive print. etc. Then cover the first 1/4 of the paper with opaque blocking material (mat board. You can also use this contact printing procedure to make prints from any developed films you already have (color or black and white) and to make new paper negatives from old family photographs or even slides! Light Sources: A white 15-watt bulb placed in a light fixture two to four feet from the paper works well. Finally. emulsion to emulsion. cardboard. changing the bulb. etc). 12 and 16 seconds. Contact printing can be done without glass by wetting the two pieces of paper so they stick together during the exposure.or 30-watt bulb can also be used. make sure there is a switch to turn the bulb on and off! Exposures are often less than 30 seconds and should be tested for best results. 8. Develop your test strip and check the results. Similar exposures can be used for all negatives with similar densities. Make another 4-second exposure. Be sure to test the most important part of the image. Now make another 4-second exposure. The paper under the light blocker has a 4-second exposure and the rest of the image has 8 seconds. let’s say you want to test exposures up to 16 seconds long. You can adjust the light intensity by moving the bulb nearer to or farther from the paper. Now slide the light blocker along to cover the first 1/2 of the paper. You will have created exposure bands of 4.CONTACT PRINTING: How to Make Positive Prints In darkroom safelight. the second piece an 8second exposure. The exposure is made by passing white light through the back of the negative to the new paper. set up the contact print and make a 4-second exposure over the entire image. the negative is placed in contact with a new piece of paper. Use four separate pieces of small paper and give the first piece a 4-second exposure. to make a test strip for a larger negative. Testing for correct exposures When using small pieces of paper.
. the third piece a 12-second exposure and the last piece a 16-second exposure. In safelight. blocking some of the light with thin white paper. Or. slide the light blocker along to cover 3/4 of the paper and make the last 4second exposure. Remember—the light must first pass through the back of the negative during the exposure. soak the negative and new piece of paper in water and remove excess water with a sponge or squeegee. For example. Use the room lights. you should make different exposures on individual sheets of paper to find the best exposure for your positive. Then place the papers emulsion to emulsion. For safety. but a 25. With larger negatives a test strip allows you to get several exposures on one sheet of paper. small lamp or flashlight. black plastic.
increase exposure: use more exposure time.
Evaluating the Test It might take a few tries to get a good test but once successful it will always be easy.This test strip shows a series of 4-second exposures on one piece of paper. emulsion down. the positive image of the coffee pot sitting on a windowsill looks good. 12 and 16 seconds. use a more powerful bulb Once a good exposure is found for a particular negative the final positive print is made by contact printing. make your final print using the exposure that looks best (or estimate a time in-between bands)
On the right. move the light closer. Keep a record of your work— it will save lots of effort in future printing sessions. use a less powerful bulb. move the light farther away. Take out a new piece of paper and place it emulsion up on the flat surface. 8. Then place the negative. Choose the one that looks best (or a time in between the bands) to expose the whole print. looks right (properly exposed). It provided a pleasing range of tones.
too light (underexposed). The 12-second exposure was used here to make the final print. reduce exposure: use less exposure time. block some of the light. The bands are 4. on the new piece of paper. Here are some typical results: too dark (overexposed). etc.
. Put a sheet of glass over them and make one exposure using the time you liked best from the test. The same time will work well for other negatives with similar density.
low-contrast prints. The light can come from above (or from the side to create shadow effects). Photogram exposures are usually pretty short—use just enough light to create a black tone on the uncovered part of the paper. blue or silver. Sew buttons on the prints. Higher numbers increase contrast. behind the pinhole. Take your meter along and record the meter reading for the subject you are going to photograph with the pinhole camera. Paints and markers can be applied to the print. Low numbered filters make soft. to change a negative’s contrast. Anything goes! Changing print contrast (advanced) Many papers have built in variable contrast. They are described with terms like VC. You place the filters between the light source and the paper. which requires an increase in exposure time and should be tested. The print will show the shape and translucency of things you placed on the paper.
.ADDITIONAL PHOTO ACTIVITIES Photograms (basic) Photograms are a kind of image made by placing objects directly on the paper in the darkroom and then exposing the paper to white light. Try toning prints in coffee or grape juice. Matching exposures to a light meter (advanced) If you have a light meter (hand held or in camera) you can make an accurate exposure chart for any photo material you work with. such as red. Adding color to prints (intermediate) Some black and white papers have color bases. Other methods of coloring that take place after the print is made include toning and hand coloring with photo oils and pencils. Objects collected from nature or found around the house make great images. You can also place these filters in the camera. Standard multicontrast filters can be used to change print contrast in the darkroom. multigrade or polycontrast on the package. so the color is automatic. Match up good pinhole exposures to your meter readings.
A copper nail is placed in used fixer solution to demonstrate the presence of silver in the fixer. Check your local regulations. You should observe the silver building up on the wire in a minute or two. it contains silver. Silver from photography is quite stable but it’s better to keep metals out of the environment. you have reached a 0 to 2 parts per million silver level. The nail on the right is coated with silver after a short immersion in the used fixer solution. This is normal and it can be safely flushed down your drain (or the solution can be filtered). and place it in a small amount of well-used fixer. so a simple silver recovery demonstration follows. Rinse with water. Silver Recovery Demonstration (an excellent class demo!) The presence of silver in used fixer can be shown with a short piece of copper. The recovered silver is very stable and safe to handle. If you leave the steel wool in the solution for 24 hours. You can save it or place it in your waste basket. Observe the condition of the new steel wool. The silver here will appear black. a heavy metal. If you tie a string around the steel wool you can lift it from time to time in order to see the silver building up. Used fixer. can be flushed down the drain. after the silver is removed. it is widely recommended that the total amount of photography chemicals plus photo wash water be less than 10% of your total daily waste disposal. just like jewelry. so this test will show no silver buildup in unused fixer.
On the left is a new copper nail right out of the box. silver and other metals are removed from the liquid waste at the processing plant. you have achieved a silver level of 0 to 5 parts per million (5 ppm is the federal EPA standard).DISPOSAL OF THE CHEMICALS Used developer and water can be flushed down the drain as you exhaust it. Many thanks for helping to preserve a clean and healthy environment. Rinse and dry the metals. Place four grams of steel wool (that’s about the amount that you can squeeze into a 35 mm film canister) per liter of used fixer in a plastic container. You should see some silver quickly. It’s a smart thing to do!
. making the fixer safer for disposal. Since the silver and iron are trading places you might see some rust in the solution. sandpaper.
A small amount of steel wool provides a simple method of recovering the silver from used fixer. If you are on a home septic system. usually in less than a minute. If no silver builds up on the copper after one hour. Save the used fixer in a separate container. If you are on a municipal waste system. the silver concentration will be reduced from approximately 5.000 parts per million to the range of 0 to 5 parts per million! When you test with copper after silver recovery and the copper has no silver buildup after 20 minutes. Scrape it down to bright metal with steel wool. (You can reuse the same wire many times if you scrape off the silver. etc.) New fixer solutions have no accumulated silver.
black plastic (local hardware store) or any other materials you can find • Duct tape and black vinyl electrical tape • Scissors • X-acto knife (optional) Materials to make apertures include: • Recycled soda cans • Thick aluminum baking pans or pie tins (recycled or supermarket) • Paper Materials to make a viewing screen include: • Plain white paper • Tracing paper • Drafting film • Thin. Materials to cover the windows: • Recycled cardboard boxes.Materials
The things you need for the camera obscura project are very common and can usually be found locally. Materials to make a pinhole camera include: • Recycled black film canisters • Aluminum for the pinhole plate (use baking strength. not foil) • Sewing needles (#9 or #10) • Fine sand paper (400 grit) • Black vinyl electrical tape • Scissors • One-hole punch
. white plastic bags • Cardboard to make a frame for the screen A simple magnifying glass can be used as a lens Things you need for pinhole photography are a mix of easy to find local items and some items from a photographic supplier.
PETE) • Containers for processing the prints (plastic as above) • Squeegee or sponge • Thin line and clothespins for drying prints Photographic supplies: • Black and white photographic paper 5" x 7" RC paper. PP.Materials to set up a darkroom include: • Darkroom safelight • Container for mixing chemicals (plastic or glass measuring cups. beakers. graduated cylinders) • Stirring rod (plastic straw works well) • Containers for storing chemicals (recycled plastic HDPE. satin or matte surface Avoid papers that have the manufacturer’s name on the back (like Kodak) because it will show up on the final prints • Black and white paper developer (liquid concentrate) • Black and white fixer (liquid concentrate)
netphotostore.astro.net/hmpi/Pinhole/Articles/FAQ/pin_faq.http://www.http://www.com/ Photography with a Pinhole Camera .com/ full line supplier LINKS Camera Obscura The Camera Obscura: Aristotle to Zahn http://www.ilford.home.pinhole.indiana.pinholeresource.pinhole.htm Views of a Solar Eclipse http://www.Resources
Photographic sources Starlight Cameras www.http://www.org/ Pinhole Resource .com innovative pinhole cameras and darkroom kits with complete instructions offer complimentary pinhole cameras to teachers Unique Photo http://www.com/html/us_english/teachers_lounge/index.html
Pinhole Photography Pinhole Visions .http://www.erols.com/njastro/barry/bar-page/pinhole. Could the Ancient Egyptians Have Observed Sunspots? http://users.html The Magic Mirror of Life http://brightbytes.com/ full line supplier Freestyle Photo Supplies http://www.freestylesalesco.http://acept.htm Worldwide Pinhole Photography Day .com/discussion/ Handmade Photographic Images by George L Smyth ??? http://members.edu/PiN/rdg/camera/camera.shtml Agfa’s Black & White Darkroom Course .com/en/cafe/photocourse/ Ilford Teacher’s Lounge .com Pinhole Discussion List .pinholeday.net.paintcancamera.au/AIC/CAMERA_OBSCURA.html Pinhole Sunspots or.agfanet.acmi.http://www.la.
From Pinhole to Pixel (CD) Peggy Jones http://www. The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes. Bulfinch Press.pinholeresource.400 pages 1st edition. Paperback . Focal Press. Woburn.com/books.80 pages. J. 1983. Paperback .com/pinholejournal. ISBN: 0936262702
Pinhole Journal (periodical published 3 times a year) http://www. Black and White Photography : A Basic Manual.References
. Florence. Amherst Media. Pinhole Photography : Rediscovering a Historic Technique.192 pages 2nd edition. Delmar Publishers. 2001.pinholeresource. ISBN: 0316373141 James. Buffalo.229 pages 2nd Rev edition. H. Boston. Paperback . C. 1999. ISBN: 0766820777 Renner. ISBN: 0240803507 Schull. 1999. The Beginner’s Guide to Pinhole Photography.