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洪瑞斌 J2

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(2008) 8:75–80

DOI 10.1007/s11668-007-9104-7

C Æ A Æ S Æ E H Æ I Æ S Æ T Æ O Æ R Æ Y—P Æ E Æ E Æ R-R Æ E Æ V Æ I Æ E Æ W Æ E Æ D

of All-Terrain Vehicles

Chun-Yuan Lin Æ Jui-Pin Hung Æ Tze-Chi Hsu

Submitted: 10 September 2007 / in revised form: 3 December 2007 / Published online: 12 January 2008

ASM International 2008

Abstract This paper presents a failure analysis of a Keywords Fatigue failure Spline shaft

reverse shaft in the transmission system of an all-terrain All-terrain vehicles

vehicle (ATV). The reverse shaft with splines fractured

into two pieces during operation. Visual examination of the

fractured surface clearly showed cracks initiated from Introduction

the roots of spline teeth. To find out the cause of fracture of

the shaft, a finite element analysis was carried out to pre- All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) can be considered four-

dict the stress state of the shaft under steady loading and wheeled motorcycles for off-road operation with both

shock loading, respectively. The steady loading was pro- forward and backward movement but with the chain-driven

duced under normal operation, while the shock loading mechanism designed for motorcycles substituted with a

could be generated by an abrupt change of operation such gear-driven mechanism. Such a gear-driven transmission

as start-up or sudden braking during working. Results of system provides various speed-power ratios, enhancing the

stress analysis reveal that the highest stressed area coin- movements and power transmission efficiency. However,

cided with the fractured regions of the failed shaft. The for a general-purpose gear box, the rotating shaft usually

maximum stress predicted under shock loading exceeded endures loadings associated with torsion and bending

the yield strength and was believed to be the stimulant for moments, producing a steady torsion stress and cyclic

crack initiation and propagation at this weak region. The bending stress. As a result, the shafts are susceptible to

failure analysis thus showed that the premature fatigue fatigue failure during the operation [1].

fracture of the shaft was caused by abnormal operation. In this study, the reverse shaft was used for backward

Finally, some suggestions to enhance service durability of movement of the ATV. The shaft assembly consists of a

the transmission system of ATV are discussed. pinion gear and a multijawed coupling that are secured to

the shaft with multispline teeth, rather than a single key.

This assembly provides the capability for power trans-

mission. With a straight-sided profile, the root of the spline

C.-Y. Lin

tooth also becomes a stress raiser where fatigue cracks may

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nanya Institute of

Technology, 414, Sec. 3, Jung-Shan E. Rd., Chungli 320, initiate under fluctuating loadings [2], hence causing a

Taiwan, P.R. China premature fracture of shaft. Figure 1 shows a failed reverse

shaft used in an ATV. This shaft fractured into two pieces

J.-P. Hung (&)

near the section secured with a pinion gear.

Department of Automation Engineering, National Chin-Yi

University of Technology, 35, Lane.215, Sec. 1, An analytical approach based on mechanics of materials

Chung-Shan Rd., Taiping 411, Taiwan, P.R. China and failure criteria was adopted to determine the geometry

e-mail: hungjp@ncut.edu.tw of the shaft required to provide sufficient load-carrying

capacity. However, unexpected fatigue fracture can still

T.-C. Hsu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, occur during operation and service [3–5]. To identify the

135 Yuan-Tung Rd., Chungli, Taoyuan, Taiwan, P.R. China cause of fracture of the shaft, this study investigated the

123

76 J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2008) 8:75–80

roughly displays two distinct appearances. Most of frac-

tured surface shows a bright appearance with shear lips.

This indicates a plastic shear occurred during the propa-

gation of the crack and suggests that the fracture occurred

in a ductile manner. The remainder of the fractured surface

displays a dark appearance caused by a sudden fracture

after the initial crack growth. Obviously, the spline tooth

with sharp corner at root might weaken the shaft; however,

the working condition leading to the fracture should be

further identified through the mechanical analysis.

Stress Analysis

Shaft Loading

transmission gearbox, where the spline teeth on the shaft

secured the driven pinion gear and jawed coupling. Both

ends of the shaft were supported by ball bearings. During

working, the spline shaft would simultaneously experience

torque and bending moments. The bending moment was

derived from transmitted force acting on the tooth surface

of the pinion gear; the transmitted force herein is regarded

Fig. 1 Macrograph of the fractured shaft. (a) Failed shaft. (b) Close

view of the fracture surface with cracks propagating at direction of

45, approximately, to the shaft axis. (c) Permanently twisted

deformation of spline teeth with cracks at root

ment method. The fatigue failure analysis also provided a

basis for some suggestions to raise the durability of the

transmission system of the ATV.

Visual Examination

secured with a pinion gear, where a maximum bending

moment was produced by the transmitted force. The frac-

ture surface was vertical to the axial direction of the shaft.

The spline teeth near the fractured section were

permanently twisted by the torsional forces. Detailed

observations showed that cracks originated at the roots of

splines. Fractures from spline roots have also been

observed in a rear axle shaft [6] and a steering shaft of a

similar vehicle [7]. This suggests that the spline tooth root

Fig. 2 Technical drawing of the reverse shaft, on which a pinion gear

is a preferential site to initiate failure. These ‘‘tooth root’’

and jawed coupling are secured with multiple splines. The shaft has

cracks propagated toward the central zone in a direction an outer diameter of 15 mm and root diameter of 12 mm at spline

making an angle about 45 to the shaft axis. As a tooth

123

J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2008) 8:75–80 77

moment T and transmitted force F were calculated from the

driven power P (kW) and rotational speed N (rpm) of the

shaft using:

60P

T¼ ð1Þ

2pN

2T

F¼ ð2Þ

Dp cos a

where Dp (=30 mm) and a (=14.5) represent the

pitch diameter and pressure angle of the pinion gear,

respectively.

In this case, the engine power delivered to the reverse

shaft is rated 12 kW at rotating speed of 5670 rpm. The Fig. 3 Finite element model of a spline shaft, consisting of 16,096

loads exerted on the shaft as obtained using Eq. 1 and 2 brick elements and 18,753 nodes

were: torsion moment T = 20.21 N m and transmitting

force F = 1392 N, and a maximum bending moment tangential forces on the spline teeth secured with jawed

(M = 19.36 N m) was found to occur at the location of coupling, and a bending moment was modeled by applying

pinion gear. a distributive force normal to the outer surface of shaft

Prior to the finite element analysis described in next secured with the pinion gear. The shaft was manufactured

section, the well-accepted analytical analysis was used to from medium carbon steel grade SAE/AISI 1045 with

predict the stress level of the transmitting shaft. For a shaft elastic modulus of 200 GPa, density of 7800 kg/m3, and

subjected to combined steady loadings of torsion and Poisson’s ratio of 0.3. Typical mechanical properties are

bending moment, the maximum values of the static stresses given approximately as 585 MPa for yield strength,

at the spline root were calculated to be 140 MPa tensile 655 MPa for ultimate strength, and 328 MPa for fatigue

stress and 83 MPa shear stress. In addition, if considering strength [10, 11].

the shock loadings generated under an abrupt change of the To understand the stress state of the shaft under various

operation such as start-up, or sudden braking, the dynamic operations conditions, two different loading modes, static

effect was evaluated in terms of the load dynamic factors, loading and dynamic loading, were assumed in stress

Cm for bending moment and Ct for torsion moment, which analysis. The static loading modes assumed the reverse

were introduced in stress calculation [9]: shaft being operated under normal rotating speed, and

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ hence the driven torque and the bending effect were kept at

16

rmax ¼¼ 3 Cm M þ ðCm M Þ2 þ ðCt TÞ2 ð3Þ steady state during operation. However, this is not always

pd

the case; the reverse shaft may experience shock force

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

16 coming from abrupt change of the operating condition. The

smax ¼¼ 3 ðCm M Þ2 þ ðCt TÞ2 ð4Þ

pd shock forces acting on the pinion gear and the spline teeth

With a heavy-duty load factor (2.0 for bending and were termed impulsive loads because of their short dura-

torsional moment), the maximum values of dynamic stress tion. The response of the shaft to the impulsive loads can

estimated at root diameter of spline tooth are 279 MPa in be characterized as a stress wave being generated at the

tension and 165 MPa in shear, respectively. loading instant and then propagating within the shaft.

Under the shock loadings, the stress state was expected to

be higher than that induced under normal operation. This

could be realized through the transient analysis by imple-

Finite Element Modeling menting the implicit direct integration methods into finite

element analysis.

A finite element stress analysis was carried out to deter-

mine the stress concentration level at the fractured region

of the shaft. Shown in Fig. 3 is the finite element model of Results of Stress Analysis

the spline shaft created with hexahedral elements. This

model consists of 16,096 elements and 18,753 nodes. Figure 4 shows the distribution of the von Mises stress of

Boundary conditions were applied at the bearing supported the shaft subject to a steady transmitted load under normal

ends. The shaft loadings were applied on the finite element operation. As seen from this figure, the highest stresses

model: a twisting torque was simulated by applying occur at the regions secured with pinion gear where the

123

78 J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2008) 8:75–80

0.38 ms after the shock loading initiated. Also, this maxi-

mum tensile stress is predicted to occur at the fractured

section and is approximately 1.93 times the stress predicted

under steady loading modes. In addition, the analytical

solution reported a lower level of dynamic stress than that

obtained from steady-state operation. This can be ascribed

to the inertia effects that accompanied the propagation of

stress wave within the shaft. Such impact effects are usu-

ally evaluated by employing a dynamic load factor in stress

calculation to modify the influence of shock loading. This

reveals that the analytical analysis in conventional shaft

design practice may not be conservative. Furthermore,

comparison of the induced stress and strength of shaft

reveals that the shock loading, rather than the normal

loading, might be the stimulant for crack initiation and

propagation at the weak regions.

Failure Analysis

Fig. 4 Distribution of the von Mises stress of the shaft near the

region secured with the pinion gear, where fracture occurred in a

failed shaft (stress unit: MPa). (a) Maximum von Mises stress located A failure analysis to identify the main cause of the fracture

at the root of spline tooth. (b) Twisted deformation of the spline teeth. of the reverse shaft based on the results of finite element

Magnification: 2009 stress analysis is described. First, according to the static

failure criteria [9], the reverse shaft under normal operation

maximum bending moment is produced. It is noted that the with steady speed has a minimum safety factor of 1.74.

location of the stress peak agrees with the fractured region This implies that the normal load of steady mode would not

as revealed by examination of the failed shaft. The maxi- bring the shaft to yield or fracture. In addition, due to the

mum tensile stress and shear stress at this region are 276 rotational shaft loading, the working stresses generated at

and 110 MPa, respectively. The stress levels, however, are the roots of spline teeth actually fluctuate from 276 MPa in

significantly below the yield strength of the shaft material. tension to -276 MPa in compression during one revolution

The results obtained from transient analysis are pre- of shaft. Such an alternating stress can be considered a

sented in the Fig. 5, showing the time history of the fully reversed stress with amplitude of 276 MPa. This

maximum tensile stress of the shaft responding to the shock stress amplitude is lower than the fatigue strength

loading. It is found that the largest tensile stress (534 MPa) (330 MPa) of the shaft material. This reveals that the

reverse shaft running at normal speed would not contribute

to the fatigue fracture. However, the shaft obviously failed

600

but should have been fine according to the static failure

maximum principal stress analysis. Therefore, the shaft capacity designed under the

maximum shear stress

normal loading conditions could not ensure a long-term

400 safe operation.

Stress, (MPa)

(534 MPa) was predicted for shaft subject to transitional

loadings. This stress significantly exceeds the yield

200 strength of the shaft material and may thus produce

localized plastic strains and accelerate fatigue. Although no

immediate fracturing was expected to occur, accumulations

of the plastic strains might cause fatigue cracks to initiate

0 and propagate at these stress concentration sites. Figure 1

0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005

clearly demonstrates the evidence of crack propagation in

Time, (sec)

the fractured sections. On the other hand, from the transient

Fig. 5 Time history of the maximum stress responding to the shock response to the shock loadings, the maximum tensile stress

loading on the shaft at the critical point behaves in a nonreversed cyclic

123

J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2008) 8:75–80 79

characteristic. For a mechanical component experiencing a are an important factor in the durability of the transmission

repeatedly fluctuating stress, the occurrence of fatigue system of ATV.

fracture can be predicted according to the Basquin’s power

law [12], which was developed based on the stress-life test

data. This power law is given by: Design Implications

A¼ rR NRB ð5Þ

The geometric specifications of the reverse shaft were

where rR is the cyclic stress, NR is the lifetime of fatigue insufficient to support transient loading of the shaft mate-

failure, and the constants A and B are related to the material rial. The results of failure analysis show that the fatigue

strengths and can be determined from: behavior is dominated by the operating conditions in ser-

vice and that these conditions are primarily the transient

ð0:9rut Þ2 1 0:9rut

A¼ ; B ¼ log ð6Þ loads. The equivalent fully reversed stresses that result

re 3 re

from the transient loads can be considered the minimum

where re and rut are the fatigue strength and ultimate fatigue strength required for shaft to work safely with a

strength of material, respectively. desired service life.

In addition, for a nonreversed cyclic stress, the mean The reverse shaft in this study was sized by ATV

stress effect on fatigue failure should be taken into con- manufacturer without transient load input. Therefore, to

sideration in life prediction. The working stress with stress prevent fatigue damage and increase the service life of the

amplitude rr and mean stress rm were converted to an driven shaft, material strengths are critical. In practice,

equivalent fully reversed stress by using the Goodman manufacturing processes and metallurgical techniques are

failure criteria [13], that is: known to have a significant effect on fatigue properties of

mechanical parts [14]. In the case of carbon steel with

rr rut

rR ¼ ð7Þ hardened surface, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) has

rut rm

been shown to be experimentally related to the Brinell

Results of transient analysis show that the principal hardness number (BHN) by the form of UTS (MPa) =

stress induced at the stress concentration regions varies 3.4 9 BHN [9]. Also, fatigue properties are frequently

from minimum value rmin (0) to maximum value rmax correlated with tensile properties. Using the carbon steel as

(534 MPa) at each loading instant. From Eq. 7, the an example, the fatigue limit is approximately 50% of the

equivalent fully reversed stress was then estimated to be ultimate tensile strength [9]. It therefore seems feasible to

450 MPa, which exceeded the fatigue strength (328 MPa). improve the fatigue strength through a heat treatment of the

The finite lifetime was then calculated as NR = 24,313 spline shaft. Treatments such as case hardening followed

loading cycles. With a lifetime less than 1 million loading by quenching and tempering may be possible, but quench

cycles, the premature failure of reverse shaft can be cracks must be eliminated.

identified as a fatigue fracture caused by the shock or Apart from the standard medium carbon steel, alloyed

transient loadings, rather than the steady loadings. steels with higher strength are candidates for manufactur-

The fatigue fracture was characterized by the initiation ing of shaft. Some typical alloyed steels with different

of microcracks at highly stressed points and then followed strengths are presented in Table 1, in which the equivalent

by the propagation of the cracks from surface into the fully reversed stresses for each material are estimated

central zone with the fluctuating loading cycles. Therefore, according to Eq. 7. Among the materials listed in Table 1,

it can be inferred from results of stress analysis that the the alloyed steel grade AISI 5140 can be recommended for

shock loadings were the main force driving the cracks to shafts since it has adequate strength to prevent fatigue

propagate toward the core of the shaft, which hence damage.

gradually reduced the load-carrying capability of the shaft On the other hand, the fractured shaft illustrated the

and led to sudden fracture in service. As a consequence of indication of cracking within the highly stressed regions of

the shock loading, the spline teeth near the fractured sur- the materials. According to the fracture mechanics, for a

face were permanently deformed by the transient (impact) mechanical component with small cracks initiated at a

stresses that exceeded the yield strength. As shown in highly stressed area, the fracture toughness became a pre-

Fig. 1, photographic evidence of the cracks development valent factor. As they are different from the stress fields

on the tooth root clearly suggests fatigue fracture of a failed directly used in strength life method for fatigue analysis,

shaft. Conclusions from failure analysis show that the the stress intensity factors are employed to describe the

design of the reverse shaft established under normal stress fields around crack sites [15]. Consequently, to

operation condition was not sufficient to guarantee the clarify the actual fracture scenario in reverse shaft, a

long-term service and that the shock or transient loadings fracture mechanics based analysis could be a competent

123

80 J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2008) 8:75–80

Table 1 Mechanical strength of alloyed steels [11] all data are cited from web sites: http://www.efunda.com/materials

AISI code Tensile Yield Fatigue Equivalent fully Impact energy, J Heat treatment condition

strength, MPa strength, MPa strengtha, MPa reversed stress, MPa

1045 655 585 328 450 Standard, cold drawn. BHN = 179

1050 748 428 374 415 27.1 Normalized: heated to 900 C,

air cooled. BHN = 217

4130 669 436 335 444 86.4 Normalized: heated to 870 C,

air cooled. BHN = 197

5140 793 472 397 402 38.0 Normalized: heated to 870 C,

air cooled. BHN = 229

a

Fatigue strengths are approximated as 50% of the ultimate tensile strength [9]

approach to design. The fatigue life can be estimated from • The shock or transitional loads produced by an abrupt

strain-life method for crack initiation stage and the Paris change of operation are the main stimulant for crack

law for crack growth stage, respectively [15]. Based on this initiation and propagation at the spline tooth root.

consideration, the ductility-related cyclic properties such as • To design a transmitted shaft with high service

fatigue strength coefficient, ductility coefficient, fracture durability, mechanical characteristics such as fatigue

toughness, and so forth, are more important than static strength, ultimate tensile strength, and fracture tough-

strength, and hence a shaft with enough fracture toughness ness are important properties that should be considered

will be regarded as an essential requirement for preventing in material selection at design stage.

the fracture of the shaft in service.

Fracture toughness represents the ability of a material

to resist the development of the cracks, and although References

increasing surface hardness can properly improve static

tensile strength and fatigue strength, it will lower the 1. Wulpi, D.: Failures of shafts. In: Failure Analysis and Prevention,

fracture toughness of material and accelerate final frac- vol. 11, 9th edn., Metals Handbook, pp. 459–482. American

ture. From Table 1, it can be found that the Brinell Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH (1986).

2. Rice, R.C. (ed.): Fatigue Design Handbook-AE-10, Society of

hardness is positively correlated to the material strength, Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA (1988).

but has a slightly negative correlation with the impact 3. Xu, I.L., Yu, Z.W., Ding, H.X.: Failure analysis of a diesel engine

strength. Since the fracture toughness of heat treated gear-shaft. Eng. Fail. Anal. 13, 1351–1357 (2006).

material is often unavailable, the impact energy is used to 4. Bhaumik, S.K., Rangaraju, R., Parameswara, M.A., Venkataswamy,

M.A., Bhaskaran, T.A., Krishnan, R.V.: Fatigue failure of a hollow

describe the ability to resist fracture. Generally, the power transmission shaft. Eng. Fail. Anal. 9, 457–467 (2002).

impact properties are not employed directly in fatigue 5. Li, Y.J., Zhang, W.F., Tao, C.H.: Fracture analysis of a castel-

fracture analysis, but the more economical impact tests lated shaft. Eng. Fail. Anal. 14, 573–578 (2007).

have been used as a quality-control method to assess 6. Nanawarea, G.K., Pableb, M.J.: Failures of rear axle shafts of 575

DI tractors. Eng. Fail. Anal. 10, 719–724 (2003).

toughness and compare the relative toughness of engi- 7. Cleland, J.H.: Shear failure of a road-vehicle steering shaft. Eng.

neering materials. As listed in Table 1, the material grade Fail. Anal. 4(1), 81–88 (1997).

AISI 4130 shows a higher toughness although it has lower 8. Bonnett, A.H.: Root cause ac motor failure analysis with a focus

fatigue strength. This suggests that material grade AISI on shaft failures. IEEE Trans Industry Application. 36(5), 1197–

1209 (2000).

4130 may also be an alternative for manufacturing the 9. Shigley, J.E.: Mechanical Engineering Design. Matrix edn.

shaft. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1986).

10. Dimarogonas, D.: Machine Design—A CAD Approach. John

Wiley & Sons (2001).

11. Web site: http://www.efunda.com/materials.

Conclusions 12. Basquin, O.H.: The exponential law of endurance tests. Am. Soc.

Test Mater. Proc. 625–630 (1910).

A fractured spline shaft has been analyzed by finite element 13. Hertzberg, R.W.: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engi-

analysis and fatigue failure considerations. Some conclu- neering materials. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 530–532

(1996).

sions are summarized: 14. Matlock, D.K., Alogab, K.A., Richards, M.D., Speer, J.G.: Sur-

• The root of the spline teeth secured with the transmitted face processing to improve the fatigue resistance of advanced bar

steels for automotive applications. Mater. Res. 8(4), 453–459

gear is the weakest regions, where a maximum stress (2005).

with nonreversed cyclic characteristic is generated 15. Dieter, G.E.: Mechanical Metallurgy. SI Matrix edn. McGraw

under transmitted loadings. Hill Book Co., New York (1988).

123

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