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Madrid - May 2011

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Spain in General 1
Spain 1
History of Spain 38
Spanish language 57
Spanish cuisine 80
Francisco Franco 85
Bullfighting 104

Madrid 119
Madrid 119
History of Madrid 153
Madrid-Barajas Airport 156
Madrid Metro 170

Things to do in Madrid 181

Royal Palace of Madrid 181
Museo del Prado 190
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía 208
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum 210
Temple of Debod 212
Buen Retiro Park 213
Sabatini Gardens 217
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid 218
El Pardo 220

Places to Go Outside Madrid 222

Toledo, Spain 222
El Escorial 236
Valle de los Caídos 244

Royal Family 249

Spanish Royal Family 249
House of Bourbon 255
Juan Carlos I of Spain 270
Queen Sofía of Spain 281

Article Sources and Contributors 289
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 297

Article Licenses
License 309

Spain in General


Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España

Motto: "Plus Ultra"  (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem: "Marcha Real"  (Spanish) "Royal March"

Location of Spain(dark green)

– on the European continent(green & dark grey)
– in the European Union(green)  —  [Legend]
Capital Madrid
(and largest city) 40°26′N 3°42′W

Official language(s) [2]


Recognised regional languages Aranese, Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician

Demonym Spanish, Spaniard

Government Parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy

 -  King Juan Carlos I

 -  Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)

Legislature Cortes Generales

 -  Upper House Senate

Spain 2

 -  Lower House Congress of Deputies

Formation 15th century 

 -  Traditional date 569 (ascension to the throne of Liuvigild) 

 -  Dynastic 1479

 -  De facto 1516

 -  De jure 1715

 -  Nation state 1812

 -  Constitutional democracy 1978

EU accession 1 January 1986


 -  Total 504,030 km  (51st)


195,364 sq mi

 -  Water (%) 1.04


 -  2010 estimate [3]

46,030,109  (27th)

 -  Density 2
93/km  (106th)
231/sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate

 -  Total [4]

$1.364 trillion

 -  Per capita [4]


GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate

 -  Total [4]

$1.374 trillion

 -  Per capita [4]


Gini (2005) [5]

HDI (2010) [6]
0.863  (very high) (20th)

Currency [7]
Euro (€) (EUR)

Time zone [8]


 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Date formats (Spanish; CE)

Drives on the right

ISO 3166 code ES

Internet TLD [9]


Calling code 34

Spain ( /en-us-Spain.oggˈspeɪn/ spayn; Spanish: España, pronounced [esˈpaɲa]  ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of
Spain (Spanish: Reino de España[10] ),[11] is a country and member state of the European Union located in
southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.[12] Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the
Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar; to the north by
France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.
Spain 3

Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean
off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco.
Furthermore, the town of Llívia is a Spanish exclave situated inside French territory. With an area of 504030 square
kilometres ( sq mi), it is the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union after France.
Because of its location, the territory of Spain was subject to many external influences since prehistoric times and
through to its dawn as a country. Spain emerged as a unified country in the 15th century, following the marriage of
the Catholic Monarchs and the completion of the reconquest, or Reconquista, of the Iberian peninsula in 1492.
Conversely, it has been an important source of influence to other regions, chiefly during the Modern Era, when it
became a global empire that has left a legacy of over 500 million Spanish speakers today, making it the world's
second most spoken first language.
Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a
developed country with the twelfth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and very high living standards
(20th highest Human Development Index), including the tenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world, as of
2005. It is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO.

The first known peoples of present-day Spain were the Celts and the Iberians. After an arduous conquest, the Iberian
Peninsula became a region of the Roman Empire known as Hispania. During the early Middle Ages it came under
Germanic rule but later was conquered by Muslim invaders. Through a very long and fitful process, the Christian
kingdoms in the north gradually rolled back Muslim rule, finally extinguishing its last remnant in Granada in 1492,
the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest
kingdom in Europe and the leading world power in the 16th century and first half of the 17th century.
Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The French invasion of Spain in the early
19th century led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country
politically unstable. In the 20th century it suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian
government, leading to years of stagnation, but finishing in an impressive economic surge. Democracy was restored
in 1978 in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. In 1986, Spain joined the European Union,
experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth.

The true origins of the name España and its cognates "Spain" and "Spanish" are disputed. The ancient Roman name
for Iberia, Hispania, may derive from poetic use of the term Hesperia to refer to Spain, reflecting the Greek
perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Εσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being
still further west, as Hesperia ultima.[13]
It may also be a derivation of the Punic Ispanihad, meaning "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's
location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female
figure with a coney at her feet.[14] There are also claims that España derives from the Basque word Ezpanna
meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian peninsula constitutes the southwest of the
European continent.[13]
The humanist Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning
"city of the western world". According to new research by Jesús Luis Cunchillos published in 2000 with the name of
Gramática fenicia elemental (Basic Phoenician grammar), the root of the term span is spy, meaning "to forge
metals". Therefore i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".[15]
Spain 4

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples

Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years
ago.[16] Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 32,000 years ago.[17] The best known
artifacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in
northern Iberia, which were created about 15,000 BCE by cro-magnons.[18]
Archaeological and genetic evidence strongly suggests that the Iberian
Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern
Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.
The two main historical peoples of the peninsula were the Iberians and
the Celts, the former inhabiting the Mediterranean side from the
northeast to the southwest, the latter inhabiting the Atlantic side, in the
north and northwest part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the
peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed, distinctive
culture known as Celtiberian was present.[19] Basques occupied the
Altamira Cave paintings, in Cantabria western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas. Other
ethnic groups existed along the peninsula's southern coastal areas.

In the south of the peninsula appeared the semi-mythical city of Tartessos (c.1100 BC), whose flourishing trade in
items made of gold and silver with the Phoenicians and Greeks is documented by Strabo and the Book of Solomon.
Between about 500 BC and 300 BC, the seafaring Phoenicians and Greeks founded trading colonies along the
Mediterranean coast. The Carthaginians briefly exerted control over much of the Mediterranean side of the
peninsula, until defeated in the Punic Wars by the Romans.[20]

Roman Empire and the Gothic Kingdom

During the Second Punic War, an expanding Roman Empire captured
Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast from
roughly 210 BC to 205 BC. It took the Romans nearly two centuries to
complete the conquest of the Iberian peninsula, though they had
control of much of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound
together by law, language, and the Roman road.[21]

Roman Theatre of Mérida, in Badajoz

Spain 5

The cultures of the Celt and Iberian populations were gradually romanized
(Latinized) at differing rates in different parts of Hispania. Local leaders were
admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.[22] [20] Hispania served as a granary
for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine.
Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects,
some of which remain in use. Emperors Trajan, Theodosius I, and the
philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania.[23] Christianity was introduced into
Hispania in the 1st century CE and it became popular in the cities in the
2nd century CE.[20] Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis
of its laws, originate from this period.[21]

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in

409, when the Germanic Suevi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans Cathedral of the Holy Saviour, in
crossed the Rhine and ravaged Gaul until the Visigoths drove them into Iberia
that same year. The Suevi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia
and northern Portugal. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified:
but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire,
including Christianity.

The Alans' allies, the Hasdingi Vandals, established a kingdom in Gallaecia, too, occupying largely the same region
but extending farther south to the Duero river. The Silingi Vandals occupied the region that still bears a form of their
name –Vandalusia, modern Andalusia, in Spain. The Byzantines established an enclave, Spania, in the south, with
the intention of reviving the Roman empire throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under
Visigothic rule.

Muslim Iberia
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered
(711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa.
These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Islamic
Empire. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the
peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.
Under Islamic law, Christians and Jews were given the subordinate
status of dhimmi. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice
their religions as people of the book but they were required to pay a
special tax and to be subject to certain discriminations.[24] [25] The Alhambra palace complex, in Granada.
Conversion to Islam proceeded at a steadily increasing pace. The
muladies (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of
Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.[26] [27]
Spain 6

The Muslim community in the Iberian peninsula was itself diverse and beset by
social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of
the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.[28]
Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the
Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley
and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada.[27]

Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate, was the largest, richest and most
sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange
flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East
and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played an important part in
reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. The
Romanized cultures of the Iberian peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish
La Giralda, the bell tower of Seville
cultures in complex ways, thus giving the region a distinctive culture.[27] Outside
Cathedral the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman
times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners,
and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture.

In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the
opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories.[27] The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the
Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of
Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. This re-united Islamic state, experienced more than a century of
successes that partially reversed Christian gains.

End of Muslim rule and unification

The Reconquista ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of
expansion of Iberia's Christian kingdoms. The Reconquista is viewed
as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga in 722, and was concurrent
with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula. The Christian
army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian
Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains.
Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which
was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago
de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom.
Loarre Castle, in Huesca
Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were
defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, Frankia. Later,
Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of
the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre,
Aragon and Catalonia.[29] For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier
between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along
the Ebro and Duero valleys.

Ávila city walls

Spain 7

The Cathedral of Burgos, jewel of the Spanish

gothic style, located in the city of Burgos, capital
of Castile.

King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of

Castile: the Catholic Monarchs.

The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped

the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The
capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a
significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian
kingdoms. Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century,
the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the
13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the
Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south.[30]
Alcázar of Segovia
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinids Muslim sect based in
North Africa invaded and established some enclaves on the southern
coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish Muslim rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. The 13th century also
witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean,
to Sicily and even Athens.[31] Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254)
were established. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.[32]

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of
Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in
Spain 8

1492, the combined forces of the Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada, ending the last remnant of a
781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance toward
The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by
Isabella. That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish
territories during the Spanish Inquisition.[34] A few years later, following social disturbances, Muslims were also
expelled under the same conditions.[35] [36]
As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and
the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of
the two kingdoms.[36] With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the
first world power.

Imperial Spain
The unification of the crowns of
Aragon and Castile laid the basis for
modern Spain and the Spanish
Empire.[37] Spain was Europe's leading
power throughout the 16th century and
most of the 17th century, a position
reinforced by trade and wealth from
colonial possessions. It reached its
apogee during the reigns of the first
two Spanish Habsburgs – Charles I
(1516–1556) and Philip II
The Spanish Empire's historical influence
(1556–1598). This period saw the
Italian Wars, the revolt of the
comuneros, the Dutch revolt, the Morisco revolt, clashes with the Ottomans, the Anglo-Spanish war and wars with

The Spanish Empire expanded to include great parts of the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy,
cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the
Netherlands. It was the first empire of which it was said that the sun never set.
This was an age of discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across
oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. Along with the arrival of precious metals, spices,
luxuries, and new agricultural plants, Spanish explorers brought back knowledge from the New World, and played a
leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.[39] The cultural efflorescence witnessed is
now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. The rise of humanism, the Protestant Reformation and new geographical
discoveries raised issues addressed by the influential intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca.
Spain 9

In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century, Spain was confronted
by unrelenting challenges from all sides. Barbary pirates under the aegis of the
rapidly growing Ottoman empire, disrupted life in many coastal areas through
their slave raids and renewed the threat of an Islamic invasion.[40] This at a time
when Spain was often at war with France.
The Protestant Reformation schism from the Catholic Church dragged the
kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result
was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in
the Mediterranean.[41]
By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th century Europe the
Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in the continent-wide
A Spanish galleon religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and
undermined the European economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most
of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the
advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal (with whom it
had been united in a personal union of the crowns from 1580 to 1640) and the Netherlands, and eventually suffered
some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years

In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual relative
decline, during which it surrendered a number of small territories to
France. However it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire,
which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne
which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of
Spanish Succession was a wide ranging international conflict
combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European
El Escorial, built in Philip II's reign, near Madrid.
possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the

During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a
true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon
into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.[44]
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new
Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment
ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Military assistance for the rebellious
British colonies in the American War of Independence improved the kingdom's international standing.[45]
Spain 10

Napoleonic rule and its consequences

In 1793, Spain went to war against the new French Republic, which
had overthrown and executed its Bourbon king, Louis XVI. The war
polarised the country in an apparent reaction against the gallicised
elites. Defeated in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 and it
effectively became a client state of that country; In 1807, the secret
treaty of Fontainebleau between Napoleon and the deeply unpopular
Godoy led to a declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. French
troops entered the kingdom unopposed, supposedly to invade Portugal,
but instead they occupied Spanish fortresses. This invasion by trickery
led to the abdication of the ridiculed Spanish king in favour of Second of May 1808: the people revolt against the
Bonapartist regime
Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte.

This foreign puppet monarch was widely regarded with scorn. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist
uprisings against the Bonapartist regime across the country.[46] These revolts marked the beginning of what is known
to the Spanish as the War of Independence, and to the British as the Peninsular War.[47] Napoleon was forced to
intervene personally, defeating several badly coordinated Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat.
However, further military action by Spanish guerrillas and armies, and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces,
combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from the
Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.[48]
The French invasions devastated the economy, and left Spain a deeply divided country prone to political instability.
The power struggles of the early 19th century led to the loss of all of its colonies in the Americas (which stretched
from Las Californias to Patagonia), with the sole exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Spanish–American War
Amid the instability and economic crisis that afflicted Spain in the 19th century there arose nationalist movements in
the Philippines and Cuba. Wars of independence ensued in those colonies and eventually the United States became
involved. Despite the commitment and ability shown by some military units, they were so mismanaged by the
highest levels of command that the Spanish–American War, fought in the Spring of 1898, did not last long. "El
Desastre" (The Disaster), as the war became known, helped give impetus to the Generation of 98 who were already
conducting much critical analysis concerning the country. It also weakened the stability that had been established
during Alfonso XII's reign.

Spanish Civil War

The 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of
Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. The heavy losses suffered during the Rif war in Morocco
helped to undermine the monarchy. A period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera
(1923–1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. The Republic offered political autonomy
to the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia and gave voting rights to women.
Spain 11

The Spanish Civil War (1936–39) ensued. Three years later the
Nationalist forces, led by General Francisco Franco, emerged
victorious with the support of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Popular
Front government side was supported by the Soviet Union and Mexico
and International Brigades, including the American Abraham Lincoln
Brigade, but it was not supported officially by the Western powers due
to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention.

The Civil War claimed the lives of over 500,000 people[49] and caused
the flight of up to a half-million citizens.[50] Most of their descendants General Franco and US President Eisenhower in
Madrid (1959)
now live in Latin American countries, with some 300,000 in Argentina
alone.[51] The Spanish Civil War has been called the first battle of the
Second World War; under Franco the country was neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the

The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS,
formed in 1937; the party emphasised anti-Communism, Catholicism and nationalism. Given Franco's opposition to
competing political parties, the party was renamed the National Movement (Movimiento Nacional) in 1949.
After World War II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This
changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the U.S. to establish a
military presence on the Iberian peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the U.S.S.R into the Mediterranean
basin. In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth in what became known as the
Spanish miracle, which resumed the much interrupted transition towards a modern economy.
With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos assumed the
position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the law.
With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the
arrival of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions
and created an internal organization based on autonomous

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism has coexisted

with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation
Spanish Constitution of 1978
ETA. The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has
continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of
democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.
On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military
backed government. King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup
plotters, via national television, to surrender.
On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO, following a referendum. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party
(PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 Spain joined the European Community;
what became the European Union. The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) after the latter
won the 1996 General Elections; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.
Spain 12

21st century
On 1 January 2002, Spain ceased to use the peseta as currency
replacing it with the euro, which it shares with 15 other countries in the
Eurozone. Spain has also seen strong economic growth, well above the
EU average, but well publicised concerns issued by many economic
commentators at the height of the boom that the extraordinary property
prices and high foreign trade deficits of the boom were likely to lead to
a painful economic collapse were confirmed by a severe property led
recession that struck the country in 2008/9.[52]

A series of bombs exploded in commuter trains in Madrid, Spain on 11

Spain issued a new currency, the euro, in 2002
March 2004. After a five month trial in 2007 it was concluded the
bombings were perpetrated by a local Islamist militant group inspired
by al-Qaeda.[53] The bombings killed 191 people and wounded more than 1800, and the intention of the perpetrators
may have been to influence the outcome of the Spanish general election, held three days later.[54]
Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating possible Islamist
involvement. Because of the proximity of the election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political
controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the
aftermath.[55] At 14 March elections, PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, obtained a plurality, enough to
form a new cabinet with Rodríguez Zapatero as the new Presidente del Gobierno or Prime Minister of Spain, thus
succeeding the former PP administration.[56]

At 504782 km2 ( sq mi), Spain is the world's 51st-largest country. It is
some 47000 km2 (18000 sq mi) smaller than France and 81000 km2
(31000 sq mi) larger than the U.S. state of California. The Teide
(Tenerife, Canary Islands) is the highest peak of Spain and the third
largest volcano in the world from its base.
Spain lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and
5° E.

Bossòst (Lleida), in the Pyrenees

On the west, Spain borders Portugal; on the south, it borders Gibraltar

(a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its exclaves in
North Africa (Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera). On
the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it borders France
and the tiny principality of Andorra.
Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the
Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited El Sardinero beach, in Santander (Cantabria)
islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as
Plazas de soberanía, such as the Chafarine islands, the isle of Alborán, Alhucemas, and the tiny Isla Perejil. Along
the Pyrenees in Catalonia, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France. The little Pheasant Island in
the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium.
Spain 13

Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the
main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica, Sistema Ibérico, Sistema Central, Montes de Toledo, Sierra
Morena and the Sistema Penibético whose highest peak, the 3,478 m high Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the
highest point in the Iberian peninsula. Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the Tagus, the
Ebro, the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is
that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.

Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical
situation and orographic conditions:[57] [58] [59]
• The Mediterranean climate, characterized by dry and warm
summers. According to the Köppen climate classification, it is
dominant in the peninsula, with two varieties: the typical
Mediterranean climate (Csa climate), present in most of the country,
and the Galician variant (Galicia and Northwest Castilla), with
summers less hot due to the proximity of the ocean (Csb climate) or
the altitude.
Climatic areas of Spain according to the Köppen
• The semiarid climate (Bsk), located in southeastern quarter of the
climate classification
country, especially in the region of Murcia and in the Ebro valley.
In contrary to the Mediterranean climate, the dry season extends beyond the summer.
• The oceanic climate: Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.
In the coastal strip near the Basque Country, the Asturias, and in some highlands, we find essentially a "southern"
nuance (sometimes called "Aquitanian"), which differs from the typical type by hotter summers (average July
temperature of 21 °C (69.8 °F) in Santander, vs 16 °C (60.8 °F) in Brest or Liverpool).
For some authors, Galicia presents an oceanic climate too, because of lower temperatures in summer than in the
typical Mediterranean climate. Nevertheless, Northwest Spain is often affected by forest fires due to the summer
drought,[60] and has more daily sunshine than the typical oceanic regions. Apart from these main types, other
sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in the Pyrenees, and a humid subtropical climate in the Canary

Islander population:[61]

Teide, the highest mountain in Spain (Tenerife,

Canary Islands) The city of Palma of Mallorca

• 1. Tenerife 899,833
• 2. Mallorca 862,397
Spain 14

• 3. Gran Canaria 838,397

• 4. Lanzarote 141,938
• 5. Ibiza 125,053
• 6. Fuerteventura 103,107
• 7. Menorca 92,434
• 8. La Palma 85,933
• 9. La Gomera 22,259
• 10. El Hierro 10,558
• 11. Formentera 7,957
• 12. Arosa 4,889
• 13. La Graciosa 658
• 14. Tabarca 105
• 15. Ons 61

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to
democracy. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of
1812. Impatient with the pace of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977,
Spain's new King Juan Carlos, known for his formidable personality, dismissed
Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime
Minister.[62] [63] The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent
Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for
the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978.[64] After a
national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new
King Juan Carlos I
As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two
autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution,
which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation as well as that Spain has today no
official religion but all are free to practice and believe as they wish.
As of November 2009, the government of Spain keeps a balanced gender equality ratio. Nine out of the 18 members
of the Government are women. Under the administration of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Spain has been described
as being "at the vanguard" in gender equality issues and also that "[n]o other modern, democratic, administration
outside Scandinavia has taken more steps to place gender issues at the centre of government".[65] The Spanish
administration has also promoted gender-based positive discrimination by approving gender equality legislation in
2007 aimed to provide equality between genders in the Spanish political and economic life (Gender Equality
Act).[66] [67] However, in the legislative branch, as of July 2010 only 128 out of the 350 members of the Congress
are women (36.3%).[68] Nowadays, it positions Spain as the 13th country with more women in its lower house. In the
Senate, the ratio is even lower, since there are only 79 women out of 263 (30.0%).[69] The Gender Empowerment
Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, the 12th in the world.[70]
Spain 15

Branches of government
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral
parliament, the Cortes Generales. The executive branch consists of a Council of
Ministers of Spain presided over by the Prime Minister, nominated and appointed
by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative
elections. By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the
ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from
parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los

Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by
proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with
259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51
appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Prime
• Head of State
• King Juan Carlos I, since 22 November 1975
• Head of Government
• Prime Minister of Spain (Spanish Presidente del Gobierno literally President of the Government): José Luis
Rodríguez Zapatero, elected 14 March 2004.
• First Vice President and Minister of Interior: Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba.
• Second Vice President and Minister of Economy and Finance: Elena Salgado.
• Third Vice President and Minister of Territorial Policy: Manuel Chaves.
• Cabinet
• Council of Ministers (Spanish Consejo de Ministros) designated by the Prime Minister.
The Spanish nation is organizationally composed in the form of called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of
Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralized countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and
Belgium;[71] for example, all Autonomous Communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public
administrations, budgets, and resources; therefore, health and education systems among others are managed
regionally, besides, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral
provisions. In Catalonia and the Basque Country, a full fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State
police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, Ertzaintza, Policía Foral and Policía Canaria).
Spain 16

Administrative divisions

La Rioja
La Mancha
y León
Basque Country
Spain 17

Mediterranean Sea
Bay of Biscay

Gibraltar (UK)

The basic institutional law of the autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. The Statutes of Autonomy
establish the denomination of the community according to its historical identity, the limits of their territories, the
name and organization of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according the constitution.[72]
The government of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers comprising:
• a Legislative Assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of
proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
• a Government Council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the
Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;
• a Supreme Court of Justice, under the Supreme Court of the State, which head the judicial organization within the
autonomous community.
Spain 18

Besides Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia, which identified themselves as nationalities, other
communities have taken that denomination in accordance to their historical regional identity, such as the Valencian
Community,[73] the Canary Islands,[74] the Balearic Islands,[75] and Aragon.[76]
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and
regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes
of Autonomy. There used to be a clear de facto distinction between so called "historic" communities (Basque
Country, Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia) and the rest. The "historic" ones initially received more functions, including
the ability of the regional presidents to choose the timing of the regional elections (as long as they happen no more
than four years apart).
As another example, the Basque Country, Navarre and Catalonia have full-range police forces of their own:
Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, Policía Foral in Navarre and Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia. Other communities
have more limited forces or none at all (like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza[77] in Andalusia or the BESCAM in
However, the recent amendments made to their respective Statute of Autonomy by a series of "ordinary"
Autonomous Communities such as the Valencian Community or Aragon have weakened this original de facto

Autonomous communities are composed of provinces (provincias), which serve as the territorial building blocks for
the former. In turn, provinces are composed of municipalities (municipios). The existence of these two subdivisions
is granted and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities
are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out
the activities of the State.[78]
The current fifty province structure is based—with minor changes—on the one created in 1833 by Javier de Burgos.
The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are counted as
provinces as well, but were granted autonomy as single-provinces for historical reasons.

Foreign relations
After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975,
Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic
isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the
European Community, and define security relations with the West.
As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a
major participant in multilateral international security activities.
Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign
Spain became a member of the European Union
policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe,
in 1986 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the
European political cooperation mechanisms.

With the normalization of diplomatic relations with North Korea in 2001, Spain completed the process of
universalizing its diplomatic relations.
Spain has maintained its special identification with Latin America. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an
Iberoamerican community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of hispanoamericanismo, or
Hispanism as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula with Latin America
through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain has been an effective example of transition from
dictatorship to democracy for formerly non-democratic Latin American states, as shown in the many trips that
Spain 19

Spain's King and Prime Ministers have made to the region.

Territorial disputes
Spain claims Gibraltar, a 6 square km Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the
Iberian Peninsula. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the
Spanish Succession on behalf of the Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne.
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of
Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown[79]
stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain
first. Ever since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The
overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any
proposal of shared sovereignty.[80] UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom
and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of
Gibraltar.[81] [82]

However, the Spanish claim handles in a different way the Rock and the city of
Gibraltar, ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, and, on the other hand, the isthmus that
connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland. Spain notes that this territory was not
ceded by said Treaty and therefore asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is Port of Melilla
illegal and against the principles of the International Law". The United
Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,[84] as there has been
"continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period".[85]

Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the
Strait of Gibraltar. The island lies 250 meters just off the coast of Morocco, 8 km from Ceuta and 13.5 km from
mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident
between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante
which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of
Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of
Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza.

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas
Armadas Españolas). Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Juan Carlos I.[86]
The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:[87]
• Army (Ejército de Tierra)
• Navy (Armada)
• Air Force (Ejército del Aire)
Emblem of Spanish
Armed Forces
Spain 20

Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the twelfth largest worldwide and
the fifth largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's fourth
largest. Spain is also the third largest world investor.[88]
The centre-right government of former prime minister José María
Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries
launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October
2006, a rate that compared favorably to many other European
Madrid: Cuatro Torres Business Area
countries, and especially with the early 1990s when it stood at over
20%. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include high
inflation,[89] a large underground economy,[90] and an education
system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed
countries, together with the United States and UK.[91]

However, the property bubble that begun building from 1997, fed by
historically low interest rates and an immense surge in immigration,
imploded in 2008, leading to a rapidly weakening economy and Barcelona: finance centre

soaring unemployment. By the end of May 2009, unemployment

reached 18.7% (37% for youths).[92] [93]
Before the current crisis, the Spanish economy was credited for having avoided
the virtual zero growth rate of some of its largest partners in the EU.[94] In fact,
the country's economy created more than half of all the new jobs in the European
Union over the five years ending 2005, a process that is rapidly being
reversed.[95] The Spanish economy has been until recently regarded as one of the
most dynamic within the EU, attracting significant amounts of foreign

Spain is part of a monetary union, the

Eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU
single market.

The most recent economic growth benefited greatly from the global real estate
boom, with construction representing an astonishing 16% of GDP and 12% of
employment in its final year.[97]
According to calculations by the German newspaper Die Welt, Spain was on
course to overtake countries like Germany in per capita income by 2011.[98]
However, the GDP per capita of Spain was still lower than the European Union
average at US$29,875 in 2010, making it the second lowest in the Western
Europe after Portugal.[99] The downside of the now defunct real estate boom is
The city of Valencia
also a corresponding rise in the levels of personal debt: as prospective home
owners struggled to meet asking prices, the average level of household debt
tripled in less than a decade. This placed especially great pressure upon lower to middle income groups; by 2005 the
median ratio of indebtedness to income had grown to 125%, due primarily to expensive boom time mortgages that
now often exceed the value of the property.[100]
Spain 21

In 2008/2009 the credit crunch and world recession manifested itself in Spain through a massive downturn in the
property sector. Fortunately, Spain's banks and financial services avoided the more severe problems of their
counterparts in the USA and UK, due mainly to a stringently enforced conservative financial regulatory regime. The
Spanish financial authorities had not forgotten the country's own banking crisis of 1979 and an earlier
real-estate-precipitated banking crisis of 1993. Indeed, Spain's largest bank, Banco Santander, participated in the UK
government's bail-out of part of the UK banking sector.[101]
A European Commission forecast predicted Spain would enter a recession by the end of 2008.[102] According to
Spain’s Finance Minister, “Spain faces its deepest recession in half a century”.[103] Spain's government forecast the
unemployment rate would rise to 16% in 2009. The ESADE business school predicted 20%.[104]

During the last four decades the Spanish tourism industry has grown to become the second biggest in the world,
worth approximately 40 billion Euros, about 5% of GDP, in 2006.[97] [105] Today, the climate of Spain, historical and
cultural monuments and its geographic position together with its facilities make tourism one of Spain's main national
industries and a large source of stable employment and development. The Spanish hotel star rating system has
requirements much more demanding than other European countries, so at a given rating Spanish accommodations
worth higher.[106]

Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and
production of renewable energy. In 2010 Spain became the solar power
world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power
station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz.[107] [108] Spain
is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. In 2010 its wind
turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all the
energy produced in Spain.[109] [110] [111] PS10 Seville solar power tower

The Spanish road system is mainly centralized, with 6 highways
connecting Madrid to the Basque Country, Catalonia, Valencia, West
Andalusia, Extremadura and Galicia. Additionally, there are highways
along the Atlantic (Ferrol to Vigo), Cantabrian (Oviedo to San
Sebastián) and Mediterranean (Girona to Cádiz) coasts.
Spain boasts the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and
the second most extensive in the world after China.[112] [113] [114] As of
October 2010 Spain has a total of 3500 km (2174.80 mi) of high speed
AVE Barcelona-Madrid
train linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and
Valladolid, reaching speeds up to 300 km/h (187 mph). Should the
aims of the ambitious AVE program (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7000 km (4300 mi)
of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than 3 hours and Barcelona within 4 hours.

The busiest airport in Spain is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50.8 million passengers in 2008, being the
world's 11th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also
important, with 30 million passengers in 2008. Other airports are located in Gran Canaria, Málaga, Valencia, Seville,
Mallorca, Alicante and Bilbao.
Spain 22

Spain aims to put 1 million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and
boost energy efficiency.[115] The Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastian said that "the electric vehicle is the future
and the engine of an industrial revolution."[116]

In 2008 the population of Spain
officially reached 46 million people, as
recorded by the Padrón municipal.[117]
Spain's population density, at 91/km²
(235/sq mi), is lower than that of most
Western European countries and its
distribution across the country is very
unequal. With the exception of the
region surrounding the capital, Madrid,
the most populated areas lie around the
coast. The population of Spain doubled
during the 20th century, principally
due to the spectacular demographic Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008
boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.

Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's
population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward, based initially on the return of many
Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large
numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America
(39%), North Africa (16%) Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%).[118] In 2005, Spain instituted a
three-month amnesty program through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.

In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco.[119] A
sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These
are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean costas and
Balearic islands, where many are choosing to live their retirement or telework.
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most
notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what
became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's
population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Spaniards emigrated, mostly to
Peru and Mexico.[120] They were joined by 450,000 in the next century.[121] Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated
that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil.[122] Approximately
two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 to 1975. During the same period
perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.[123]
Spain 23

See also List of metropolitan areas in
Spain by population Source: ESPON,

Map of the main metropolitan areas

The city of Las Palmas de G.C.

The city of Girona

Spain 24

The city of Toledo

Pos. City Region Prov. population

1 Madrid Madrid Madrid 6,103,000

2 Barcelona Catalonia Barcelona 4,851,000

3 Valencia Valencian Community Valencia 1,499,000

4 Seville Andalusia Seville 1,262,000

5 Bilbao Basque Country Biscay 1,000,000

6 Málaga Andalusia Málaga 900,000

7 Oviedo–Gijón Asturias Asturias 844,000

8 Alicante–Elche Valencian Community Alicante 793,000

9 Las Palmas de G.C. Canarias Las Palmas 750,000

10 Zaragoza Aragon Zaragoza 730,000

Pos. City Region Prov. population

1 Madrid Madrid Madrid 3,213,271

2 Barcelona Catalonia Barcelona 1,615,908

3 Valencia Valencian Community Valencia 810,064

4 Seville Andalusia Seville 703.206

5 Zaragoza Aragon Zaragoza 699.240

6 Málaga Andalusia Málaga 566,447

7 Murcia Murcia Murcia 430,571

8 Palma de Mallorca Balearic Islands Balearic Islands 401,570

9 Las Palmas de G.C. Canary Islands Las Palmas 381,723

10 Bilbao Basque Country Biscay 353,340

The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises historic entities ("nationalities", a carefully chosen
word in order to avoid the more politically charged "nations") and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.
For some people, Spain's identity consists more of an overlap of different regional identities than of a sole Spanish
identity. Indeed, some of the regional identities may even conflict with the Spanish one. Distinct traditional regional
identities within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians and Castilians, among others.[125]
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or Autonomous Community and the Spanish
level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Spain 25

Minority groups
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies (especially Equatorial Guinea) and
immigrants from several Sub-Saharan and Caribbean countries have been recently settling in Spain. There are also
sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Middle Eastern and South
Asian origins; the population of Latin Americans (who can also be of Spaniard descent) is sizeable as well and a fast
growing segment. Other growing groups are Britons, 760,000 in 2006, Germans and other immigrants from the rest
of Europe.[126]
The arrival of the Gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Gitano population
fluctuate around 700,000.[127] The Mercheros (also Quinquis) are a minority group, formerly nomadic, that share a
lot of the way of life of Gitanos. Their origin is unclear.

According to the Spanish government there were 4.5 million foreign residents in Spain in 2007; independent
estimates put the figure at 4.8 million people, or 11% of the total population.[128] According to residence permit data
for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanian, and
260,000 were Colombian. Other sizeable foreign communities are British (8%), French (8%), Argentine (6%),
German (6%) and Bolivian (3%). Spain has more than 200,000 migrants from West and Central Africa.[129] Since
2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only
half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely
by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.[130]
Within the EU, Spain has the second highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great
margin, the highest in absolute numbers.[131] There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration,
including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size
of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low
cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.
Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's
Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant
population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.[132] According to the Financial Times, Spain is the
most favoured destination for West Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs
elsewhere in the EU.[133]
The number of immigrants in Spain has grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total
population of 46 million.[134] [135] In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant
population by 700,000 people.[136] Unemployment among immigrants has risen 67% in 2007. Spain's new Plan of
Voluntary Return encourages immigrants to leave Spain for three years and offers up to €25,000, but so far, only 186
Ecuadorans have signed up to return.[137] [138] In the program's first two months last year, just 1,400 immigrants took
up the offer.[139]
Spain 26

Spanish (español or castellano, Castilian) is spoken all
over the country and so is the only language with
official status nationwide. But a number of regional
languages have been declared co-official, along with
Spanish, in the constituent communities where they are

• Basque (euskera) (2%) in the Basque Country and

• Catalan (català) (17%) in Catalonia and the Balearic
Islands; Valencian (valencià), a distinct variant of
Catalan, is official in the Valencian Community; The languages of Spain (simplified)

• Galician (galego) (7%)[140] in Galicia.

There are also some other surviving Romance minority languages such as the Astur-Leonese group, which includes
two languages in Spain: Asturian (officially called "Bable") which has protected status in Asturias, and Leonese,
which is protected in Castile and León. Aragonese is vaguely recognized in Aragon.[141] Unlike Basque,
Catalan/Valencian and Galician, these languages do not have any official status. This might be due to their very
small number of speakers, a less significant written tradition in comparison to Catalan or Galician, and lower
self-awareness of their speakers which traditionally meant lack of strong popular demand for their recognition in the
regions in which they are spoken.[142]

In the North African Spanish city of Melilla, Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. In the
tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign
residents, and tourism workers.

State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of 6 to 16. The current education system was
established by an educational law of 2006, Ley Orgánica de Educación, or Fundamental Law of Education.[143]


Religions in Spain

Catholicism 76%

Non-religious 13%

Atheism 7.3%

No answer 1.6%

Others 2.1%
Numbers from the following source:

Roman Catholicism has long been the main religion of Spain,and although it no longer has official status by law, in
all public schools in Spain students have to choose either religion or ethics and Catholic is the only religion officially
taught although in some schools there are large numbers of Muslim students together. According to a July 2009
study by the Spanish Center of Sociological Research about 73% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2.1% other
faith, and about 22% identify with no religion among which 7.3% are atheists. Most Spaniards do not participate
regularly in religious services. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious,
Spain 27

58% hardly ever or never go to church, 17% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15%
every Sunday or multiple times per week.[144]
But according to a December 2006 study, 48% of the population declared a belief
in a supreme being, while 41% described themselves as atheist or agnostic.[145]
Altogether, about 22% of the entire Spanish population attends religious services
at least once per month.[146] Though Spanish society has become considerably
more secular in recent decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who
tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has helped the Catholic Church to

Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members.[147] There are about 105,000
Jehovah's Witnesses. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has
approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the
country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.[148]
Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of
(A Coruña), the destination of the
Way of St. James Muslims, who number approximately one million in Spain. Presently, Islam is
the second largest religion in Spain, accounting for approximately 2.3% of the
total population.[149] After their expulsion in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century
colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full
citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.[150]

Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again
permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population.
Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000
Jews are thought to have lived in Spain on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition.[151] Currently, Jews of Sephardic
origin are given preferential status in the acquisition of Spanish citizenship.

Spain is known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been
influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. Spanish
culture has its origins in the Iberian, Celtiberian, Latin, Visigothic,
Roman Catholic, and Islamic cultures.
The definition of a national Spanish culture has been characterized by
tension between the centralized state, dominated in recent centuries by
The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Castile, and numerous regions and minority peoples. In addition, the
Ciències, Valencia history of the nation and its Mediterranean and Atlantic environment
have played strong roles in shaping its culture. After Italy, Spain has
the second highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, with a total of 40.[152]
Spain 28

The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish
language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily
from Spain. For literature from Spain in languages other than the Spanish, see
Catalan literature, Basque literature and Galician literature. Equally, for
Spanish-American literature specifically, see Latin American literature. Due
to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has
known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major
literary movements can be identified within it.

Miguel de Cervantes is probably Spain's most famous author and his Don
Quixote is considered the most emblematic work in the canon of Spanish
literature and a founding classic of Western literature.[153]

Institutions Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote is

The Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española or RAE, in Spanish) considered to be the first modern
is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. It is based in
Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in 21
Spanish-speaking nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies. Its emblem is a fiery crucible,
and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor ("It cleans, sets, and gives splendor").[154]
The Institute for Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans or IEC, in Catalan) is an academic institution which
seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture". The IEC is known principally for its
work in standardizing the Catalan language. The IEC is based in Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. Officially the
IEC provides standards for Catalonia proper, Northern Catalonia (located in France), the Balearic Islands, and the
Principality of Andorra (the only country where Catalan is the sole official language). The Valencian Community
has its own language academy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. In an area known as the Franja de Ponent,
the eastern edge of Aragon adjacent to Catalonia where Catalan is spoken, the rules are used de facto although
Catalan is not an official language.

Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of
various European artistic movements. Due to historical, geographical
and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of
influences. The Moorish heritage in Spain, especially in Andalusia, is
still evident today in cities like Córdoba, Seville, and Granada.
European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially
during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth
and Volver.[155] In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve
world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. Spanish cinema has also seen international success
over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura,
Julio Medem and Alejandro Amenábar.
Spain 29

Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in
what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide.
The term includes buildings within the current geographical limits of
Spain before this name was given to those territories, whether they
were called Hispania, Al-Andalus, or were formed of several Christian

The Plaza de Cibeles in Madrid

Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn
from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans
and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural
capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic
Umayyad dynasty.[156] Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed
under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid, which built its famed
palace complex in Granada.

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their

own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from
contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier
Nativity facade of the Sagrada Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There
Família Temple in Barcelona
was then an extraordinary flowering of the gothic style that resulted in numerous
instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar style, from the
12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European

The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the

architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centered in
Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important
architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by
groups like GATEPAC. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in
contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo,
Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained
worldwide renown.

Auditorio de Tenerife in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, a West Andalusian musical genre,
which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound
in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy
metal are also popular.
Spain 30

In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted

composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique
Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José
Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo
Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and
Teresa Berganza. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras,
including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de
España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Major opera houses
include the Teatro Real,the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and
Spanish bagpipers or gaiteros, in Celanova
the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.
Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for
internationally recognised summer music festivals Sonar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno
acts, and Benicasim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts .[157] Both festivals mark Spain as an
international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.
The musical instrument originating in Spain most popular is undoubtedly the guitar.[158] Also typical of the northern
bands of bagpipers (gaiteros), mainly in Galicia and the Principality of Asturias.

Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from
differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced
by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and
reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive
history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In
particular, three main divisions are easily identified:

• Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to

Andalusia: heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito; several cold
soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Paella, a dish originating in the Valencian
Valencia[159] and arroz negro from Catalonia.[160] Community, Spain

• Inner Spain – Castile: hot, thick soups such as the bread and
garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantious stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally
conserved by salting, like Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, like Manchego cheese.
• Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, from Galicia to Navarre: vegetable and fish-based stews like pote
gallego and marmitako. Also, the lightly cured lacón ham.
Spain 31

Sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th
century. Real Madrid C.F. and FC Barcelona are two of the most
successful football clubs in the world. The country's national football
team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964 and
2008 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010.
Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, motorcycling and, lately, Formula
One are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all
these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse,
especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in The Camp Nou, in Barcelona: the largest football
Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the stadium in Europe
country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports
infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing.

Rafael Nadal is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won several Grand Slam titles including the Wimbledon
2010 men's singles. In north Spain, the game of pelota is very popular. Alberto Contador is the leading Spanish
cyclist and has won several Grand Tour titles including three Tour de France titles.

Public holidays
Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances.
Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by
the national government and at least two are chosen locally.[161] Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is
12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness
of Aragón and throughout Spain.

The city of San Sebastián in Guipúzcoa

[1] Also serves as the Royal anthem
[2] In some autonomous communities, Catalan, Valencian, Galician, Basque and Aranese (Occitan) are co-official languages. Aragonese,
Asturian and Leonese have some degree of official recognition
[3] "Official Population Figures of Spain. Population on the 1 April 2010" (http:/ / www. ine. es/ jaxiBD/ tabla. do?per=01& type=db&
divi=EPOB& idtab=2). Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España. . Retrieved 5 July 2010.
[4] "Spain" (http:/ / www. imf. org/ external/ pubs/ ft/ weo/ 2010/ 02/ weodata/ weorept. aspx?sy=2007& ey=2010& scsm=1& ssd=1&
sort=country& ds=. & br=1& c=184& s=NGDPD,NGDPDPC,PPPGDP,PPPPC,LP& grp=0& a=& pr. x=39& pr. y=11). International
Monetary Fund. . Retrieved 21 April 2010.
[5] "CIA World Factbook" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2172. html). . Retrieved 13 August 2008.
Spain 32

[6] "Human Development Report 2010" (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_2010_EN_Table1. pdf). United Nations. 2010. . Retrieved 5
November 2010.
[7] Prior to 1999 (by law, 2002) : Spanish Peseta.
[8] Except in the Canary Islands, which are in the WET time zone (UTC, UTC+1 in summer).
[9] The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Catalan-speaking
[10] In Spain, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for
Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:
• Aragonese: Reino d'Espanya;
• Asturian: Reinu d'España;
• Basque: Espainiako Erresuma;
• Catalan: Regne d'Espanya;
• Galician: Reino de España;
• Extremaduran: Réinu d'España;
• Occitan: Reialme d'Espanha
[11] The term "Kingdom of Spain" (Reino de España) is widely used by the Spanish Government for national and international affairs of all kind,
for example: Acuerdo entre el Reino de de España y Nueva Zelanda (http:/ / noticias. juridicas. com/ base_datos/ Admin/ ai281209-aec. html),
Acuerdo entre el reino de España y el reino de Marruecos (http:/ / www. mir. es/ SGACAVT/ derecho/ ac/ ac13021992. html); by the press (
El País (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ todo-sobre/ pais/ Espana/ ESP/ ), most sold spanish newspaper); and in many official documents (i.e. all
driving licenses (http:/ / t3. gstatic. com/ images?q=tbn:POLvL-tJBq8_KM:http:/ / www. motoradictos. com/ images/ 2010/ 05/
permiso-conducir-espana1. jpg& t=1) and permissions (http:/ / sbrabogados. files. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 02/ carnet_conducir. jpg)).
Additionally he Government always uses the name "Kingdom of Spain" when signing documents, treaties and pacts within the European
Union: Tratado de la Unión Europea (http:/ / noticias. juridicas. com/ base_datos/ Admin/ tue. t6. html)
[12] The Spanish constitution does not establish any official denomination of the country, even though España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish
State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used interchangeably. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in an Ordinance published in 1984,
declared that "denominations "Spain" and "Kingdom of Spain" are equally valid to designate the Spain in international treaties..."
[13] Anthon, Charles (1850). A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges (http:/ / books. google. com/
?id=hm0rAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA14& dq=hesperia& q=hesperia). New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 14. .
[14] Burke, Ulick Ralph (2nd edition, 2008). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Volume 1 (http:/
/ books. google. com/ ?id=DuiyyWGg-KEC& pg=PA410& dq=spain+ hispania& q=hispania). London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 14.
ISBN 978-1-4437-4054-8. .
[15] # ↑ Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica
en época prerromana, pg. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, ISBN 978-84-9815-764-2
[16] "'First west Europe tooth' found" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 6256356. stm). BBC. 30 June 2007. . Retrieved 9 August
[17] Typical Aurignacian items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The
radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP.
[18] (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ travel/ specials/ artistic_spain/ article5904206. ece)
[19] In recent years, some researchers have argued that Iberia might have been the original source of Celtic culture. See, Cunliffe, Karl, Guerra,
McEvoy, Bradley; Oppenheimer, Rrvik, Isaac, Parsons, Koch, Freeman Celtic from the West: Alternative Perspectives from Archaeology,
Genetics, Language and Literature 2010|publisher Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications; Rethinking the Bronze Age and the Arrival
of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe, University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies and Institute of Archaeology,
University of Oxford, 24 May 2010
[20] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Hispania" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc. html).
Library of Congress Country Series. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[21] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ spainport1. htm). The
Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[22] The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding
[23] The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.
[24] Dhimma provides rights of residence in return for taxes. H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, pg.
[25] Dhimmi have fewer legal and social rights than Muslims, but more rights than other non-Muslims.Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam.
Princeton: Princeton University Press (1984). ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3 p. 62
[26] Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ ics/ ics5. htm), Thomas F. Glick
[27] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 2 Al-Andalus" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ spainport1. htm). The
Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[28] The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central handed to them by the Arab rulers.
Spain 33

[29] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Castile and Aragon" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc.
html). Library of Congress Country Series. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[30] "Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ rc/ rc1. htm). .
Retrieved 13 August 2008. See also: Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 4 Castile-León in the Era of the Great
Reconquest" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ spainport1. htm). The Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[31] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 5 The Rise of Aragón-Catalonia" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/
spainport1. htm). The Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[32] "The Black Death" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080709074635/ http:/ / www. channel4. com/ history/ microsites/ H/ history/ a-b/
blackdeath. html). Channel 4. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. channel4. com/ history/ microsites/ H/ history/ a-b/ blackdeath. html)
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[33] "The Treaty of Granada, 1492" (http:/ / www. cyberistan. org/ islamic/ treaty1492. html). Islamic Civilisation. . Retrieved 13 August 2008.
[34] Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ article/
dn16200-spanish-inquisition-left-genetic-legacy-in-iberia. html). New Scientist. 4 December 2008.
[35] For the related expulsions that followed see Morisco.
[36] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – The Golden Age" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc.
html). Library of Congress Country Series. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[37] "Imperial Spain" (http:/ / www. ucalgary. ca/ applied_history/ tutor/ eurvoya/ Imperial. html). University of Calgary. . Retrieved 13 August
[38] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 13 The [[Spanish Empire (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ spainport1.
htm)]"]. The Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[39] Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. pp. passim.
ISBN 978-0-297-64563-4.
[40] According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African Muslim pirates and sold as slaves
during the 16th and 17th centuries.
[41] "The Seventeenth-Century Decline" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ payne15. htm). The Library of Iberian resources online. . Retrieved 13
August 2008.
[42] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age" (http:/ / libro. uca.
edu/ payne1/ spainport1. htm). The Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[43] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Spain in Decline" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc.
html). Library of Congress Country Series. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[44] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Bourbon Spain" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc.
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[45] Gascoigne, Bamber (1998). "History of Spain: Bourbon dynasty: from AD 1700" (http:/ / www. historyworld. net/ wrldhis/
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[46] David A. Bell. " Napoleon's Total War (http:/ / www. historynet. com/ wars_conflicts/ napoleonic_wars/ 6361907. html?page=2& c=y)".
[47] (Gates 2001, p.20)
[48] (Gates 2001, p.467)
[49] Spanish Civil War crimes investigation launched (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ spain/ 3212605/
Spanish-Civil-War-crimes-investigation-launched. html), Telegraph, 16 October 2008
[50] Spanish Civil War fighters look back (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ from_our_own_correspondent/ 2809025. stm), BBC
News, 23 February 2003
[51] " Relatives of Spaniards who fled Franco granted citizenship (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ spain/ 3998443/
Relatives-of-Spaniards-who-fled-Franco-granted-citizenship. html)". Daily Telegraph (UK) 28 December 2008.
[52] Pfanner, Eric (11 July 2002). "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2002/ 07/
11/ business/ worldbusiness/ 11iht-a10_18. html?scp=1& sq=Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza& st=cse).
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com/ displayStory. cfm?story_id=9118701). The Economist. 3 May 2007. . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
[53] "Al-Qaeda 'claims Madrid bombings'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 3509426. stm). BBC. 14 March 2004. . Retrieved 13
August 2008. See also: "Madrid bombers get long sentences" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 7070827. stm). BBC. 31 October
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[54] "Del 11-M al 14-M: estrategia yihadista, elecciones generales y opinión pública" (http:/ / www. realinstitutoelcano. org/ wps/ portal/
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[55] "Spain votes under a shadow" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 3509744. stm). BBC. 14 March 2004. . Retrieved 13 August
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Spain 34

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[60] "Forest fires in Spain" (http:/ / www. iberianature. com/ material/ fire. html). . Retrieved 2011-04-30.
[61] La superficie de las islas vendrá dada en hectáreas salvo la de las mayores islas de los archipiélagos canario y balear, así como las Plazas de
[62] John Hooper, The New Spainards, 2001, From Dictatorship to Democracy
[63] Spain's fast-living king turns 70 (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 7171971. stm) BBC News Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18
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[64] http:/ / www. senado. es/ constitu_i/ index. html|Spanish Constitution in English
[65] Diverging paths on gender equality (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 7375230. stm), BBC News, 10 May 2008.
[66] SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality (http:/ / www. ipsnews. net/ news. asp?idnews=36942), IPS News, 13 March 2007.
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[70] Human Development Report 2007/2008 (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_20072008_EN_Complete. pdf), p.330.
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[79] "Tratado de Utretch – Gibraltar (Spanish)" (http:/ / www. mgar. net/ docs/ utrech. htm). . Retrieved 9 August 2008.
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Spain 35

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asp). IMDiversity, Inc. . Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Spain: Immigrants Welcome" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/
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[132] "Population series from 1998" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071102141040/ http:/ / www. ine. es/ inebase/ cgi/ um?M=/ t20/ e245/
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[137] Spain Tries to Buy Out Immigrants (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0,8599,1852000,00. html), TIME, 20 October 2008
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20081009. MELTDOWNSPAIN09/ TPStory/ ?query=),, 9 October 2008
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CEDF300E8D943D3FC12571360037CC94?OpenDocument& i=0). Real Academia Española. . Retrieved 13 August 2008.
[155] Jordan, Barry; Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas (1998). Contemporary spanish cinema. Manchester University Press.
[156] Cruz, Jo (1999). Edited by David R. Blanks and Michael Frassetto. ed. Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe:
Perception and Other. New York: Saint Martin's Press. p. 56.
[157] http:/ / www. spoonfed. co. uk/ london/ festivals/ | Summer Festival Guide
[158] "The History of the Guitar in Spain" (http:/ / www. linguatics. com/ guitar. htm). . Retrieved 2011-04-30.
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(London: Times Newspapers). . Retrieved 6 August 2010.
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• Gates, David (2001). The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. Da Capo Press. p. 20.
ISBN 978-0-306-81083-1.

External links
• e-government Portal (
• Spain ( entry at The World
• Spain ( at the Open Directory Project
• Wikimedia Atlas of Spain
• Spain travel guide from Wikitravel
kbd:Эспаниэ ltg:Spaneja
History of Spain 38

History of Spain
The history of Spain involves all the other peoples and nations within the Iberian peninsula formerly known as
''Hispania'', and includes still today the states of Andorra , Gibraltar , Portugal and Spain. It spans from prehistoric
Iberia, through the rise and decline of a global empire, to the recent history of Spain as a member of the European
Union. Modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula about 32,000 years ago. Different populations and cultures
followed over the millennia, including the Iberians, the Tartessians, Celts and Celtiberians, Phoenicians, Greeks,
Carthaginians, Romans, Suebi and Visigoths. In 711, the Moors, a Berber and Arab army, invaded and conquered
nearly the entire peninsula. During the next 750 years, independent Muslim states were established, and the entire
area of Muslim control became known as Al-Andalus. Meanwhile the Christian kingdoms in the north began the
long and slow recovery of the peninsula, a process called the Reconquista, which was concluded in 1492 with the fall
of Granada.
The Kingdom of Spain was created in 1492 with the unification of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of
Aragon.[1] The first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World took place that same year, beginning the
development of the Spanish Empire. The Inquisition was established and Jews and Muslims who refused to convert
were expelled from the country.
For the next three centuries Spain was the most important colonial power in the world. It was the most powerful state
in Europe and the foremost global power during the 16th century and the greater part of the 17th century. Spanish
literature and fine arts, scholarship and philosophy flourished during this time. Spain established a vast empire in the
Americas, stretching from California to Patagonia, and colonies in the western Pacific. Financed in part by the riches
pouring in from its colonies, Spain became embroiled in the religiously charged wars and intrigues of Europe,
including, for example, obtaining and losing possessions in today's Netherlands, Italy, France, and Germany, and
engaging in wars with France, England, Sweden, and the Ottomans in the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa.
Spain's European wars, however, led to economic damage, and the latter part of the 17th century saw a gradual
decline of power under an increasingly neglectful and inept Habsburg regime. The decline culminated in the War of
Spanish Succession, which ended with the relegation of Spain from the position of a leading western power, to that
of a secondary one, although it remained (with Russia) the leading colonial power.
The 18th century saw a new dynasty, the Bourbons, which directed considerable efforts towards the renewal of state
institutions, with some success, finishing in a successful involvement in the American War of Independence.
However, as the century ended, a reaction set in with the accession of a new monarch. The end of the eighteenth and
the start of the 19th centuries saw turmoil unleashed throughout Europe by the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic
Wars, which finally led to a French occupation of much of the continent, including Spain. This triggered a successful
but devastating war of independence that shattered the country and created an opening for what would ultimately be
the successful independence of Spain's mainland American colonies. Shattered by the war, Spain was destabilised as
different political parties representing "liberal", "reactionary" and "moderate" groups throughout the remainder of the
century fought for and won short-lived control without any being sufficiently strong to bring about lasting stability.
Nationalist movements emerged in the last significant remnants of the old empire (Cuba and the Philippines) which
led to a brief war with the United States and the loss of the remaining old colonies at the end of the century.
Following a period of growing political instability in the early 20th century, in 1936 Spain was plunged into a bloody
civil war. The war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco which controlled the Spanish
government until 1975. Spain was officially neutral during World War II, although many Spanish volunteers fought
on both sides. The post-war decades were relatively stable (with the notable exception of an armed independence
movement in the Basque Country), and the country experienced rapid economic growth in the 1960s and early
1970s. The death of Franco in 1975 resulted in the return of the Bourbon monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos.
While tensions remain (for example, with Muslim immigrants and in the Basque region), modern Spain has seen the
development of a robust, modern democracy as a constitutional monarchy with popular King Juan Carlos, one of the
History of Spain 39

fastest-growing standards of living in Europe, entry into the European Community, and the 1992 Summer Olympics.

Early history
The earliest record of hominids living in Europe has been found in the Spanish cave of Atapuerca; fossils found there
date to roughly 1.2 million years ago.[2] Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving in the Iberian
Peninsula from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago. The most conspicuous sign of prehistoric human
settlements are the famous paintings in the northern Spanish cave of Altamira, which were done c. 15,000 BC and
are regarded as paramount instances of cave art.[3] Furthermore, archeological evidence in places like Los Millares in
Almería and in El Argar in Murcia suggests developed cultures existed in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula
during the late Neolithic and the Bronze Age.[4]
The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians successively settled along the Mediterranean Sea near
Tartessos, modern day Cádiz. Regarding Tartessos, it should also be mentioned that according to John Koch[5]
Cunliffe, Karl, Wodtko and other highly respected scholars, Celtic culture may well have developed first in far
Southern Portugal and Southwestern Spain, approximately 500 years prior to anything recorded in Central Europe.[6]
The Tartessian language from the southwest of Spain, written in a version of the Phoenician script in use around
825 BC, has been readily translated by John T. Koch as Celtic and is being accepted by a growing number of
philologists and other linguists as the first Celtic language.[5] [8] [9] In the 9th century BC, the first Greek colonies,
such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the east, leaving the south
coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber (Ebro in
Spanish). In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, and shortly
after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was
Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern day Cartagena).[10]
The native peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the
Iberians, inhabiting from the southwest part of the Peninsula through the northeast part of it, and then the Celts,
mostly inhabiting the north and northwest part of the Peninsula. In the inner part of the Peninsula, where both groups
were in contact, a mixed, distinctive, culture was present, the one known as Celtiberian.[2] The Celtiberian Wars or
Spanish Wars were fought between the advancing legions of the Roman Republic and the Celtiberian tribes of
Hispania Citerior from 181 to 133 BC.[11] [12]

Roman Hispania
Hispania was divided: Hispania Ulterior and
Hispania Citerior during the late Roman
Republic; and, during the Roman Empire,
Hispania Taraconensis in the northeast,
Hispania Baetica in the south (roughly
corresponding to Andalucia), and Lusitania
in the southwest (corresponding to modern

The base Celtiberian population remained in

Roman bridge in Cordoba
various stages of Romanisation,[14] and local
leaders were admitted into the Roman
aristocratic class.[15]
The Romans improved existing cities, such as Tarragona (Tarraco), and established others like Zaragoza
(Caesaraugusta), Mérida (Augusta Emerita), Valencia (Valentia), León ("Legio Septima"), Badajoz ("Pax
Augusta"), and Palencia.[16] The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage. Hispania supplied Rome
History of Spain 40

with food, olive oil, wine and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca and the
poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were born in Spain. The Spanish Bishops held the Council at Elvira in 306.
The first Germanic tribes to invade Hispania arrived in the 5th century, as the Roman Empire decayed.[17] The
Visigoths, Suebi, Vandals and Alans arrived in Spain by crossing the Pyrenees mountain range.[18] The Romanized
Visigoths entered Hispania in 415. After the conversion of their monarchy to Roman Catholicism, the Visigothic
Kingdom eventually encompassed a great part of the Iberian Peninsula after conquering the disordered Suebic
territories in the northwest and Byzantine territories in the southeast.[15] [19]
The collapse of the Western Roman Empire did not lead to the same wholesale destruction of Western classical
society as happened in areas like Roman Britain, Gaul and Germania Inferior during the Dark Ages, even if the
institutions, infrastructure and economy did suffer considerable degradation. Spain's present languages, its religion,
and the basis of its laws originate from this period. The centuries of uninterrupted Roman rule and settlement left a
deep and enduring imprint upon the culture of Spain.

Germanic Occupation of Hispania (5th–8th centuries)

After the decline of the Roman Empire, Germanic tribes invaded the former empire. Several turned sedentary and
created successor-kingdoms to the Romans in various parts of Europe. Iberia was taken over by the Visigoths after
In the Iberian peninsula, as elsewhere, the Empire fell
not with a bang but with a whimper. Rather than there
being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman
Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization"
of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a
weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd,
4th and 5th centuries.[21] At the same time, there was a
process of "Romanization" of the Germanic and
Hunnic tribes settled on both sides of the limes (the
fortified frontier of the Empire along the Rhine and
Danube rivers). The Visigoths, for example, were
converted to Arian Christianity around 360, even
before they were pushed into imperial territory by the
expansion of the Huns.[22] In the winter of 406, taking
advantage of the frozen Rhine, the (Germanic)
Vandals and Sueves, and the (Sarmatian) Alans
Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions in 700, prior to the invaded the empire in force. Three years later they
Muslim conquest.
crossed the Pyrenees into Iberia and divided the
Western parts, roughly corresponding to modern
Portugal and western Spain as far as Madrid, between them.[23] The Visigoths meanwhile, having sacked Rome two
years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (in the south of modern
France) and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian peninsula at the expense of the Vandals and Alans,
who moved on into North Africa without leaving much permanent mark on Hispanic culture. The Visigothic
Kingdom shifted its capital to Toledo and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild.

Importantly, Spain never saw a decline in interest in classical culture to the degree observable in Britain, Gaul,
Lombardy and Germany. The Visigoths tended to maintain more of the old Roman institutions, and they had a
unique respect for legal codes that resulted in continuous frameworks and historical records for most of the period
between 415, when Visigothic rule in Spain began, and 711, when it is traditionally said to end. The proximity of the
History of Spain 41

Visigothic kingdoms to the Mediterranean and the continuity of western Mediterranean trade, though in reduced
quantity, supported Visigothic culture. Arian Visigothic nobility kept apart from the local Catholic population. The
Visigothic ruling class looked to Constantinople for style and technology while the rivals of Visigothic power and
culture were the Catholic bishops— and a brief incursion of Byzantine power in Cordoba.
The period of rule by the Visigothic
Kingdom saw the spread of Arianism briefly
in Spain.[24] In 587, Reccared, the
Visigothic king at Toledo, having been
converted to Catholicism put an end to
dissension on the question of Arianism and
launched a movement in Spain to unify the
various religious doctrines that existed in the
land. The Council of Lerida in 546
constrained the clergy and extended the
power of law over them under the blessings
of Rome.

The Visigoths inherited from Late Antiquity

a sort of feudal system in Spain, based in the
south on the Roman villa system and in the
north drawing on their vassals to supply
troops in exchange for protection. The bulk
of the Visigothic army was composed of
slaves, raised from the countryside. The
loose council of nobles that advised Spain's
Greatest extent of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse, c. 500, showing Territory
Visigothic kings and legitimized their rule
lost after Vouillé in light orange.
was responsible for raising the army, and
only upon its consent was the king able to
summon soldiers.

The impact of Visigothic rule was not widely felt on society at large, and certainly not compared to the vast
bureaucracy of the Roman Empire; they tended to rule as barbarians of a mild sort, uninterested in the events of the
nation and economy, working for personal benefit, and little literature remains to us from the period. They did not,
until the period of Muslim rule, merge with the Spanish population, preferring to remain separate, and indeed the
Visigothic language left only the faintest mark on the modern languages of Iberia. The most visible effect was the
depopulation of the cities as they moved to the countryside. Even while the country enjoyed a degree of prosperity
when compared to the famines of France and Germany in this period, the Visigoths felt little reason to contribute to
the welfare, permanency, and infrastructure of their people and state. This contributed to their downfall, as they
could not count on the loyalty of their subjects when the Moors arrived in the 8th century.[25]

Muslim Era—al-Andalus (8th–15th centuries)

The Arab Islamic conquest dominated most of North Africa by 640 AD. In 711 an Islamic Arab and Berber raiding
party, led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad, was sent to Iberia to intervene in a civil war in the Visigothic Kingdom. Crossing the
Strait of Gibraltar, they won a decisive victory in the summer of 711 when the Visigothic King Roderic was defeated
and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete. Tariq's commander, Musa bin Nusair quickly crossed with
substantial reinforcements, and by 718 the Muslims dominated most of the Iberian Peninsula. The advance into
Western Europe was stopped in north-central France by the West Germanic Franks under Charles Martel at the
History of Spain 42

Battle of Tours in 732.

A decisive victory for the Christian kingdoms took place at Covadonga, Asturias, in the summer of 722. Known as
the Battle of Covadonga, the Muslims were stopped by a king, Pelagius of Asturias, who started the monarchy of the
Kingdom of Asturias (which later developed into the Kingdom of Castilla). The battle was one of the first stages of
the Reconquista.
Caliph Al-Walid I paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in the
Umayyad Caliphate (second major Arab dynasty after Mohammad and the first Arab dynasty of Al-Andalus) era. It
was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain. Caliph Al-Walid I's reign is considered as the apex of
Islamic power, though Islamic power in Spain specifically climaxed in the tenth century under Abd-ar-Rahman
The rulers of Al-Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus. Emir
Abd-ar-rahman I challenged the Abbasids. The Umayyad Caliphate, with origin in Hejaz, Arabian peninsula or
Emirate was overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate or Emirate (second Arab dynasty), some of the remaining
Umayyad leaders escaped to Castile and declared Cordoba an independent emirate. Al-Andalus was rife with
internal conflict between the Islamic Umayyad rulers and people and the Christian Visigoth-Roman leaders and
In the 10th century Abd-ar-rahman III, from Hejaz,
Arabian peninsula, grandson of the last caliph of
Damascus, Syria declared the Caliphate of Cordoba,
effectively breaking all ties with the Egyptian and
Syrian caliphs. The Caliphate was mostly concerned
with maintaining its power base in North Africa, but
these possessions eventually dwindled to the Ceuta
province. The first navy of the Caliph of Cordoba or
Emir was built after the humiliating Viking ascent of
the Guadalquivir in 844 when they sacked Seville. In
942, pagan Magyars (present day Hungary) raided
across Europe as far west as Al-Andalus.[27]
Meanwhile, a slow but steady migration of Christian
subjects to the northern kingdoms in Christian Hispania
was slowly increasing the latter's power. Even so,
Al-Andalus remained vastly superior to all the northern
kingdoms combined in population, economy and
Limits of the Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon in 1210.
military might; and internal conflict between the
Christian kingdoms contributed to keep them relatively

Al-Andalus coincided with La Convivencia, an era of relative religious tolerance, and with the Golden age of Jewish
culture in the Iberian Peninsula. (See: Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III 912 ; the Granada massacre 1066 ).[28]
Muslim interest in the peninsula returned in force around the year 1000 when Al-Mansur (known as Almanzor),
sacked Barcelona (985). Under his son, other Christian cities were subjected to numerous raids.[29] After his son's
death, the caliphate plunged into a civil war and splintered into the so-called "Taifa Kingdoms". The Taifa kings
competed against each other not only in war, but also in the protection of the arts, and culture enjoyed a brief
upswing. The Taifa kingdoms lost ground to the Christian realms in the north and, after the loss of Toledo in 1085,
the Muslim rulers reluctantly invited the Almoravides, who invaded Al-Andalus from North Africa and established
an empire. In the 12th century the Almoravid empire broke up again, only to be taken over by the Almohad invasion,
who were defeated in the decisive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212.
History of Spain 43

Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. The Almohads, who had
taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147, far surpassed the Almoravides in
fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of death, conversion, or
emigration, many Jews and Christians left.[30] The Christian kingdoms to the North had also, at times, treated
Muslims harshly. The treatment towards Jews at this time in Iberia varied greatly between and within the different
Muslim and Christian kingdoms. By the mid-13th century Emirate of Granada was the only independent Muslim
realm in Spain, which would last until 1492. Despite the decline in Muslim-controlled kingdoms, it is important to
note the lasting effects exerted on the peninsula by Muslims in technology, culture, and society.
The Kings of Aragón ruled territories that consisted of not only the present administrative region of Aragon but also
Catalonia, and later the Balearic Islands, Valencia, Sicily, Naples and Sardinia (see Crown of Aragon). Considered
by most to have been the first mercenary company in Western Europe, the Catalan Company proceeded to occupy
the Duchy of Athens, which they placed under the protection of a prince of the House of Aragon and ruled until

Dynastic Union
As the Reconquista continued, Christian
kingdoms and principalities developed. By
the 15th century, the most important among
these were the Kingdom of Castile
(occupying a northern and central portion of
the Iberian Peninsula) and the Kingdom of
Aragon (occupying northeastern portions of
the peninsula). The rulers of these two
kingdoms were allied with dynastic families
in Portugal, France, and other neighboring
kingdoms. The death of Henry IV in 1474
set off a struggle for power between
contenders for the throne of Castile,
including Joanna La Beltraneja, supported
by Portugal and France, and Queen Isabella
I, supported by the Kingdom of Aragon, and
by the Castilian nobility. Following the War
Iberian polities circa 1360
of the Castilian Succession, Isabella retained
the throne, and ruled jointly with her
husband, King Ferdinand II. Isabella held more authority over the newly unified Spain than her husband, although
their rule was shared.

Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon were known as the "Catholic Monarchs" (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos),
a title bestowed on them by Pope Alexander VI. They married in 1469 in Valladolid, uniting both crowns and setting
the stage for the creation of the Kingdom of Spain, at the dawn of the modern era. That union, however, was a union
in title only, as each region retained its own political and judicial structure, and even today Spain remains internally
divided. The monarchs also oversaw the final stages of the Reconquista of Iberian territory from the Moors with the
conquest of Granada, conquered the Canary Islands and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Spain under the
Alhambra decree, though Muslim (Morisco) culture remained influential. They authorized the expedition of
Christopher Columbus, who became the first known European to reach the New World since Leif Ericson, which led
to an influx of wealth into Spain, supplementing income from within Castile for the state that would prove to be a
dominant power of Europe for the next two centuries.
History of Spain 44

Isabella ensured long-term political stability in Spain by arranging strategic marriages for each of her five children.
Her firstborn, a daughter named Isabella, married Alfonso of Portugal, forging important ties between these two
neighboring countries and hopefully to ensure future alliance, but Isabella soon died before giving birth to an heir.
Juana, Isabella’s second daughter, married into the Habsburg dynasty when she wed Philip the Handsome, the son of
Maximilian I, King of Bohemia (Austria) and entitled to the crown of the Holy Roman Emperor. This ensured
alliance with the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire, a powerful, far-reaching territory that assured Spain’s
future political security. Isabella’s first and only son, Juan, married Margaret of Austria, further maintaining ties with
the Habsburg dynasty. Her fourth child, Maria, married Manuel I of Portugal, strengthening the link forged by her
older sister’s marriage. Her fifth child, Catherine, married Henry VIII, King of England and was mother to Queen
Mary I.
If until the 13th century religious minorities (Jews and Muslims) had
enjoyed quite some tolerance in Castilla and Aragon - the only
Christian kingdoms where Jews were not restricted from any
professional occupation - the situation of the Jews collapsed over the
14th century, reaching a climax in 1391 with large scale massacres in
every major city, with the exception of Ávila. Over the next century,
half of the estimated 200,000 Spanish Jews converted to Christianity
(becoming "conversos"). The final step was taken by the Catholic
Monarchs, who, in 1492, ordered the remaining Jews to convert or face
expulsion from Spain. Depending on different sources, the number of
Jews actually expelled is estimated to be anywhere from 40,000 to
120,000 people. Over the following decades, Muslims faced the same
fate and about 60 years after the Jews, they were also compelled to
convert ("moriscos") or be expelled. Jews and Muslims were not the
only people to be persecuted during this time period. Gypsies also
endured a tragic fate: all Gypsy males were forced to serve in galleys
between the age of 18 and 26 - which was equivalent to a death
sentence - but the majority managed to hide and avoid arrest.

The Spanish language and universities

In the 13th century, there were many languages spoken in the Christian This 16th-century Spanish carpet shows stylistic
sections of what is now Spain, among them Castilian, Aragonese, influences from Europe and the Islamic world.
Catalan, Basque, Galician, Aranese, Asturian and Leonese. But Collections of the Textile Museum.

throughout the century, Castilian (what is also known today as

Spanish) gained more and more prominence in the Kingdom of Castile as the language of culture and
communication. One example of this is the El Cid. In the last years of the reign of Ferdinand III of Castile, Castilian
began to be used for certain types of documents, but it was during the reign of Alfonso X that it became the official
language. Henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian, likewise all translations were made into
Castilian instead of Latin.

Furthermore, in the 13th century many universities were founded in León and in Castile, some, like those of the
leonese Salamanca and Palencia were among the earliest universities in Europe. In 1492, under the Catholic
Monarchs, the first edition of the Grammar of the Castilian Language by Antonio de Nebrija was published.
History of Spain 45

Imperial Spain
The Spanish Empire was one of the
first modern global empires. It was
also one of the largest empires in world
history. In the 16th century Spain and
Portugal were in the vanguard of
European global exploration and
colonial expansion and the opening of
trade routes across the oceans, with
trade flourishing across the Atlantic
between Spain and the Americas and
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of Iberian Union under the
across the Pacific between East Asia personal union of the Spanish monarchs (1580-1640).
and Mexico via the Philippines.
Conquistadors deposed the Aztec, Inca and Maya governments with extensive help from local factions and laid claim
to vast stretches of land in North and South America. For a time, the Spanish Empire dominated the oceans with its
experienced navy and ruled the European battlefield with its fearsome and well trained infantry, the famous tercios:
in the words of the prominent French historian Pierre Vilar, "enacting the most extraordinary epic in human history".
Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries.

This American empire was at first a disappointment, as the natives had little to trade, though settlement did
encourage trade. The diseases such as smallpox and measles that arrived with the colonizers devastated the native
populations, especially in the densely populated regions of the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations, and this reduced
economic potential of conquered areas.[32]
In the 1520s large scale extraction of silver from the rich deposits of
Mexico's Guanajuato began, to be greatly augmented by the silver
mines in Mexico's Zacatecas and Bolivia's Potosí from 1546. These
silver shipments re-oriented the Spanish economy, leading to the
importation of luxuries and grain. They also became indispensable in
financing the military capability of Habsburg Spain in its long series of
European and North African wars, though, with the exception of a few
years in the 17th century, Spain itself (Castile in particular) was by far
the most important source of revenue. The financial burden within the
Columbus setting foot in the New World
peninsula was on the backs of the peasant class while the nobility
enjoyed an increasingly lavish lifestyle. From the time beginning with
the incorporation of the Portuguese empire in 1580 (lost in 1640) until the loss of its American colonies in the 19th
century, Spain maintained the largest empire in the world even though it suffered fluctuating military and economic
fortunes from the 1640s. Confronted by the new experiences, difficulties and suffering created by empire-building,
Spanish thinkers formulated some of the first modern thoughts on natural law, sovereignty, international law, war,
and economics; there were even questions about the legitimacy of imperialism — in related schools of thought
referred to collectively as the School of Salamanca. Despite these innovations many motives for the empire were
rooted in the middle ages. Religion played a very strong role in the spread of the Spanish empire. The thought that
Spain could bring Christianity to the new world certainly played a strong role in the expansion of Spain's empire.
History of Spain 46

Spanish Kingdoms under the Habsburgs (16th–17th centuries)

Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries reached its height and declined under the Habsburgs.
The Spanish Empire reached its maximum extent in Europe under Charles I of Spain, as he was also Emperor
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles V became king in 1516, and the history of Spain became even
more firmly enmeshed with the dynastic struggles in Europe. The king
was not often in Spain, and as he approached the end of his life he
made provision for the division of the Habsburg inheritance into two
parts: on the one hand Spain, and its possessions in the Mediterranean
and overseas, and the Holy Roman Empire itself on the other. The
Habsburg possessions in the Netherlands also remained with the
Spanish crown.

This was to prove a difficulty for his successor Philip II of Spain, who
became king on Charles V's abdication in 1556. Spain largely escaped
the religious conflicts that were raging throughout the rest of Europe,
and remained firmly Roman Catholic. Philip saw himself as a
champion of Catholicism, both against the Ottoman Turks and the
heretics. In the 1560s, plans to consolidate control of the Netherlands
Charles I of Spain (better known in the
led to unrest, which gradually led to the Calvinist leadership of the
English-speaking world at the Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V) was the most powerful
revolt and the Eighty Years' War. This conflict consumed much
[33] Spanish expenditure, and led to an attempt to conquer England – a
European monarch of his day.
cautious supporter of the Dutch – in the unsuccessful Spanish Armada,
an early battle in the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) and war with France (1590–1598).

Despite these problems, the growing inflow of American silver from mid 16th century, the justified military
reputation of the Spanish infantry and even the navy quickly recovering from its Armada disaster, made Spain the
leading European power, a novel situation of which its citizens were only just becoming aware. The Iberian Union
with Portugal in 1580 not only unified the peninsula, but added that country's worldwide resources to the Spanish
crown. However, economic and administrative problems multiplied in Castile, and the weakness of the native
economy became evident in the following century: rising inflation, financially draining wars in Europe, the ongoing
aftermath of the expulsion of the Jews and Moors from Spain, and the growing dependency of Spain on the gold and
silver imports, combined to cause several bankruptcies that caused economic crisis in the country, especially in
heavily burdened Castile.

The coastal villages of Spain and of the Balearic Islands were frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North
Africa. Formentera was even temporarily left by its population. This occurred also along long stretches of the
Spanish and Italian coasts, a relatively short distance across a calm sea from the pirates in their North African lairs.
The most famous corsair was the Turkish Barbarossa ("Redbeard"). According to Robert Davis between 1 million
and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman
Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries This was gradually alleviated as Spain and other Christian powers began
to check Muslim naval dominance in the Mediterranean after the 1571 victory at Lepanto, but it would be a scourge
that continued to afflict the country even in the next century.[34]
The great plague of 1596-1602 killed 600,000 to 700,000 people, or about 10% of the population. Altogether more
than 1,250,000 deaths resulted from the extreme incidence of plague in 17th century Spain.[35] Economically, the
plague destroyed the labor force as well as creating a psychological blow to an already problematic Spain.[36]
History of Spain 47

Philip II died in 1598, and was succeeded by his son Philip III, in
whose reign a ten year truce with the Dutch was overshadowed in
1618 by Spain's involvement in the European-wide Thirty Years'
War. Government policy was dominated by favorites, but it was
also the reign in which the geniuses of Cervantes and El Greco

Philip III was succeeded in 1621 by his son Philip IV of Spain.

Much of the policy was conducted by the minister Gaspar de
Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares. In 1640, with the war in central
Europe having no clear winner except the French, both Portugal Map of Europe in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia.

and Catalonia rebelled. Portugal was lost to the crown for good, in
Italy and most of Catalonia, French forces were expelled and Catalonia's independence suppressed. In the reign of
Philip's developmentally disabled son and successor Charles II, Spain was essentially left leaderless and was
gradually being reduced to a second-rank power.

The Habsburg dynasty became extinct in Spain and the War of the Spanish Succession ensued in which the other
European powers tried to assume control of the Spanish monarchy. King Louis XIV of France eventually "won" the
War of Spanish Succession, and control of Spain passed to the Bourbon dynasty but the peace deals that followed
included the relinquishing of the right to unite the French and Spanish thrones and the partitioning of Spain's
European empire.

The Golden Age (Siglo de Oro)

The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period
of flourishing arts and letters in the Spanish Empire (now Spain
and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America), coinciding
with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III,
Philip IV and Charles II). It is interesting to note how arts during
the Golden Age flourished despite the decline of the empire in the
17th century. The last great writer of the age, Sor Juana Inés de la
Cruz, died in New Spain in 1695.[37]

The Habsburgs, both in Spain and Austria, were great patrons of

art in their countries. El Escorial, the great royal monastery built
by King Philip II, invited the attention of some of Europe's
greatest architects and painters. Diego Velázquez, regarded as one
of the most influential painters of European history and a greatly
respected artist in his own time, cultivated a relationship with King
Toledo by El Greco
Philip IV and his chief minister, the Count-Duke of Olivares,
leaving us several portraits that demonstrate his style and skill. El
Greco, a respected Greek artist from the period, settled in Spain, and infused Spanish art with the styles of the Italian
renaissance and helped create a uniquely Spanish style of painting. Some of Spain's greatest music is regarded as
having been written in the period. Such composers as Tomás Luis de Victoria, Luis de Milán and Alonso Lobo
helped to shape Renaissance music and the styles of counterpoint and polychoral music, and their influence lasted far
into the Baroque period.

Spanish literature blossomed as well, most famously demonstrated in the work of Miguel de Cervantes, the author of
Don Quixote de la Mancha. Spain's most prolific playwright, Lope de Vega, wrote possibly as many as one thousand
plays over his lifetime, over four hundred of which survive to the present day.
History of Spain 48

Enlightenment: Spain under the Bourbons (18th century)

Philip V, the first Bourbon king, of French origin, signed the Decreto de Nueva Planta in 1715, a new law that
revoked most of the historical rights and privileges of the different kingdoms that formed the Spanish Crown,
specially Crown of Aragon, unifying them under the laws of Castile, where the Cortes had been more receptive to
the royal wish.[38] Spain became culturally and politically a follower of absolutist France. The rule of the Spanish
Bourbons continued under Ferdinand VI and Charles III. Great influence was exerted over Elisabeth of Parma on
Spain's foreign policy. Her principal aim was to have Spain's lost territories in Italy restored. She eventually received
Franco-British support for this after the Congress of Soissons.[39]
Under the rule of Charles III and his ministers,
Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache and José
Moñino, Count of Floridablanca, Spain embarked on a
program of enlightened despotism that brought Spain a
new prosperity in the middle of the 18th century.
Fearing that Britain's victory over France in the Seven
Years War threatened the European balance of power,
Spain allied themselves to France but suffered a series
of military defeats and ended up having to cede Florida
to the British at the Treaty of Paris. Despite being on
the losing alongside France against the British in the
Seven Years' War, Spain recouped most of her
territorial losses in the American Revolutionary War,
An 18th century map of the Iberian Peninsula
and gained an improved international standing.

However, the reforming spirit of Charles III was

extinguished in the reign of his son, Charles IV, seen
by some as mentally handicapped. Dominated by his
wife's lover, Manuel de Godoy, Charles IV embarked
on policies that overturned much of Charles III's
reforms. After briefly opposing Revolutionary France
early in the French Revolutionary Wars, Spain was
cajoled into an uneasy alliance with its northern
neighbor, only to be blockaded by the British. Charles
IV's vacillation, culminating in his failure to honour the
alliance by neglecting to enforce the Continental
System led to Napoleon I, Emperor of the French,
invading Spain in 1808, thereby triggering Spain's War Attacking Spanish infantry (about 1740)

of Independence.

During most of the 18th century Spain had made substantial progress since its steady decline in the latter part of the
17th century, under an increasingly inept Habsburg dynasty. But despite the progress, it continued to lag in the
political and mercantile developments then transforming other parts of Europe, most notably in the United Kingdom,
France and the Low Countries. The chaos unleashed by the Napoleonic intervention would cause this gap to widen
History of Spain 49

Napoleonic Wars: War of Spanish Independence (1808–1814)

Spain initially sided against France in the Napoleonic Wars, but
the defeat of her army early in the war led to Charles IV's
pragmatic decision to align with the revolutionary French. Spain
was put under a British blockade, and her colonies—for the first
time separated from their colonial rulers—began to trade
independently with Britain. The defeat of the British invasions of
the River Plate in South America emboldened an independent
attitude in Spain's American colonies. A major Franco-Spanish
fleet was annihilated, at the decisive Battle of Trafalgar in 1805,
prompting the vacillating king of Spain to reconsider his alliance
The Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya, showing
with France. Spain broke off from the Continental System
Spanish resisters being executed by Napoleon's troops.
temporarily, and Napoleon—aggravated with the Bourbon kings
of Spain—invaded Spain in 1808 and deposed Ferdinand VII, who
had just been on the throne forty-eight days after his father's abdication in March.

The Spanish people vigorously resisted Napoleon's move, and juntas were formed across Spain that pronounced
themselves in favor of Ferdinand VII. Initially, the juntas declared their support for Ferdinand VII, and convened a
"General and Extraordinary Cortes" for all the kingdoms of the Spanish Monarchy. The Cortes assembled in 1810
and took refuge at Cádiz. In 1812 the Cádiz Cortes created the first modern Spanish constitution, the Constitution of
1812 (informally named La Pepa).
The British, led by the Duke of Wellington, fought Napoleon's forces in the Peninsular War, with Joseph Bonaparte
ruling as king at Madrid. The brutal war was one of the first guerrilla wars in modern Western history; French supply
lines stretching across Spain were mauled repeatedly by Spanish guerrillas. The war in the Iberian Peninsula
fluctuated repeatedly, with Wellington spending several years behind his fortresses in Portugal while launching
occasional campaigns into Spain. The French were decisively defeated at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813, and the
following year, Ferdinand VII was restored as King of Spain.

Spain in the nineteenth century (1814–1873)

Although the juntas that had forced the French to leave Spain had sworn by the liberal Constitution of 1812,
Ferdinand VII openly believed that it was too liberal for the country. On his return to Spain, he refused to swear by it
himself, and he continued to rule in the authoritarian fashion of his forebears.[40]
Although Spain accepted the rejection of the Constitution, the policy was not warmly accepted in Spain's empire in
the New World. Revolution broke out. Spain, nearly bankrupt from the war with France and the reconstruction of the
country, was unable to pay her soldiers, and in 1819 was forced to sell Florida to the United States for 5 million
dollars. In 1820, an expedition intended for the colonies (which, at the time, were on the verge of being lost
themselves, to rebels and the Monroe Doctrine) revolted in Cadiz. When armies throughout Spain pronounced
themselves in sympathy with the revolters, led by Rafael del Riego, Ferdinand relented and was forced to accept the
liberal Constitution of 1812. Ferdinand himself was placed under effective house arrest for the duration of the liberal
The three years of liberal rule that followed coincided with a civil war in Spain that would typify Spanish politics for
the next century. The liberal government, which reminded European statesmen entirely too much of the governments
of the French Revolution, was looked on with hostility by the Congress of Verona in 1822, and France was
authorized to intervene. France crushed the liberal government with massive force in the so-called Spanish
expedition, and Ferdinand was restored as absolute monarch. The American colonies, however, were completely
lost; in 1824, the last Spanish army on the American mainland was defeated at the Battle of Ayacucho in southern
History of Spain 50

A period of uneasy peace followed in Spain for the next decade. Having borne only a female heir presumptive, it
appeared that Ferdinand would be succeeded by his brother, Infante Carlos of Spain. While Ferdinand aligned with
the conservatives, fearing another national insurrection, he did not view the reactionary policies of his brother as a
viable option. Ferdinand — resisting the wishes of his brother — decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, enabling
his daughter Isabella to become Queen. Carlos, who made known his intent to resist the sanction, fled to Portugal.
Ferdinand's death in 1833 and the accession of Isabella (only three years old at the time) as Queen of Spain sparked
the First Carlist War. Carlos invaded Spain and attracted support from reactionaries and conservatives in Spain;
Isabella's mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, was named regent until her daughter came of age.
The insurrection seemed to have been crushed by the end of the year; Maria Cristina's armies, called "Cristino"
forces, had driven the Carlist armies from most of the Basque country. Carlos then named the Basque general Tomás
de Zumalacárregui his commander-in-chief. Zumalacárregui resuscitated the Carlist cause, and by 1835 had driven
the Cristino armies to the Ebro River and transformed the Carlist army from a demoralized band into a professional
army of 30,000 of quality superior to the government forces.
Zumalacárregui's death in 1835 changed the Carlists' fortunes. The Cristinos found a capable general in Baldomero
Espartero. His victory at the Battle of Luchana (1836) turned the tide of the war, and in 1839, the Convention of
Vergara put an end to the first Carlist insurrection.
Espartero, operating on his popularity as a war hero and his sobriquet "Pacifier of Spain", demanded liberal reforms
from Maria Cristina. The Queen Regent, who resisted any such idea, preferred to resign and let Espartero become
regent instead. Espartero's liberal reforms were opposed, then, by moderates; the former general's heavy-handedness
caused a series of sporadic uprisings throughout the country from various quarters, all of which were bloodily
suppressed. He was overthrown as regent in 1843 by Ramón María Narváez, a moderate, who was in turn perceived
as too reactionary. Another Carlist uprising, the Matiners' War, was launched in 1846 in Catalonia, but it was poorly
organized and suppressed by 1849.
Isabella II of Spain took a more active role in government after she came of age, but she was immensely unpopular
throughout her reign. She was viewed as beholden to whoever was closest to her at court, and that she cared little for
the people of Spain. In 1856, she attempted to form a pan-national coalition, the Union Liberal, under the leadership
of Leopoldo O'Donnell who had already marched on Madrid that year and deposed another Espartero ministry.
Isabella's plan failed and cost Isabella more prestige and favor with the people.
Isabella launched a successful war against Morocco, waged by generals O'Donnell and Juan Prim, in 1860 that
stabilized her popularity in Spain. However, a campaign to reconquer Peru and Chile during the Chincha Islands War
proved disastrous and Spain suffered defeat before the determined South American powers.
In 1866, a revolt led by Juan Prim was suppressed, but it was becoming increasingly clear that the people of Spain
were upset with Isabella's approach to governance. In 1868, the Glorious Revolution broke out when the progresista
generals Francisco Serrano and Juan Prim revolted against her, and defeated her moderado generals at the Battle of
Alcolea. Isabella was driven into exile in Paris.
Revolution and anarchy broke out in Spain in the two years that followed; it was only in 1870 that the Cortes
declared that Spain would have a king again. As it turned out, this decision played an important role in European and
world history, for a German prince's candidacy to the Spanish throne and French opposition to him served as the
immediate motive for the Franco-Prussian War. Amadeus of Savoy was selected, and he was duly crowned King of
Spain early the following year.
Amadeus — a liberal who swore by the liberal constitution the Cortes promulgated — was faced immediately with
the incredible task of bringing the disparate political ideologies of Spain to one table. He was plagued by internecine
strife, not merely between Spaniards but within Spanish parties.
History of Spain 51

First Spanish Republic (1873–1874)

Following the Hidalgo affair, Amadeus famously declared the people of Spain to be ungovernable, and fled the
country. In his absence, a government of radicals and Republicans was formed that declared Spain a republic. The
republic was immediately under siege from all quarters — the Carlists were the most immediate threat, launching a
violent insurrection after their poor showing in the 1872 elections. There were calls for socialist revolution from the
International Workingmen's Association, revolts and unrest in the autonomous regions of Navarre and Catalonia, and
pressure from the Catholic Church against the fledgling republic.[41]

The Restoration (1874–1931)

Although the former queen, Isabella II was still alive, she recognized that she was too divisive as a leader, and
abdicated in 1870 in favor of her son, Alfonso, who was duly crowned Alfonso XII of Spain. After the tumult of the
First Spanish Republic, Spaniards were willing to accept a return to stability under Bourbon rule. The Republican
armies in Spain — which were resisting a Carlist insurrection — pronounced their allegiance to Alfonso in the
winter of 1874–1875, led by Brigadier General Martinez Campos. The Republic was dissolved and Antonio Canovas
del Castillo, a trusted advisor to the king, was named Prime Minister on New Year's Eve, 1874. The Carlist
insurrection was put down vigorously by the new king, who took an active role in the war and rapidly gained the
support of most of his countrymen.[42]
A system of turnos was established in Spain in which the liberals, led by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta and the
conservatives, led by Antonio Canovas del Castillo, alternated in control of the government. A modicum of stability
and economic progress was restored to Spain during Alfonso XII's rule. His death in 1885, followed by the
assassination of Canovas del Castillo in 1897, destabilized the government.[43]
Cuba rebelled against Spain in the Ten Years' War beginning in 1868, resulting in the abolition of slavery in Spain's
colonies in the New World. American interests in the island, coupled with concerns for the people of Cuba,
aggravated relations between the two countries. The explosion of the USS Maine launched the Spanish-American
War in 1898, in which Spain fared disastrously. Cuba gained its independence and Spain lost its remaining New
World colony, Puerto Rico, which together with Guam and the Philippines were ceded to the United States for 20
million dollars. In 1899, Spain sold its remaining Pacific islands—the Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands
and Palau—to Germany and Spanish colonial possessions were reduced to Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara and
Spanish Guinea, all in Africa.[44]
The "disaster" of 1898 created the Generation of '98, a group of statesmen and intellectuals who demanded change
from the new government. Anarchist and fascist movements were on the rise in Spain in the early 20th century. A
revolt in 1909 in Catalonia was bloodily suppressed.[45]
Spain's neutrality in World War I allowed it to become a supplier of material for both sides to its great advantage,
prompting an economic boom in Spain. The outbreak of Spanish influenza in Spain and elsewhere, along with a
major economic slowdown in the postwar period, hit Spain particularly hard, and the country went into debt. A
major worker's strike was suppressed in 1919.
Mistreatment of the indigenous population in Spanish Morocco led to an uprising and the loss of this North African
possession except for the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in 1921. (See Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi,
Annual). In order to avoid accountability, King Alfonso XIII decided to support the dictatorship of General Miguel
Primo de Rivera, ending the period of constitutional monarchy in Spain.
In joint action with France, the Moroccan territory was recovered (1925–1927), but in 1930 bankruptcy and massive
unpopularity left the king no option but to force Primo de Rivera to resign. Disgusted with the king's involvement in
his dictatorship, the urban population voted for republican parties in the municipal elections of April 1931. The king
fled the country without abdicating and a republic was established.
History of Spain 52

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)

Under the Second Spanish Republic, women were allowed to vote in general elections for the first time. The
Republic devolved substantial autonomy to the Basque Country and to Catalonia.
The first governments of the Republic, were center-left, headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, and Manuel Azaña.
Economic turmoil, substantial debt inherited from the Primo de Rivera regime, and fractious, rapidly changing
governing coalitions led to serious political unrest. In 1933, the right-wing CEDA won power; an armed rising of
workers of October 1934, which reached its greatest intensity in Asturias and Catalonia, was forcefully put down by
the CEDA government. This in turn energized political movements across the spectrum in Spain, including a revived
anarchist movement and new reactionary and fascist groups, including the Falange and a revived Carlist movement.

Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)

In the 1930s, Spanish politics were polarized at the left and right of the political spectrum. The left-wing favored
class struggle, land reform, autonomy to the regions and reduction in church and monarchist power. The right-wing
groups, the largest of which was CEDA, a right wing Roman Catholic coalition, held opposing views on most issues.
In 1936, the left united in the Popular Front and was elected to power. However, this coalition, dominated by the
centre-left, was undermined both by the revolutionary groups such as the anarchist CNT and FAI and by
anti-democratic far-right groups such as the Falange and the Carlists. The political violence of previous years began
to start again. There were gunfights over strikes, landless labourers began to seize land, church officials were killed
and churches burnt. On the other side, right wing militias (such as the Falange) and gunmen hired by employers
assassinated left wing activists. The Republican democracy never generated the consensus or mutual trust between
the various political groups that it needed to function peacefully. As a result, the country slid into civil war. The right
wing of the country and high ranking figures in the army began to plan a coup, and when Falangist politician José
Calvo-Sotelo was shot by Republican police, they used it as a signal to act.[46]
On 17 July 1936, General Francisco Franco led the colonial army from Morocco to attack the mainland, while
another force from the north under General Sanjurjo moved south from Navarre. Military units were also mobilised
elsewhere to take over government institutions. Franco's move was intended to seize power immediately, but
successful resistance by Republicans in places such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, the Basque country and
elsewhere meant that Spain faced a prolonged civil war. Before long, much of the south and west was under the
control of the Nationalists, whose regular Army of Africa was the most professional force available to either side.
Both sides received foreign military aid, the Nationalists, from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Portugal, the
Republic from the USSR and organised far-left volunteers in the International Brigades.
The Siege of the Alcázar at Toledo early in the war was a turning point, with the Nationalists winning after a long
siege. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid, despite a Nationalist assault in November 1936, and
frustrated subsequent offensives against the capital at Jarama and Guadalajara in 1937. Soon, though, the
Nationalists began to erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east. The north, including the
Basque country fell in late 1937 and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterwards. The bombing of Guernica was
probably the most infamous event of the war and inspired Picasso's painting. It was used as a testing ground for the
German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion. The Battle of the Ebro in July–November 1938 was the final desperate attempt
by the Republicans to turn the tide. When this failed and Barcelona fell to the Nationalists in early 1939, it was clear
the war was over. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed and Madrid fell in March 1939.[47]
The war, which cost between 300,000 to 1,000,000 lives, ended with the destruction of the Republic and the
accession of Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain. Franco amalgamated all the right wing parties into a reconstituted
Falange and banned the left-wing and Republican parties and trade unions.[48]
The conduct of the war was brutal on both sides, with massacres of civilians and prisoners being widespread. After
the war, many thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and up to 151,000 were executed between 1939 and 1943.
History of Spain 53

Many other Republicans remained in exile for the entire Franco period.

The dictatorship of Francisco Franco (1936–1975)

Spain remained officially neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating Civil War (1936–1939).
During Franco's rule, Spain remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world, but began
to catch up economically with its European neighbors.[49]
Under Franco, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the UK, and gained some support for its cause at the
United Nations. During the 1960s, Spain began imposing restrictions on Gibraltar, culminating in the closure of the
border in 1969. It was not fully reopened until 1985.
Spanish rule in Morocco ended in 1967. Though militarily victorious in the 1957–1958 Moroccan invasion of
Spanish West Africa, Spain gradually relinquished its remaining African colonies. Spanish Guinea was granted
independence as Equatorial Guinea in 1968, while the Moroccan enclave of Ifni had been ceded to Morocco in 1969.
The latter years of Franco's rule saw some economic and political liberalization, the Spanish Miracle, including the
birth of a tourism industry. Francisco Franco ruled until his death on 20 November 1975, when control was given to
King Juan Carlos.[50]
In the last few months before Franco's death, the Spanish state went into a paralysis. This was capitalized upon by
King Hassan II of Morocco, who ordered the 'Green March' into Western Sahara, Spain's last colonial possession.

Spain since 1975

Transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the
dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. The transition is usually said to have begun with
Franco’s death on 20 November 1975, while its completion is marked by the electoral victory of the socialist PSOE
on 28 October 1982.
Between 1978 and 1982, Spain was led by the Unión del Centro Democrático governments.
in 1981 the 23-F coup d'état attempt took place. On 23 February Antonio Tejero, with members of the Guardia Civil
entered the Congress of Deputies, and stopped the session, where Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo was about to be named
prime minister of the government. Officially, the coup d'état failed thanks to the intervention of King Juan Carlos.
Spain joined NATO before Calvo-Sotelo left office.
Along with political change came radical change in Spanish society. Spanish society had been extremely
conservative under Franco, but the transition to democracy also began a liberalization of values and societal mores.

Modern Spain
From 1982 until 1996, the social democratic PSOE governed the country, with Felipe González as prime minister. In
1986, Spain joined the European Economic Community (EEC, now European Union), and the country hosted the
1992 Barcelona Olympics and Seville Expo '92.
In 1996, the centre-right Partido Popular government came to power, led by José María Aznar. On 1 January 1999,
Spain exchanged the peseta for the new Euro currency. The peseta continued to be used for cash transactions until
January 1, 2002. On 11 March 2004 a number of terrorist bombs exploded on busy commuter trains in Madrid
during the morning rush-hour days before the general election, killing 191 persons and injuring thousands. Although
José María Aznar and his ministers were quick to accuse ETA of the atrocity, soon afterwards it became apparent
that the bombing was the work of an extremist Islamic group linked to Al-Qaeda. Many people believe that the fact
that qualified commentators abroad were beginning to doubt the official Spanish version the very same day of the
History of Spain 54

attacks while the government insisted on ETA's implication directly influenced the results of the election. Opinion
polls at the time show that the difference between the two main contenders had been too close to make any accurate
prediction as to the outcome of the elections. The election, held three days after the attacks, was won by the PSOE,
and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero replaced Aznar as prime minister.
On 3 July 2005, the country became the first country in the world to give full marriage and adoption rights to
homosexual couples (Belgium has allowed same-sex marriage since 2003 and co-parenting since April 2006, and the
Netherlands has allowed same-sex marriage since 2001 and now has a law in preparation to provide full adoption
rights in equal conditions to opposite-sex marriages).
At present, Spain is a constitutional monarchy, and comprises 17 autonomous communities (Andalucía, Aragón,
Asturias, Islas Baleares, Islas Canarias, Cantabria, Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Cataluña, Extremadura,
Galicia, La Rioja, Community of Madrid, Region of Murcia, País Vasco, Comunidad Valenciana, Navarra) and two
autonomous cities (Ceuta and Melilla).

[1] European Voyages of Exploration: Imperial Spain (http:/ / www. ucalgary. ca/ applied_history/ tutor/ eurvoya/ Imperial. html)
[2] "Spain" (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ text_761575057___0/ Spain. html). Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007. . See also: "'First west Europe
tooth' found" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kwqnGivb). BBC. 30 June 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/
science/ nature/ 6256356. stm) on 2009-10-31. . Retrieved 2008-08-09.
[3] "Spain - History - Pre-Roman Spain - Prehistory" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 557573/ Spain/ 214578/
History#toc=toc70344). Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. .
[4] Robert Chapman, Emerging Complexity: The Later Prehistory of South-East Spain, Iberia and the West Mediterranean (2009)
[5] Koch, John (2009). Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009) (http:/
/ ifc. dpz. es/ recursos/ publicaciones/ 29/ 54/ 26koch. pdf). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386. . Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[6] Cunliffe, Karl, Guerra, McEvoy, Bradley; Oppenheimer, Rrvik, Isaac, Parsons, Koch, Freeman and Wodtko (2010). Celtic from the West:
Alternative Perspectives from Archaeology, Genetics, Language and Literature (http:/ / www. oxbowbooks. com/ bookinfo. cfm/ ID/ 88298/ /
Location/ DBBC). Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications. pp. 384. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4. .
[7] "Rethinking the Bronze Age and the Arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe" (http:/ / www. oxbowbooks. com/ pdfs/ books/ Celtic West
conf. pdf). University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies and Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford. . Retrieved
24 May 2010.
[8] "O'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (http:/ / www. wales. ac. uk/ Resources/ Documents/ Research/ ODonnell. pdf). .
[9] http:/ / www. aber. ac. uk/ aberonline/ en/ archive/ 2008/ 05/ au7608/
[10] "Spain - History - Pre-Roman Spain - Phoenicians" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 557573/ Spain/ 70346/
Phoenicians#toc=toc70346). Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. .
[11] Grout, James (2007). "The Celtiberian War" (http:/ / penelope. uchicago. edu/ ~grout/ encyclopaedia_romana/ hispania/ celtiberianwar.
html). Encyclopaedia Romana. University of Chicago. . Retrieved 2008-06-08.
[12] "Major Phases in Roman History" (http:/ / www. utsc. utoronto. ca/ ~corbett/ clab42/ RomChron. htm). Rome in the Mediterranean World.
University of Toronto. . Retrieved 2008-06-08.
[13] J. S. Richardson, The Romans in Spain (1998)
[14] The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding
[15] Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain - Hispania" (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ frd/ cs/ estoc. html).
Library of Congress Country Series. . Retrieved 2008-08-09.
[16] The Roman provinces of Hispania included Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica (Hispania Baetica), whose capital was Corduba, presently
Córdoba, Provincia Hispania Ulterior Lusitania (Hispania Lusitania), whose capital was Emerita Augusta (now Mérida), Provincia Hispania
Citerior, whose capital was Tarraco (Tarragona), Provincia Hispania Nova, whose capital was Tingis (Tánger in present Morocco), Provincia
Hispania Nova Citerior and Asturiae-Calleciae (these latter two provinces were created and then dissolved in the 3rd century AD).
[17] Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania" (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ spainport1. htm). The
Library of Iberian Resources Online. . Retrieved 2008-08-09.
[18] This led to the establishment of the Suebi Kingdom in Gallaecia, in the northwest, the Vandal Kingdom of Vandalusia (Andalusia) and the
Visigothic Kingdom in Toledo.
[19] Roger Collins, Visigothic Spain 409 - 711 (2006)
[20] Karen Eva Carr, Vandals to Visigoths: Rural Settlement Patterns in Early Medieval Spain (2002)
[21] Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1965) p. 20.
[22] Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History, p. 25.
[23] rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History, p. 14.
History of Spain 55

[24] Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History, pp. 16-17.

[25] Collins, Visigothic Spain 409 - 711 (2006)
[26] Fletcher, Richard (2006). Moorish Spain. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. pp. 53. ISBN 0-520-24840-6.
[27] Timelines - Vikings, Saracens, Magyars (http:/ / www. zum. de/ whkmla/ timelines/ wh/ tlvikings. html)
[28] Granada (http:/ / jewishencyclopedia. com/ view. jsp?artid=412& letter=G& search=Granada) by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling,
Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
[29] Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ rc/ rc1. htm)
[30] The Almohads (http:/ / www. myjewishlearning. com/ history_community/ Medieval/ IntergroupTO/ JewishMuslim/ Almohads. htm)
[31] Catalan Company (1302-1388 AD) (http:/ / www. umiacs. umd. edu/ ~kuijt/ dba165/ dba165. html)
[32] There is simply no consensus as to the extent, with estimates varying by many orders of magnitude, but that it occurred is not doubted - See
Population history of American indigenous peoples.
[33] Patrick, James (2007). Renaissance and Reformation (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?pg=PA207& dq=charles+ V+ was+ the+ most+
powerful+ monarch+ of+ his+ day& id=i6ZJlLHLPY8C& output=html). Marshall Cavendish. pp. 207. ISBN 0761476512, 9780761476511. .
[34] When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed (http:/ / researchnews. osu.
edu/ archive/ whtslav. htm)
[35] The Seventeenth-Century Decline (http:/ / libro. uca. edu/ payne1/ payne15. htm)
[36] J.H. Elliott, "Imperial Spain: 1469-1716", Penguin Books, 1970, p.298
[37] Hugh Thomas. The Golden Age: The Spanish Empire of Charles V (2010)
[38] Henry Kamen, Philip V of Spain (2001)
[39] Simms p.211
[40] Charles S. Esdaile, Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War, 1808-1939 (2000)
[41] Joseph A. Brandt, Toward the New Spain: The Spanish Revolution of 1868 and the First Republic (1977)
[42] Earl Ray Beck, Time of Triumph & Sorrow: Spanish Politics during the Reign of Alfonso XII, 1874-1885 (1979)
[43] Beck, Time of Triumph & Sorrow: Spanish Politics during the Reign of Alfonso XII, 1874-1885 (1979)
[44] John L. Offner, Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States & Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898 (1992)
[45] H. Ramsden, "The Spanish 'Generation of 1898': The History of a Concept," Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester,
1974, Vol. 56 Issue 2, pp 443-462
[46] Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 (2006)
[47] Paul Preston, The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge (2nd ed. 2007) pp 266-300
[48] Preston, The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge (2007) pp 301-318
[49] Stanley G. Payne, Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II (2009)
[50] Jean Grugel and Tim Rees, Franco's Spain (1997)

• Barton, Simon. A History of Spain (2009) excerpt and text search (
• Carr, Raymond, ed. Spain: A History (2001) excerpt and text search (
• Casey, James. Early Modern Spain: A Social History (1999) excerpt and text search (
• Edwards, John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474-1520 (2001) excerpt and text search (http://www.
• Esdaile, Charles J. Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War, 1808-1939 (2000) excerpt and text
search (
• Gerli, E. Michael, ed. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia. New York 2005. ISBN 0-415-93918-6
• Kamen, Henry. Spain. A Society of Conflict (3rd ed.) London and New York: Pearson Longman 2005. ISBN
• Lynch, John. The Hispanic World in Crisis and Change: 1598-1700 (1994) excerpt and text search (http://www.
• O'Callaghan, Joseph F. A History of Medieval Spain (1983) excerpt and text search (
• Payne, Stanley G. Spain: A Unique History (University of Wisconsin Press; 2011) 304 pages; history since the
Visigothic era.
• Philips, William D., Jr., and Carla Rahn Phillips. A Concise History of Spain (2010)
History of Spain 56

• Pierson, Peter. The History of Spain (2nd ed. 2008) excerpt and text search (
• Shubert, Adrian. A Social History of Modern Spain (1990) excerpt and text search (
• Tusell, Javier. Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy, 1939 to the Present (2007) excerpt and text search (http:/

External links
• History of Spain: Primary Documents (
• Spanish History Sources & Documents (
• Stanley G. Payne The Seventeenth-Century Decline (
• Henry Kamen, "The Decline of Spain: A Historical Myth?", Past and Present,) (Explains the complexities of this
subject) (
• WWW-VL "Spanish History Index (
• Carmen Pereira-Muro. Culturas de España. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company 2003. ISBN
Spanish language 57

Spanish language
Spanish, Castilian
Español, castellano

Pronunciation Spanish pronunciation: [espaˈɲol], Spanish pronunciation: [kasteˈʎano]

Spoken in (see below)

Total speakers First language 329[1] million to 400[2] [3] [4] million.
500 million as first or second language.

Language Indo-European
family • Italic
• Romance
• Italo-Western
• Gallo-Iberian
• Ibero-Romance
• West Iberian
• Spanish, Castilian

Writing system Latin (Spanish variant)

Official status

Official 21 countries, United Nations, European Union, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American
language in States, Union of South American Nations, Central American Integration System, African Union, Caricom, World
Trade Organization, North American Free Trade Agreement, Andean Community of Nations, Mercosur,
Inter-American Development Bank, Latin Union, Antarctic Treaty.

Regulated by Association of Spanish Language Academies (Real Academia Española and 21 other national Spanish language

Language codes

ISO 639-1 es

ISO 639-2 spa

ISO 639-3 spa

Linguasphere 51-AAA-b

  Countries where Spanish has official status.

  States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 25% or more of the population.
  States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 10-20% of the population.
  States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 5-9.9% of the population.
Spanish language 58

Spanish or Castilian (español or castellano in Spanish) is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that
evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia during the 9th century[6] and gradually spread
with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the later Medieval period.
Modern Spanish developed with the readjustment of consonants (reajuste de las sibilantes) that began in 15th
century. The language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of other languages, as well as developing new
words. Spanish was taken most notably to the Americas as well as to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of
the Spanish Empire between the 15th and 19th centuries, where it became the most important language for
government and trade.[7]
In 1999, there were according to Ethnologue 358 million people speaking Spanish as a native language and a total of
417 million speakers[8] worldwide. Currently these figures are up to 400[3] [4] and 500[5] million people respectively.
Spanish is the second most natively spoken language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese.[9] Mexico contains the
largest population of Spanish speakers. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and used
as an official language of the European Union, and Mercosur. Spanish is the fastest growing Indo-European
language in the world by numbers of native speakers. Due to its increasing presence in the demographics and popular
culture of the United States, Spanish is widely considered to be the most beneficial second language for a native
speaker of American English and is also highly regarded in the British Commonwealth, due to the language's
immense geographic extent in Latin America and Europe for tourism.

Castilian emerged from its ancestral Vulgar Latin (common Latin) dialects in the
9th century. Latin had been brought to Iberia by the Romans during the Second
Punic War around 210 BC, absorbing influences from the native Iberian
languages such as Celtiberian, Basque and other paleohispanic languages. Later,
it gained other external influences, most notably from the Arabic of the later
Al-Andalus period.[10]

Local versions of Vulgar Latin evolved into Castilian in the central-north of

Iberia, in an area defined by the then remote crossroad strips of Alava, Cantabria,
Burgos, Soria and La Rioja, within the Kingdom of Castile (see Glosas
Emilianenses). In this formative stage, Castilian developed a strongly differing
variant from its close cousin, Leonese, and was distinguished by a heavy Basque
influence (see Iberian Romance languages). This distinctive dialect progressively A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the
spread south with the advance of the Reconquista, and so gathered a sizable oldest preserved Spanish epic poem,
lexical influence from Al-Andalus Arabic, especially in the later Medieval in mediaeval Castilian.

Spanish language 59

In the fifteenth century, in a process similar to that affecting other Romance

languages, Castilian underwent a dramatic change with the Readjustment of the
Consonants (Reajuste de las sibilantes). Typical features of Spanish diachronic
phonology include lenition (Latin vita, Spanish vida), palatalisation (Latin
annum, Spanish año, and Latin anellum, Spanish anillo) and diphthongisation
(stem-changing) of stressed short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra, Spanish
tierra; Latin novus, Spanish nuevo).

The Gramática de la lengua castellana, written in Salamanca in 1492 by Elio

Antonio de Nebrija, was the first grammar written for a modern European
language.[11] According to a popular anecdote, when Nebrija presented it to
Queen Isabella, she asked him what was the use of such a work, and he answered
that language is the instrument of empire.[12]
Antonio de Nebrija author of the
Gramática , the first Grammar of
modern European languages.

In his introduction to the grammar, dated August 18, 1492, Nebrija wrote that "...
language was always the companion of empire."[13]
From the 16th century onwards, the language was taken to the Americas and the
Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonization. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra's
influence on the Spanish language from the 17th century has been so great that
Spanish is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes").[14]
In the 20th century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the
Western Sahara, and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the
Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City. For details on
borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on
the Spanish language.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

Geographic distribution
Spanish is recognised as one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization
of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the African Union, the Union of South American
Nations, the Latin Union, and the Caricom and has legal status in the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Country Population Spanish as a Bilingual and as a second Spanish speakers Total number
[15] of Spanish
native language speakers (in as percentage of
[19] speakers
language countries where Spanish population
[16] [17]
speakers is official) or as a
foreign language (where it
is not official)

 Mexico 7,110,031 [19] 110,637,916

112,396,211 103,527,885 98.5%
[20] [21]

 United States [23] 14,531,499 16.3% [24]

307,006,550 35,468,501 50,000,000
[22] [25]

 Spain [27] 4,620,780 [19] 46,585,009

47,150,819 41,964,229 98.8%
Spanish language 60

 Colombia 45,553,800 78,200 [19] 45,632,000

46,000,000 99.2%

 Argentina 39,608,040 1,047,053 [19] 40,655,093

40,900,496 99.4%

 Venezuela [30] 28,182,160 667,440 [19] 28,849,600

29,210,000 98.8%

 Peru 23,769,620 2,035,183 [19] 25,804,803

29,797,694 86.6%

 Chile 15,513,255 1,600,024 [19] 17,127,711

17,248,450 99.3%

 Ecuador 13,298,858 733,324 [19] 14,024,376

14,306,000 98.1%

 Guatemala 9,291,997 3,116,482 [19] 12,408,479

14,361,666 86.4%

 Cuba 11,235,863 [19] 11,168,448

11,235,863 99.4%

 Dominican Republic 10,120,705 62,558 [19] 10,184,100

11,235,863 99.6%

 Bolivia 4,350,833 4,813,756 [19] 9,164,589

10,426,154 87.9%

 Honduras [37] 7,981,998 151,161 [19] 8,133,159

8,215,313 99.0%

 El Salvador [38] 6,183,002 [19] 6,164,451

6,183,002 99.7%

 France 64,057,790 [39] 5,721,380 9.6% [17]

440,106 6,161,486

 Nicaragua [35] 5,088,428 551,328 [19] 5,647,340

5,822,000 97.0%

 Morocco [40] [41] 5,480,000 17,32% [42]

31,759,997 20,000 5,500,000

 Brazil [45] [46] 2,86% 5,448,689

190,732,694 448,689 5.000.000

 Costa Rica [47] 4,345,130 87,126 [19] 4,432,256

4,615,646 99.2%

 Paraguay 6,460,000 369,000 4,043,555 [19] 4,489,700


 Puerto Rico [35] [48] 147,334 [19] 3,950,024

3,998,000 3,802,098 98.8%

 United Kingdom 60,943,912 [49] 3,814,846 6.4% [17]

107,654 3,922,500

 Uruguay [35] 3,257,352 77,303 [19] 3,334,908

3,372,000 98.9%

 Panama [35] 2,622,720 476,419 [19] 3,179,365

3,508,000 93.1%

 Philippines 96,061,683 [50] 3,014,115 3.1% [51]

2,660 3,016,773

 Germany 82,369,548 [52] 2,566,972 3.2% [17]

140,000 2,706,972

 Italy 58,145,321 [53] 1,968,320 3.5% [17]

89,905 2,058,225

 Equatorial Guinea [54] n.a. 1,044,293 [19] [55] 1,044,293

1,153,915 90.5%
Spanish language 61

 Canada 33,212,696 [56] [18] 3% 1,001,853

909,000 92,853

 Portugal 10,676,910 9,744 727,282 6.9% [17]


 Netherlands 16,645,313 [57] 662,116 4.1% [17]

19,978 682,094

 Belgium 10,403,951 [58] 515,939 5.8% [17]

85,990 601,929

 Romania 22,246,862 544,531 2.4% [17]


 Sweden 9,045,389 [59] 442,601 6% [17]

101,472 544,073

 Australia 21,007,310 [60] [61] 2.3% [18]

106,517 374,571 481,088

 Poland 38,500,696 316,104 0.8% [17]


 Austria 8,205,533 267,177 3.3% [17]


 Ivory Coast 20,179,602 [18] 1.2% 235,806


 Algeria 33,769,669 [62] 0.7% 223,379


 Denmark 5,484,723 219,003 4% [17]


 Israel 7,112,359 [63] 45,231 2.5% [64]

130,000 175,231

7,581,520 [65] 14,420 [66] 137,420

 Switzerland 123,000 1.7%

 Japan 127,288,419 [67] [18] 0.1% 136,565

76,565 60,000

 Bulgaria 7,262,675 133,910 1.8% [17]


 Belize 301,270 [68] 21,848 42.7% [68]

106,795 128,643

 Netherlands Antilles 223,652 10,699 114,835 56.1% 125,534

 Ireland 4,156,119 123,591 3% [17]


 Senegal 12,853,259 [18] 0.8% 101,455


 Greece 10,722,816 86,742 0.8% [17]


 Finland 5,244,749 85,586 1.6% [17]


 Hungary 9,930,915 85,034 0.9% [17]


 Aruba 100,018 6,800 68,602 75.3% 75,402

 Croatia 4,491,543 73,656 1.6% [17]


 Andorra 84,484 [69] 25,356 [70] 58,040

29,907 68.7%

 Slovakia 5,455,407 43,164 0.8% [17]


 Norway 4,644,457 12,573 23,677 0.8% [17]


 Russia 140,702,094 3,320 [71] 0.01% 23,320


 New Zealand 4,173,460 [72] 0.5% 21,645


 Guam 154,805 19,092 12.3% [73]


US Virgin Islands 108,612 16,788 15.5% 16,788

Spanish language 62

 China 1,345,751,000 2,292[74] 12,835

[18] 0.001124% 15,127

 Lithuania 3,565,205 13,943 0.4% [17]


 Gibraltar 27,967 13,857 49.5% 13,857

 Cyprus 792,604 1.4% [17]

 Turkey 71,892,807 380 [75] 0.01% 8,380


 Jamaica 2,804,322 8,000 0.3% 8,000

 Luxembourg 486,006 3,000 4,344 1.5% [17]


 Malta 403,532 6,458 1.6% [17]


 Trinidad and Tobago 1,047,366 4,100 0.4% 4,100

 Western Sahara [15] [76] n.a. n.a. n.a.

513,000 n.a.

Other immigrants in the [77] 1,399,531


Other students of Spanish [78] 2,895,562


Total native speakers in [2] 33,473,154 [79]

419,056,754 452,529,908
the world + bilingual and
as a second language
where Spanish is official:

Total with Spanish 83,066,144 [5]

speakers as a foreign

It is estimated that the combined total
number of Spanish speakers is between
470 and 500 million, making it the
third most spoken language by total
number of speakers (after Chinese, and
English). Spanish is the second most
widely spoken language in terms of
native speakers.[81] [82] Global internet
usage statistics for 2007 show Spanish
[80] as the third most commonly used
Active learning of Spanish.
language on the Internet, after English
and Chinese. [83]
Spanish language 63

In Europe, Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after
which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in
Gibraltar, though English is the official language.[84] It is also
commonly spoken in Andorra, though Catalan is the official
Spanish is spoken in 20 different countries worldwide. It is also spoken
by small communities in other European countries, such as the United
Kingdom, France, and Germany.[86] Spanish is an official language of
the European Union. In Switzerland, Spanish is the native language of
1.7% of the population, representing the largest minority after the 4
official languages of the country.[87]

Spain Spanish spoken in the European Union

In Spain and in some parts of the Spanish speaking world, but not all,
Spanish is called castellano (Castilian) as well as español (Spanish), that is, the language of the Castile region,
contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Basque, and Catalan. In this manner, the
Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State, as
opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit. the rest of the Spanish languages). Article III reads as follows:
El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. (...) Las demás lenguas españolas serán también
oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas...
Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. (...) The rest of the Spanish languages shall also be
official in their respective Autonomous Communities...
The Spanish Royal Academy uses the term español (rather than "castellano") in its publications, due to the fact that
"the term derives from the Provenzal word espaignol, which in turn derives from the Medieval Latin word
Hispaniolus, which means 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'".[88] The Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas (a
linguistic guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers
to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms (español and
castellano) are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.[89]
Currently, the name castellano, which refers directly to the historical context in which it was introduced in the
Americas, is preferred in Spain due to the existence of regions where other official languages are spoken (Catalonia,
Basque Country, Valencia, Balearic Islands and Galicia) as well as in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile,
Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, instead of español, which is more commonly used to refer to the language
as a whole when relating to a global context.


Latin America
Most Spanish speakers are in Latin America; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and
Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas. Mexico has the most native speakers of any country. Nationally,
Spanish is the official language—either de facto or de jure—of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official with Quechua and
Aymara), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Mexico , Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official with Guaraní[90] ), Peru (co-official with Quechua and, in some
regions, Aymara), Uruguay, and Venezuela. Spanish is also the official language (co-official with English) in Puerto
Spanish language 64

Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken
by 43% of the population.[92] [93] Mainly, it is spoken by the descendants of Hispanics who have been in the region
since the 17th century; however, English is the official language.[94]
Spain colonized Trinidad and Tobago first in 1498, introducing the Spanish language to the Carib people. Also the
Cocoa Panyols, laborers from Venezuela, took their culture and language with them; they are accredited with the
music of "Parang" ("Parranda") on the island. Because of Trinidad's location on the South American coast, the
country is greatly influenced by its Spanish-speaking neighbors. A recent census shows that more than 1 500
inhabitants speak Spanish.[95] In 2004, the government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL)
initiative in March 2005.[96] Government regulations require Spanish to be taught, beginning in primary school,
while thirty percent of public employees are to be linguistically competent within five years.[95]
Spanish is important in Brazil because of its proximity to and increased trade with its Spanish-speaking neighbors,
and because of its membership in the Mercosur trading bloc and the Union of South American Nations.[97] In 2005,
the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making Spanish language teaching
mandatory in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil.[98] In many border towns and villages (especially
in the Uruguayan-Brazilian and Paraguayan-Brazilian border areas), a mixed language known as Portuñol is

United States

According to 2006 census data, 44.3

million people of the U.S. population
were Hispanic or Latino by origin;[100]
34 million people, 12.2 percent, of the
population more than five years old
speak Spanish at home.[101] Spanish
has a long history in the United States
because many south-western states
were part of Mexico, and Florida was
also part of Spain, and it recently has
been revitalized by Hispanic
immigrants. Spanish is the most widely
taught language in the country after
Spanish spoken in the United States. Darker shades of blue indicate higher percentages of
English. Although the United States
Spanish speakers.
has no formally designated "official
languages," Spanish is formally
recognized at the state level in various states in addition to English; in the U.S. state of New Mexico for instance,
40% of the population speaks the language. It also has strong influence in metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles,
Miami, San Antonio, New York City, Las Vegas, San Francisco and Chicago and in the last decade, the language
has rapidly expanded in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Phoenix,
Richmond, Washington, DC, and Missouri. Spanish is the dominant spoken language in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory.
With a total of 33,701,181 Spanish (Castilian) speakers, according to US Census Bureau,[102] the U.S. has the
world's second-largest Spanish-speaking population.[103] Spanish ranks second, behind English, as the language
spoken most widely at home.[104]
Spanish language 65

In Africa, Spanish is official in Equatorial Guinea (co-official with French and Portuguese), as well as an official
language of the African Union. In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when native and
non-native speakers (around 500,000 people) are counted, while Fang is the most spoken language by number of
native speakers.[105] [106] Today, in Western Sahara, a former spanish colony, an unknown number of Sahrawis are
able to read and write in Spanish, and several thousands have received university education in foreign countries as
part of aid packages (mainly in Cuba and Spain). It is also spoken in the Spanish cities in continental North Africa
(Ceuta and Melilla) and in the autonomous community of Canary Islands (143,000 and 1,995,833 people,
respectively). Within Northern Morocco, a former Franco-Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to
Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish as a second language.[107] It is spoken by some communities of
Angola, because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War, and in Nigeria by the descendants of Afro-Cuban

Spanish was used by the colonial governments and the educated classes in the former Spanish East Indies, namely
the Philippines, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. From 1565 to 1973 it was an official language of the
Philippines. Up to 1899 it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first language by
Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid 19th century the colonial government set up a free public school system
with Spanish as the medium of instruction. This increased the use of Spanish throughout the islands and led to a class
of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the Ilustrados. Although Spanish never became the language of a majority of
the population,[108] Philippine literature and press primarily used Spanish up to the 1940s. It continued as an official
language until the change of Constitution in 1973. Following the U.S. occupation and administration of the islands in
1899, the American government increasingly imposed English, especially after the 1920s. The US authorities
conducted a campaign of introducing English as the medium of instruction in schools, universities and public spaces,
and prohibited the use of Spanish in media and educational institutions. After the country became independent in
1946, Spanish remained an official language along with English and Tagalog-based Filipino. However, the language
lost its official status in 1973 during the Ferdinand Marcos administration. In 2007 the Arroyo administration
announced that it would pass legislation to reintroduce Spanish in the Philippine education system. In 2010 a
Memorandum was signed between Spanish and Philippine authorities to cooperate in implementing this decree.
Today, Radio Manila broadcasts daily in Spanish. Worthy of mention is the Chabacano language spoken by 600,000
people both in the Philippines and Sabah. Chabacano, a Spanish-Philippine pidgin, sounds strange to Spanish
speakers but is mutually intelligible.
The local languages of the Philippines retain much Spanish influence, with many words being derived from Castilian
Spanish and Mexican Spanish, due to the control of the islands by Spain through Mexico City until 1821, and
directly from Madrid until 1898.[109]

Among the countries and territories in Oceania, Spanish is also spoken in Easter Island, a territorial possession of
Chile. The U.S. Territories of Guam and Northern Marianas, and the independent states of Palau, Marshall Islands
and the Federated States of Micronesia all once had majority Spanish speakers, since the Marianas and the Caroline
Islands were Spanish colonial possessions until the late 19th century (see Spanish-American War), but Spanish is no
longer used by the masses but there are still native and second-language speakers. It also exists as an influence on the
local native languages and is spoken by Hispanic American resident populations.
Spanish language 66

The Antarctic Treaty regulates international relations with respect to Antarctica. Argentina and Chile, both Spanish
speaking countries, claim territories according to this treaty. The Argentine Antarctica sector had a winter population
of 169 in 1999, and in the Chilean Antarctic Territory, according to the national census of 2002, the population was
130 (115 male, 15 female).[110]

Accent variation
There are important variations spoken among the regions of Spain and throughout Spanish-speaking America. One
major phonological difference between Castilian, broadly speaking, the accents spoken in most of Spain, and the
accent of much of southern Spain, the Canary Islands and all the Latin American accents of Spanish, is the absence
of a voiceless dental fricative (/θ/ as in English thing) in the latter.[111] In Spain, the Castilian accent is commonly
regarded as the standard variety used on radio and television,[112] [113] [114] [115] although attitudes towards southern
accents have changed significantly in the last 50 years. In addition to variations in pronunciation, minor lexical and
grammatical differences exist. For example, loísmo is the use of slightly different pronouns and differs from the
The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish. It is spoken by more than the twenty percent of the Spanish
speakers (107 million of the total 494 million, according to the table above). One of its main features is the reduction
or loss of the unstressed vowels, mainly when they are in contact with the sound /s/.[116] [117]

Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns: tú, usted, and vos.
The use of the pronoun vos and/or its verb forms is called voseo.


Vos is the subject form (vos decís) [you say] and object of a preposition
(a vos digo) [to you I say], while "os" is the direct object form (os vi) [I
saw you] and indirect object without express preposition (os digo) [I
say to you].[118]
Since vos is historically the 2nd-person plural, verbs are conjugated as
such despite the fact the word now refers to a single person:
«Han luchado, añadió dirigiéndose a Tarradellas, [...] por
mantenerse fieles a las instituciones que vos representáis»
(GaCandau Madrid-Barça [Esp. 1996]). An examination of the dominance and stress of
the voseo dialect in Latin America. Data
The possessive form is vuestro: Admiro vuestra valentía, señora. generated as illustrated by the Association of
Adjectives, when used in conjunction with vos, do not agree with the Spanish Language Academies. The darker the
pronoun but instead with the real referents in gender and number: Vos, country, the stronger its dominance.

don Pedro, sois caritativo; Vos, bellas damas, sois ingeniosas.[118]

Two main types of voseo may be distinguished: reverential and American dialectal. In archaic solemn usage, voseo
expressed special reverence and could be used to address both the second person singular and the second person
plural. In contrast, the more commonly known American form of voseo is always used to address only one speaker
and implies closeness and familiarity.[118] Unlike the first type, the second one need not involve vos and may instead
be expressed simply in the use of the plural form of the verb (even in combination with the pronoun tú).
The pronominal voseo employs the use of vos as a pronoun to replace tú and de ti, which are second-person singular
Spanish language 67

• As a subject vos employs: «Puede que vos tengás razón» (Herrera Casa [Ven. 1985]) instead of «Puede que tú
tengas razón»
• As a vocative: «¿Por qué vos la tenés contra Álvaro Arzú ?» (Prensa [Guat.] 3.4.97) instead of «¿Por qué tú la
tienes contra Álvaro Arzú?»
• As a term of preposition: «Cada vez que sale con vos, se enferma» (Penerini Aventura [Arg. 1999]) instead of
«Cada vez que sale contigo, se enferma»
• And as a term of comparison: «Es por lo menos tan actor como vos» (Cuzzani Cortés [Arg. 1988]) instead of «Es
por lo menos tan actor como tú»

However, for the pronombre átono (that which uses the pronominal verbs and its complements without preposition)
and for the possessive, they employ the forms of tuteo (te, tu, and tuyo), respectively: «Vos te acostaste con el
tuerto» (Gené Ulf [Arg. 1988]); «Lugar que odio [...] como te odio a vos» (Rossi María [C. Rica 1985]); «No cerrés
tus ojos» (Flores Siguamonta [Guat. 1993]). In other words, in the previous examples the authors conjugate the
pronoun subject vos with the pronominal verbs and its complements of tú.[118]
The verbal voseo consists of the use of the second person plural, more or less modified, for the conjugated forms of
the second person singular: vos vivís, vos comés. The verbal paradigm of voseante is characterized by its complexity.
On the one hand, it affects, to a distinct extent, each verbal tense. On the other hand, it varies in functions of
geographic and social factors and not all the forms are accepted in cultured norms.[118]

Extension in Latin America

Vos is used extensively as the primary

spoken form of the second-person singular
pronoun, although with wide differences in
social consideration. Generally, it can be
said that there are zones of exclusive use of
tuteo in the following areas: almost all of
Mexico, the West Indies, Panama, most of
Peru and Venezuela, Coastal Ecuador and
the Andean coast of Colombia.

They alternate tuteo as a cultured form and

voseo as a popular or rural form in: Bolivia,
north and south of Peru, Andean Ecuador,
The voseo pronoun is used in Central America's Nicaragua more frequently than in
small zones of the Venezuelan Andes, a
neighboring countries.
great part of Colombia, and the oriental
border of Cuba.

Tuteo exists as an intermediate formality of treatment and voseo as a familiar treatment in: Chile, the Venezuelan
Zulia State, the Pacific coast of Colombia, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Areas of generalized voseo include Argentina, Costa Rica, East of Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Colombian region of Valle and Antioquia.[118]
Spanish language 68

Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns. "Usted" (Ud.) was initially the written
abbreviation of "vuestra merced" (your grace). The dialects of Latin America have only one form of the
second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage
can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style). In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and
vosotros (familiar). The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of tú in most of Spain, but in the Americas (and in
certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz and in the Canary Islands) it is replaced with ustedes. It is notable that
the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun–verb
agreement; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van, uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in
Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais, using the second-person plural of the verb. In the
Canary Islands, though, the usual pronoun–verb agreement is preserved in most cases. The 'ustedeo' is mainly used
in Costa Rica and Colombia In Honduras especially in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, "usted" is used as a formal
pronoun between couples. It is used to portray respect between the romantic couple, while between colleagues and
friends "vos" is used. "Usted" is also used to portray respect between someone whom is a generation older or is of
higher authority.

Some words can be different, even significantly so, in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can
recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not
recognize specifically American usages. For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively,
'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile (except
manteca), Paraguay, Peru (except manteca and damasco), and Uruguay. The everyday Spanish words coger ('to
take'), pisar ('to step on') and concha ('seashell') are considered extremely rude in parts of Latin America, where the
meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vulva". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin"
(pinche) is an obscenity in Mexico, but in Nicaragua it simply means "stingy", and in Spain refers to a chef's helper.
Other examples include taco, which means "swearword" (among other meanings) in Spain and "traffic jam" in Chile,
but is known to the rest of the world as a Mexican dish. Pija in many countries of Latin America and Spain itself is
an obscene slang word for "penis", while in Spain the word also signifies "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which
means "car" in Spain, central Mexico and Argentina, for the vast majority of Spanish-speakers actually means
"baby-stroller", while carro means "car" in some Latin American countries and "cart" in others, as well as in Spain.
Papaya is the slang term for "vagina" in the parts of Cuba and Venezuela, where the fruit is instead called fruta
bomba and "lechosa", respectively.[119] [120]

Royal Spanish Academy

The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), founded in
1713,[121] together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of
Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence
through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar
and style guides. Because of influence and for other sociohistorical
reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is
widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the
The Royal Spanish Academy Headquarters in
Madrid, Spain
Spanish language 69

Association of Spanish Language Academies

The Association of Spanish Language Academies
(Spanish: Asociación de Academias de la Lengua
Española, or ASALE) is the entity which regulates the
Spanish language. It comprises the academies of 22
countries, ordered by date of Academy foundation:
Spain (1713[123] ), Colombia (1871[124] ), Ecuador
(1874[125] ), Mexico (1875[126] ), El Salvador
[122] (1876[127] ), Venezuela (1883[128] ), Chile (1885[129] ),
Countries members of the ASALE.
Peru (1887[130] ), Guatemala (1887[131] ), Costa Rica
(1923[132] ), Philippines (1924[133] ), Panama
(1926[134] ), Cuba (1926[135] ), Paraguay (1927[136] ), Dominican Republic (1927[137] ), Bolivia (1927[138] ),
Nicaragua (1928[139] ), Argentina (1931[140] ), Uruguay (1943[141] ), Honduras (1949[142] ), Puerto Rico (1955[143] ),
and United States (1973[144] ).

Classification and related languages

Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages: Asturian, Galician, Ladino, Leonese and
Portuguese. Catalan, an East Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits, is more similar to Occitan
to the east than to Spanish or Portuguese. It should be noted that although Portuguese and Spanish are very closely
related, particularly in vocabulary (89% lexically similar according to the Ethnologue of Languages), syntax and
grammar, there are also some differences. While Spanish and Portuguese are widely considered to be mutually
intelligible, it has been noted that while most Portuguese speakers can understand spoken Spanish with little
difficulty, Spanish speakers face more difficulty in understanding spoken Portuguese.[145] The written forms are
considered to be equally intelligible, however.

Judaeo-Spanish (also known as Ladino),[146] which is essentially medieval Spanish and closer to modern Spanish
than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the
15th century.[146] Therefore, its relationship to Spanish is comparable with that of the Yiddish language to German.
Ladino speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece or the Balkans:
current speakers mostly live in Israel and Turkey, and the United States, with a few pockets in Latin America.[146] It
lacks the Native American vocabulary which was influential during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many
archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not
found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew, French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages
spoken where the Sephardim settled.
Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly
olim (immigrants to Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is
experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American
communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.
A related dialect is Haketia, the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern
Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.
Spanish language 70

Vocabulary comparison
Spanish and Italian share a similar phonological system. At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at
82%.[147] The lexical similarity with Portuguese is greater at 89%. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French
or Romanian is lower (lexical similarity being respectively 75% and 71%[147] ): comprehension of Spanish by
French speakers who have not studied the language is low at an estimated 45% – the same as English. The common
features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading
comprehension than oral communication would.

Latin Spanish Galician Portuguese Astur-Leonese Aragonese Catalan Italian French Romanian English

nos nosotros nós nós, nosotros nusatros nosaltres noi we

nós noi (altri)² nous
(outros)¹ ³
also nós)

frater hermano irmán irmão hermanu chirmán fratello frère frate brother
germanum (lit. (archaically
"true brother") also frare)5

dies Martis martes martes terça-feira martes martes,"martz" dimarts martedì mardi marţi Tuesday
feria tertia

cantiō (nem, canción canción/cançom4 canção canción (in canta cançó canzone chanson cântec song
acc.), asturian
canticum canciu)

magis or plus más máis mais más más,"més" més più plus mai/plus more
(archaically (archaically (archaically
also plus) also also pus)

manum mano man esquerda mão mano man cucha mà mano main mâna left
sinistram izquierda esquerda esquierda (in esquerra sinistra gauche stângă hand
(acc.) (also mano (archaically asturian
siniestra) also manzorga)

nihil or nullam nada nada/ren nada nada (in cosa res niente/nulla rien/nul nimic/nul nothing
rem natam (neca and asturian un res
(acc.) nula rés in is the same of
(lit. "no thing some nada)
born") expressions;
also rem)

1. also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads)

2. noi altri in Southern Italian dialects and languages
3. Alternatively nous autres
4. Depending on the written norm used. See Reintegracionismo
5. Medieval Catalan, e.g. Llibre dels feits del rei en Jacme
Spanish language 71

A defining feature of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue, respectively,
when they were stressed. Similar sound changes are found in other Romance languages, but in Spanish, they were
significant. Some examples:
• Lat. petram > Sp. piedra, It. pietra, Fr. pierre, Rom. piatrǎ, Port./Gal. pedra, Ar. piedra, Ast. piedra, Cat. pedra
• Lat. moritur > Sp. muere, It. muore, Fr. meurt / muert, Rom. moare, Port./Gal. morre, Ar. muere, Ast. muerre,
Cat. mor "die".
Peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum) was the
mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. Compare for
• Lat. filium > It. figlio, Port. filho, Ar. fillo, Gal. fillo, Ast. fíu, Fr. fils, Cat. fill, Occitan filh, Rom. fiu, (but Gascon
hilh) Sp. hijo (but Ladino fijo);
• Lat. fabulari > Lad. favlar, Port./Gal. falar, Ar. fablar, Ast. falar, Sp. hablar;
• but Lat. focum > It. fuoco, Port./Gal. fogo, Rom. foc, Ar. fuego, Ast. fueu Cat. foc, Sp./Lad. fuego.
Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, for example:
• Lat. clamare, acc. flammam, plenum > Lad. lyamar, flama, pleno; Sp. llamar, llama, lleno. However, in Spanish
there are also the forms clamar, flama, pleno; Port. chamar, chama, cheio; Rom. chema, flacără, plin; Gal.
chamar, chama, cheo; Ast. llamar, llama, llenu.
• Lat. acc. octo, noctem, multum > Lad. ocho, noche, muncho; Sp. ocho, noche, mucho; Port. oito, noite, muito; Gal.
oito, noite, moito; Rom. opt, noapte, mult; Ast. ocho, nueche, munchu.
By the 16th century, the consonant system of Spanish underwent the following important changes that differentiated
it from neighbouring Romance languages such as Portuguese and Catalan:
• Initial /f/, when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/, was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is
preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still aspirated in some words).
• The consonant written ‹u› or ‹v› (in Latin, this was [w], at the time of the merger it may have been a bilabial
fricative /β/) merged with the consonant written ‹b› (a voiced bilabial plosive, /b/). In contemporary Spanish, there
is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic ‹b› and ‹v›, excepting emphatic pronunciations that
cannot be considered standard or natural.
• The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its
voiceless counterpart /s/. The phoneme which resulted from this merger is currently spelled s.
• The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ʃ/, which evolved into the modern
velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j, or g before e, i. Nevertheless, in most parts of Argentina
and in Uruguay, y and ll have both evolved to /ʒ/ or /ʃ/.
• The voiced alveolar affricate /d͡z/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /t͡s/, which then developed into the
interdental /θ/, now written z, or c before e, i. But in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Americas this sound
merged with /s/ as well. See Ceceo, for further information.
The consonant system of Mediaeval Spanish has been better preserved in Ladino and in Portuguese, neither of which
underwent these shifts
Spanish language 72

Writing system
Spanish is written in the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the character ‹ñ› (eñe, representing the phoneme /ɲ/, a
letter distinct from ‹n›, although typographically composed of an ‹n› with a tilde) and the digraphs ‹ch› (che,
representing the phoneme /t͡ʃ/) and ‹ll› (elle, representing the phoneme /ʎ/). However, the digraph ‹rr› (erre fuerte,
'strong r", erre doble, 'double r', or simply erre), which also represents a distinct phoneme /r/, is not similarly
regarded as a single letter. Since 1994 ‹ch› and ‹ll› have been treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though
they remain a part of the alphabet. Words with ‹ch› are now alphabetically sorted between those with ‹cg› and ‹ci› ,
instead of following ‹cz› as they used to. The situation is similar for ‹ll›.[148] [149]
Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 27 letters and 2 digraphs:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.[150]
ch,[151] ll.[152]
The letters "k" and "w" are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (kilo, folklore, whiskey,
William, etc.).
With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Toponymy of Mexico),
pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a typical Spanish word
is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including ‹y›) or with a vowel followed by ‹n› or
an ‹s›; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on
the stressed vowel.
The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a
stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ('the', masculine singular definite article) with él ('he' or 'it'), or
te ('you', object pronoun), de (preposition 'of'), and se (reflexive pronoun) with té ('tea'), dé ('give' [formal
imperative/third-person present subjunctive]) and sé ('I know' or imperative 'be').
The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and
some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. The conjunction o ('or') is
written with an accent between numerals so as not to be confused with a zero: e.g., 10 ó 20 should be read as diez o
veinte rather than diez mil veinte ('10,020'). Accent marks are frequently omitted in capital letters (a widespread
practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with
accents), although the Real Academia Española advises against this.
When ‹u› is written between ‹g› and a front vowel (‹e i›), it indicates a "hard g" pronunciation. A diaeresis (‹ü›)
indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., cigüeña, 'stork', is pronounced [θiˈɣweɲa]; if it were
written ‹cigueña›, it would be pronounced [θiˈɣeɲa]).
Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks (‹¿› and ‹¡›,

The phonemic inventory listed in the following table includes phonemes that are preserved only in some accents,
other accents having merged them (such as yeísmo or seseo); these are marked with an asterisk (*). Where symbols
appear in pairs, the symbol to the right represents a voiced consonant.
Spanish language 73

Table of consonant phonemes of Spanish[153]

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar

Nasal m n ɲ

Stop p b t d tʃ ʝ k ɡ

Fricative f θ* s x

Trill r

Tap ɾ

Lateral l ʎ*

Lexical stress
Spanish is a syllable-timed language, so each syllable has the same duration regardless of stress.[154] [155] Stress most
often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth last or earlier
syllables. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:[156]
• In words ending in vowels and /s/, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable.
• In words ending in all other consonants, the stress more often falls on the last syllable.
• Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the syllable that comes three before the last in a word) occurs rarely and only
in words like guardándoselos ('saving them for him/her/them') where clitics follow certain verbal forms.
In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs which contrast solely on
stress such as sábana ('sheet') and sabana ('savannah'), as well as límite ('boundary'), limite ('[that] he/she limits') and
limité ('I limited'), or also "líquido", "liquido" and "liquidó".
The spelling system unambiguously reflects where the stress occurs: in the absence of an accent mark, the stress falls
on the last syllable unless the last letter is "n", "s", or a vowel, in which cases the stress falls on the next-to-last
syllable; if and only if the absence of an accent mark would give the wrong stress information, an acute accent mark
appears over the stressed syllable.
An amusing example of the significance of intonation in Spanish is the phrase ¿Cómo "¿cómo como?"? ¡Como como
como! (What do you mean, how do I eat? I eat the way I eat!).

V and B
The letters V and B are both normally pronounced identically as /b/ or similar, and academic authorities now state
that this is the only correct pronunciation. The Royal Spanish Academy considers the /v/ pronunciation for the letter
V to be incorrect and affected. However some Spanish speakers maintain the pronunciation of the /v/ sound as it is in
other western European languages. The sound /v/ is used for the letter V, in the Spanish language, by a few
second-language speakers in Spain whose native language is Catalan, in the Valencian Community, Mallorca, and
southern Catalonia.[157] In the USA it is also common due to the proximity and influence of English phonology, and
the /v/ is also occasionally used in Mexico. Some parts of Central America also use /v/ which the Royal Academy
attributes to the interference of local indigenous languages.
Historically, the /v/ pronunciation was uncommon but considered correct well into the 20th century. Spanish schools
taught a /v/ pronunciation for most of the 20th century.
Some Spaniards consider the pronunciation of /v/ for the letter V to be more poetic, and it is used by many singers
such as Julio Iglesias, Juan Pardo, Paloma San Basilio, Amaia Montero and Alejandro Sanz.
Spanish language 74

Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but
limited inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners. (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and
Spanish irregular verbs.)
It is right-branching, uses prepositions, and usually, though not always, places adjectives after nouns, as do most
other Romance languages. Its syntax is generally Subject Verb Object, though variations are common. It is a
pro-drop language (or null subject language) (that is, it allows the deletion of pronouns which are pragmatically
unnecessary) and is verb-framed.

Instituto Cervantes
The Instituto Cervantes (Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit
organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. This organization has
branched out in over 20 different countries with 54 centres devoted to the
Spanish and Hispanic American culture and Spanish Language. The ultimate
goals of the Institute are to promote the education, the study and the use of
Spanish universally as a second language, to support the methods and activities
that would help the process of Spanish language education, and to contribute to
the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures throughout
non-Spanish-speaking countries.

Cervantes Institute headquarters, References

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Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
[2] Demografía de la lengua española (http:/ / eprints. ucm. es/ 8936/ 1/ DT03-06. pdf) (page 38). 359.5 million people where Spanish is official
and 40.5 where it is not official with native knowladges of Spanish, and another 40 million with limited knowladges. The figures of the
census used are from 2000 to 2005.
[3] "IV CILE. Paneles y ponencias. Hiram Vivanco Torres" (http:/ / congresosdelalengua. es/ cartagena/ ponencias/ seccion_3/ 36/
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congresovaloridioma. es/ pag/ bienvenida. html) / Mario Melgar of the México University ( (http:/ / www. lllf. uam. es/ ~fmarcos/
coloquio/ Ponencias/ MMelgar. doc)), / Enrique Díaz de Liaño Argüelles, director of Celer Solutions multilingual translation network ( (http:/ / www. elintercultural. net/ 2010090632796/ Industrias-Culturales/ Noticias/
qel-espanol-es-actualmente-la-lengua-comun-de-casi-500-millones-de-personas-y-la-lengua-oficial-de-21-paisesq. html)) / Feu Rosa - Spanish
in Mercosur ( (http:/ / congresosdelalengua. es/ valladolid/ ponencias/ unidad_diversidad_del_espanol/
5_espanol_y_portugues/ rosa_f. htm)) / (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ carreras/ capital/ humano/ 500/ millones/ razones/
saber/ espanol/ elpepueconeg/ 20100124elpnegser_4/ Tes) / (http:/ / www. eumed. net/ rev/ cccss/ 05/ jrz. htm) /
(http:/ / www. efeamerica. com/ 309_hispanic-world/ 879407_spain-s-king-praises-nobel-winning-vargas-llosa. html) /
(http:/ / www. babel-linguistics. com/ idiomas. htm).
[6] La RAE avala que Burgos acoge las primeras palabras escritas en castellano (Spanish). (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2010/ 11/ 07/
castillayleon/ 1289123856. html)
[7] "Spanish languages "Becoming the language for trade" in Spain and" (http:/ / sejours-linguistiques-en-espagne. com/ index. html). . Retrieved 2010-05-11.
[8] "(SPANISH: a language of Spain)" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ 14/ show_language. asp?code=spn). . Retrieved
Spanish language 75

[9] (http:/ / www. ethnologue. org/ ethno_docs/ distribution. asp?by=size), (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/
19990429232804/ www. sil. org/ ethnologue/ top100. html), (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/
2098. html) (see "World" file), (http:/ / www. eldia. es/ 2009-11-02/ cultura/ 3-espanol-esta-crisis-Instituto-Cervantes. htm) (according
to Ethnology (journal)), Encarta ( Chinese 800 million (http:/ / uk. encarta. msn. com/ dictionary_1481582983/ Modern_Standard_Chinese.
html), Spanish 358 million (http:/ / uk. encarta. msn. com/ dictionary_1861781790/ Spanish. html), English 350 million (http:/ / uk. encarta.
msn. com/ dictionary_1861789540/ English. html)).
[10] "Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language" (http:/ / www. encyclopedia. com/ doc/ 1O29-SPANISH. html). Oxford University
Press. . Retrieved 24 July 2008.
[11] "Spanish Language Facts" (http:/ / www. encyclopedia. com/ topic/ Spanish_language. aspx#1O29-SPANISH). .
Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[12] Crow, John A. (2005). Spain: the root and the flower (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=g2NKy8QCxw4C& pg=PA151& dq=Nebrija+ first+
spanish+ grammar+ Isabel& cd=5#v=onepage& q=). University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN 9780520244962. .
[13] Thomas, Hugh (2005). Rivers of Gold: the rise of the Spanish empire, from Columbus to Magellan (http:/ / books. google. com/
?id=b38f7b1WmOwC& pg=PA78& dq=Nebrija+ first+ spanish+ grammar+ Isabel& cd=5#v=onepage& q=). Random House Inc.. p. 78.
ISBN 9780812970555. .
[14] (in Spanish) (PDF) La lengua de Cervantes (http:/ / www. cepc. es/ rap/ Publicaciones/ Revistas/ 2/ REP_031-032_288. pdf). Ministerio de
la Presidencia de España. . Retrieved 2008-08-24.
[15] "UN 2009 estimate" (http:/ / www. un. org/ esa/ population/ publications/ wpp2008/ wpp2008_text_tables. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved
[16] Britannica Books of the years 2003 to 2009 es:Anexo:Hablantes de español como lengua materna en el 2003 (según el Britannica Book).
Sources used by the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Ethnologue -14th edition, Joshua Project 2000 —People’s List, U.S. Census Bureau.)
[17] eurobarometer (2006) (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ public_opinion/ archives/ ebs/ ebs_243_en. pdf), es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E.
según el Eurobarómetro (2006) for Europe countries
[18] Spanish students for countries out of Europe according to Instituto Cervantes 06-07 (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ lengua/ anuario/
anuario_06-07/ pdf/ cifras. pdf) (There aren't concrete sources about Spanish speakers as a second language except to Europe and Latin
America countries).
[19] Demografía de la lengua española (http:/ / eprints. ucm. es/ 8936/ 1/ DT03-06. pdf) (page 28) to countries with official spanish status.
[20] CONAPO (http:/ / www. conapo. gob. mx/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=36& Itemid=234) (2010).
[21] (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ mx. html): Spanish only 92.7%
[22] Population figure for 2009 from U.S. Population in 1990, 2000, and 2009 (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ SAFFPopulation), U.S.
Census Bureau
[23] Hispanics older than 5 years old ( US Census Bureau 2009 (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ STTable?_bm=y& -geo_id=01000US&
-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S1601& -ds_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_& -_lang=en& -redoLog=false))
[24] Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española: (http:/ / www. elcastellano. org/ noticia. php?id=1113), José Ma. Ansón:
noticias (http:/ / www. elcastellano. org/ noticia. php?id=685), Jorge Ramos Avalos: (http:/ / www. univision.
com/ content/ content. jhtml?cid=1145765), Elbio Rodríguez Barilari: (http:/ / congresosdelalengua. es/ valparaiso/
ponencias/ lengua_comunicacion/ rodriguez_elbio. htm) , III Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española (http:/ / www. abcdesevilla. es/
hemeroteca/ historico-29-03-2008/ sevilla/ Cultura/
mas-de-70-expertos-participaran-en-la-iii-acta-internacional-de-la-lengua-española-en-la-rabida_1641753752939. html), (http:/
/ www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ arts/ television/ cnn-en-espanol-restructures-its-programming. html) (The United States is now the
second-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, with more Spanish speakers than Spain, and exceeded only by Mexico).
[25] There are 50,477,594 Hispanic people from a total US population of more than 308 million according to the Census Bureau 2010 (http:/ /
www. census. gov/ popest/ states/ asrh/ tables/ SC-EST2009-04. xls). 35,468,501 Hispanics older than 5 speak Spanish at home, so there are
15 million posible Spanish speakers as a second language with differents knowladges. In adition, there are 6 ( (http:/ / www.
cervantes. es/ docs/ Enciclopedia_del_español_en_el_mundo. pdf)) or 7.8 million Spanish students in USA ( (http:/ / www. fundacionsiglo. com/ espanol/ cap1. pdf)), many of them are not Hispanics. Finally, there are 9 million
illegal Hispanics in USA, some of them aren't in the census ( (http:/ / www. impre. com/ laraza/ opinion/ editorial/ 2009/ 4/ 19/
palidos-de-hambre-120230-1. html)).
[26] "INE Datos básicos ... acceso directo (1/1/2010)" (http:/ / www. ine. es/ ). 2001-05-28. . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[27] 89.0% speak Spanish as a first language ( eurobarometer (2006) (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ public_opinion/ archives/ ebs/ ebs_243_en. pdf))
[28] "DANE" (http:/ / www. dane. gov. co/ reloj/ reloj_animado. php). DANE. . Retrieved 2010-09-01.
[29] "SINTITUL-7" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ proyecyestimaciones_1950-2015. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved
[30] "(30 Aug., 2010)" (http:/ / www. ine. gov. ve/ ). INE. . Retrieved 2010-07-01.
[31] Ezio Quispe Fernández. "(2011)" (http:/ / www. inei. gob. pe/ ). INEI. . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[32] "INE (Chile - 2011)" (http:/ / www. ine. cl/ canales/ chile_estadistico/ demografia_y_vitales/ proyecciones/ Informes/ Microsoft Word -
InforP_T. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[33] "Ecuador en Cifras" (http:/ / www. ecuadorencifras. com/ cifras-inec/ main. html). INEC. . Retrieved 2010-09-01.
Spanish language 76

[34] "Información Demógrafica 2010" (http:/ / www. ine. gob. gt/ index. php/ demografia-y-poblacion/ 42-demografiaypoblacion/
207-infodemo2010). INE. 2007-09-21. . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[35] "UN (2010)" (http:/ / www. one. cu/ aec2009/ datos/ 3. 1. xls). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[36] "(2010)" (http:/ / www. ine. gov. bo/ indice/ visualizador. aspx?ah=PC20410. HTM). INE. . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[37] "INE (2011)" (http:/ / www. ine. gob. hn/ drupal/ sites/ default/ files/ Resumen de la Proyeccion de Poblacion de Honduras 2001-2015_0.
xls). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[38] Census 2010 estimation (http:/ / www. digestyc. gob. sv/ Portada/ Presentacion Poblacion. pdf) (page 32)
[39] 1% of 44,010,619 (population of France older than 15 years in 2005). Source: Eurobarometer 2006. There are 179,678 immigrants from
Spain according to INE (1/1/2009)
[40] Morocco census (http:/ / www. hcp. ma/ )
[41] "" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=MA). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[42] there are between 4 and 7 million Spanish speakers in Morocco (Ammadi, 2002) (http:/ / www. educacion. es/ exterior/ ma/ es/
[43] According to a survey made in 2005 by CIDOB ( (http:/ / www. realinstitutoelcano. org/ wps/ portal/ rielcano/
contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ elcano/ elcano_es/ zonas_es/ lengua+ y+ cultura/ ari116-2008), (http:/ / www.
afapredesa. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=195& Itemid=2)). According to the Morocco Census of 2004, the Morocco
population is 29,680,069 ( (http:/ / www. hcp. ma/ )
[44] IBGE 2010 (http:/ / www. ibge. gov. br/ home/ presidencia/ noticias/ noticia_visualiza. php?id_noticia=1766& id_pagina=1)
[45] 50% of 733,000 foreigners in Brazil are from Mercosur (Page 32 (http:/ / eprints. ucm. es/ 8936/ 1/ DT03-06. pdf) + 82,189 spanish
immigrants ( INE (1/1/2010) (http:/ / www. ine. es/ jaxi/ tabla. do?path=/ t20/ p85001/ a2010/ l0/ & file=01001. px& type=pcaxis& L=0)).
[46] 2009 Annuary of the Instituto Cervantes (http:/ / www. cervantes. es/ imagenes/ File/ prensa/ anuario2009. pdf): More than 5 million
students are learning Spanish. (http:/ / www. elcastellano. org/ noticia. php?id=775), (http:/ / editor.
elespectador. com/ brasil/ articulo43526-presidente-brasileno-espera-los-ninos-hablen-espanol), (http:/ / www. oei. org. co/ noticias/
noticia12042007_1. htm): Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, president of Brazil: Near 9 million students are learning Spanish and the forecast is 12
million in 2010. Instituto Cervantes (http:/ / www. cervantes. es/ docs/ Espanol_en_Brasil. pdf): More than 1 million of spanish students in the
private school and almost 11 million estimated for 2010 in the public school.
[47] "Primera variación del año registró un 0,68%" (http:/ / www. inec. go. cr/ Web/ Home/ GeneradorPagina. aspx). INEC. . Retrieved
[48] 95,10% of the population speaks Spanish ( U.S. Census Bureau (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ GRTTable?_bm=y&
-geo_id=01000US& -_box_head_nbr=R1602& -ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_& -_lang=en& -redoLog=true& -format=US-30&
-mt_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_R0504_US30& -CONTEXT=grt))
[49] 59,017 immigrants from Spain (Spanish census 2001) + 48,637 immigrants from Colombia. Open Channels and Colombian consul (1999)
(http:/ / www. bolpress. com/ art. php?Cod=2002068592)
[50] Ethnologue (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=PH). There are 2,532 immigrants from Spain according to INE (http:/
/ www. ine. es/ jaxi/ menu. do?type=pcaxis& path=/ t20/ p85001& file=inebase& L=) (1/1/2009)
[51] 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Antonio Quilis "La lengua española en Filipinas", 1996 pag.234 (http:/
/ www. cervantesvirtual. com/ servlet/ SirveObras/ 01350553135573500088680/ 209438_0013. pdf), (http:/ / www. mepsyd. es/
exterior/ au/ es/ File/ Ten_Reasons_low-res(1). pdf) (page 23), (http:/ / www. mepsyd. es/ redele/ Biblioteca2006/ DavidSanchez/
Memoria. pdf) (page 249), (http:/ / spanish-differences. com/ Spanish/ Philippines-Spanish. php),
(http:/ / www. aresprensa. com/ cms/ cms/ front_content. php?idart=208). The figure 2,900,000 Spanish speakers, we can find in "Pluricentric
languages: differing norms in different nations" (http:/ / books. google. es/ books?ei=vCXASpS0LqXkmwO0lZnlBg& ct=result&
q=Pluricentric+ languages:+ differing+ norms+ in+ different+ nations+ spanish+ philippines+ speakers& btnG=Buscar+ libros) (page 45 by
R.W.Thompson), or in (http:/ / www. sispain. org/ spanish/ language/ worldwid. html)./ More than 2 million Spanish speakers and
around 3 million with Chavacano speakers according to "Instituto Cervantes de Manila" ( (http:/ / www. elcastellano. org/
noticia. php?id=505))
[52] Britannica Book of the Year 1998 (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ lengua/ anuario/ anuario_99/ otero/ p03. htm#7). There are 103,063 immigrants
from Spain according to INE (1/1/2009)
[53] "14,905 Spanish (Census 2001) + 75,000 from Ecuador" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080611085532/ http:/ / www. mmrree. gov. ec/
mre/ documentos/ novedades/ boletines/ ano2003/ julio/ bol257. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. mmrree. gov.
ec/ mre/ documentos/ novedades/ boletines/ ano2003/ julio/ bol257. htm) on June 11, 2008. . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[54] "Equatorial Guinea census (2009)" (http:/ / www. population-statistics. com/ wg. php?x=& men=gpro& lng=es& dat=32& srt=pnan&
col=dq& geo=-91). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[55] 13,7% of the population speaks Spanish with native knowladge and other 74% as a second language (http:/ / cvc. cervantes.
es/ lengua/ anuario/ anuario_06-07/ pdf/ paises_08. pdf).
[56] PMB Statistics 2006 (http:/ / www. mediaincanada. com/ articles/ mic/ 20061011/ profile. html?page=2)
(Spanish-speaking people over the age of 12). Although Canada Census told about 345,345 people who speaks Spanish in 2006, Hispanic
organizations claim about 520,260 Hispanics in 2001, and more than 700,000 in 2006 ( (http:/ / hispanosencanada. ca/
portal/ content/ view/ 651/ ), (http:/ / dialogos. ca/ revista/ numero3/ articulo2. htm)), and currently there are near 1 million: ( (http:/ / www. tlntv. com/ pressReleases/ 2007/ TLN EN ESPANOL is born. pdf).
Spanish language 77

[57] Spanish (census 2001)

[58] 1% of 8,598,982 (population of Belgium older than 15 years in 2005). Source: Eurobarometer 2006
[59] Sweden Census SCB (2002)
[60] Page 32 of the "Demogeafía de la lengua española" (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf). 104,000 according to Britannica
Book of the Year 2003
[61] Page 32 of the Demografía de la lengua española "Demografía de la lengua española" (http:/ / eprints. ucm. es/ 8936/ 1/ DT03-06. pdf)
[62] Between 150,000 and 200,000 in Tinduf ( (http:/ / www. aprendemas. com/ Noticias/ html/ N1960_F17012007. HTML)) +
48,000 in Wilaya of Oran (page 31 of Demografía de la lengua española (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf))
[63] 50,000 sefardíes (Britannica Book of the Year 1998) (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ obref/ anuario/ anuario_99/ otero/ p03. htm) + 80,000 from
Iberoamerica (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ obref/ congresos/ sevilla/ comunicacion/ ponenc_shadas. htm)
[64] Pages 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf).
[65] Centro Virtual Cervantes. "Britannica Book of the Year 1998" (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ lengua/ anuario/ anuario_99/ otero/ p03. htm#7). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[66] "" (http:/ / www. all-about-switzerland. info/ swiss-population-languages. html). .
Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[67] "70,000 from Peru" (http:/ / www. publico. es/ 250381/ los-japoneses-latinos-se-sienten-discriminados). 2009-09-09. . Retrieved
[68] Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf)
[69] 35.4% speak Spanish as a first language (http:/ / www. iea. ad/ cres/ observatori/ temes/ llengua3trimestre2005. htm)
[70] "" (http:/ / www. iea. ad/ cres/ observatori/ temes/ llengua3trimestre2005. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[71] "ANUARIO IC 2009" (http:/ / www. cervantes. es/ imagenes/ File/ prensa/ anuario2009. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[72] New Zealand census (2006)
[73] Page 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española (http:/ / eprints. ucm. es/ 8936/ 1/ DT03-06. pdf)
[74] Spanish residents in China ( INE, 2009 (http:/ / www. ine. es/ jaxi/ menu. do?type=pcaxis& path=/ t20/ p85001& file=inebase& L=))
[75] Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf)
[76] The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western Sahara ( (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ lengua/ anuario/ anuario_99/ otero/
p03. htm#7)) but probably most of them were people born in Spain who left after the Moroccan annexation
[77] There are 2,397,380 immigrants from Spain and Latin America according to the page 37 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" (http:/ /
www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf) (997,849 already counted)
[78] According to the Instituto Cervantes, there are 14 million of Spanish students. But there are already counted students from U.S. (6,000,000)
because it is considered the current 7,820,000 students, E.U (3,385,000) because they are considered in the eurobarometer figures ( demografía
del español, page 37) (http:/ / www. ucm. es/ info/ icei/ pdf/ DT 03-06. pdf), Brazil (1 mill.) with 11 million new students in the public
schools, Morocco (58.382) and Philippines (20,492), Canada (92,853), Australia (33,913), Ivory Coast (235,806), Switzerland (14,420), Japan
(60,000), Senegal (101.455), Occ. Sáhara (25,800), Norway (23,677), Russia (13,122) and China (12,835).
[79] 450 million Spanish speakers ( I (http:/ / www. fundacionblu. org/ actaslengua/ acta_conclusiones_lengua_espanola. asp?id=1) and IV
(http:/ / www. fundacionblu. org/ actaslengua/ acta_lengua_espanola. asp?id=7) International minutes of the Spanish language, and Instituto
Cervantes (http:/ / www. cervantes. es/ sobre_instituto_cervantes/ prensa/ 2009/ noticias/ caffarel_casa_america. htm)). 460 million Spanish
speakers ( (http:/ / pdf. diariohoy. net/ 2007/ 03/ 25/ pdf/ 10-c. pdf), (http:/ / www. lne. es/ sociedad-cultura/ 1583/
colombia-convierte-capital-lengua-espanola/ 503977. html))
[80] "Instituto Cervantes 06-07" (http:/ / cvc. cervantes. es/ lengua/ anuario/ anuario_06-07/ pdf/ cifras. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[81] "Most widely spoken Languages in the World" (http:/ / www. nationsonline. org/ oneworld/ most_spoken_languages. htm). Nations Online.
. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
[82] "CIA The World Factbook United States" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ us. html). .
Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[83] "Internet World Users by Language" (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ stats7. htm). Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2008. .
[84] "CIA World Factbook — Gibraltar" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ gi. html). . Retrieved
[85] "Background Note: Andorra" (http:/ / www. state. gov/ r/ pa/ ei/ bgn/ 3164. htm). U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and
Eurasian Affairs. January 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-20.
[86] BBC Education — Languages (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ languages/ european_languages/ languages/ spanish. shtml), Languages Across
Europe — Spanish.
[87] "Switzerland's Four National Languages" (http:/ / www. all-about-switzerland. info/ swiss-population-languages. html). . Retrieved 2007-09-19.
[88] "Diccionario de la lengua española" (http:/ / buscon. rae. es/ draeI/ ) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[89] Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 2005, pg. 271-272.
[90] Ethnologue – Paraguay(2000) (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=PY). Guaraní is also the most-spoken language in
Paraguay by its native speakers.
[91] "Puerto Rico Elevates English" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9F0CE1D8163AF93AA15752C0A965958260&
n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Subjects/ E/ English Language). the New York Times. 29 January 1993. . Retrieved 2007-10-06.
Spanish language 78

[92] "Population Census 2000, Major Findings" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070621080522/ http:/ / www. cso. gov. bz/ publications/
MF2000. pdf) (PDF). Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management, Belize. 2000. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cso.
gov. bz/ publications/ MF2000. pdf) on 2007-06-21. . Retrieved 2007-12-20.
[93] "Belize Population and Housing Census 2000" (http:/ / censos. ccp. ucr. ac. cr/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[94] "CIA World Factbook — Belize" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ bh. html). . Retrieved
[95] Williams, Carol J. (2005-08-30). "Trinidad Says It Needs Spanish to Talk Business" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2005/ aug/ 30/ world/
fg-spanish30). Los Angeles Times. p. A3. . Retrieved 2009-09-10.
[96] "The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago" (http:/ / www. tradeind. gov. tt/
SIS/ FAQ. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[97] Mercosul, Portal Oficial (http:/ / www. mercosur. int/ msweb/ portal intermediario/ pt/ index. htm) (Portuguese)
[98] "Spanish becomes second language in Brazil, Mercopress" (http:/ / en. mercopress. com/ 2005/ 07/ 08/
spanish-becomes-second-language-in-brazil). 2005-07-08. . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[99] Lipski, John M. (2006) (PDF). Too close for comfort? the genesis of "portuñol/portunhol" (http:/ / www. lingref. com/ cpp/ hls/ 8/
paper1251. pdf). Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 1–22. Somerville,
MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. . Retrieved 2008-12-29.
[100] U.S. Census Bureau (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ ACSSAFFPeople?_event=& geo_id=01000US& _geoContext=01000US&
_street=& _county=& _cityTown=& _state=& _zip=& _lang=en& _sse=on& ActiveGeoDiv=& _useEV=& pctxt=fph& pgsl=010&
_submenuId=people_10& ds_name=null& _ci_nbr=null& qr_name=null& reg=null:null& _keyword=& _industry=) Hispanic or Latino by
specific origin.
[101] U.S. Census Bureau 1. (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ GRTTable?_bm=y& -_box_head_nbr=R1602&
-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_& -format=US-30) Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006, U.S. Census
Bureau 2. (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ STTable?_bm=y& -geo_id=01000US& -qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S1601&
-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_& -_lang=en& -redoLog=false) 34,044,945 People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006
[102] U.S. Census Bureau (2007). "United States. S1601. Language Spoken at Home" (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ STTable?_bm=y&
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3-Year Estimates. . Retrieved September 3, 2009.
[103] El País (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ cultura/ speak/ spanish/ Espana/ elpepucul/ 20081006elpepicul_1/ Tes) (Spanish)
[104] United States Census Bureau (http:/ / www. census. gov/ prod/ 2005pubs/ 06statab/ pop. pdf)PDF (1.86 MB), Statistical Abstract of the
United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003
[105] "Ethnologue – Equatorial Guinea (2000)" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=Equatorial+ Guinea). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[106] "CIA World Factbook – Equatorial Guinea (Last updated 20 September 2007)" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/
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[107] (http:/ / www. morocco. com/ culture/ language/ ), The Languages of Morocco.
[108] "Estadisticas: El idioma español en Filipinas" (http:/ / buscoenlaces. es/ kaibigankastila/ rivera4. html). 2000-11-15. .
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[109] "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines" (http:/ / www. thecorpusjuris. com/ laws/ constitutions/ 8-philippineconstitutions/
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[110] (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (http:/ / www. ine. cl/ canales/ chile_estadistico/ censos_poblacion_vivienda/
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[111] Harris (1969:538)
[112] Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House Inc.. 2006.
[113] The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.
[114] Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc.. 1998.
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[116] Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) Spanish in the Americas, Volumen 2, pp.154-155, URL (http:/ / books. google. com. mx/
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[118] "Real Academia Española" (http:/ / buscon. rae. es/ dpdI/ ) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[119] "3 Guys From Miami: Fruta Bomba" (http:/ / cuban-food-usa. com/ terms/ fruta-bomba. html). . Retrieved
[120] "papaya" (http:/ / www. urbandictionary. com/ define. php?term=papaya& defid=151242). Urban Dictionary. . Retrieved 2010-04-21.
[121] "Scholarly Societies Project" (http:/ / www. lib. uwaterloo. ca/ society/ history/ 1713rae. html). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[122] "Association of Spanish Language Academies (Spanish)" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ asale. html) (in (Spanish)). .
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Spanish language 79

[123] "Real Academia Española" (http:/ / www. rae. es/ rae/ gestores/ gespub000001. nsf/ voTodosporId/
CEDF300E8D943D3FC12571360037CC94?OpenDocument& i=0). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[124] "Academia Colombiana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30202& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[125] "Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30302& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[126] "Academia Mexicana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. academia. org. mx/ historia. php). 2010-09-22. . Retrieved
[127] "Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asl. org. sv/ Informacion institucional. htm). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[128] "Academia Venezolana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30602& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[129] "Academia Chilena de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. institutodechile. cl/ lengua/ resena. htm). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[130] "Academia Peruana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. academiaperuanadelalengua. org/ academia/ historia). Academia Peruana de la Lengua. .
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[131] "Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=30902& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[132] "Academia Costarricense de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. acl. ac. cr/ i_q. php). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[133] "Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31102& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[134] "Academia Panameña de la Lengua" (http:/ / apalengua. apalengua. org/ historia). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[135] "Academia Cubana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. acul. ohc. cu/ ). . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
[136] "Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española" (http:/ / www. aparle. org/ origenes. asp). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[137] "Academia Dominicana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. academia. org. do/ content/ blogsection/ 12/ 46/ ). . Retrieved
[138] "Academia Boliviana de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. abolen. org/ Historia. html). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[139] "Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua" (http:/ / www. asale. org/ ASALE/ ConAALEBD?IDDOC=31702& menu=2) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[140] "Academia Argentina de Letras" (http:/ / www. letras. edu. ar/ index. html). 2010-03-25. . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[141] "Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay" (http:/ / www. mec. gub. uy/ academiadeletras/ MarcoPrincipal. htm). . Retrieved
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[143] "Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española" (http:/ / www. academiapr. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=category&
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[144] "Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española" (http:/ / www. anle. us/ ). . Retrieved 2011-02-05.
[145] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 343562
[146] Alfassa, Shelomo (December 1999). "Ladinokomunita" (http:/ / www. sephardicstudies. org/ quickladino. html). Foundation for the
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[147] "Spanish" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=spa). ethnologue. .
[148] Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas (http:/ / buscon. rae. es/ dpdI/ SrvltConsulta?lema=ch), 1st ed.
[149] Real Academia Española (http:/ / www. rae. es/ ), Explanation (http:/ / www. spanishpronto. com/ spanishpronto/ spanishalphabet. html) at
Spanish Pronto (http:/ / www. spanishpronto. com/ ) (Spanish), (English)
[150] "Abecedario" (http:/ / buscon. rae. es/ dpdI/ SrvltConsulta?lema=abecedario) (in (Spanish)). Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real
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[153] Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
[154] Cressey (1978:152)
[155] Abercrombie (1967:98)
[156] Eddington (2000:96)
[157] se da de forma espontánea en hablantes valencianos o mallorquines y en los de algunas zonas del sur de Cataluña; DICCIONARIO
PANHISPÁNICO DE DUDAS - Primera edición (octubre 2005); article: V; paragraph 3
Spanish language 80

• Abercrombie, David (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
• Cressey, William Whitney (1978). Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Generative View. Georgetown
University Press. ISBN 0878400451
• Eddington, David (2000). "Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language" (http:// Language (Language, Vol. 76, No. 1) 76 (1): 92–109.
doi:10.2307/417394. JSTOR 417394
• Harris, James (1967). "Sound Change in Spanish and the Theory of Markedness" (
411438). Language (Language, Vol. 45, No. 3) 45 (3): 538–552. doi:10.2307/411438
• Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003). "Castilian Spanish".
Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373

External links
• (Spanish) Dictionary of the RAE ( Real Academia Española's official Spanish
language dictionary
• Spanish ( – BBC Languages
• Basic Spanish Grammar (
• Spanish evolution from Latin (
• Spanish phrasebook on WikiTravel
• Instituto Cervantes (
• Practical Spanish (
kbd:Эспаныбзэ ltg:Spanīšu volūda

Spanish cuisine
Spanish cuisine consists of a variety of dishes, which
stem from differences in geography, culture and
climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available
from the waters that surround the country, and reflects
the country's deep maritime roots. Spain's extensive
history with many cultural influences has led to an
array of unique cuisines with literally thousands of
recipes and flavors. It is also renowned for its health
benefits and fresh ingredients. A famous spanish dish
called Paella is consited from rice and seafood and can
also be vegetarian.

Seafood paella.
The first introduction of a product to the ancient Iberia was that of wheat. Wheat was thought to be brought by
Iberians from the south of the peninsula. It was perhaps brought from Aquitaine in the north of the peninsula,
Spanish cuisine 81

due to the difficulty of transporting from the south. In

time, the wheat of Iberia came to be considered to be the
best in the Roman Empire, and became one of the main
commodities of foreign trade. The Romans' early
approval of the wheat led to the spread of wheat from
Spain to Greece and Egypt and easternly parts of Russia.

There were two major kinds of diet in the peninsula. One

was found in the northwest part of the peninsula, with
more animal fats that correspond to the husbandry of the
North. The other could be considered the precursor of the
Mediterranean diet and was found in the southerly parts
Gastronomía manchega, Pedro Muñoz, Spain
of the peninsula.

Roman cuisine
As early as Roman times one can say that, with the exception of products later imported from the Americas, many
modern foods were consumed, although mostly by the aristocracy, not the middle class. Cooking references from
that era discuss the eating habits in Rome, where foods from all of the Empire's provinces were brought. So, for an
example, it is known that thousands of amphorae of olive oil were sent to Rome from Spain. Nonetheless, and
especially in the Celtic areas, consumption of animal products (from lamb, beef, etc.) was more common than
consumption of vegetables.
Already in that era, cabbages were well known and appreciated, and considered a panacea for various aliments.
Other popular vegetables of that time were thistles (such as artichokes) and onions.
In Roman Spain the hams of Pomeipolis (Pamplona) had great prestige. The export of pork products became the
basis of a strong local economy.
It is almost certain that lentils were already consumed in Roman Spain, because they formed a staple food for the
army and because they are easy to preserve and transport. Fava beans were known from antiquity and were
considered sacred by the Romans. In the Saturnalia, the later December festival in honor of Saturn, fava beans were
used to choose the king of the festival. This custom is believed to be the source of the present day custom of hiding
an object in the roscón de reyes (similar to the sixpence traditional in a Christmas pudding); until quite recently, that
object was a fava bean. Garbanzos were also popular, primarily among the poorer classes.
Mushrooms were common and popular in the northern part of the country.
They mastered the science of grafting. According to Pliny, Tibur saw a tree that produced a distinct fruit on each of
its branches: nuts, apples, pomegranates, cherries, pears, but he added that they dried out quickly.
Viticulture already was known and practiced by the Romans, but it seemed as well the fact that it was the Greeks
who extended the vine across the Mediterranean region. This includes those wines that were most popular in the
In this era the wealthy typically ate while lying on a couch (a custom acquired from the Greeks) and using their
hands, because forks were not used for eating. Tablecloths were introduced in the 1st century. They came to use two
plates, one flat (platina or patella) and the other deep (catinus), which they held with the left hand. That hand could
not be used for many other things while eating, given that they ate with their left arms while reclining in bed, so that
only the right hand was free. They used spoons, which, like today, had different sizes, depending on what they were
used for. The first spoons were made from clam shells (hence, the name cuchara), with silver handles.
The mode of flavoring and cooking was quite distinct from what is found in modern times.
Spanish cuisine 82

Typical dishes
Among the multitude of recipes that make up the varied cuisines of
Spain, a few can be considered common to all or almost all of Spain's
regions, even though some of them have an origin known and
associated with specific places. Examples include most importantly
potato omelette ("tortilla de patata", "tortilla española" or just
"tortilla"), paella, various stews, migas, sausages (such as embutidos,
chorizo, and morcilla), jamón serrano, and cheeses.

There are also many dishes based on beans (chickpeas, lentils, green
Iberian pork embutidos.
beans); soups, with many regional variations; and bread, that has
numerous forms, with distinct varieties in each region. The regional
variations are less pronounced in Spanish desserts and cakes: flan,
custard, rice pudding (arroz con leche), torrijas, churros, and
madeleines are some of the most representative examples.

Other foods include:

• Arroz con leche (rice pudding)
• Calamares a la romana (Fried squid)
• Cocido (a chickpea and meat stew of sorts)
• Cocido montañés typical from Cantabria
• Chorizo (spicy sausage) Andalusian "pescaíto" frito.
• Chuletillas (grilled chops of milk-fed lamb)
• Gazpacho (cold bread and tomato soup)
• Gooseneck barnacles typical from Galicia
• Hake (fish)
• Fabada asturiana (bean stew)
• Jamón serrano (cured ham)
• Butifarra
• Lechazo asado (roasted milk-fed lamb)
• Shellfish
• Marmita typical from Cantabria
• Paella (saffron rice)
Asturian chuletillas
• Fideuà
• Peladillas, Sugared almonds, typical from Valencian Community
(especially, Casinos).
• Pescaito frito, battered (sometimes in adobo) fried fish, typical from Málaga and Western Andalusia
• Tortilla de patatas or tortilla española (potato omelette)
• Turrón, a type of nougat with almonds and honey, typical at Christmas
• Polvorón, a type of Spanish shortbread, typical at Christmas
• Tortas de aceite, from Seville, a sweet olive oil pastry
• Olla podrida
• Gofio, roasted flour used in a type of porridge in the Canary islands.
• Meat is also very popular in Spanish cuisine; sheep, lamb, pork, and beef are staples.
• Madrid: the cocido madrileño (Madrid's chickpea stew) and the tripe dish callos a la madrileña, strawberries
from Aranjuez or melons from Villaconejos, the wines from Navalcarnero and the Anís (anisette) liqueur of
Spanish cuisine 83

• Asturias: is especially known for its seafood, such as fresh squid, crab, shrimp and sea bass. Salmon are caught in
Asturian rivers, notably the Sella; the first fish of the season is called campanu (Bable word for campana), a bell
tolled to signal the first catch).
The most famous regional dish is Fabada Asturiana, a rich stew made with large white beans (fabes), pork shoulder
(lacón), morcilla, chorizo, and saffron (azafrán).
Apple groves foster the production of the traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (sidra). It is a very dry cider, and
unlike French or English natural ciders, uses predominantly acidic apples, rather than sweet or bittersweet. The
proportions are: acidic 40%, sub-acidic 30-25%, sweet 10-15%, bittersweet 15-20%, bitter 5%.[1]
Sidra is traditionally poured in by an expert server (or escanciador): the bottle is raised high above his or her head to
oxygenate the brew as it moves into the glass below. A small amount (~120ml) is poured at a time (called a culín), as
it must be drunk immediately before the sidra loses its carbonation. Any sidra left in the glass is poured onto a
woodchip-strewn floor or a trough along the bottom of the bar.
Asturian cheeses, especially Cabrales, are also famous throughout Spain and beyond; Cabrales is known for its
pungent odour and strong flavour. Asturias is often called "the land of cheeses" (el pais de los quesos) due to the
product's diversity and quality in this region.
Other major dishes include faba beans with clams, Asturian stew, frixuelos, and rice pudding.
• Catalonia: Alongside Valencia, Catalonia has a long tradition of rice-dishes and seafood. In addition, cooked and
cured sausages from Vic are famous. Perhaps the most well-known dish is the Catalan cream, similar to crème
brûlée. Catalan cuisine is rich, pa amb tomàquet and botifarra are typical food of Catalonia.
• La Rioja: above all its international Rioja wines, as well as its vegetable soups and its pepper and potato dishes.
• Extremadura: Cocido extremeño (a rich stew of bacon, fowl, ham, meats, and vegetables), embutidos of Iberian
pork, cheeses (including the indispensable torta del casar, a close relative of the Portuguese queijo da serra),
pitarra wine.
• Andalusia: (Andalucia) fried fish, salmorejo and gazpacho. Seafood, especially shrimp, squid, mackerel and
flatfish. Jabugo ham and Sherry wine.
• Aragón: Somontano, Borja and other wines. Jamón serrano (cured ham) in Teruel. Migas, very typical in small
villages. Nuestra Señora del Pilar sweets in Zaragoza. "Ternasco con patatas a lo pobre", one of the most popular
dishes in Aragón. "Borrajas", vegetable typical of this zone. Peaches with red wine (from Calanda, in Teruel).
And "chiretas", very popular in "Ribagorza" and "Somontano de Barbastro".
• Murcia: products of its rich gardens, such as zarangollo; fish and lamb stews; and the wines of Jumilla, Yecla or
Bullas. They are also fantastic murcia migas.
• Valencia: The Valencian region, specialises amongst others in the famous Paella, and is its birthplace. This dish
is very popular, and it's common to cook one each Sunday for family lunch. In fact, in Valencia, during Falles,
one of the biggest holidays there, it is quite normal to find big paellas being cooked in the street. The typical
Valencian pael contains meat and vegetables, but many other variants of rice-based dishes can be found, with
shellfish, meatballs or just covered in egg ("Arròs amb crosta").
• Balearic Islands:A typical island-based diet of seafood and simple, vegetable-based dishes as well as Sobrasada.
Samfaina (Ratatouille) and Cocas are typical of Catalan cuisine generally. Majorca's biggest export is the
Ensaimada, a pastry.
• Basque country: skillfully cooked dishes such as "txangurro relleno" (spider crab) "marmitako" and hake and
clams. Idiazabal cheese and a distinctive wine called "txakoli". Piquillo peppers, filled with cod or tuna.
• Navarre: vegetable stews, Tudela's lettuce hearts with anchovies, salmon, or a simple vinaigrette (oil, salt and
vinegar); piquillo peppers, which are often stuffed with meat; trout à la Navarra (cooked stuffed with bacon and
cheese), Roncal and Idiazabal cheeses, curd from Ultzama, claret wine, and patxaran liquor.
• Galicia: Caldo gallego; an array of seafoods, especially octopus, cod and goose barnacles; Tarta de Santiago, a
tart made of almonds and lemon; empanadas; Albariño wine from the Rias Baixas.
Spanish cuisine 84

• Castilla y León: Morcilla from León, Burgos or Valladolid (black pudding made with blood and different spices),
Judión de la Granja, Sopa de Ajo (Garlic soup), Cochinillo asado (little roast pig), Lechazo (Roast Lamb), Botillo
del Bierzo, Hornazo from Salamanca, a great variety of sausages like Salchichas de Zaratán and cheeses like
Cheese of Serrada or Burgos's Fresh Cheese and various of the best wines in Spain *Ribera del Duero wines.
Don't forget Jamón de Guijuelo (Spanish cured ham from Guijuelo (Salamanca))

Today, Spanish cooking is "in fashion", especially thanks in part to Ferran Adrià, who in the summer of 2003
attained international renown thanks to praise in the Sunday supplement of the New York Times. His restaurant El
Bulli is located in the province of Girona, near Roses. In a long article, the New York Times declared him the best
chef in the world, and postulated the supremacy of Spanish cooking over French cuisine.
Four other Spanish chefs hold three stars in the prestigious Michelin Guide:
• Juan Mari Arzak (/" in San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, since 1989)
• Santi Santamaría ("El Raco" of Can Fabes, Barcelona, since 1994)
• Martín Berasategui ("Berasategui" in Lasarte, Guipúzcoa since 2001)
• Carme Ruscalleda ("Sant Pau" in Sant Pol de Mar, Barcelona since 2006)
• Karlos Arguiñano, who over the years has presented cooking programmes on various Spanish television channels,
in which he shows his communication skills and sense of humour while cooking.
• Simone Ortega, author of the best-selling cookbook in Spain, "1080 recetas".
• Sergi Arola, chef at "La Broché" and a disciple of Adrià.
• José Andrés, chef/owner of "Minibar by José Andrés" in Washington D.C., and a disciple of Adrià. Current host
of Made in Spain, airing on PBS networks.
Prominent names in the history of Spanish cuisine include:
• Ángel Muro: 19th century food expert and author of the book "Practicón", which is equivalent to Ma cuisine by
• María Mestayer de Echagüe, "Marquesa de Parabere": author of a two-volume cooking encyclopedia (with the
second dedicated to the pantry) that is still in print, and that contains a large number of recipes, as well as chapters
dedicated to table manners.
Other notable chefs specializing in Spanish cuisine:
• Ilan Hall, winner of Top Chef Season 2, was known for his Spanish-inspired dishes. He has worked at the
acclaimed Casa Mono Spanish restaurant in Manhattan.[2]

[1] Museo de la Sidra, Nava (Asturias), Spain. http:/ / www. museodelasidra. com/
[2] http:/ / www. newsday. com/ entertainment/ tv/ ny-ettel4936343oct18,0,1069369. story?coll=ny-television-headlines

• This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, which was accessed
in the version of 9 January 2006.

External links
• Spanish Food & culinary treasures (, discovered by
Spanish food photographer
• Map of Spain (, with information on the cuisine in different areas
• Introduction to food from Spain ( The essence of
Spanish cuisine - Spanish food
Spanish cuisine 85

• A-Z guide to Spanish food ( Culture,

history and dictionary - Spanish food

Francisco Franco
His Excellency
 Don Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco in 1969

Spanish Head of State

Regent of the Kingdom
In office
1 April 1939 – 20 November 1975

Preceded by Manuel Azaña*

Succeeded by Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel**

68th Leader of the Government of Spain

In office
5 February 1939 – 8 June 1973

Preceded by Juan Negrín

Succeeded by Luis Carrero Blanco

Born 4 December 1892Ferrol, Galicia, Spain

Died 20 November 1975 (aged 82)Madrid, Spain

Resting place Valley of the Fallen40°38′31″N 4°09′19″W

Nationality Spanish

Political party FET y de las JONS

Spouse(s) Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás

Residence El Pardo, Madrid

Religion Roman Catholicism


Military service


Service/branch Army
Francisco Franco 86

Years of service 1907–1975

Rank Chief of the General Staff

Battles/wars Rif War

Spanish Civil War
*As President
** For the handover to Juan Carlos I (King of Spain)

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975),
known simply as Francisco Franco (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko]), was a Spanish military general and
head of state of Spain from October 1936 (whole nation from 1939 onwards), and de facto regent of the nominally
restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November 1975. As head of state, Franco used the title
Caudillo de España, por la gracia de Dios, meaning Leader of Spain, by the grace of God.
From a military family, originally intent on entering the Spanish Navy, Franco instead became a soldier. He
participated in the Rif War in Morocco, becoming the youngest general in Europe by 1926.[1] After returning to the
Spanish mainland, he saw service suppressing an anarchist-led strike in 1934, defending the stability of
Alcalá-Zamora's conservative government. Following the formation of a Popular Front government, made up of
Marxist, liberal republican and anarchist factions, instability heightened. Violence between militant groups spiraled
out of control with assassination of conservative parliamentary leader José Calvo Sotelo in retaliation for the killing
of José Castillo.[2] Franco and his co-conspirators used Calvo's death as their pretext for war, even though they had
already initiated the plan for their rebellion.[3]
Franco and the military participated in a coup d'état against the Popular Front government. The coup failed and
devolved into the Spanish Civil War during which Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists against the
Popular Front government. After winning the civil war with military aid from Italy and Nazi Germany—while the
communist Soviet Union and various Internationalists aided certain forces of the left—he dissolved the Spanish
Parliament. He then established a right-wing authoritarian regime that lasted until 1978, when a new constitution was
drafted. During World War II, Franco officially maintained a policy of non-belligerency and later of neutrality, in
part because Spain had not recovered from the considerable damage of the civil war. However, he supported the
volunteer Blue Division who fought with the Axis on the Eastern Front.
After the end of World War II, Franco maintained his control in Spain through the implementation of austere
measures: the systematic suppression of dissident views through censorship and coercion,[4] [5] the imprisonment of
ideologically opposed enemies in concentration camps throughout the country (such as Los Merinales in Seville, San
Marcos in León, Castuera in Extremadura, and Miranda de Ebro),[6] the implementation of forced labor in
prisons,[7] and the use of the death penalty and heavy prison sentences as deterrents for his ideological enemies.[8]
During the Cold War, the United States established a diplomatic and trade alliance with Spain, due to Franco's strong
anti-Communist policy. American President Richard Nixon toasted Franco,[9] and, after Franco's death, stated:
"General Franco was a loyal friend and ally of the United States."[10] After his death, Spain gradually began its
transition to democracy. Today, pre-constitutional symbols from the Franco regime—such as the national Coat of
arms or flag with the Imperial Eagle—are banned by law in Spain.

Early life
Francisco Franco was born at 12:30 on December 4, 1892 at Number 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra, Ferrol (currently
known as Calle María) - in the city's old town. He was baptised on December 17 at the parish church of San
Francisco with the baptismal names Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo: Francisco for his paternal
grandfather, Hermenegildo for his maternal grandmother and godmother, Paulino for his godfather and Teódulo for
the saint day of his birth.
Francisco Franco 87

The Franco family was originally from Andalucia.[11] Since relocating to Galicia they were strongly involved in the
Spanish Navy and over two centuries produced naval officers for six generations uninterrupted, right down to
Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado-Araújo (22 November 1855 – 22 February 1942).
Franco's mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade (1865 – 28 February 1934), and his parents
married in 1890. The young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás (Ferrol, 1891–1977),
a naval officer and diplomat who in time was married to María Isabel Pascual del Pobil y Ravello, and Ramón (a
pioneering aviator and a member of Esquerra Republicana), and his two sisters, María del Pilar (Ferrol, 1894 –
Madrid, 1989), later wife of Alonso Jaráiz y Jeréz, and María de la Paz (Ferrol, 1899 – Ferrol, 1900).

Military career

Rif War and rise through the ranks

Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy but as a result of the Spanish-American War the country lost much
of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing more officers, entry into the Naval Academy was closed from
1906 to 1913. To his father's chagrin, he decided to join the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry
Academy in Toledo, from which he graduated in 1910. He was commissioned as a lieutenant. Two years later, he
obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to physically occupy their new African protectorate provoked
the protracted Rif War (from 1909 to 1927) with native Moroccans. Tactics at the time resulted in heavy losses
among Spanish military officers, but also gave the chance of earning promotion through merit. It was said that
officers would get either la caja o la faja (a coffin or a general's sash). Franco soon gained a reputation as a good
officer. He joined the newly formed regulares, colonial native troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock
In 1916, at the age of 23 and already a captain, he was badly wounded in a skirmish at El Biutz and possibly lost a
testicle.[12] His survival marked him permanently in the eyes of the native troops as a man of baraka (good luck). He
was also recommended unsuccessfully for Spain's highest honor for gallantry, the coveted Cruz Laureada de San
Fernando. Instead, he was promoted to major (comandante), becoming the youngest field grade officer in the
Spanish Army. From 1917 to 1920, he was posted on the Spanish mainland. That last year, Lieutenant Colonel José
Millán Astray, a histrionic but charismatic officer, founded the Spanish Foreign Legion, along similar lines to the
French Foreign Legion. Franco became the Legion's second-in-command and returned to Africa. On 24 July 1921,
the poorly commanded and overextended Spanish Army suffered a crushing defeat at Annual at the hands of the Rif
tribes led by the Abd el-Krim brothers. The Legion symbolically, if not materially, saved the Spanish enclave of
Melilla after a three-day forced march led by Franco. In 1923, already a lieutenant colonel, he was made commander
of the Legion.
The same year, he married María del Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès; they had one child, a daughter, María del
Carmen, born in 1926.[13] As a special mark of honor, his best man (padrino) at the wedding was King Alfonso XIII,
a fact that would mark him during the Republic as a monarchical officer. Promoted to colonel, Franco led the first
wave of troops ashore at Al Hoceima in 1925. This landing in the heartland of Abd el-Krim's tribe, combined with
the French invasion from the south, spelled the beginning of the end for the short-lived Republic of the Rif.
Becoming the youngest general in Spain in 1926, Franco was appointed in 1928 director of the newly created
General Military Academy of Zaragoza, a new college for all Army cadets, replacing the former separate institutions
for young men seeking to become officers in infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other branches of the army.
Francisco Franco 88

During the Second Spanish Republic

With the fall of the monarchy in 1932, in keeping with his long-standing apolitical record, Franco did not take any
notable stand. But the closing of the Academy, in June, by War Minister Manuel Azaña, provoked his first clash with
the Republic. Azaña found Franco's farewell speech to the cadets[14] insulting. For six months, Franco was without a
post and under surveillance.
On 5 February 1932, he was given a command in A Coruña. Franco avoided involvement in José Sanjurjo's
attempted coup that year, and even wrote a hostile letter to Sanjurjo expressing his anger over the attempt. As a side
result of Azaña's military reform, in January 1933, Franco was relegated from the first to the 24th in the list of
Brigadiers; conversely, the same year (17 February), he was given the military command of the Balearic Islands: a
post above his rank.
New elections held in October 1933 resulted in a center-right majority. In opposition to this government, a
revolutionary movement broke out 5 October 1934. This uprising was rapidly quelled in most of the country, but
gained a stronghold in Asturias, with the support of the miners' unions. Franco, already general of a Division and
aide to the war minister, Diego Hidalgo, was put in command of the operations directed to suppress the insurgency.
The forces of the Army in Africa were to carry the brunt of this, with General Eduardo López Ochoa as commander
in the field. After two weeks of heavy fighting (and a death toll estimated between 1,200 and 2,000), the rebellion
was suppressed.
The insurgency in Asturias sharpened the antagonism between Left and Right. Franco and López Ochoa—who, prior
to the campaign in Asturias, was seen as a left-leaning officer—were marked by the left as enemies. At the start of
the Civil War, López Ochoa was assassinated. Some time after these events, Franco was briefly commander-in-chief
of the Army of Africa (from 15 February onwards), and from 19 May 1935 on, Chief of the General Staff.

General election of 1936

After the ruling centre-right coalition collapsed amid the Straperlo corruption scandal, new elections were scheduled.
Two wide coalitions formed: the Popular Front on the left, ranging from Republican Union Party to Communists,
and the Frente Nacional on the right, ranging from the center radicals to the conservative Carlists. On 16 February
1936, the left won by a narrow margin.[15] Growing political bitterness surfaced again. The government and its
supporters, the Popular Front, had launched a campaign against the Opposition whom they accused of plotting
against the Republic. The Opposition parties, on the other hand, had reacted with increasing vigour. The latter
claimed that the Popular Front had illegally obtained two hundred seats in a Parliament of 473 members. After the
loss of 200 seats, the Opposition Parties claimed the government represented only a small minority, adding claims
that the Popular Front's parliamentary majority was the result of large-scale electoral fraud, of
Government-sponsored mob terror and intimidation, of the arbitrary annulment of all election certificates in many
Right-wing constituencies, and of the expulsion, the arrest, or even the assassination, of many legally elected
deputies of the Right. According to the right wing opposition, the real enemies of the Republic were not on the Right
but on the Left; Spain was in imminent danger of falling under a Communist dictatorship, and therefore by fighting
the Popular Front they, the opposition, were merely doing their duty in defence of law and order and of the freedom
and the fundamental rights of the Spanish people.[16]
The days after the election were marked by near-chaotic circumstances.
On 23 February, Franco was sent to the distant Canary Islands to serve as the islands' military commander, a position
in which he had few troops under his command. Meanwhile, a conspiracy led by Emilio Mola was taking shape. In
June, Franco was contacted and a secret meeting was held in Tenerife's La Esperanza Forest to discuss a military
coup. (An obelisk commemorating this historic meeting can be found in a clearing at Las Raíces.)
Outwardly, Franco maintained an ambiguous attitude almost up until July. On 23 June 1936, he wrote to the head of
the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the army, but was not answered. The other
rebels were determined to go ahead, con Paquito o sin Paquito (with Franco or without him), as it was put by José
Francisco Franco 89

Sanjurjo, the honorary leader of the military uprising. After various postponements, 18 July was fixed as the date of
the uprising. The situation reached a point of no return and, as presented to Franco by Mola, the coup was
unavoidable and he had to choose a side. He decided to join the rebels and was given the task of commanding the
Army of Africa. A privately owned DH 89 De Havilland Dragon Rapide, flown by two British MI6 agents, Cecil
Bebb and Hugh Pollard,[17] was chartered in England 11 July to take Franco to Africa.
The assassination of the right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo by government police troops, possibly acting
on their own in retaliation for the murder of José Castillo, precipitated the uprising. On 17 July one day earlier than
planned, the African Army rebelled, detaining their commanders. On 18 July, Franco published a manifesto[18] and
left for Africa, where he arrived the next day to take command.
A week later, the rebels, who soon called themselves the Nationalists, controlled a third of Spain, but most navy
units remained under control of the Republican loyalist forces, which left Franco isolated. The coup had failed, but
the Spanish Civil War had begun.

From the Spanish Civil War to World War II

The Spanish Civil War began in July 1936 and officially ended with Franco's victory in April 1939, leaving
190,000[19] to 500,000[20] dead. Despite the Non-Intervention Agreement of August 1936, the war was marked by
foreign intervention on behalf of both sides, leading to international repercussions. The nationalist side was
supported by Fascist Italy, which sent the Corpo Truppe Volontarie, and later by Nazi Germany, which assisted with
the Condor Legion infamous for their bombing of Guernica in April 1937. Britain and France strictly adhered to the
arms embargo, provoking dissensions within the French Popular Front coalition led by Léon Blum, but the
Republican side was nonetheless supported by volunteers fighting in the International Brigades and the Soviet
Union. (See for example Ken Loach's Land and Freedom.)
Because Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin used the war as a testing ground for modern warfare, some historians, such
as Ernst Nolte, have considered the Spanish Civil War, along with the Second World War, part of a "European Civil
War" lasting from 1936 to 1945 and characterized mainly as a Left/Right ideological conflict. However, this
interpretation has not found acceptance among most historians, who consider the Second World War and the Spanish
Civil War two distinct conflicts. Among other things, they point to the political heterogeneity on both sides (See
Spanish Civil War: other factions) and criticize a monolithic interpretation which overlooks the local nuances of
Spanish history.

The first months

Despite Franco's having no money, while the state treasury was in Madrid with the government, there was an
organized economic lobby in London looking after his financial needs with Lisbon as their operational base.
Eventually, he was to receive important help from his economic and diplomatic boosters abroad.
Following the 18 July 1936, pronunciamiento, Franco assumed the leadership of the 30,000 soldiers of the Spanish
Army of Africa. The first days of the insurgency were marked with a serious need to secure control over the Spanish
Moroccan Protectorate. On one side, Franco managed to win the support of the natives and their (nominal)
authorities, and, on the other, to ensure his control over the army. This led to the summary execution of some 200
senior officers loyal to the Republic (one of them his own first cousin). Also his loyal bodyguard was shot by a man
known as Manuel Blanco.[21] Franco's first problem was how to move his troops to the Iberian Peninsula, since most
units of the Navy had remained in control of the Republic and were blocking the Strait of Gibraltar. He requested
help from Mussolini, who responded with an unconditional offer of arms and planes; Wilhelm Canaris, the head of
the Abwehr military intelligence, persuaded Hitler, as well, to support the Nationalists. From 20 July onward he was
able, with a small group of 22 mainly German Junkers Ju 52 airplanes, to initiate an air bridge to Seville, where his
troops helped to ensure the rebel control of the city. Through representatives, Franco started to negotiate with the
United Kingdom, Nazi Germany and Italy for more military support, and above all for more airplanes. Negotiations
Francisco Franco 90

were successful with the last two on 25 July and airplanes began to arrive in Tetouan on 2 August. On 5 August
Franco was able to break the blockade with the newly arrived air support, successfully deploying a ship convoy with
some 2,000 soldiers.
In early August, the situation in western Andalusia was stable enough to allow him to organize a column (some
15,000 men at its height), under the command of then Lieutenant-Colonel Juan Yagüe, which would march through
Extremadura towards Madrid. On 11 August Mérida was taken, and on 15 August Badajoz, thus joining both
nationalist-controlled areas. Additionally, Mussolini ordered a voluntary army, the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV)
of some 12,000 Italians of fully motorized units to Seville and Hitler added to them a professional squadron from the
Luftwaffe (2JG/88) with about 24 planes. All these planes had the Nationalist Spanish insignia painted on them, but
were flown by Italian and German troops. The backbone of Franco's aviation in those days were the Italian SM.79
and SM.81 bombers, the biplane Fiat CR.32 fighter and the German Junkers Ju 52 cargo-bomber and the Heinkel He
51 biplane fighter.
On 21 September, with the head of the column at the town of Maqueda (some 80 km away from Madrid), Franco
ordered a detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo, which was achieved 27 September. This
controversial decision gave the Popular Front time to strengthen its defenses in Madrid and hold the city that year but
was an important morale and propaganda success.

Rise to power
The designated leader of the uprising, Gen. José Sanjurjo died on 20 July 1936 in an airplane crash. Therefore, in the
nationalist zone, "Political life ceased."[22] Initially, only military command mattered; this was divided into regional
commands (Emilio Mola in the North, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano in Seville commanding Andalusia, Franco with an
independent command and Miguel Cabanellas in Zaragoza commanding Aragon). The Spanish Army of Morocco
itself was split into two columns, one commanded by General Juan Yagüe and the other commanded by Colonel José
From 24 July, a coordinating junta was established, based at Burgos. Nominally led by Cabanellas, as the most
senior general,[23] it initially included Mola, three other generals, and two colonels; Franco was later added in early
August.[24] On 21 September it was decided that Franco was to be commander-in-chief (this unified command was
opposed only by Cabanellas),[25] and, after some discussion, with no more than a lukewarm agreement from Queipo
de Llano and from Mola, also head of government.[26] He was, doubtlessly, helped to this primacy by the fact that, in
late July, Hitler had decided that all of Germany's aid to the nationalists would go to Franco.[27]
Mola considered Franco as unfit and not part of the initial rebel group. But Mola himself had been somewhat
discredited as the main planner of the attempted coup that had now degenerated into a civil war, and was strongly
identified with the Carlists monarchists and not at all with the Falange, a party with Fascist leanings and connections
("phalanx", a far-right Spanish political party founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera), nor did he have good
relations with Germany; Queipo de Llano and Cabanellas had both previously rebelled against the dictatorship of
Miguel Primo de Rivera and were therefore discredited in some nationalist circles; and Falangist leader José Antonio
Primo de Rivera was in prison in Alicante (he would be executed a few months later) and the desire to keep a place
open for him prevented any other falangist leader from emerging as a possible head of state. Franco's previous
aloofness from politics meant that he had few active enemies in any of the factions that needed to be placated, and
had cooperated in recent months with both Germany and Italy.[28]
On 1 October 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del
Estado (Head of State).[29] When Mola was killed in another air accident a year later (which some believe was an
assassination) (2 June 1937), no military leader was left from those who organized the conspiracy against the
Republic between 1933 and 1935.[30]
Francisco Franco 91

Military command
From that time until the end of the war, Franco personally guided military operations. After the failed assault on
Madrid in November 1936, Franco settled to a piecemeal approach to winning the war, rather than bold
maneuvering. As with his decision to relieve the garrison at Toledo, this approach has been subject of some debate;
some of his decisions, such as, in June 1938, when he preferred to head for Valencia instead of Catalonia, remain
particularly controversial from a military viewpoint. It was however, in Valencia, Castellon and Alicante where the
last troops were defeated by Franco.
Franco's army was supported by Nazi Germany in the form of the Condor Legion, infamous for the bombing of
Guernica on 26 April 1937. These German forces also provided maintenance personnel and trainers, and some
Germans and Italians served over the entire war period in Spain. Principal assistance was received from Fascist Italy
(Corpo Truppe Volontarie), but the degree of influence of both powers on Franco's direction of the war seems to
have been very limited. Nevertheless, the Italian troops, despite not being always effective, were present in most of
the large operations in big numbers, while the CTV helped the Nationalist airforce dominate the skies for most of the
war. António de Oliveira Salazar's Portugal also openly assisted the Nationalists from the start, contributing some
20,000 troops.
It is said that Franco's direction of the Nazi and Fascist forces was limited, particularly in the direction of the Condor
Legion, however, he was officially, by default, their supreme commander and they rarely made decisions on their
own. For reasons of prestige, it was decided to continue assisting Franco until the end of the war, and Italian and
German troops paraded on the day of the final victory in Madrid.[31]

Political command
In April 1938, Franco managed to fuse the ideologically incompatible national-syndicalist Falange ("phalanx", a
far-right Spanish political party founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera) and the Carlist monarchist parties under a
single-party under his rule, dubbed Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva
Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS), which became the only legal party in 1939. The Falangists' hymn, Cara
al Sol, became the semi-national anthem of Franco's not yet established regime.
This new political formation appeased the pro-Nazi Falangists while tempering them with the anti-German Carlists.
Franco's brother-in-law Ramón Serrano Súñer, who was his main political advisor, was able to turn the various
parties under Franco against each other to absorb a series of political confrontations against Franco himself. At a
certain moment he even expelled the original leading members of both the Carlists (Manuel Fal Conde) and the
Falangists (Manuel Hedilla) to secure Franco's political future. Franco also appeased the Carlists by exploiting the
Republicans' anti-clericalism in his propaganda, in particular concerning the "Martyrs of the war". While the loyalist
forces presented the war as a struggle to defend the Republic against Fascism, Franco depicted himself as the
defender of "Catholic Spain" against "atheist Communism."

The end of the Civil War

Before the fall of Catalonia in February 1939, the Prime Minister of Spain Juan Negrín unsuccessfully proposed, in
the meeting of the Cortes in Figueres, capitulation with the sole condition of respecting the lives of the vanquished.
Negrín was ultimately deposed by Colonel Segismundo Casado, later joined by José Miaja.
Thereafter, only Madrid (see History of Madrid) and a few other areas remained under control of the government
forces. On 27 February Chamberlain and Daladier's governments recognized the Franco regime, before the official
end of the war. The PCE (the Spanish Communist Party) attempted a mutiny in Madrid with the aim of
re-establishing Negrín's leadership, but José Miaja retained control. Finally, on 28 March 1939, with the help of
pro-Franco forces inside the city (the "fifth column" General Mola had mentioned in propaganda broadcasts in
1936), Madrid fell to the Nationalists. The next day, Valencia, which had held out under the guns of the Nationalists
for close to two years, also surrendered. Victory was proclaimed on 1 April 1939, when the last of the Republican
Francisco Franco 92

forces surrendered. On this very date, Franco placed his sword upon the altar in a church and in a vow, promised that
he would never again take up his sword unless Spain itself was threatened with invasion.
At least 50,000 people were executed during the civil war.[20] [32] [33] Franco's victory was followed by thousands of
summary executions (from 15,000 to 25,000 people[34] ) and imprisonments, while many were put to forced labour,
building railways, drying out swamps, digging canals (La Corchuela, the Canal of the Bajo Guadalquivir),
construction of the Valle de los Caídos monument, etc. The 1940 shooting of the president of the Catalan
government, Lluís Companys, was one of the most notable cases of this early suppression of opponents and
Although leftists suffered from an important death-toll, the Spanish intelligentsia, atheists and military and
government figures who had remained loyal to the Madrid government during the war were also targeted for
In his recent, updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor "reckons Franco's ensuing 'white terror'
claimed 200,000 lives. The 'red terror' had already killed 38,000."[35] Julius Ruiz concludes that "although the figures
remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of
150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain."[36] In Checas de Madrid, César Vidal
comes to a nationwide total of 110,965 victims of Republican violence; 11,705 people being killed in Madrid
Despite the official end of the war, guerrilla resistance to Franco (known as "the maquis") was widespread in many
mountainous regions, and continued well into the 1950s. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, which also fought
in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but they were quickly
The end of the war led to hundreds of thousands of exilees, mostly to France (but also Mexico, Chile, Cuba, the USA
and so on.).[38] On the other side of the Pyrenees, refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third
Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions (mostly
soldiers from the Durruti Division[39] ). The 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs were divided into four categories
(Brigadists, pilots, Gudaris and ordinary 'Spaniards'). The Gudaris (Basques) and the pilots easily found local
backers and jobs, and were allowed to quit the camp, but the farmers and ordinary people, who could not find
relations in France, were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to
Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irún. From there they were
transferred to the Miranda de Ebro camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities.
After the proclamation by Marshal Philippe Pétain of the Vichy France regime, the refugees became political
prisoners, and the French police attempted to round-up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with
other "undesirables", they were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany. 5,000
Spaniards thus died in Mauthausen concentration camp.[40] The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, who had been named by
the Chilean President Pedro Aguirre Cerda special consul for immigration in Paris, was given responsibility for what
he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": shipping more than 2,000 Spanish refugees, who had been
housed by the French in squalid camps, to Chile on an old cargo ship, the Winnipeg.[41]
Francisco Franco 93

World War II
In September 1939, World War II broke out
in Europe, and although Hitler met Franco
once in Hendaye, France (23 October 1940),
to discuss Spanish entry on the side of the
Axis, Franco's demands (food, military
equipment, Gibraltar, French North Africa
etc.) proved too much and no agreement was
reached. (An oft-cited remark attributed to
Hitler is that the German leader would
rather have some teeth extracted than to
have to deal further with Franco). Franco's
tactics received important support from
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini during
the civil war. He remained emphatically Front row in order from left to right: Spain's Foreign Minister Serrano Súñer,
Heinrich Himmler, and Franco in Madrid, October 1940
neutral in the Second World War, but
nonetheless offered various kinds of support
to Italy and Germany. He allowed Spanish soldiers to volunteer to fight in the German Army against the USSR (the
Blue Division), but forbade Spaniards to fight in the West against the democracies. Franco's common ground with
Hitler was particularly weakened by Hitler's propagation of Nazi mysticism and his attempts to manipulate
Christianity, which went against Franco's fervent commitment to defending Christianity and Catholicism.
Contributing to the disagreement was an ongoing dispute over German mining rights in Spain. Some historians argue
that Franco made demands that he knew Hitler would not accede to in order to stay out of the war. Other historians
argue that he, as leader of a destroyed country in chaos, simply had nothing to offer the Germans and their military.
Yet, after the collapse of France in June 1940, Spain did adopt a pro-Axis non-belligerency stance (for example, he
offered Spanish naval facilities to German ships) until returning to complete neutrality in 1943 when the tide of the
war had turned decisively against Germany and its allies. Some volunteer Spanish troops (the División Azul, or "Blue
Division")—not given official state sanction by Franco—went to fight on the Eastern Front under German command
from 1941–1943. Some historians have argued that not all of the Blue Division were true volunteers and that Franco
expended relatively small but significant resources to aid the Axis powers' battle against the Soviet Union.

According to the recent discovery of a World War II Document, Franco ordered his provincial governors to compile
a list of Jews while he negotiated an alliance with the Axis powers. Franco supplied Heinrich Himmler with a list of
6,000 Jews in Spain, for the Nazi's "Final Solution". It is true that Franco built no concentration camps on Spanish
territory, nor did he voluntarily hand Jews over to Germany.[42] Plans for alliance fell through and Spain never
carried out the Nazis' plans. During the entire war, especially after 1942, the Spanish borders were more or less kept
open for Jewish refugees from Vichy France and Nazi-occupied territories in Europe. Spanish diplomats, acting
outside of Franco's authority,[42] extended their diplomatic protection over Jews in Hungary, Czechoslovakia and the
Balkans. Spain was a safe haven for all Jewish refugees and antisemitism was not official policy under the Franco
regime. In 1940 alone, roughly 40,000 Jewish refugees found safe haven in Spain. Overall, per some estimates,
during World War II, Franco's policies saved the lives of almost 200,000 European Jews.
On 14 June 1940, the Spanish forces in Morocco occupied Tangier (a city under the rule of the League of Nations)
and did not leave it until 1945.
Francisco Franco 94

Spain under Franco

Franco was recognized as the Spanish head of state by Britain and
France in February 1945, two months before the war officially
ended. Already proclaimed Generalísimo of the Nationalists and
Jefe del Estado (Head of State) in October 1936,[29] he thereafter
assumed the official title of "Su Excelencia el Jefe de Estado"
("His Excellency the Head of State"). However, he was also
referred to in state and official documents as "Caudillo de España"
("the Leader of Spain"), and sometimes called "el Caudillo de la
Última Cruzada y de la Hispanidad" ("the Leader of the Last Flag of The Spanish State (1938–1945)

Crusade and of the Hispanic heritage") and "el Caudillo de la

Guerra de Liberación contra el Comunismo y sus Cómplices"
("the Leader of the War of Liberation Against Communism and Its
Accomplices"). The use of "Jefe" alone also occurred, similar to
Führer and Il Duce, but never caught any wide use.

In 1947, Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, but did not

designate a monarch. This gesture was largely done to appease the
Movimiento Nacional (Carlists and Alfonsists). Although a
self-proclaimed monarchist himself, Franco had no particular
Flag of The Spanish State (1945–1977)
desire to proclaim himself King of Spain, nor have a King to rule
the country yet, and as such, he left the throne vacant, with himself
as a de facto Regent. He wore the uniform of a Captain General (a
rank traditionally reserved for the King) and resided in the El
Pardo Palace. In addition, he appropriated the royal privilege of
walking beneath a canopy, and his portrait appeared on most
Spanish coins and postage stamps. He also added "by the grace of
God", a phrase usually part of the styles of monarchs, to his style.

Franco initially sought support from various groups. He initially

garnered support from the fascist elements of the Falange, but
Franco visiting the inauguration of INIA, 11 March
distanced himself from fascist ideology after the defeat of the Axis
in World War II. Franco's administration marginalized fascist
ideologues in favor of technocrats, many of whom were linked
with Opus Dei, who promoted the economic modernization under Franco.[43]

Although Franco and Spain under his rule adopted some trappings of fascism, he, and Spain under his rule, are not
generally considered to be fascist; among the distinctions, fascism entails a revolutionary aim to transform society,
where Franco and Franco's Spain did not seek to do so, and, to the contrary, although authoritarian, were
conservative and traditional.[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Stanley Payne notes: "scarcely any of the serious historians and
analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist".[47] [49] The consistent points in Franco's long rule
included above all authoritarianism, nationalism, the defense of Catholicism and the family, anti-Freemasonry, and
The aftermath of the Civil War was socially bleak: many of those who had supported the Republic fled into exile.
Spain lost thousands of doctors, nurses, teachers, lawyers, judges, professors, businessmen, artists, etc. Many of
those who had to stay lost their jobs or lost their rank. Sometimes those jobs were given to unskilled and even
untrained personnel. This deprived the country of many of its brightest minds, and also of a very capable workforce.
However, this was done to keep Spain's citizens consistent with the ideals sought by the Nationalists and Franco.
Francisco Franco 95

With the end of World War II, Spain suffered from the
economic consequences of its isolation from the
international community. This situation ended in part
when, due to Spain's strategic location in light of Cold
War tensions, the United States entered into a trade and
military alliance with Spain. This historic alliance
commenced with United States President Eisenhower's
visit in 1953 which resulted in the Pact of Madrid.
Spain was then admitted to the UN in 1955.

In 1952, a syndicate from Dallas, Texas, including Jack

Crichton, Everette Lee DeGolyer, and Clint Murchison
Franco and U.S. President Eisenhower in Madrid, Spain. 1959
sought drilling rights to petroleum in Spain. The
operation was handled by Delta Drilling Company.[50]

Political oppression

* Personal Standard Franco as Head of

* Coat of arms of Franco as Head of State.
* The Victor, another emblem used by

The first decade of Franco's rule in the 1940s following the end of the Civil War in 1939 saw continued oppression
and the killing of an undetermined number of political opponents. Estimation is difficult and controversial, but the
number of people killed probably lies somewhere between 15,000 and 50,000 (see above, The end of the Civil War).
Francisco Franco 96

Subsequently, Franco's state became less violent, but during his rule non-government trade unions and all political
opponents across the political spectrum, from communist and anarchist organizations to liberal democrats and
Catalan or Basque separatists, were either suppressed or tightly controlled by all means, up to and including violent
police repression. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT)
trade-unions were outlawed, and replaced in 1940 by the corporatist Sindicato Vertical. The Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party and the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) were banned in 1939, while the Communist Party
of Spain (PCE) went underground. The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) went into exile, and in 1959, the ETA armed
group was created to wage a low-intensity war against Franco.
Franco's Spanish nationalism promoted a unitary national identity by repressing Spain's cultural diversity.
Bullfighting and flamenco[51] were promoted as national traditions while those traditions not considered "Spanish"
were suppressed. Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: while some regional
traditions were suppressed, Flamenco, an Andalusian tradition, was considered part of a larger, national identity. All
cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were plainly forbidden (often in an erratic manner). This
cultural policy relaxed with time, most notably in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity. He promoted the use of Castilian
Spanish and suppressed other languages such as Catalan, Galician, and Basque. The legal usage of languages other
than Castilian was forbidden. All government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were to be drawn up
exclusively in Castilian and any written in other languages were deemed null and void. The usage of any other
language was forbidden in schools, in advertising, and on road and shop signs. Publications in other languages were
generally forbidden. Citizens continued to speak these languages in private. This was the situation throughout the
1940s and, to a lesser extent, during the 1950s, but after 1960 the non-Castilian Spanish languages were freely
spoken and written and reached bookshops and stages, although they never received official status.
On the other hand, the Catholic Church was upheld as the established church of the Spanish State, and regained
many of the traditional privileges it had lost under the Republic. Civil servants had to be Catholic, and some official
jobs even required a "good behavior" statement by a priest. Civil marriages which had taken place under Republican
Spain were declared null and void unless confirmed by the Catholic Church, a difficult if not impossible requirement
considering civil marriages were only possible after the couple made a public renunciation of the Catholic faith.
Divorce was forbidden, and also contraceptives and abortion.
Francoism professed a devotion to the traditional role of women in society, that is: loving child to her parents and
brothers, faithful to her husband, residing with her family. Official propaganda confined her role to family care and
motherhood. Immediately after the war, most progressive laws passed by the Republic aimed at equality between the
sexes were made void. Women could not become judges, or testify in trial. They could not become university
professors. Their affairs and economy had to be managed by their father or by their husbands. Even in the 1970s a
woman fleeing from an abusive husband could be arrested and imprisoned for "abandoning the home" (abandono del
hogar). Until the 1970s a woman could not have a bank account without a co-sign by her father or husband. In the
1960s and 1970s the situation was somewhat relieved, but it was not until after Franco's death that a more egalitarian
view of the sexes was adopted. The enforcement by public authorities of traditional Catholic values was a stated
intent of the regime, mainly by using a law (the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes, Vagrancy Act) enacted by Azaña.[52] The
remaining nomads of Spain (Gitanos and Mercheros like El Lute) were especially affected. In 1954, homosexuality,
pedophilia, and prostitution were, through this law, made criminal offenses,[53] although its application was seldom
Most country towns, and rural areas, were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil, a military police for civilians, which
functioned as his chief means of social control. Larger cities, and capitals, were mostly under the Policia Armada, or
grises ("greys") as they were called. Franco, like others at the time, evidenced a concern about a possible Masonic
conspiracy against his regime. Some non-Spanish authors have described it as being an "obsession".
Francisco Franco 97

Student revolts, at universities in the late 1960s and early 1970s, were violently repressed by the heavily armed
Policía Armada (Armed Police). Plainclothes secret police worked inside Spanish universities. In May 1972, an
American student was arrested by university secret police in Barcelona and charged and imprisoned under martial
law for the crime of wearing an old Spanish Army jacket. Although the US State Department, through its consulate
in Barcelona, was notified, it elected not to intervene.
Franco continued to personally sign all death warrants until just a few months before he died, despite international
campaigns requesting him to desist.

Spanish colonial empire and decolonisation

Spain attempted to retain control of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule. During the Algerian War
(1954–62), Madrid became the base of the Organisation de l'armée secrète (OAS) right-wing French Army group
which sought to preserve French Algeria. Despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. When French
Morocco became independent in 1956, he surrendered Spanish Morocco to Mohammed V, retaining only a few
enclaves (the Plazas de soberanía). The year after, Mohammed V invaded Spanish Sahara during the Ifni War
(known as the "Forgotten War" in Spain). Only in 1975, with the Green March, did Morocco take control of all of
the former Spanish territories in the Sahara.
In 1968, under United Nations pressure, Franco granted Spain's colony of Equatorial Guinea its independence, and
the next year, ceded the exclave of Ifni to Morocco. Under Franco, Spain also pursued a campaign to force a
negotiation on the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, and closed its border with that territory in 1969. The border
would not be fully reopened until 1985.

Economic policy
The Civil War had ravaged the Spanish economy. Infrastructure had
been damaged, workers killed, and daily business severely hampered.
For more than a decade after Franco's victory, the economy improved
little. Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky, cutting off almost all
international trade. The policy had devastating effects, and the
economy stagnated. Only black marketeers could enjoy an evident

According to Franco's detractor Nicolás Sartorius, a Czech engineer

and con-man managed to convince the general that with the waters of
the River Jarama, certain herbs and secret powders, Spain could get all
the petroleum it needed. On another, he was convinced of a plan to
1963 Spanish peseta coin with the image of
solve the country's terrible hunger of the 1940s by feeding the
Franco saying: Francisco Franco, Leader of
Spain, by the grace of God
population of 30 million with dolphin sandwiches. Some 200,000
people died of hunger in the early years of Francoism, a period known
as Los Años de Hambre (The Years of Hunger, or the Hungry Years).

On the brink of bankruptcy, a combination of pressure from the USA, the IMF and technocrats from the Opus Dei
managed to "convince" the regime to adopt a free market economy in 1959 in what amounted to a mini coup d'état
which removed the old guard in charge of the economy, despite the opposition of Franco. This economic
liberalisation was not, however, accompanied by political reforms and repression continued unabated, though these
very reforms would lead to socio-economic changes in Spanish society which would make the regime's continuation
16 years later untenable.

Economic growth picked up after 1959 after Franco took authority away from these ideologues and gave more power
to the apolitical technocrats. The country implemented several development policies and growth took off creating an
Francisco Franco 98

economic boom that became known as the "Spanish Miracle". Concurrent with the absence of social reforms, and the
economic power shift, a tide of mass emigration commenced to European countries, and to lesser extent, to South
America. Emigration helped the regime in two ways. The country got rid of populations it would not have been able
to keep in employment, and the emigrants supplied the country with much needed monetary remittances.
During the 1960s, the wealthy classes of Francoist Spain's population experienced further increases in wealth,
particularly those who remained politically faithful. International firms established their factories in Spain where
salaries were low, taxes nearly non-existent, strikes forbidden and workers' health or real state regulations were
unheard of. Furthermore, Spain was virtually a new market. Spain became the second-fastest growing economy in
the world, just behind Japan. By the time of Franco's death in 1975, Spain still lagged behind most of Western
Europe, but the gap between its GDP per capita and that of the leading Western European countries had narrowed
greatly and the country had developed a large industrialised economy.

Franco was reluctant to enact any form of administrative and legislative decentralisation and kept a fully centralised
government with a similar administrative structure to that established by the House of Bourbon and General Miguel
Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja. Such structures were both based on the model of the French centralised State.The main
drawback of this kind of management is that government attention and initiatives were irregular, and often depended
more on the goodwill of regional Government representatives than on regional needs. Thus, inequalities in
schooling, health care or transport facilities among regions were patent: classically affluent regions like Madrid,
Catalonia, or the Basque Country fared much better than Extremadura, Galicia or Andalusia. Some regions, like
Extremadura or La Mancha did not have a university.
The Basque Country and Catalonia were among the regions that offered the strongest resistance to Franco in the
Civil War. Franco dissolved the autonomy granted by the Second Spanish Republic to these two regions and to
Galicia. Franco abolished the centuries-old fiscal privileges and autonomy (the fueros) in two of the three Basque
provinces: Guipuzcoa and Biscay, but kept them for Alava which had sided with the nationalists in the civil war.
Among Franco's greatest area of support during the civil war was Navarre, also a Basque speaking region in its north
half. Navarre remained a separate region from the Basque Country and Franco decided to preserve its also centuries'
old fiscal privileges and autonomy, the so-called Fueros of Navarre. The regional privileges for Alava and Navarre
were kept because Alava and Navarre had participated in the initial coup d'État against the Republican government
on 18 July 1936.
Franco abolished the official statute and recognition for the Basque, Galician, and Catalan languages that the Second
Spanish Republic had granted for the first time in the history of Spain. He returned to Castilian as the only official
language of the State and education. The Franco era corresponded with the popularisation of the compulsory national
educational system and the development of modern mass media, both controlled by the State and in the Castilian
language, and heavily reduced the number of speakers of Basque, Catalan and Galician, as happened during the
second half of the twentieth century with other European minority languages which were not officially protected
such as Scottish Gaelic or French Breton. By the 1970s the majority of the population in the urban areas could not
speak the minority language or, as in some Catalan towns, their use had been abandoned. The most endangered case
was the Basque language. By the 1970s Basque had reached the point where the language was close to extinction
and it is now recognised that the language would have disappeared in a few decades. This was the main reason that
drove the Francoist provincial government of Alava to create a network of Basque medium schools (Ikastola) in
1973 which were State-financed.
Francisco Franco 99

Franco's death and funeral

In 1969, Franco designated Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón,
who had been educated by him in Spain, with the new title
of King of Spain, as his successor. This designation came as
a surprise for the Carlist pretender to the throne, as well as
for Juan Carlos's father, Don Juan, the Count of Barcelona,
who technically had a superior right to the throne. By 1973,
Franco had surrendered the function of prime minister
(Presidente del Gobierno), remaining only as head of state
and commander in chief of the military.
Franco is entombed in the monument of Santa
As his final years progressed, tension within the various Cruz del Valle de los Caídos
factions of the Movimiento would consume Spanish
political life, as varying groups jockeyed for position to
control the country's future. On 19 July 1974, the aged
Franco fell ill from various health problems, and Juan
Carlos took over as Head of State. Franco soon recovered
on 2 September and resumed his duties as Head of State,
but one year later he fell ill once again from more health
problems including a long battle with Parkinson's Disease.
On 30 October 1975, he fell into a coma and was put on life
support. Franco died just after midnight on 20 November
1975, at the age of 82, just two weeks before his 83rd
birthday – the same date as the death of José Antonio Primo
de Rivera, founder of the Falange. It is suspected that his
doctors were ordered to keep him alive by respirator and
life support machines until this symbolic date of the
far-right. The historian Ricardo de la Cierva claims that on
19 November around 6 pm, he was told that Franco had
already died. After Franco's death, Prince Juan Carlos
decided to bury him at Valle de los Caídos, a colossal Franco's tomb

memorial that nominally honors all the casualties of the

Spanish Civil War, but designed by Franco and with a distinctly nationalist tone. Chilean dictator and
self-proclaimed president General Augusto Pinochet, who revered Franco and modeled himself in his image,
attended his funeral, as did Bolivia's dictator General Hugo Banzer.

Franco's legacy
In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. The length of his rule, the suppression of
opposition, and the effective propaganda sustained through the years has made a detached evaluation impossible. For
40 years, Spaniards, and particularly children at school were told that Divine Providence had sent him to save Spain
from chaos and poverty. With time, the regime had evolved somewhat, and the ferocious oppression of the early 40's
was decreased to some degree in later years. The relative economic success of this period created a considerable
group of grateful citizens, who found the increase in everyday standard of living more significant than any human
rights abuses.
Francisco Franco 100

All public references to the Franco regime, including statues,

portraits, street names, public buildings, parks, and symbols that
were named after him during his reign, are currently banned by the
Spanish government,[54] while the national anthem of Spain, the
Marcha Real, is no longer accompanied by the lyrics introduced
by Franco.

In 2006, the BBC reported that Maciej Giertych, an MEP of the

League of Polish Families, had expressed admiration for Franco,
stating that he "guaranteed the maintenance of traditional values in
A statue of Franco in Santander which was removed in Europe".[55]
Many Spaniards, particularly those who suffered under Franco's
rule, have sought to remove official recognition of his regime.
Most government buildings and street names that were named after him during his long rule, have been renamed to
their original name. Several statues of Franco and other public Francoist symbols have been removed, with
reportedly the last statue in Santander having been removed in 2008.[56] Curiously, the city of Melilla, an
autonomous city of Spain located in North Africa, has the distinction of being the only place in Spain where a statue
of Franco is still visible on a public street.[57] In 2002, José Maria Aznar's conservative government had voted
against proposals to remove street names, statues and other symbols of the Franco era.[56]

In March 2006, the Permanent Commission of the European Parliament unanimously adopted a resolution "firmly"
condemning the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime
from 1939 to 1975.[58] [59] The resolution was at the initiative of the MEP Leo Brincat and of the historian Luis
María de Puig, and is the first international official condemnation of the repression enacted by Franco's regime.[58]
The resolution also urged to provide public access to historians (professional and amateurs) to the various archives of
the Francoist regime, including those of the private Fundación Francisco Franco which, as well as other Francoist
archives, remain as of 2006 inaccessible to the public.[58] The Fundación Francisco Franco received various
archives from the El Pardo Palace, and is alleged to have sold some of them to private individuals.[60] Furthermore, it
urged the Spanish authorities to set up an underground exhibition in the Valle de los Caidos monument, in order to
explain the "terrible" conditions in which it was built.[58] Finally, it proposes the construction of monuments to
commemorate Franco's victims in Madrid and other important cities.[58]
In Spain, a commission to repair the dignity and restore the memory of the victims of Francoism (Comisión para
reparar la dignidad y restituir la memoria de las víctimas del franquismo) was approved in the summer of 2004, and
is directed by the socialist vice-president María Teresa Fernández de la Vega.[58]
Recently the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARHM) initiated a systematic search for mass
graves of people executed during Franco's regime, which has been supported since the Spanish Socialist Workers'
Party`s (PSOE) victory during the 2004 elections by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government. A Ley de la
memoria histórica de España (Law on the Historical Memory of Spain) was approved on 28 July 2006 by the
Council of Ministers,[61] but it took until 31 October 2007 for the Congress of Deputies to approve an amended
version as "The Bill to recognise and extend rights and to establish measures in favour of those who suffered
persecution or violence during the Civil War and the Dictatorship" (in common parlance still known as Law of
Historical Memory).[62] The Senate approved the bill on 10 December 2007.[63] Among other things, the law is
supposed to enforce an official recognition of the crimes committed against civilians during the Francoist rule and
organize under state supervision the search for mass graves.
The accumulated wealth of Franco's family (including much real estate inherited from Franco, such as the Pazo de
Meirás, the Canto del Pico in Torrelodones or the Cornide Palace in the Coruña[60] ) has also been discussed.
Estimates of the family's wealth have ranged from 350 million to 600 million euros.[60] When Franco was sick, the
Francisco Franco 101

Cortes voted a pension for his wife, Carmen Polo. At the time of her death in 1988, Carmen Polo was receiving more
than 12.5 million pesetas (four million more than Felipe González, then head of the government).[60]
Due to Franco's human rights record, in 2007, the Spanish government banned all public references to the Franco
regime and removed any statues, street names, memorials and symbols associated with the regime. Churches which
retain plaques commemorating Franco and the victims of his Republican opponents may lose state aid.[54]

Franco in popular media

Series and documentary portrayals

• Raza or Espíritu de una Raza (Spirit of a Race) (1941), based on a script by "Jaime de Andrade" (Franco himself),
is the semi-autobiographical story of a military officer played by Alfredo Mayo.
• Franco, ese hombre (That man, Franco) (1964) is a pro-Franco documentary film directed by José Luis Sáenz de
• The film version of Evita (1996) includes archive footage of Franco.
• Argentine actor José "Pepe" Soriano played both Franco and his double in Espérame en el cielo (Wait for Me in
Heaven) (1988).
• Ramon Fontserè played him in ¡Buen Viaje, Excelencia! (Bon Voyage, Your Excellency!) (2003).
• The movie Dragon Rapide (1986) deal about the events previous to the Spanish Civil War, with the actor Juan
Diego performing Franco in the almost one of the two "non-comical" performances of Franco.
• Manuel Alexandre played the ultimate Franco in the TV Movie 20-N: Los ultimos dias de Franco (20-N: The Last
Days of Franco) (2008), the other "realistic" performance of Franco.
• The Goya Winner Juan Echanove played the dictator in the surrealistic movie MadreGilda (MotherGilda) (1993).
• The comic actor Xavier Deltell played Franco in the movie Operacion Gonada (Operation Gonad) (2000)
• Various biopics from the Spanish TV, show the character of Franco in cameo appearances (the biopic about the
Spanish president Adolfo Suarez, the biopic about the Spanish Queen Sofia de Grecia, the biopic about the
Spanish King's cousin Alfonso de Borbon y Dampierre...)
• ...Y al tercer año resucito (...And On the Third Year He Rose Again) (1980) deal what would happen if Franco
rose from the dead.
• Juan Viadas played Franco in the Álex de La Iglesia's movie Balada Triste de Trompeta (The Last Circus) (2010)

Other appearances
• The Swedish film Together depicts a celebration triggered by the radio announcement of Franco's death.
• Franco was a running gag on Saturday Night Live, where Weekend Update anchor Chevy Chase would frequently
report that "Generalissimo Francisco Franco is Still Dead".
• Franco is featured in the novel Triage by Scott Anderson.
• Franco is revealed to be Birdie's former lover in You've Got Mail
Francisco Franco 102


[1] "Francisco Franco" (http:/ / www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/ 2WWfranco. htm). . Retrieved 2 December 2009.
[2] Beevor, Anthony. The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin, 1982. p 49.
[3] Beevor, Anthony. The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin, 1982. p 51.
[4] Sinova, J. La censura de prensa durante el franquismo/ The Media Censorship During Franco Regime. Random House Mondadori. ISBN
[5] Lázaro, A. James Joyce's encounters with Spanish censorship, 1939–1966. Joyce Studies Annual, 1 Jan 2001.
[6] Rodrigo, J. Cautivos: Campos de concentración en la España franquista, 1936–1947, Editorial Crítica.
[7] Gastón Aguas, J. M. & Mendiola Gonzalo, F. (eds.) "Los trabajos forzados en la dictadura franquista: Bortxazko lanak diktadura frankistan."
ISBN 978-84-611-8354-8
[8] Duva, J. Octavio Alberola, jefe de los libertarios ajusticiados en 1963, regresa a España para defender su inocencia Diario El País, 9
November 1998
[9] John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, Toasts of the President and General Francisco Franco of Spain at a State Dinner in Madrid (http:/ /
www. presidency. ucsb. edu/ ws/ index. php?pid=2693), The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara, California: University of California
(hosted), Gerhard Peters (database). Accessed online 24 May 2008.
[10] New York Times. "Nixon Asserts Franco Won Respect for Spain." 21 November 1975, Friday, page 16.
[11] After the Spanish Government allowed Sephardi and other Jews to seek refuge via Spain from National Socialist areas, an urban legend
appeared as a form of derision claiming that the Francos were of Sephardi ancestry. However Payne explains; "Persistent rumours about
Franco's alleged Jewish ancestry have no clear foundation, and Harry S. May, Francisco Franco: The Jewish Connection is somewhat
fanciful". Furthermore, "a significant portion of the Spanish and Portuguese populations have some remote Jewish ancestry; if this were true
of Franco he would simply be in the position of millions of other Spaniards."Payne 2000, p. 68.
[12] "Spain's Franco 'had one testicle'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 8055329. stm). BBC News. 18 May 2009. . Retrieved 2
March 2010.
[13] Carmen Franco y Polo, 1st Duquesa de Franco (http:/ / www. thepeerage. com/ p11214. htm#i112139) on Retrieved 8
August 2006.
[14] "Discurso de Franco a los cadetes de la academia militar de Zaragoza" (http:/ / www. generalisimofranco. com/ discurso12. htm) (in
Spanish). 14 June 1931. . Retrieved 21 July 2006.
[15] "Riots Sweep Spain on Left's Victory; Jails Are Stormed", The New York Times, 18 February 1936.
[16] Muggeridge, Malcolm, editor, Ciano's Diplomatic Papers, Odhams, London, 1948: 17–18
[17] Mathieson, David (18 July 2006). "article in the Guardian about Cecil Bebb" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ commentisfree/ 2006/ jul/ 18/
post233). Guardian (UK). . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[18] "Manifesto de las palmas" (http:/ / www. generalisimofranco. com/ discurso11. htm) (in Spanish). 18 July 1936. . Retrieved 21 July 2006.
[19] Santos Juliá, coord. Víctimas de la guerra civil, Madrid, 1999, ISBN 84-8460-333-4
[20] "Spanish Civil War" (http:/ / concise. britannica. com/ ebc/ article-9379223/ Spanish-Civil-War). Enyclopædia Britannica. . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[21] "La Memoria de los Nuestros" (http:/ / www. memoriahistocheeserica. org/ alojados/ periquete/ paginas/ noticias1. html) (in Spanish). .
Retrieved 21 July 2006.
[22] Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, revised and enlarged edition (1977), New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014278-2. p. 258
[23] Thomas writes, "to pacify, rather than to dignify, him." op. cit., p. 282.
[24] Thomas, op. cit., p. 282.
[25] Thomas, op. cit., p. 421.
[26] Thomas, op. cit., pp 423–424.
[27] Thomas, op. cit., p. 356.
[28] Thomas, op. cit., pp 420–422.
[29] Thomas, op. cit., p. 424.
[30] Thomas, op. cit., pp 689–690.
[31] The Spanish Republic and the civil war 1931–39, by Gabriel Jackson, New Jersey, 1967
[32] Giles Tremlett in Madrid (1 December 2003). "Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ spain/ article/
0,2763,1096841,00. html). Guardian (UK). . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[33] "Spanish Civil War: Casualties" (http:/ / www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/ SPcasualties. htm). . Retrieved 2
March 2010.
[34] Recent searches conducted with parallel excavations of mass graves in Spain (in particular by the Association for the Recovery of Historical
Memory, ARMH) estimate that the total of people executed after the war may arrive at a number between 15,000 to 35,000. See for example
Fosas Comunes – Los desaparecidos de Franco. La Guerra Civil no ha terminado (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ cronica/ 2002/ 351/
1026114970. html), El Mundo, 7 July 2002 (Spanish)
Francisco Franco 103

[35] "Men of La Mancha" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ books/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=7081116). Rev. of Antony Beevor, The Battle for
Spain. The Economist (22 June 2006).
[36] Julius Ruiz, "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936" (http:/ / jch. sagepub. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 42/ 1/
97). Journal of Contemporary History 42.1 (2007):97.
[37] International justice begins at home (http:/ / www. firmaspress. com/ 285. htm) by Carlos Alberto Montaner, Miami Herald, 4 August 2003
[38] Caistor, Nick (28 February 2003). "Spanish Civil War fighters look back" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/
from_our_own_correspondent/ 2809025. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[39] "(French), ',Camp Vernet', Website" (http:/ / cheminsdememoire. gouv. fr/ page/ afficheLieu. php?idLang=fr& idLieu=2311). . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[40] Film documentary (http:/ / www. histoire-immigration. fr/ index. php?lg=fr& nav=20& flash=0) on the website of the Cité nationale de
l'histoire de l'immigration (French)
[41] "Pablo Neruda: The Poet's Calling" (http:/ / www. redpoppy. net/ pablo_neruda. php). . Retrieved 2 March 2010.
[42] Aderet, Ofer. "World War II document reveals: General Franco handed Nazis list of Spanish Jews." (http:/ / www. haaretz. com/
print-edition/ news/ wwii-document-reveals-general-franco-handed-nazis-list-of-spanish-jews-1. 297546) Haaretz News Agency. 22 June 2010
[43] "The Franco Years: Policies, Programs, and Growing Popular Unrest." A Country Study: Spain
[44] Laqueur, Walter Fascism: Past, Present, Future (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fWggQTqioXcC& dq) p. 13 1996 Oxford University
[45] De Menses, Filipe Ribeiro Franco and the Spanish Civil War (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=InPG_1wKfCIC& dq), p. 87, Routledge
[46] Gilmour, David, The Transformation of Spain: From Franco to the Constitutional Monarchy (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=O-SEAAAAIAAJ& q=& pgis=1), p. 7 1985 Quartet Books
[47] Payne, Stanley Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NiD3UeOCSGsC& dq), p. 476 1999 University of
Wisconsin Press
[48] Payne, Stanley Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NiD3UeOCSGsC& dq), p. 347, 476 1999 Univ. of
Wisconsin Press
[49] Laqueur, Walter Fascism: Past, Present, Future (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fWggQTqioXcC& dq), p. 13, 1997 Oxford
University Press US
[50] "Jack Alston Crichton" (http:/ / www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/ MDcrichton. htm). . Retrieved 8 April 2010.
[51] Roman, Mar. "Spain frets over future of flamenco." 27 October 2007. Associated Press. (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ ap/ 20071027/
ap_en_mu/ flamenco_for_foreigners)
[52] http:/ / search. boe. es/ g/ es/ bases_datos/ tifs. php?coleccion=gazeta& anyo=1933& nbo=217& lim=A& pub=BOE& pco=874& pfi=877
[53] http:/ / search. boe. es/ datos/ imagenes/ BOE/ 1954/ 198/ A04862. tif
[54] Hamilos, Paul (19 October 2007). "Rallies banned at Franco's mausoleum" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2007/ oct/ 18/ spain.
paulhamilos). The Guardian (UK). . Retrieved 3 January 2010.
[55] Europe diary: Franco and Finland (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 5151504. stm), BBC News, 6 July 2006 (English)
[56] retira la estatua de Franco (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ espana/ Santander/ retira/ estatua/ Franco/ elpepuesp/ 20081218elpepunac_2/
Tes''Santander), El País, 18 December 2008
[57] Melilla no retirará la estatua de Franco si Defensa no le da otra ubicación (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2009/ 04/ 13/ espana/
1239633215. html) 14 April 2009
[58] Primera condena al régimen de Franco en un recinto internacional (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2006/ 03/ 17/ espana/
1142617936. html), EFE, El Mundo, 17 March 2006 (Spanish)
[59] Von Martyna Czarnowska, Almunia, Joaquin: EU-Kommission (4): Ein halbes Jahr Vorsprung (http:/ / www. wienerzeitung. at/
DesktopDefault. aspx?TabID=4399& Alias=Dossiers& cob=189475& DosCob=164869), Weiner Zeitung, 17 February 2005 (article in
German language). Retrieved 26 August 2006.
[60] Luis Gomez and Mabel Galaz, La cosecha del dictador (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ reportajes/ cosecha/ dictador/ elpepusocdmg/
20070909elpdmgrep_1/ Tes), El Pais, 9 September 2007 (Spanish)
[61] Spain OKs Reparations to Civil War Victims (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ n/ a/ 2006/ 07/ 28/ international/
i100712D03. DTL), Associated Press, 28 July 2006
[62] Politics As Usual? The Trials and Tribulations of The Law of Historical Memory in Spain (http:/ / www. eumed. net/ entelequia/ pdf/ 2008/
e07a19. pdf), Georgina Blakeley (The Open University), 7 September 2008
[63] Proyecto de Ley por la que se reconocen y amplían derechos y se establecen medidas en favor de quienes padecieron persecución o
violencia durante la Guerra Civil y la Dictadura (http:/ / www. senado. es/ legis8/ expedientes/ 621/ index_621000133. html) (Spanish)
Francisco Franco 104

• Blinkhorn, Martin (1988). Democracy and civil war in Spain 1931–1939. Routledge. ISBN 0415006996.
• Carroll, Warren H (2004). The Last Crusade: Spain 1936. Christendom Press. ISBN 0931888670.
• Payne, Stanley G (2000). The Phoenix: Franco Regime 1936–1975. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1842120468.
• Preston, Paul (1994). Franco: A Biography. Basic Books. ISBN 0465025153.


External links
• National Foundation Francisco Franco. (
• Works by or about Francisco Franco ( in libraries (WorldCat

Bullfighting (also known as tauromachy,
from Greek: ταυρομαχία – tauromachia,
"bull-fight";[1] (or as corrida de toros in
Spanish) is a traditional spectacle of Spain,
Portugal, southern France and some Latin
American countries (Mexico, Colombia,
Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador [2] ), in which
one or more bulls are baited in a bullring for
sport and entertainment. It is often called a
blood sport by its detractors but followers of
the spectacle regard it as a fine art and not a
sport as there are no elements of
competition in the proceedings. In Portugal
it is illegal to kill a bull in the arena, so it is
removed and slaughtered in the pens as
fighting bulls can only be used once. A
Bullfighting, Édouard Manet, 1865–1866
nonlethal variant stemming from Portuguese
influence is also practised on the Tanzanian
island of Pemba.[3]

The tradition, as it is practiced today, involves professional toreros (also called toreadors), who execute various
formal moves which can be interpreted and innovated according to the bullfighter's style or school, toreros seek to
elicit inspiration and art from their work and an emotional connection with the crowd transmitted
Bullfighting 105

through the bull . Such maneuvers are

performed at close range, which places the
bullfighter at risk of being gored or
trampled. The bullfight usually concludes
with the killing of the bull by a single sword
thrust which is called estocada. In Portugal
the finale consists of a tradition called the
pega, where men (forcados) try to grab and
hold the bull by its horns when it runs at

Supporters of bullfighting argue that it is a Bullfighting in provinces of Spain at 2010, exceptions should be noted as the area
culturally important tradition and a fully of Pamplona in northern, with major bullfighting.
In 1991, the Canary Islands became the first Spanish Autonomous Community to
developed art form on par with painting,
ban bullfighting and Catalonia will become the second Spanish Autonomous
dancing and music, while animal rights Community to ban bullfighting in January 2012.
advocates hold that it is a blood sport
resulting in the suffering of bulls and horses.

There are many historic fighting venues in

the Iberian Peninsula, France and Latin
America. The largest venue of its kind is the
Plaza de toros México in central Mexico
City, which seats 48,000 people,[4] and the
oldest is the La Maestranza in Sevilla,
Spain, which was first used for bullfighting
in 1765.[5]

Bullfighting in provinces of Spain in the 19th century, when bullfights were

promoted by the governments as national symbol.

Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice.
The killing of the sacred bull (tauroctony) is the essential central iconic
act of Mithras, which was commemorated in the mithraeum wherever
Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what
seems to be a man facing a bull is on the celtiberian tombstone from
Clunia and the cave painting "El toro de hachos", both found in
Spain.[6] [7]
Bull-leaping: Fresco from Knossos
Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where many
human-versus-animal events were held. There are also theories that it
was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute for gladiators, when he instituted a short-lived
ban on gladiatorial combat. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves. (Picadors are the remnants of the
javelin, but their role in the contest is now a relatively minor one limited to "preparing" the bull for the matador.)
Bullfighting spread from Spain to its Central and South American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where
it developed into a distinctive form in its own right.
Bullfighting 106

Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in

the local plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor,
and the populace enjoyed the excitement. The Spanish introduced the
practice of fighting on foot around 1726. Francisco Romero is
generally regarded as having been the first to do this.
This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds. Thus the
modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were
substituted by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the
construction of dedicated bullrings, initially square, like the Plaza de
Armas, and later round, to discourage the cornering of the action. The
modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte,
Mithras killing a bull
generally considered the greatest matador of all time. Belmonte
introduced a daring and revolutionary style, in which he stayed within
a few inches of the bull throughout the fight. Although extremely dangerous (Belmonte himself was gored on many
occasions), his style is still seen by most matadors as the ideal to be emulated. Today, bullfighting remains similar to
the way it was in 1726, when Francisco Romero, from Ronda, Spain, used the estoque, a sword, to kill the bull, and
the muleta, a small cape used in the last stage of the fight.

Styles of bullfighting
Originally, there were at least five distinct regional styles of bullfighting practised in southwestern Europe:
Andalusia, Aragon–Navarre, Alentejo, Camargue, Aquitaine. Over time, these have evolved more or less into
standardized national forms mentioned below. The "classic" style of bullfight, in which the bull is killed, is the form
practised in Spain and many Latin American countries.

Spanish-style bullfighting
Spanish-style bullfighting is called corrida de toros (literally "running
of bulls") or la fiesta ("the festival"). In a traditional corrida, three
matadores, each fight two bulls, each of which is between four and six
years old and weighs no less than 460 kg (1,014 lb) [8] Each matador
has six assistants—two picadores ("lancers on horseback") mounted on
horseback, three banderilleros – who along with the matadors are
collectively known as toreros ("bullfighters") – and a mozo de espadas Monument to a bull, Plaza de Toros de Ronda
("sword page"). Collectively they comprise a cuadrilla ("entourage"). (Ronda bullring), Spain
The word "matador" is only used in English whereas in Spanish the
more general "torero" is used and only when needed to distinguish the full title "matador de toros" is used.

The modern corrida is highly ritualized, with three distinct stages or tercios ("thirds"), the start of each being
announced by a bugle sound. The participants first enter the arena in a parade, called the paseíllo, to salute the
presiding dignitary, accompanied by band music. Torero costumes are inspired by 17th century Andalusian clothing,
and matadores are easily distinguished by the gold of their traje de luces ("suit of lights") as opposed to the lesser
banderilleros who are also called toreros de plata ("bullfighters of silver").
Bullfighting 107

Next, the bull enters the ring to be tested for ferocity by the matador
and banderilleros with the magenta and gold capote ("cape"). This is
the first stage, the tercio de varas ("the lancing third"), and the matador
first confronts the bull with the capote, performing a series of passes
and observing the behavior and quirks of the bull.
Next, a picador enters the arena on horseback armed with a vara
("lance"). To protect the horse from the bull's horns, the horse is
surrounded by a protective, padded covering called "peto". Prior to
Plaza de Toros Las Ventas in Madrid
1930, the horse did not wear any protection, and the bull would usually
disembowel the horse during this stage. Until this change was
instituted, the number of horses killed during a fight was higher than the number of bulls killed.[9]

At this point, the picador stabs just behind the morrillo, a mound of muscle on the fighting bull's neck, weakening
the neck muscles and leading to the animal's first loss of blood. The manner in which the bull charges the horse
provides important clues to the matador about which side the bull favors. If the picador is successful, the bull will
hold its head and horns slightly lower during the following stages of the fight. This ultimately enables the matador to
perform the killing thrust later in the performance. The encounter with the picador often fundamentally changes the
behaviour of a bull, distracted and unengaging bulls will become more focused and stay on a single target instead of
charging at everything that moves.
In the next stage, the tercio de banderillas ("the third of banderillas"), the three banderilleros each attempt to plant
two banderillas, sharp barbed sticks into the bull's shoulders. These anger and invigorate, but further weaken, the
bull who has been tired by his attacks on the horse and the damage he has taken from the lance. Sometimes a
matador will place his own banderillas. If they do so they usually embellish this part of their performance and
employ more varied manoeuvres than the standard "al cuarteo" method usually used by Banderilleros that are part of
a Matador's cuadrilla.
In the final stage, the tercio de muerte ("the third of death"), the matador re-enters the ring alone with a small red
cape, or muleta, and a sword. It is a common misconception that the color red is supposed to anger the bull, because
bulls, in fact, are colorblind.[10] [11] The cape is thought to be red to mask the bull's blood, although this is now also a
matter of tradition. The matador uses his cape to attract the bull in a series of passes which serve the dual purpose of
wearing the animal down for the kill and producing a beautiful display or faena. He may also demonstrate his
domination over the bull by caping it especially close to his body. The faena is the entire performance with the
muleta and it is usually broken down into tandas, "series", of passes. The faena ends with a final series of passes in
which the matador with a muleta attempts to maneuver the bull into a position to stab it between the shoulder blades
and through the aorta or heart. The sword is called "estoque" and the act of thrusting the sword is called an estocada.
If the matador has performed particularly well, the crowd may petition the president to award the matador an ear of
the bull by waving white handkerchiefs. If his performance was exceptional, he will award two, and in certain more
rural rings a tail can still be awarded. Very rarely, if the public or the matador believe that the bull has fought
extremely bravely, they may petition the president of the event to grant the bull a pardon (indulto) and if granted the
bull's life is spared and it is allowed to leave the ring alive and return to the ranch where it came from. Then the bull
becomes a stud bull for the rest of its life.
Bullfighting 108

Recortes, a style of bullfighting practised in Navarra, La
Rioja, North of Castille and Valencian Region, has been
far less popular than the traditional corridas. There has
been a recent resurgence of recortes in Spain where they
are sometimes shown on TV.
This style was common in the early 19th century.
Etchings by painter Francisco de Goya depict these
Recortes claims to differ from a corrida in the following
Goya: The Speed and Daring of Juanito Apiñani in the Ring of
• The bull is not physically injured. Drawing blood is Madrid 1815–16
rare and the bull returns to his pen at the end of the Etching and aquatint
• The men are dressed in common street clothes and not in traditional bullfighting dress.
• Acrobatics are performed without the use of capes or other props. Performers attempt to evade the bull solely
through the swiftness of their movements.
• Rituals are less strict so the men have freedom to perform stunts as they please.
• Men work in teams but with less role distinction than in a corrida.
• Teams compete for points awarded by a jury.
Animal rights groups such as PETA object to recortes; however, some people find recortes less objectionable than
traditional bullfighting since the bull survives the ordeal. Since horses are not used, and performers are not
professionals, recortes are less costly to produce.

Most Portuguese bullfights are held in two phases: the spectacle of the
cavaleiro, and the pega. In the cavaleiro, a horseman on a Portuguese
Lusitano horse (specially trained for the fights) fights the bull from
horseback. The purpose of this fight is to stab three or four bandeiras
(small javelins) in the back of the bull.
In the second stage, called the pega ("holding"), the forcados, a group
of eight men, challenge the bull directly without any protection or Cavaleiro and bull
weapon of defense. The front man provokes the bull into a charge to
perform a pega de cara or pega de caras (face grab). The front man secures the animal's head and is quickly aided
by his fellows who surround and secure the animal until he is subdued.[12] Forcados are dressed in a traditional
costume of damask or velvet, with long knitted hats as worn by the campinos (bull headers) from Ribatejo.

The bull is not killed in the ring and, at the end of the corrida, leading oxen are let into the arena and two campinos
on foot herd the bull among them back to its pen. The bull is usually killed, away from the audience's sight, by a
professional butcher. It can happen that some bulls, after an exceptional performance, are healed, released to pasture
until their end days and used for breeding.
Bullfighting 109

Since the 19th century Spanish-style
corridas have been increasingly popular in
Southern France where they enjoy legal
protection in areas where there is an
uninterrupted tradition of such bull fights,
particularly during holidays such as Whitsun
or Easter. Among France's most important
venues for bullfighting are the ancient
Roman arenas of Nîmes and Arles, although
there are bull rings across the South from
the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coasts.
The French version of bullfighting is unique
in that the bulls have a choice not to fight.
The Roman amphitheatre at Arles being fitted for a
A more indigenous genre of bullfighting is corrida

widely common in the Provence and

Languedoc areas, and is known alternately
as "course libre" or "course camarguaise".
This is a bloodless spectacle (for the bulls)
in which the objective is to snatch a rosette
from the head of a young bull. The
participants, or raseteurs, begin training in
their early teens against young bulls from
the Camargue region of Provence before
graduating to regular contests held
principally in Arles and Nîmes but also in
other Provençal and Languedoc towns and
villages. Before the course, an encierro—a
"running" of the bulls in the streets—takes
place, in which young men compete to
outrun the charging bulls. The course itself
A bullfight in Arles in 1898.
takes place in a small (often portable) arena
erected in a town square. For a period of
about 15–20 minutes, the raseteurs compete to snatch rosettes (cocarde) tied between the bulls' horns. They do not
take the rosette with their bare hands but with a claw-shaped metal instrument called a raset or crochet (hook) in
their hands, hence their name. Afterwards, the bulls are herded back to their pen by gardians (Camarguais cowboys)
in a bandido, amidst a great deal of ceremony. The star of these spectacles are the bulls, who get top billing and
stand to gain fame and statues in their honor, and lucrative product endorsement contracts.[13]
Bullfighting 110

Another type of French 'bullfighting' is the "course landaise" style, in

which cows are used instead of bulls. This is a competition between
teams named cuadrillas, which belong to certain breeding estates. A
cuadrilla is made up of a teneur de corde, an entraîneur, a sauteur, and
six écarteurs. The cows are brought to the arena in boxes and then
taken out in order. Teneur de corde controls the dangling rope attached
to cow's horns and the entraîneur positions the cow to face and attack
the player. The écarteurs will try, at the last possible moment, to dodge
A raseteur takes a rosette around the cow and the sauteur will leap over it. Each team aims to
complete a set of at least one hundred dodges and eight leaps. This is
the main scheme of the "classic" form, the course landaise formelle. However, different rules may be applied in
some competitions. For example, competitions for Coupe Jeannot Lafittau are arranged with cows without ropes.

At one point it resulted in so many fatalities that the French government tried to ban it, but had to back down in the
face of local opposition. The bulls themselves are generally fairly small, much less imposing than the adult bulls
employed in the corrida. Nonetheless, the bulls remain dangerous due to their mobility and vertically formed horns.
Participants and spectators share the risk; it is not unknown for angry bulls to smash their way through barriers and
charge the surrounding crowd of spectators. The course landaise is not seen as a dangerous sport by many, but
écarteur Jean-Pierre Rachou died in 2003 when a bull's horn tore his femoral artery.

Tamil Nadu or Indian style – Jallikattu

Jallikattu or Sallikattu -சல்லிகட்டு or Eruthazhuvuthal -ஏருதழுவுதல் is a bull-taming sport played in Tamil
Nadu as a part of Pongal celebration. It is one of the oldest in the modern era. Although it sounds similar to the
Spanish running of the bulls, it is different. In Jallikattu, the bull is not killed and the 'matadors' are not supposed to
use any weapon. It is held in the villages of Tamil Nadu as a part of the village festivals held from January to July,
every year. The one held in Alanganallur, near Madurai, is one of the more popular events. This sport is also known
as "Manju Virattu", meaning "chasing the bull".
Understanding Jallikattu or Manju Virattu: Jallikattu is based on the simple concept of "flight or fight". Cattle are
herd and prey animals and run away from dangerous situations, but there are exceptions. Cape buffalos stand up
against lions and often kill them. The Indian Gaur bull is known for standing its ground against predators and tigers
are wary of attacking a full grown Gaur bull. Aurochs, the ancestors of domestic cattle, were known for their
pugnacious nature. Jallikattu bulls belong to a few specific breeds of cattle that descended from the kangayam breed
of cattle and these cattle are pugnacious by nature. These cattle are reared in large herds numbering in the hundreds,
with a few cowherds tending to them. These cattle are for all practical comparisons, wild and only the cowherds can
mingle with them without fear of being attacked. It is from these herds that calves with good characteristics and body
conformation are selected and reared to become jallikattu bulls. These bulls attack not because they are irritated or
agitated or frightened, but because that is their basic nature.
There are three versions of Jallikattu:
1. Vadi manju virattu – this version takes place mostly in the districts of Madurai, Pudukkottai, Theni, Tanjore, and
Salem. It has been popularised by television and films and involves the bull being released from an enclosure
through an opening. As the bull comes out of the enclosure, one person clings to the hump of the bull. The bull in
its attempt to shake him off will bolt in most cases, but some will hook the man with their horns and throw him
off. The rules specify that the person has to hold on to the running bull for a predetermined distance to win the
prize. In this version, only one person is supposed to attempt catching the bull. Some bulls acquire a reputation
and that is enough for them to be given a unhindered passage out of the enclosure and arena.
2. Vaeli virattu – this version is more popular in the districts of sivagangai, manamadurai and madurai. The bull is
released in an open ground. This version is the most natural, as the bulls are not restricted in any way (no rope or
Bullfighting 111

determined path). The bulls once released simply run away from the field in any direction. Most do not even
come close to any human. There are a few bulls that do not run but stand their ground and attack anyone who tries
to come near them. These bulls will "play" for some time (from a few minutes to several hours) providing a
spectacle for viewers, players and owners alike.
3. Vadam manjuvirattu – "vadam" means rope in Tamil. The bull is tied to a 50-foot-long rope (15 m) and is free to
move within this space. A team of seven or nine members must attempt to subdue the bull within 30 minutes. This
version is safe for spectators, as the bull is tied and the spectators are shielded by barricades.
Training of jallikattu bulls: the calves that are chosen to become jallikattu bulls are fed a nutritious diet so they
develop into strong, sturdy beasts. The bulls are made to swim for exercise. The calves, once they reach adolescence
are taken to small jallikattu events to familiarise them with the atmosphere. Specific training is given to vadam
manju virattu bulls to understand the restraints of the rope. Apart from this, no other training is provided to jallikattu

Bullfighting in Oman
Oman is perhaps the only country in the Persian Gulf in which
bullfighting is carried out. In the interiors of the country, temporary
bullrings are set up for the events. Al-Batena area is prominent for such
events. Wide audiences turn up to see the events unfold. Omani
bullfighting is however not a violent event. The origins of bullfighting
in Oman are unknown though many locals here believe it was brought
to Oman by the Moors of Spanish origin. Yet others say it has a direct
connection with Portugal which colonized the Omani coastline for
nearly 2 centuries.[14]
Bullfighting in Oman

Freestyle bullfighting
Freestyle bullfighting is a style of bullfighting developed in American rodeo. The style was developed by the rodeo
clowns who protect bull riders from being trampled or gored by an angry bull. Freestyle bullfighting is a 70-second
competition in which the bullfighter (rodeo clown) avoids the bull by means of dodging, jumping and use of a barrel.
Competitions are organized in the US as the World Bullfighting Championship (WBC) and the Dickies National
Bullfighting Championship under auspices of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR).

Comic bullfighting
Comical spectacles based on bullfighting, called espectáculos cómico-taurinos or charlotadas, are still popular in
Spain and Mexico, with troupes like El empastre or El bombero torero.[15]

Bullfighting 112

Spanish-style bullfighting is normally fatal for the bull but it is also

dangerous for the matador. Picadors and banderilleros are sometimes
gored, but this is not common.
Some matadors, notably Juan Belmonte, have been gored many times:
according to Ernest Hemingway, Belmonte's legs were marred by
many ugly scars. A special type of surgeon has developed, in Spain
Dead bullfighter – Édouard Manet, c. 1864–65
and elsewhere, to treat cornadas, or horn-wounds.
The bullring has a chapel where a matador can pray before the corrida,
and where a priest can be found in case a sacrament is needed. The
most relevant sacrament is now called "Anointing of the Sick"; it was
formerly known as "Extreme Unction", or the "Last Rites".
The media often reports the more horrific of bullfighting injuries, such
as the May 2010 piercing of matador Julio Aparicio's chin by a bull's

Cultural aspects Muerte del Maestro (Death of the Master) – Jose

Villegas Cordero, 1884
Many supporters of bullfighting regard it as a deeply ingrained,
integral part of their national cultures. The aesthetic of bullfighting is
based on the interaction of the man and the bull. Rather than a
competitive sport, the bullfight is more of a ritual which is judged by
aficionados (bullfighting fans) based on artistic impression and
command. Ernest Hemingway said of it in his 1932 non-fiction book
Death in the Afternoon: "Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist
is in danger of death and in which the degree of brilliance in the
performance is left to the fighter's honour." Bullfighting is seen as a
symbol of Spanish culture.

The bullfight is above all about the demonstration of style, technique

and courage by its participants. While there is usually no doubt about
Stuffed bull head in a bar in San Sebastian
the outcome, the bull is not viewed as a sacrificial victim—it is instead
seen by the audience as a worthy adversary, deserving of respect in its
own right.

Popularity, controversy and criticism

Public opinion
Bullfighting 113

A 2002 Gallup poll found that 68.8% of Spaniards express "no

interest" in bullfighting while 20.6% expressed "some interest" and
10.4% "a lot of interest." The poll also found significant generational
variety, with 51% of those 65 and older expressing interest, compared
with 23% of those between 25 and 34 years of age. Popularity also
varies significantly according to regions in Spain with it being least
popular in Galicia and Catalonia with 79% and 81% of those polled
expressing no interest. Interest is greatest in the zones of the north, Anti-bullfight demonstration in Zaragoza
centre, east and south, with around 37% declaring themselves fans and
63% having no interest.[17]

According to a poll conducted by the Sports Marketing Group in Atlanta in 2003, 46.2% of Americans polled hated
or strongly disliked bull fighting.[18]

Animal rights
Bullfighting is criticized by animal rights activists, referring to it as a cruel or barbaric blood sport, in which the bull
suffers severe stress and a slow, torturous death.[19] [20] [21] [22] A number of animal rights or animal welfare activist
groups undertake anti-bullfighting actions in Spain and other countries. In Spanish, opposition to bullfighting is
referred to as antitaurina.
Bullfighting guide The Bulletpoint Bullfight warns that bullfighting is
"not for the squeamish", advising spectators to "be prepared for blood."
The guide details prolonged and profuse bleeding caused by
horse-mounted lancers, the charging by the bull of a blindfolded,
armored horse who is "sometimes doped up, and unaware of the
proximity of the bull", the placing of barbed darts by banderilleros,
followed by the matador's fatal sword thrust. The guide stresses that
Bull dying in a bullfight these procedures are a normal part of bullfighting and that death is
rarely instantaneous. The guide further warns those attending bullfights
to "Be prepared to witness various failed attempts at killing the animal before it lies down."[23]

It has also been noted by critics that bullfighting is financed with public money.[24] In 2007, the Spanish fighting bull
breeding industry was allocated 500 million euros in grants,[25] and in 2008 almost 600 million.[26] Some of this
money comes from European funds to livestock.[27] Bullfighting supporters argue that almost every single cultural
endeavour in Europe is partially financed by public money and few of them generate the kind of revenue and taxes in
return that bullfighting does through its impact on businesses like hotels, restaurants, insurances and other industries
directly or indirectly linked to the spectacle.
Bullfighting 114

Another current of criticism comes from aficionados themselves, who may despise modern developments such as the
defiant style ("antics" for some) of El Cordobés or the lifestyle of Jesulín de Ubrique, a common subject of Spanish
gossip magazines. His "female audience"-only corridas were despised by veterans, many of whom reminisce about
times past, comparing modern bullfighters with early figures.

Late 19th century / early 20th century Fin-de-siècle Spanish regeneracionista intellectuals protested against what
they called the policy of pan y toros ("bread and bulls"), an analogue of Roman panem et circenses promoted by
politicians to keep the populace content in its oppression. During the Franco dictatorship bullfights were supported
by the state as something genuinely Spanish, as the fiesta nacional, so that bullfights became associated with the
regime and, for this reason, many thought they would decline after the transition to democracy, but this did not
happen. Later social-democratic governments, particularly the current government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero,
have generally been more opposed to bullfighting, prohibiting children under 14 from attending and limiting or
prohibiting the broadcast of bullfights on national TV.
Some in Spain despise bullfighting because of its association with the Spanish nation and the Franco regime.[28]
Despite the long history and popularity of bullfighting in Barcelona, in 2010 it was banned in the Catalonia region,
although this move has been criticized by some as being motivated by issues of Catalan independentism rather than
animal rights, even when the law that banned it was proposed by an animal rights civic platform called "Prou!"
("Enough!" in Catalan).[29]
The Spanish Royal Family is divided on the issue, from Queen Sophia who does not hide her dislike for
bullfights,[30] to King Juan Carlos who occasionally presides over a bullfight from the royal box as part of his
official duties,[31] [32] [33] to their daughter Princess Elena who is well known for her liking of bullfights and who
often accompanies the king in the presiding box or attends privately in the general seating.[34] The King has
allegedly stated, that "the day the EU bans bullfighting is the day Spain leaves the EU".[35]

In Judaism, the Talmud (Nezikin: Avodah Zarah) discusses the Rabbis' warning against visiting "stadiums and
circuses." Prominent eleventh-century scholar Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki (Rashi) interpreted "stadiums" as referring to
"a place where they taunt the bull." Eighteenth-century scholar Rabbi Yechezkel Landau (Noda' BiYehuda) was
asked if one may hunt for sport. He answered that one may not, for it involves putting oneself in danger and is a
demonstration of cruelty toward animals. Former Chief Rabbi of Israel Rav Ovadia Yosef was asked specifically if
one may watch a bullfight. He answered that it is forbidden: one must not go to places where performing acts of
cruelty against animals is made into a form of amusement.[36]

Media prohibitions
State-run Spanish TVE cancelled live coverage of bullfights in August 2007, claiming that the coverage was too
violent for children who might be watching, and that live coverage violated a voluntary, industry-wide code
attempting to limit "sequences that are particularly crude or brutal".[37] In October 2008, in a statement to Congress,
Luis Fernández, the President of Spanish State Broadcaster TVE, confirmed that the station will no longer broadcast
live bullfights due to the high cost of production and a rejection of the events by advertisers. However the station
will continue to broadcast 'Tendido Cero', a bullfighting magazine programme.[38] Having the national Spanish TV
stop broadcasting it, after 50 years of history, was considered a big step for its abolition. Nevertheless, other regional
and private channels keep broadcasting it with good audiences.[39]
A Portuguese television station also prohibited the broadcasting of bullfights in January 2008, because they are too
violent for minors.[40] In March 2009, Viana do Castelo, a city in northern Portugal, became the first city in that
Bullfighting 115

country to ban bullfighting. Mayor Defensor Moura cited torture and imposition of unjustifiable suffering as a factor
in arriving at the ban. The city's bullfighting arena will be torn down to accommodate a new cultural centre.[41]


Pre-20th century

Pope Pius V issued a papal bull titled De Salute Gregis [42] in November 1567
which forbade fighting of bulls and any other beasts as the voluntary risk to life
endangered the soul of the combatants, but it was abolished eight years later by
his successor, Pope Gregory XIII, at the request of king Philip II.
Bullfighting was introduced in Uruguay in 1776 by Spain and abolished by
Uruguayan law in February 1912. Bullfighting was also introduced in Argentina
by Spain but after Argentina's independence the event drastically diminished in
popularity and was abolished in 1899 under law 2786.[43]
Bullfighting also saw a presence in Cuba during its colonial period but was
quickly abolished after its independence in 1901.
During the 18th and 19th centuries bullfighting in Spain was banned at several
Plaza de toros de Acho in Lima,
occasions (for instance by Philip V) but always reinstituted later by other Peru—the oldest bullring in South
governments. America, dating back to 1766

20th century onwards

Bullfighting is now banned in many countries; people taking part in such activity would be liable for terms of
imprisonment for animal cruelty. "Bloodless" variations, though, are permitted and have attracted a following in
California, and France.[44]
In 1991, the Canary Islands became the first Spanish Autonomous Community to ban bullfighting,[29] when they
legislated to ban bullfights and other spectacles that involve cruelty to animals, with the exception of cockfighting,
which is traditional in some towns in the Islands.[45] Some supporters of bullfighting and even Lorenzo Olarte
Cullen,[46] Canarian head of government at the time, have argued that the fighting bull is not a "domestic animal"
and hence the law does not ban bullfighting.[47] The absence of spectacles since 1984 would be due to lack of
demand. In the rest of Spain, national laws against cruelty to animals have abolished most blood sports, but
specifically exempt bullfighting.
Several cities around the world have symbolically declared themselves to be Anti-Bullfighting Cities, including
Barcelona, where the last bullfighting ring closed in 2006.[48]
On December 17, 2010 Ecuador's president Rafael Correa announced that in a upcoming referendum, the country
will be asked whether to ban bullfighting.[49] [50] [51]

On 18 December 2009, the parliament of Catalonia, one of Spain's seventeen Autonomous Communities, approved
by majority the preparation of a law to ban bullfighting in Catalonia, as a response to a popular initiative against
bullfighting that gathered more than 180,000 signatures.[52] On 28 July 2010, with the two main parties allowing
their members a free vote, the ban was passed 68 to 55, with 9 abstentions. This meant Catalonia became the second
Community of Spain (first was Canary Islands in 1991), and the first on the mainland, to ban bullfighting. The ban
takes effect in January 2012, and would only affect the one remaining functioning Catalonian bullring, the Plaza de
toros Monumental de Barcelona.[29] [53] It would not affect the correbous, a traditional game of the Ebro where lit
flares are attached to a bull’s horns. The ‘correbous’ however is only seen in the municipalities in the south of
Bullfighting 116

Tarragona, and is essentially Catalan.[54]

In a referendum in May 2011, Ecuadorians agree on banning bullfighting in the country after 5 centuries.[55]

[1] ταυρομαχία (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=tauromaxi/ a), Henry George Liddell,
Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
[2] http:/ / www. cas-international. org/ es/ home/ sufrimiento-de-toros-y-caballos/ corridas-de-toros/ corridas-de-toros-en-latinoamerica/
[3] online descriptions in English – most available references are in Swahili (http:/ / janus. lib. cam. ac. uk/ db/ node. xsp?id=EAD/ GBR/ 0115/
RCMS 162/ Y304Q/ 6/ 2) Photos of Pemba bullfight on Flikr (http:/ / www. flickr. com/ photos/ alaind20sn/ sets/ 72157603822632631)
[4] "" (http:/ / www. worldstadiums. com/ north_america/ countries/ mexico/ central_mexico. shtml). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[5] http:/ / www. realmaestranza. com/ PAGINASR/ historiapt. htm
[6] Guillaume ROUSSEL. "Pierre tombale de Clunia – 4473 – L'encyclopédie – L'Arbre Celtique" (http:/ / www. arbre-celtique. com/
encyclopedie/ pierre-tombale-de-clunia-4473. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[7] Toro de Lidia (2006-11-15). "Toro de Lidia – Toro de lidia" (http:/ / www. cetnotorolidia. es/ opencms_wf/ opencms/ toro_de_lidia/
origen_e_historia/ index. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[8] Royal Decree 145/1996, of 2 February, to modify and reword the Regulations of Taurine Spectacles (http:/ / legislacion. 060. es/
8532-ides-idweb. html)
[9] "bullfighting." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 14 Jan. 2009 http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/
topic/ 84444/ bullfighting>.
[10] "Longhorn_Information – handling" (http:/ / www. itla. net/ index. cfm?sec=Longhorn_Information& con=handling). ITLA. . Retrieved
[11] http:/ / iacuc. tennessee. edu/ pdf/ Policies-AnimalCare/ Cattle-BasicCare. pdf
[12] Isaacson, Andy, (2007), "California's 'bloodless bullfights' keep Portuguese tradition alive" (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ c/
a/ 2007/ 08/ 12/ TRU1RCGLG. DTL), San Francisco Chronicle.
[13] Vaches Pour Cash: L'Economie de L'Encierro Provençale, Dr. Yves O'Malley, Nanterre University 1987.
[14] http:/ / www. mangalorean. com/ browsearticles. php?arttype=Feature& articleid=284
[15] Bullfighting Spactacles: State Norms (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. ganaderoslidia. com/ webroot/ rd-145-96. htm) Example: Los espectáculos
cómico-taurinos no podrán celebrarse conjuntamente con otros festejos taurinos en los que se dé muerte a las reses.
[16] "Spanish bull fighter suffers horrific injury as bulls horn enters beneath the chin and comes out of mouth" (http:/ / www. nationalturk. com/
en/ bullfight-injury-as-matador-gored-through-chin-in-madrid-spain-56646415). May 24, 2010. . Retrieved 24 May 2010.
[17] "Encuesta Gallup: Interés por las corridas de toros (In Spanish)" (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ itc/ spanish/ cultura/ texts/
Gallup_CorridasToros_0702. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[18] "Most hated sports: Going to the dogs" (http:/ / nbcsports. msnbc. com/ id/ 3087763/ ). 2003-09-28. . Retrieved
[19] "What is bullfighting?" (http:/ / www. league. org. uk/ content. asp?CategoryID=1938). .
[20] "Running of the Bulls Factsheet" (http:/ / www. runningofthenudes. com/ bullfighting_facts. asp). .
[21] "ICABS calls on Vodafone to drop bullfighting from ad" (http:/ / www. banbloodsports. com/ ln-0807c. htm). .
[22] "The suffering of bullfighting bulls" (http:/ / english. stieren. net/ index. php?id=390). .
[23] The Bulletpoint Bullfight, p. 6, ISBN 978-1-4116-7400-4
[24] No permitas que tus impuestos financien la tortura a los toros: ¡Actúa ya. (http:/ / www. animanaturalis. org/ post/
20081017_No_permitas_que_tus_impuestos_financien_la_tortura_a_los_toros__iActua_ya_) AnimaNaturalis (Spanish)
[25] Parte de nuestros impuestos se dedican a financiar estas prácticas. Cada gallego aporta 42 euros al año a la tauromaquia (http:/ / elprogreso.
galiciae. com/ nova/ 14130. html) 21 July 2008. El Progreso (Spanish)
[26] Los alcaldes antitaurinos cierran el grifo a las corridas (http:/ / www. publico. es/ espana/ actualidad/ 211673/ alcaldes/ antitaurinos/ cierran/
grifo/ corridas) Público (Spanish)
[27] "For a Bullfighting-free europe" (http:/ / www. bullfightingfreeeurope. org/ ). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[28] "Bullfighting ban and the horns of a dilemma for Spain" (http:/ / www. yorkshirepost. co. uk/ features/ Bullfighting-ban-and-the-horns.
6445725. jp). July 28, 2010. .
[29] "Catalonia bans bullfighting in landmark Spain vote" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-10784611). British Broadcasting
Corporation. 2010-07-28. . Retrieved 2010-07-28.
[30] "Queen Sofia of Spain – Phantis" (http:/ / wiki. phantis. com/ index. php/ Queen_Sofia_of_Spain). 2006-07-02. .
Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[31] "Casa de Su Majestad el Rey de España" (http:/ / www. casareal. es/ noticias/ news/ 20070522_Corrida_Toros_Prensa-ides-idweb. html). 2007-05-22. . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
Bullfighting 117

[32] gerrit schimmelpeninck. "Casa Real" (http:/ / www. portaltaurino. com/ corazon/ casa_real. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[33] "Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas" (http:/ / www. las-ventas. com/ cronicas2005/ 0608/ portada. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[34] "Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas" (http:/ / asp. las-ventas. com/ noticias/ noticia_detalle. asp?codigo=1126& codigo_seccion=7). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[35] "" (http:/ / www. spanish-fiestas. com/ bullfighting/ ). .
[36] "Milhamoth Shewarim" (Hebrew) (http:/ / www. halachayomit. co. il/ DisplayRead. asp?readID=1615), "Halacha Yomit," 17 October 2010,
accessed 26 December 2010.
[37] No more 'ole'? Matadors miffed as Spain removes bullfighting from state TV (http:/ / www. news1130. com/ news/ international/ article.
[38] TVE explains the decision not to broadcast bullfighting is a financial one (http:/ / www. typicallyspanish. com/ news/ publish/ article_18648.
[39] AFP/ (2007-08-22). "Las corridas de toros corren peligro en TVE – Nacional – Nacional" (http:/ / www. abc. es/ hemeroteca/
historico-22-08-2007/ abc/ Nacional/ las-corridas-de-toros-corren-peligro-en-tve-_164480243859. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
Defensa de los Animales" (http:/ / www. asanda. org/ index. php?name=News& file=article& sid=646). ASANDA. . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[41] "Landmark bullfighting ban" (http:/ / www. news24. com/ News24/ World/ News/ 0,,2-10-1462_2479298,00. html).
2009-03-03. . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[42] http:/ / www. all-creatures. org/ ca/ archive-desalutegregis. html
[43] Veronica Cerrato. "Desde 1899, Argentina sin Corridas de Toros //" (http:/ / www. animanaturalis. org/ p/ 883). .
Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[44] "Bloodless bullfights animate California's San Joaquin Valley" (http:/ / travel. latimes. com/ articles/ la-trw-californiabullfighting29jul29).
The Los Angeles Times. 2007-07-26. .
[45] "Canary Islands Government. Law 8/1991, dated April the 30th, for animal protection (Spanish)" (http:/ / www. gobiernodecanarias. org/
boc/ 1991/ 062/ 001. html). 1991-05-13. . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[46] "La prohibición de la tauromaquia: un capítulo del antiespañolismo catalán" (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2010/ 07/ 28/ toros/
1280350886. html). El Mundo. 2010-07-29. . Retrieved 2010-08-01.
[47] "Los toros no están prohibidos en Canarias" (http:/ / www. mundotoro. com/ noticia/ los-toros-no-estan-prohibidos-en-canarias/ 79708).
Mundotoro. 2010-07-30. . Retrieved 2010-07-31.
[48] Fiona Govan, " Bullfighting's Future in Doubt (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ 1537459/ Bullfightings-future-in-doubt.
html)," The Telegraph 20 Dec. 2006.
[49] "Las corridas de toros irán a referendum" by [[El Comercio (Ecuador)|El Comercio (http:/ / www4. elcomercio. com/ 2010-12-17/ Home/
Noticia-Principal/ corridas-toros-referendum-(1). aspx)]]
[50] "Correa anuncia consulta popular sobre corridas de toros" by El Telegrafo (http:/ / www. telegrafo. com. ec/ actualidad/ noticia/ archive/
actualidad/ 2010/ 12/ 17/ Correa-anuncia-consulta-popular-sobre-corridas-de-toros. aspx)
[51] "Correa anuncia consulta popular sobre seguridad, justicia y corridas de toros" by [[El Universo (http:/ / www. eluniverso. com/ 2010/ 12/
17/ 1/ 1355/ correa-anuncia-consulta-popular-sobre-seguridad-justicia-corridas-toros. html?p=1354& m=27)]]
[52] "Llum verda a la supressió de les corrides de toros a Catalunya" (http:/ / www. avui. cat/ cat/ notices/ 2009/ 12/
llum_verda_a_la_supressio_de_les_corrides_de_toros_a_catalunya_81775. php). 2009-12-18. . Retrieved 2010-03-28.
[53] Raphael Minder (2010-07-28). "Spanish Region Bans Bullfighting" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 29/ world/ europe/ 29spain.
html?ref=world). . Retrieved 2010-07-28.
[54] http:/ / www. typicallyspanish. com/ news/ publish/ article_27265. shtml#ixzz10NKQxwpk
[55] http:/ / www. irishtimes. com/ newspaper/ world/ 2011/ 0509/ 1224296491068. html

Further reading
• Hemingway, Ernest (1932) Death in the Afternoon
• Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier. Bullfighting: A Troubled History (U. of Chicago Press, 2010); 206 pages, ISBN
• Ciofalo, John J. "The Artist in the Vicinity of Death." The Self-Portraits of Francisco Goya. Cambridge
University Press, 2001.
• Shadow of a Bull, book by Maia Wojciechowska about a bullfighter's son
• Poon, Wena, Alex y Robert (, Salt
Publishing, London, 2010. Novel about an American teenage girl training as a matador in contemporary Spain.
• Ogorzaly, Michael A, When Bulls Cry: The Case Against Bullfighting, 2006, AuthorHouse, ISBN 1-4259-2772-6
Bullfighting 118

External links
• Bullfighting: Culture & Controversy (
bullfighting-culture--controversy) – slideshow by Life magazine
• Bullfighting in Barcelona (
66484,in-pictures,news-in-pictures,barcelona-bans-bullfighting-in-pictures-catalonia-jose-tomas) - slideshow by
The First Post
• Israel Lancho, Spanish Bullfighter Gored (
israel-spanish-bul_n_208906.html), The Huffington Post, May 29, 2009
Supporting bullfighting
• Faq (
• Story of a matador ( (1962), produced by David L. Wolper
Against bullfighting
• Complete dossier about bullfighting (spanish) (
• CAS International (Comité Anti Stierenvechten) (
• International Movement Against Bullfight (IMAB) (
• Federation of Anti-Bullfighting Societies (FLAC) (
• League Against Cruel Sports (
• Partido Antitaurino Contra el Maltrato Animal – Anti-bullfighting party against animal abuse (
• Movimento Anti-Touradas de Portugal (



Coat of arms

Motto: «Fui sobre agua edificada,

mis muros de fuego son.
Esta es mi insignia y blasón»
("On water I was built,
my walls are made of fire.
[1] [2]
This is my ensign and escutcheon")

Location of Madrid within Spain
Madrid 120

Location of Madrid within the Community of Madrid

Coordinates: 40°23′N 3°43′W

Country Spain

Region Community of Madrid

Founded [3]


 - Type Mayor-council

 - Body Ayuntamiento de Madrid

 - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP)


 - Land 607 km2 (234.4 sq mi)

 - Metro 10,506 km2 (4,057 sq mi)

Elevation 667 m (2188 ft)

Population (2010)

 - City 3,273,049

- Rank 1st

- Density 5403/km2 (13993.7/sq mi)

- Metro 6,458,684

Demonym Madrilenian
Spanish: madrileño (m) madrileña

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 28001–28080

Area code(s) 34 (Spain) + 91 (Madrid)

Patron Saints Isidore the Laborer

Virgin of Almudena

Website [4]
Madrid 121

Madrid (English pronunciation: /məˈdrɪd/, Spanish: [maˈðɾið]) is the capital and largest city in Spain. The population of
the city is roughly 3.4 million[5] and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be nearly
7 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan area is the
third largest in the European Union after Paris and London.[6] [7] [8] [9] The city spans a total of 604.3 km²
(233.3 sq mi).[10]
Madrid urban agglomeration has the 3rd largest GDP[11] in the European Union and its influences in politics,
education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the
world's major global cities.[12] [13] Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is
considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the
vast majority of the major Spanish companies. Madrid is the most touristic city of Spain, the fourth-most touristic of
the continent,[14] and is the 10th most livable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2010 index.[15]
Madrid also ranks among the 12 greenest European cities in 2010.[17]
The city is located on the Manzanares river in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which
comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the
autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of
government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political center of Spain.[18] The current
mayor is Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón from the People's Party (PP).
While Madrid possesses a modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic
neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid; the Teatro Real (Royal theatre) with
its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro park, founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building
(founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; an archaeological museum; and the Golden
Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum, the Museo
Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, housed in the
renovated Villahermosa Palace.[19]

There are several theories regarding the origin of the name "Madrid".
According to legend Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor (son of King
Tyrrhenius of Tuscany and Mantua) and was named "Metragirta" or
"Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city
was "Ursaria" ("land of bears" in Latin), due to the high number of
these animals that were found in the adjacent forests, which, together
with the strawberry tree (Spanish: madroño), have been the emblem of
the city from the Middle Ages.[3]
Alcalá Street and the Metropolis Building
The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit (for *Materit or
*Mageterit ?) comes from the name of a fortress built on the
Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, and means "Place of abundant water".[20] If the form is correct, it could be
a Celtic place-name from ritu- 'ford' (Old Welsh rit, Welsh rhyd, Old Breton rit, Old Northern French roy) and a first
element, that is not clearly identified *mageto derivation of magos 'field' 'plain' (Old Irish mag 'field', Breton ma
'place'), or matu 'bear", that could explain the Latin translation Ursalia.[21]

Nevertheless , it is now commonly believed that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd
century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river. The name of this first
village was "Matrice" (a reference to the river that crossed the settlement). Following the invasions carried out by the
Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no
longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, and as a consequence,
Madrid 122

these territories were soon overrun by the Visigoths. The barbarian tribes subsequently took control of "Matrice". In
the 7th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic
term ‫" اريم‬Mayra" (referencing water as a "trees" or "giver of life") and the Ibero-Roman suffix "it" that means
"place". The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic.[22]


Middle Ages
Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since pre-historic times,[23] in the Roman era this
territory belonged to the diocese of Complutum (present-day Alcalá de Henares). There are archeological remains of
a small village during the visigoth epoch, whose name might have been adopted later by Arabs.[3] The origins of the
modern city come from the 9th century, when Muhammad I ordered the construction of a small palace in the same
place that is today occupied by the Palacio Real. Around this palace a small citadel, al-Mudaina, was built. The
citadel was conquered in 1085 by Christian king Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile in his advance towards Toledo. He
reconsecrated the mosque as the church of the Virgin of Almudena (almudin, the garrison's granary). In 1329, the
Cortes Generales first assembled in the city to advise Alfonso XI of Castile. Sephardi Jews and Moors continued to
live in the city until they were expelled at the end of the 15th century.[3] After troubles and a large fire, Henry III of
Castile (1379–1406) rebuilt the city and established himself safely fortified outside its walls in El Pardo.
The grand entry of Ferdinand and Isabella to Madrid heralded the end of strife between Castile and Aragon,[3] and
the beginning of the influence of the Renaissance in Spain.

Modern Age
The Crown of Castile, with its capital at Toledo, and the Crown of
Aragon, with its capital at Zaragoza, were welded into modern Spain
by the Catholic Monarchs (Queen Isabella of Castile and King
Ferdinand II of Aragon).[3] Though their grandson Charles I of Spain
(also known as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) favoured Seville, it
was Charles' son, Philip II (1527–1598) who moved the court to
Madrid in 1561. Although he made no official declaration, the seat of
the court was the de facto capital. Seville continued to control
commerce with Spain's colonies, but Madrid controlled Seville.[24] Plaza Mayor

Aside from a brief period, 1601–1606, when Felipe III installed his court in Valladolid, Madrid's fortunes have
closely mirrored those of Spain.
During the Siglo de Oro (Golden Century), in the 16th/17th century,
Madrid knew its ultimate glory; El Escorial, the great royal monastery
built by King Philip II of Spain, invited the attention of some of
Europe's greatest architects and painters. Diego Velázquez(painter of
Las Meninas and The Surrender of Breda), regarded as one of the most
influential painters of European history and a greatly respected artist in
his own time, cultivated a relationship with King Philip IV and his
chief minister, the Count-Duke of Olivares, leaving us several portraits
Puerta de Alcalá. that demonstrate his style and skill. El Greco, another respected artist
from the period, infused Spanish art with the styles of the Italian
renaissance and helped create a uniquely Spanish style of painting.
Madrid 123

Madrid was one of the cultural centers during the Spanish Golden Century. The Spanish court attracted many top
Spanish artists and writers to the city, including Miguel de Cervantes (author of Don Quixote de la Mancha) and the
aforementioned Diego Velasquez. Furthermore, in the city were born many of the great writers of this period: Lope
de Vega, Francisco de Quevedo, Calderon de la Barca and Tirso de Molina, and the last of the great painters of the
Golden Age, Claudio Coello. The renowned Renaissance architect Juan de Herrera designed the Plaza Mayor, which
was built in the city during the Habsburg period as a central plaza. It is located near another famous plaza, the Puerta
del Sol.
New palaces (including the Palacio Real de Madrid) were built during Philip V´s reign. However, it would not be
until Charles III (1716–1788) that Madrid would become a modern city. Charles III was one of the most popular
kings in the history of Madrid, and the saying "the best mayor, the king" became popular during those times. When
Charles IV (1748–1819) became king the people of Madrid revolted. After the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which was led
by his own son Ferdinand VII against him, Charles IV resigned, but Ferdinand VII's reign would be short: in May
1808 Napoleon's troops entered the city.

From 19th century to present day

On the second of May (Spanish: Dos de Mayo), 1808, the people of
Madrid rebelled against the occupation of the city by French troops,
provoking a repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the
Spanish War of Independence.
After the war of independence (1814) Ferdinand VII came back to the
throne, but after a liberal military revolution, Rafael del Riego made
the king swear respect to the Constitution. This would start a period
where liberal and conservative government alternated, that would end
with the enthronement of Isabellla II (1830–1904). She could not
Plaza de Cibeles
suppress the political tension that would lead to yet another revolt, the
First Spanish Republic. This was later followed by the return of the
monarchy to Madrid, then the creation of the Second Spanish Republic, preceding the Spanish Civil War.[24]

Madrid was one of the most heavily affected cities of Spain in the Civil War (1936–1939). The city was a stronghold
of the Republicans from July 1936. Its western suburbs were the scene of an all-out battle in November 1936 and it
was during the Civil War that Madrid became the first European city to be bombed by airplanes (Japan was the first
to bomb civilians in world history, at Shanghai in 1932) specifically targeting civilians in the history of warfare. (See
Siege of Madrid (1936–39)).[24]
Madrid 124

During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, especially during the 1960s, the
city experienced unprecedented, extraordinary development in terms of
population and wealth, becoming the largest GDP city in Spain, and ranking
third in Western Europe. The municipality is extended, annexing
neighbouring council districts, to achieve the present extension of 607 km².
The south of Madrid became very industrialized, and there were massive
migrations from rural areas of Spain into the city. Madrid's newly built
north-western districts became the home of the new thriving middle class that
appeared as result of the 1960s Spanish economic boom, while south-eastern
periphery became an extensive working class settlement, which was the base
for an active cultural and political reform.[24]

After the death of Franco, emerging democratic parties (including those of

left-wing and republican ideology) accepted King Juan Carlos I as both
Franco's successor and as the heir of the historic dynasty – in order to secure
CTBA skyscrapers
stability and democracy. This led Spain to its current position as a
constitutional monarchy, with Madrid as capital.[24]
Benefiting from increasing prosperity in the 1980s and 1990s, the capital city of Spain has consolidated its position
as an important economic, cultural, industrial, educational, and technological centre on the European continent.[24]

The Madrid region features a Continental Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa)[25] [26] with cold winters due to
altitude (650 m over the sea level in Alicante), including sporadic snowfalls and minimum temperatures often below
freezing. Summer tends to be hot with temperatures that consistently surpass 30 °C (86 °F) in July and August and
rarely above 40 °C (104 °F). Due to Madrid's altitude and dry climate, diurnal ranges are often significant during the
summer. Precipitation, though concentrated in the autumn and spring, can be observed throughout the year.
Madrid 125

Water supply
Madrid derives almost 75 percent of its water supply from dams and reservoirs built on the Lozoya River, such as the
El Atazar Dam.

Madrid is administratively divided into 21 districts, which are further subdivided into 128 wards (barrios)


Madrid districts. The numbers correspond with the list in

the left

1. Centro: Palacio, Embajadores, Cortes, Justicia, Universidad, Sol.

2. Arganzuela: Imperial, Acacias, La Chopera, Legazpi, Delicias, Palos de Moguer, Atocha.
3. Retiro: Pacífico, Adelfas, Estrella, Ibiza, Jerónimos, Niño Jesús.
4. Salamanca: Recoletos, Goya, Parque de las Avenidas, Fuente del Berro, Guindalera, Lista, Castellana.
5. Chamartín: El Viso, Prosperidad, Ciudad Jardín, Hispanoamérica, Nueva España, Castilla.
6. Tetuán: Bellas Vistas, Cuatro Caminos, Castillejos, Almenara, Valdeacederas, Berruguete.
7. Chamberí: Gaztambide, Arapiles, Trafalgar, Almagro, Vallehermoso, Ríos Rosas.
Madrid 126

8. Fuencarral-El Pardo: El Pardo, Fuentelarreina, Peñagrande, Barrio del Pilar, La Paz, Valverde, Mirasierra, El
9. Moncloa-Aravaca: Casa de Campo, Argüelles, Ciudad Universitaria, Valdezarza, Valdemarín, El Plantío,
10. Latina: Los Cármenes, Puerta del Ángel, Lucero, Aluche, Las Águilas, Campamento, Cuatro Vientos.
11. Carabanchel: Comillas, Opañel, San Isidro, Vista Alegre, Puerta Bonita, Buenavista, Abrantes.
12. Usera: Orcasitas, Orcasur, San Fermín, Almendrales, Moscardó, Zofío, Pradolongo.
13. Puente de Vallecas: Entrevías, San Diego, Palomeras Bajas, Palomeras Sureste, Portazgo, Numancia.
14. Moratalaz: Pavones, Horcajo, Marroquina, Media Legua, Fontarrón, Vinateros.
15. Ciudad Lineal: Ventas, Pueblo Nuevo, Quintana, La Concepción, San Pascual, San Juan Bautista, Colina,
Atalaya, Costillares.
16. Hortaleza: Palomas, Valdefuentes, Canillas, Pinar del Rey, Apóstol Santiago, Piovera.
17. Villaverde: San Andrés, San Cristóbal, Butarque, Los Rosales, Los Ángeles.
18. Villa de Vallecas: Casco Histórico de Vallecas, Santa Eugenia.
19. Vicálvaro: Casco Histórico de Vicálvaro, Ambroz.
20. San Blas: Simancas, Hellín, Amposta, Arcos, Rosas, Rejas, Canillejas, Salvador.
21. Barajas: Alameda de Osuna, Aeropuerto, Casco Histórico de Barajas, Timón, Corralejos.

Metropolitan area
The Madrid Metropolitan Area comprises the city of Madrid and forty surrounding municipalities. It has a
population of slightly more than 5.8 million people and covers an area of 4.609,7 km². It is the largest metropolitan
area in Spain and the third largest in European Union.[6] [7] [8] [9]
As with many metropolitan areas of similar size, two distinct zones of urbanisation can be distinguished:
• Inner ring (primera corona): Alcorcón, Leganés, Getafe, Móstoles, Fuenlabrada, Coslada, Alcobendas, Pozuelo
de Alarcón, San Fernando de Henares
• Outer ring (segunda corona): Villaviciosa de Odón, Parla, Pinto, Valdemoro, Rivas-Vaciamadrid, Torrejón de
Ardoz, Alcalá de Henares, San Sebastián de los Reyes, Tres Cantos, Las Rozas de Madrid, Majadahonda,
Boadilla del Monte
The largest suburbs are to the South, and in general along the main routes leading out of Madrid.

Submetropolitan areas
A new project, has stated there are more submetropolitan areas inside Madrid metropolitan area:

Madrid submetropolitan areas

Madrid 127

Submetropolitan area Area Population Density

(km²) (pop.) (pop./km²)

Madrid – Majadahonda 996.1 3,580,828 3,595.0

Móstoles – Alcorcón 315.1 430,349 1,365.6

Fuenlabrada – Leganés – Getafe – Parla – Pinto – Valdemoro 931.7 822,806 883.1

Alcobendas 266.4 205,905 772.9

Arganda del Rey – Rivas-Vaciamadrid 343.6 115,344 335.7

Alcalá de Henares – Torrejón de Ardoz 514.6 360,380 700.3

Colmenar Viejo – Tres Cantos 419.1 104,650 249.7

Collado Villalba 823.1 222,769 270.6

Madrid metropolitan area 4,609.7 5,843,031 1,267.6

Although the site of Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times,
the first historical data that concerns the city dates from the middle of
the 9th century, when Mohammad I ordered the construction of a small
palace (site occupied now by the Palacio Real). Around this palace
there was built a small citadel (al-Mudaina). The palace was built
overlooking the River Manzanares, which the Muslims called Mayrit
meaning source of water (which in turn became Magerit, and then
eventually Madrid). The citadel was conquered in 1085 by Alfonso VI
in his advance towards Toledo. He reconsecrated the mosque as the
Temple of Debod
church of the Virgin of Almudena (almudin, the garrison's granary),
now the Catedral de la Almudena. In 1329 the Cortes first assembled in
Madrid to advise Fernando IV. Jews and Moors continued to live in the city in their quarter, still known today as the
"Moreria", until they were expelled.

When Philip II moved his court permanently to Madrid, the city began
to be embellished with various palaces, convents, churches and other
historic buildings, most of which have survived to the present. This
Madrid, known as the Madrid de los Austrias, is the most artistic and
culturally rich of all historical times to the city. The chief architect of
the time was Juan Gomez de Mora, stylistic heir of Juan de Herrera
and their sober traces, but he began to use Baroque elements.The work
of this stage is the Plaza Mayor, and many Baroque religious buildings.
View of the Royal Palace and Almudena
Cathedral from Debod Temple
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With the Bourbons began a new era in the city.The Royal Palace of
Madrid and the buildings and monuments of the Paseo del Prado
(Salón del Prado and Alcalá Gate) deserve special mention. They were
constructed in a sober Baroque international style, often mistaken for
neoclassical, by the Bourbon kings. Neoclassical also appears at this
time, with Juan de Villanueva, author of El Prado Museum building.
He is possibly the greatest Spanish architect of those times.

Royal Palace of Madrid (western facade) is the

largest palace of Western Europe

In the early 20th century began the construction of Gran Vía, with the
task of freeing the old town. They used different styles that evolve over
time: art nouveau, art deco, expressionist ... The Edificio Telefónica, of
American inspiration, at the highest part of Gran Vía, is usually
considered the first skyscraper in Europe. And finally (in the Franco's
period) the totalitarian style, the two skyscrapers in the Plaza de

The Gran Via

Plans for the construction of a new cathedral for Madrid dedicated to

the Virgin of Almudena began in the 16th century, but the slow
construction did not begin until 1879. Francisco de Cubas, the Marquis
of Cubas, was the architect who designed and directed the construction
in a Gothic revival style. Construction ceased completely during the
Spanish Civil War. The project was abandoned until 1950, when
Fernando Chueca Goitia adapted the plans of de Cubas to a
neoclassical style exterior to match the grey and white façade of the
Palacio Real, which stands directly opposite. and was not completed
until 1993, when the cathedral was consecrated by Pope John Paul II.
On Calle Princesa, in the heart of the district of Moncloa, lies el
Ejército del Aire, the headquarters of the Spanish Air Force. A
scaled-down replica of the famous Monastery San Lorenzo del Escorial
which lies about 50 kilometers northeast of Madrid, el Ejército del Aire
is a classic example of Fascist Neoclassicism in Madrid.
Canalejas Square
The financial district in downtown Madrid between the streets
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, Orense, General Perón and Paseo de la Castellana, its original conception (and its
name) to the "Plan General de Ordenación Urbana de Madrid", approved in 1946. The purpose of this plan was to
create a huge block of modern office buildings with metro and railway connections in the expansion area of northern
Madrid, just in front of Real Madrid stadium (currently named the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium) and beside the brand
new government complex of Nuevos Ministerios. A botanical garden, a library and an opera house were also
included in the plans, but these were never built.
Madrid 129

Cuatro Torres Business Area is a business park that was completed in

2008. This block contains the tallest skyscrapers in Madrid and Spain
(Torre Espacio, Torre de Cristal, Torre Sacyr Vallehermoso and Torre
Caja Madrid). A new commercial and economic area with plenty of
skylines is expected to be constructed during the next ten years
according to the "Enlargement of Castellana Street Project".

Madrid Barajas International Airport Terminal 4, designed by Antonio

Lamela and Richard Rogers (winning them the 2006 Stirling Prize),
Torres Kio
and TPS Engineers, (winning them the 2006 IStructE Award for
Commercial Structures) was inaugurated on 5 February 2006. Terminal
4 is one of the world's largest terminal areas, with an area of 760,000 square meters (8,180,572 square feet) in two
separate terminals. Consisting of a main building, T4 (470,000 square meter), and satellite building, T4S (290,000
square meter), which are separated by approximately 2.5 km (2 mi). Hong Kong International Airport still holds the
title for the world's largest single terminal building (Terminal 1) at 570,000 square meter. The new Terminal 4 is
meant to give passengers a stress-free start to their journey. This is managed through careful use of illumination,
available by glass panes instead of walls and numerous domes in the roof which allow natural light to pass through.
With the new addition, Barajas is designed to handle 70 million passengers annually.

Terminal 4 check in hall in 2008

Madrid is the European city with the highest number of trees and green
surface per inhabitant and it has the second highest number of aligned
trees in the world, with 248,000 units, only exceeded by Tokyo.
Madrid's citizens have access to a green area within a 15 minute walk.
Since 1997, green areas have increased by 16%. At present, 8.2% of
Madrid’s grounds are green areas, meaning that there are 16m2 of
green area per inhabitant, far exceeding the 10m2 per inhabitant
recommended by the World Health Organization.

Retiro Park.
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Parque del Retiro, formerly the grounds of the palace built for Felipe
IV, is Madrid's most popular park and the largest park in central
Madrid. Its area is more than 1.4 km2 (350 acres) and it is located very
close to the Puerta de Alcalá and not far from the Prado Museum. A
magnificent park, filled with beautiful sculpture and monuments,
galleries, a peaceful lake and host to a variety of events, it is one of
Madrid's premier attractions. The park is entirely surrounded by the
present-day city. Its lake in the middle once staged mini naval sham
battles to amuse royalty; these days the more tranquil pastime of
Retiro Park, trees.
pleasure boating is popular. Inspired by London's crystal palace, the
palacio de cristal can be found at the south-eastern end of the park.

In the Retiro Park is also the Forest of the Departed (Spanish Bosque de los Ausentes), a memorial monument to
commemorate the 191 victims of the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks.
Atocha Railway Station is not only the city's first and most central station but also home to a distinctive indoor
garden with 4,000 square meters of tropical plants. Atocha station has become a hothouse destination in itself for
plant lovers, with more than 500 species of plant life and ponds with turtle and goldfish in, as well as shops and
cafes. It's a nice place to visit on a cold or wet day with its even temperature of 24 degrees Celsius, or even on a
scorching summer day as a retreat from the heat.
Casa de Campo is an enormous urban parkland to the west of the city,
the largest in Spain and Madrid's main green lung. Its area is more than
1,700 hectares (6.6 sq mi). It is home to a fairground, the Madrid Zoo,
an amusement park, the Parque de Atracciones de Madrid, and an
outdoor municipal pool, to enjoy a bird's eye view of the park and city
take a cable car trip above the tree tops. Casa de Campo's vegetation is
one of its most important features. There are, in fact, three different
ecosystems: oak, pine and river groves. The oak is the dominant tree
species in the area and, although many of them are over 100 years old
Casa de Campo, lake.
and reach a great height, they are also present in the form of chaparral
and bushes. The pine-forest ecosystem boasts a large number of trees
that have adapted perfectly to the light, dry conditions in the park. In addition, mushrooms often emerge after the
first rains of autumn. Finally, the river groves, or riparian forests, are made up of various, mainly deciduous, species
that grow in wetter areas. Examples include poplars, willows and alder trees. As regards fauna, this green space is
home to approximately 133 vertebrate species.

The Royal Botanic Garden or Real Jardin Botanico is an 8-hectare botanical garden located in the Plaza de Murillo,
next to the Prado Museum. It was an 18th century creation by Carlos III and it was used as a base for the plant
species being collected across the globe. There is an important research facility that started life as a base to develop
herbal remedies and to house the species collected from the new-world trips, today it is dedicated to maintaining
Europe's ecosystem.
Madrid 131

The Royal Palace is surrounded by three green areas. In front of the

palace, are the gardens of the Plaza de Oriente; to the north, the
gardens of Sabatini and to the west up to the Manzanares river, the
famous Campo del Moro. Campo del Moro gardens has a surface area
of 20 hectares and is a scenic garden with an unusual layout filled with
foliage and an air of English romanticism. The Sabatini Gardens have a
formal Neoclassic style, consisting of well-sheared hedges, in
symmetric geometrical patterns, adorned with a pool, statues and
Campo del Moro gardens.
fountains, with trees also disposed in a symmetrical geometric shape.
Plaza de Oriente can distinguish three main plots: the Central Gardens,
the Cabo Noval Gardens and the Lepanto Gardens. The Central Gardens are arranged around the central monument
to Philip IV, in a grid, following the barroque model garden. They consist of seven flowerbeds, each packed with
box hedges, forms of cypress, yew and magnolia of small size, and flower plantations, temporary. These are bounded
on either side by rows of statues paths, popularly known as the Gothic kings, and mark the dividing line between the
main body of the plaza and the Cabo Noval Gardens at north, and the Lepanto Gardens at south.

Monte de El Pardo is a mediterranean forest inside the city of Madrid.

It is one of the best preserved Mediterranean Forests in Europe. The
European Union has designated the Monte de El Pardo as a Special
Protection Area for bird-life. This meadow, which has been used as
hunting grounds by the royalty given the variety of game animals that
have inhabited it since the Middle Ages, is home to 120 flora species
and 200 vertebrae species. Rabbits, red partridges, wild cats, stags,
deer and wild boars live among ilexes, cork oaks, ash trees, black
poplars, oaks, junipers and rockroses. Monte del Pardo is part of the Monte de El Pardo.

Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares, spreading out

from the Guadarrama Mountains range to the centre of Madrid, and protected by strong legal regulations. Just before
crossing the city, the River Manzanares forms a valley composed by sandy elements and detritus from the mountain

Soto de Viñuelas, also known as Mount Viñuelas, is a meadow-oak

forest north of the city of Madrid and east of the Monte de El Pardo. It
is a fenced property of 3,000 hectares, which includes important
ecological values, landscape and art. Soto de Viñuelas is part of the
Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares, a nature reserve
which is recognised as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, where it has
been classified as Area B, the legal instrument that allows agricultural
land use. Soto de Viñuelas also received the statement of Special
Protection Area for Birds.

El Capricho is a 14-hectare garden located in the area of Barajas

Monte de El Pardo and Soto de Viñuelas inside district. It dates back to 1784. The art of landscaping in El Capricho is
the city of Madrid.
displayed in three different styles of classical gardenscapes: the
‘parterre’ or French garden, English landscaping and the Italian
Madrid Rio is a linear park that runs along the bank of the Manzanares River, in the middle of Madrid. It is an area
of parkland 10 kilometres long and covers 649 hectares in six districts: Moncloa-Aravaca, Centro, Arganzuela,
Latina, Carabanchel and Usera. It is a large area of environmental, sporting, leisure and cultural interest. Madrid Río
Madrid 132

provides a link with other green spaces in the city such as Casa de Campo and the Linear Park of the Manzanares
River. The main landscaped area in Madrid Río is the Arganzuela Park, covering 23 hectares where pedestrian and
cycling routes cover the whole park. The Madrid Río cycle network covers some 30 kilometres and is linked to
another bike routes. To the north, Madrid Rio connects to the Senda Real, the Green Ring for Cyclists and the E 7
(GR 10) trail, which goes as far as the Sierra de Madrid mountain range. To the south, Madrid Río provides access to
the Enrique Tierno Galván Park and the Linear Park of the Manzanares River, an extensive green zone running
parallel to the river as far as Getafe. As well as the cycle routes there are 42 kilometres of paths for walkers and
runners. In the Salón de Pinos, a 6-kilometre long tree-lined promenade, there are circuits for aerobic and anaerobic
exercise, while near the Puente de Praga bridge a tennis court and seven padel tennis courts.
The theme park Faunia,[28] is a natural history museum and zoo combined, aimed at being fun and educational for
children. It comprises eight eco-systems from tropical rain forests to polar regions, and contains over 1,500 animals,
some of which roam freely.


Middle Ages to 20th century

During the end of the Middle Ages, Madrid experienced astronomic growth as a consequence of its establishment as
the new capital of the Spanish Empire. As Spain (like many other European countries) continued to centralize royal
authority, this meant that Madrid took on greater importance as a center of administration for the Spanish Kingdom.
It evolved to become an important nucleus of artisanal activity that eventually experienced industrial revolution
during the 19th century. The city made even greater strides at expansion during the 20th century, especially after the
Spanish Civil War, reaching levels of industrialization found in other European capital cities. The economy of the
city was then centered on diverse manufacturing industries such as those related to motor vehicles, aircraft,
chemicals, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals, processed food, printed materials, and leather goods.[29]

1992 to 2008
Madrid is a major centre for international business and commerce. It is one of
Europe's largest financial centres and the largest in Spain.
During the period from 1992 to 2006, Madrid experienced very significant
growth in its service sector. The most notable of these services are those geared
towards companies, followed by transport and communications, property and
financial services. These four groups generate 51% of gross value added for
Madrid’s economy and 62% of gross value added for the services sector. The
importance of the Barajas Airport to the city's economy is substantial. The
construction of housing and public works, such as the ringroads and train
network, constituted a major pillar of the economy up to 2006.
Bolsa de Madrid (Madrid Stock
As Spain has become decentralized politically, Madrid has taken on a smaller
administrative profile as compared to the rest of the Spanish state. Even so, the
Community of Madrid (centered upon the city of Madrid) experienced the
highest growth of all the Spanish regions between 2004 to 2006. Its growth rate was higher than for the country as a
whole by 1.4% during the period 2000–2006, and that of the Eurozone by 13%.[30]
Madrid 133

Madrid has become the 23rd richest city in the world and third richest
in Europe in terms of absolute GDP; the economic output for the year
2005 was of $201.5 billion, behind the considerably larger cities of
Paris ($460 billion) and London ($452 billion) and ahead of Moscow
and Barcelona.[31] Additionally in terms of GDP per capita, Madrid, in
specific the Madrid region is the richest in Spain and one of the richest
in Europe. At 133.9% of the European average of 25,800€
(34,572€/$48,313) Madrid is ahead of the all other 8 Spanish regions
above 100%.[32] Similarly, Madrid is just 97.8% of New York's Cuatro Torres Business Area

purchasing power.

Madrid is a world´s financial leader, rising to the top five Centers of

Commerce in Europe. Madrid continues its upward trajectory as a key
European city, rising from its 2007 spot at number 16 to number 11
globally and from number 6 to the number 5 spot in Europe. Madrid's
stable GDP, exchange rate and strong bond market, coupled with a
high standard of living, place this city in the company of Europe's most
prominent cities: London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam.[33]

AZCA (Business Park)

Madrid is one of the cities in the Iberian Peninsula that attracts most foreign investment and job seekers. The average
salary in Madrid during 2007 was 2540€, clearly above the Spanish average of 2085€.[34] In terms of net earnings,
Madrid also places first in Spain; Madrid is 28th in the world, at 78.6%.[35]
One downside of Madrid's quick growth especially over the last 15 years has been the rising cost of living. The city
has grown to become the 26th most expensive city in the world in 2009.[36]


Year Municipality Community %

1897 542,739 730,807 74.27

1900 575,675 773,011 74.47

1910 614,322 831,254 73.90

1920 823,711 1,048,908 78.53

1930 1,041,767 1,290,445 80.73

1940 1,322,835 1,574,134 84.04

1950 1,553,338 1,823,418 85.19

1960 2,177,123 2,510,217 86.73

1970 3,120,941 3,761,348 82.97

Madrid 134

1981 3,158,818 4,686,895 67.40

1991 3,010,492 4,647,555 64.78

2001 2,938,723 5,423,384 54.19

2005 3,155,359 5,964,143 52.90

2006 3,128,600 6,008,183 52.07

2007 3,132,463 6,081,689 51.51

2008 3,213,271 6,271,638 51.23

2009 3,255,944 6,386,932 50.98

2010 3.273.049 6.458.684 50.68

Source: INE

The population of Madrid generally increased from when the city became the national capital in the mid-16th
century and stabilised at about 3 million from the 1970s.
From around 1970 until the mid 1990s, the city's population dropped. This phenomenon, which also affected other
European cities, was caused in part by the growth of satellite suburbs at the expense of the downtown. Another
reason might have been the slowdown in the rate of growth of the European economy.
The demographic boom accelerated in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century due to international
immigration, in response to a surge in Spanish economic growth. According to census data, the population of the city
grew by 271,856 between 2001 and 2005.
As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the world. About 83.8% of the
inhabitants are Spaniards, while people of other origins, including immigrants from Latin America, Europe, Asia,
North Africa and West Africa, represented 16.2% of the population in 2007.[38]
The ten largest immigrant groups include: Ecuadorian: 104,184, Romanian: 52,875, Bolivian: 44,044, Colombian:
35,971, Peruvian: 35,083, Chinese: 34,666, Moroccan: 32,498, Dominican: 19,602, Brazilian: 14,583, and
Paraguayan: 14,308. There are also important communities of Filipinos, Equatorial Guineans, Bulgarians, Indians,
Italians, Argentines, Senegalese and Poles.[38]
Districts that host the largest number of immigrants are Usera (28.37%), Centro (26.87%), Carabanchel (22.72%)
and Tetuán (21.54%). Districts that host the smallest number are Fuencarral-El Pardo (9.27%), Retiro (9.64%) and
Chamartin (11.74%).

The City Council consists of 57 members, one of them being the Mayor,
currently Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jiménez. The Mayor presides over the Council.
The Plenary of the Council, is the body of political representation of the citizens
in the municipal government. Some of its attributions are: fiscal matters, the
election and deposition of the Mayor, the approval and modification of decrees
and regulations, the approval of budgets, the agreements related to the limits and
alteration of the municipal term, the services management, the participation in
supramunicipal organizations, etc.[39] Nowadays, mayoral team consists of the
Mayor, the Deputy Mayor and 8 Delegates; all of them form The Board of
City Hall of Madrid
Delegates (the Municipal Executive Committee).[40]
Madrid 135

Madrid has tended to be a stronghold of the People's Party, which has controlled the city's mayoralty since 1989. In
the 2007 regional and local elections, the conservative People's Party (PP, centre-right political party) obtained 34
seats, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE, centre-left political party) obtained 18 and United Left (IU, left
political party) obtained 5.
Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jiménez has been in office since 2003, when he left the Presidency of the Autonomous
Community of Madrid and stood as the candidate to replace outgoing mayor José María Álvarez del Manzano, also
from the PP. In the last local elections of 2007, Ruiz-Gallardón increased the PP majority in the City Council to 34
seats out of 57, taking 55.5% of the popular vote and winning in all but two districts.

Madrid is one of Spain's most popular destinations and is renowned for its large quantity of cultural attractions.

Art Galleries and Museums

Madrid is considered one of the top European destinations concerning art museums. Best known is the Golden
Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three museums. The most famous one is the Prado
Museum, the most popular Golden Triangle of Art member known for such highlights as Diego Velázquez's Las
Meninas and Francisco de Goya's La maja vestida and La maja desnuda. The other two museums are the Thyssen
Bornemisza Museum, established from a mixed private collection, and the Reina Sofia Museum, where Pablo
Picasso's Guernica hangs, returning to Spain from New York after more than two decades.
The Museo del Prado is a museum and art gallery that features one of
the world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to
the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection.
The collection currently comprises around 7,600 paintings, 1,000
sculptures, 4,800 prints and 8,200 drawings, in addition to a large
number of works of art and historic documents. El Prado is one of the
most visited museums in the world, and it is considered to be among
the greatest museums of art. It has the best collection of artworks by
Goya, Velazquez, El Greco, Rubens, Titian, Hieronymus Bosch, José Museo del Prado.

de Ribera and Patinir; and works by Rogier van der Weyden, Raphael,
Tintoretto, Veronese, Caravaggio, Van Dyck, Albrecht Dürer, Claude Lorrain, Murillo and Zurbarán, among

The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS) is the

Spain's national museum of 20th century art. The museum is mainly
dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent
collections of Spain's greatest 20th century masters, Pablo Picasso,
Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró, Juan Gris and Julio Gonzalez. Certainly the
most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting
Guernica. The Reina Sofía also hosts a free-access library specializing
in art, with a collection of over 100,000 books, over 3,500 sound
Museo Reina Sofía (MNCARS). recordings and almost 1,000 videos.[42]
Madrid 136

The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum is an art museum that fills the

historical gaps in its counterparts' collections: in the Prado's case this
includes Italian primitives and works from the English, Dutch and
German schools, while in the case of the Reina Sofia the
Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, once the second largest private
collection in the world after the British Royal Collection,[43] includes
Impressionists, Expressionists, and European and American paintings
from the second half of the 20th century, with over 1,600 paintings.[44]

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando currently functions Museo Thyssen Bornemisza.
as a museum and gallery that houses a fine art collection of paintings
from the 15th to 20th century: Giovanni Bellini, Correggio, Rubens, Zurbarán, Murillo, Goya, Juan Gris, Pablo
Serrano. The academy is also the headquarters of the Madrid Academy of Art. Francisco Goya was once one of the
academy's directors, and, its alumni include Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Antonio Lopez Garcia, Juan Luna, and
Fernando Botero.[45] [46]

The Royal Palace of Madrid is the official residence of Juan Carlos I of

Spain, but he use it only for official acts. It is a baroque palace full of
artworks is one of the largest European Royal Palaces, which is
characterized by its luxurious rooms and its rich collections of armors
and weapons, pharmaceutical, silverware, watches, paintings, tapestries
and the most comprehensive collection of Stradivarius in the world[47]

The National Archaeological Museum of Spain collection includes,

among others, Pre-historic, Celtic, Iberian, Greek and Roman
Royal Armoury, Royal Palace of Madrid.
antiquities and medieval (Visigothic, Muslim and Christian) objects.
Highlights include a replica of the Altamira cave (the first cave in
which prehistoric cave paintings were discovered), Lady of Elx (an enigmatic polychrome stone bust), Lady of Baza
(a famous example of Iberian sculpture), Biche of Balazote (an iberian sculpture) and Treasure of Guarrazar (a
treasure that represents the best surviving group of Early Medieval Christian votive offerings and the high point of
Visigothic goldsmith's work).[48]

The Museum of the Americas (Spanish: Museo de América) is a National museum that holds artistic, archaeological
and ethnographic collections from the whole American continent, ranging from the Paleolithic period to the present
day. The permanent exhibit is divided into five major thematical areas: an awareness of America, the reality of
America, society, religion and communication.[49]
The National Museum of Natural Sciences is the National Museum of
Natural History of Spain. The research departments of the museum are:
Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Ecology,
Paleobiology, Vulcanology and Geology.[50]
The Naval Museum is managed by the Ministry of Defence. The
Museum's mission is to acquire, preserve, investigate, report and National Museum of Natural Sciences
display for study, education and contemplation, parts, sets and
collections of historical, artistic, scientific and technical related to naval activity in order to disseminate the story sea
of Spain; to help illustrate, highlight and preserve their traditions and promote national maritime awareness.
Madrid 137

The Monastery of Las Descalzas Reales resides in the

former palace of King Charles I of Spain and Isabel of
Portugal. Their daughter, Joan of Austria, founded this
convent of nuns of the Poor Clare order in 1559.
Throughout the remainder of the 16th century and into the
17th century, the convent attracted young widowed or
spinster noblewomen. Each woman brought with her a
dowry. The riches quickly piled up, and the convent became
one of the richest convents in all of Europe. It has many
works of Renaissance and Baroque art, including a
recumbent Christ by Gaspar Becerra, a staircase whose
paintings were painted by unknown author (perhaps
Velázquez) and they are considered the masterpiece of
Spanish illusionist paint, and Brussels tapestries inspired in
paintings by Rubens.[51]

The Museo Lázaro Galdiano houses an encyclopedic

collection specializing in decorative arts. The collection
includes paintings by Leonardo da Vinci, Claudio Coello,
Goya, Pedro Berruguete, El Greco, Hieronymus Bosch,
El Aquelarre, Francisco de Goya. Lázaro Galdiano Museum. Rembrandt, Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Lawrence and
Joshua Reynolds, sculptures by Giambologna and
Verrocchio; 10th century Byzantine enamel; Arab and Byzantine ivory chests; Hellenistic, Roman, medieval,
renaissance , baroque and romantic jewerly; Pisanello and Pompeo Leoni medals; Spanish and Italian ceramics;
Italian and Arab clothes; and an interesting collection of weapons including the sword of Pope Innocent VIII.[52]

The Museo Nacional de Artes Decorativas (National Museum of Decorative Arts) is one of the oldest museums in
the city. It illustrates the evolution of the called "minor arts" (furniture, ceramics and glass, textile, etc.). Its 60 rooms
expones 15,000 objects, of the approximate 40,000 which it has.[53]
The Museo Nacional del Romanticismo (National Museum of Romanticism) contains a large collection of artefacts
and art, focusing on daily life and customs of the nineteenth century, with special attention to the aesthetics about
The Museo Cerralbo houses a private collection of ancient works of art, artifacts and other antiquities collected by
Enrique de Aguilera y Gamboa, XVII Cerralbo Marquis.[55]
The Museo Nacional de Antropología(National Museum of Antropology) provides an overview of the different
cultures in the world, with objects and human remains from around the world, highlighting a Guanche mummy of
the island of Tenerife.[56]
The Museo Sorolla is located in the building in which the Valencian Impressionist painter had his home and
workshop. The collection includes, in addition to numerous works of Joaquín Sorolla, a large number of objects that
possessed the artist, including sculptures by August Rodin.[57]
Madrid 138

CaixaForum Madrid is a post-modern art gallery in the centre of

Madrid. It is sponsored by the Catalan-Balearic bank la Caixa and
located next to the Salón del Prado. Although the CaixaForum is a
modern building, it also exhibits retrospectives of artists from earlier
time periods and has evolved into one of the most visited museums in
Madrid. It was constructed by the Swiss architects Herzog & de
Meuron from 2001 to 2007, which combined an old unused industrial
building and hollowed it out at the base and inside and placed on top
further floors which are encased with rusted steel. Next to it is an art CaixaForum Madrid.
installation of green plants growing on the wall of the neighbouring
house by French botanist Patrick Blanc. The red of the top floors with the green of the wall next to it form a contrast.
The green is in reflection of the neighbouring Royal Botanical Gardens.

Another art galleries and museums in Madrid are, among others:

• Casa-Museo José Padilla
• Casa-Museo Manuel Benedito
• Museo de Antropologia Médica
• Museo De La Farmacia Hispana
• Museo Del Reloj Grassy, at Edificio Grassy
• Museo Casa de la Moneda
• Royal Palace of El Pardo

Madrid has a considerable number of Catholic churches, some of
them are between the most important Spanish religious artworks.
The oldest church that survives today is San Nicolás de los
Servitas, whose oldest item is the bell tower (12th century), in
Mudejar style. The next oldest temple is San Pedro el Real, with
its high brick tower.
St. Jerome Church is a gothic church next to El Prado Museum.
The Catholic Monarchs ordered its construction in the fifteenth
century, as part of a vanished monastery. The monastery's cloister
Almudena Cathedral, Catedral de la Almudena
is preserved. It has recently been renovated by Rafael Moneo, with
the goal to house the neoclassical collection of El Prado Museum,
and also sculptures by Leone Leoni and Pompeo Leoni.

The Bishop Chapel is a gothic chapel which was built in the

sixteenth century by order of the Bishop of Plasencia, Gutierre de
Vargas. It was originally built to house the remains of Saint
Isidore Laborer (Madrid's patron saint), but it was used as the
Vargas family mausoleum. Inside are the altairpiece and the tombs
of the Vargas family, which were the work of Francisco Giralte, a
St. Jerome Chucrh, San Jeronimo el Real disciple of Alonso Berruguete. They are considered masterpieces
of Spanish Renaissance sculpture.
Madrid 139

Royal Convent of La Encarnación


Royal Convent of La Encarnación (altair)

St. Isidore Cathedral was built between 1620-1664 by order of Empress Maria
of Austria, daughter of Charles V of Germany and I of Spain, to become part
of a school run by the Jesuits which still exists today. Its dome is the first
example of a dome drawing on a wooden frame covered with plaster, which,
given its lightness makes it easy to support the walls. It was the cathedral of
Madrid between 1885 and 1993, which is the time it took to build the
Almudena. The artwork inside were mostly burned during the Spanish Civil
War, but it retained the tomb that holds the incorrupt body of Saint Isidore
Laborer and the urn containing the ashes of his wife Maria Torribia.

Royal Convent of La Encarnación is an Augustinian Recollect convent. The

institution, which belonged ladies of the nobility, was founded by Queen
Margaret of Austria, wife of Philip III of Spain, in the early seventeenth
century. Due to the frescoes and sculptures which houses is one of the most
prominent temples in the city. The building's architect was Fray Alberto de la
St. Isidore cathedral from the Plaza
Madre de Dios, who built it between 1611 and 1616. The façade responds to
an inspiring Herrerian style, with great austerity,and it was imitated by other
Spanish churches. The church's interior is a sumptuous work by the great Baroque architect Ventura Rodriguez. In
the church are preserved shrines containing the blood of St. Januarius and St. Pantaleon, the second (according to
tradition) liquefies every year on the saint's day on 27 July.

San Antonio de los Alemanes (St. Anthony Church) is a pretty 17th century church which was originally part of a
Portuguese hospital. Subsequently it was donated to the Germans living in the city.
Madrid 140

The interior of the church has been recently restored. It has some beautiful
frescoes painted by Luca Giordano, Francisco Carreño and Francisco Rizi.
The frescoes represent some kings of Spain, Hungary, France, Germany and
Bohemia. They all sit looking at the paintings in the vault, which represent
the life of Saint Anthony of Padua.

St. Anthony church (Rizi's vault)

Royal Chapel of St. Anthony of La Florida is sometimes named the "Goya's

Sixtine Chapel". The chapel was built on orders of King Charles IV of Spain,
who also commissioned the frescoes by Goya. These were completed over a
six month period in 1798. The frescoes portray miracles by Saint Anthony of
Padua, including one which occurred in Lisbon, but which the painter has
relocated to Madrid. On every June 13, the chapel becomes the site of a lively
pilgrimage in which young unwed women come to pray to St. Anthony and to
ask for a partner. St. Anthony of la Florida

San Francisco el Grande Basilica was built in neoclassical style in the second
half of the eighteenth century by Francesco Sabatini. It has the fifth largest
diameter dome to Christianity. (33 meters in diameter: it's smaller than the
dome of the Rome's Pantheon (43.4meters), St. Peter's Basilica (42.4 meters),
the Florence Cathedral (42 meters)and the Rotunda of Mosta (37.2 meters) in
Malta, but it's larger than St. Paul's Cathedral (30.8 meters) in London and
Hagia Sophia (31.8 meters) in Istanbul). The church is dedicated to St.
Francis of Assisi, who according to legend was established in Madrid during San Francisco el Grande
his pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Its interior is sumptuous and it's
plenty of artworks, including paintings by Goya and Zurbaran.

The Cathedral of Santa Maria la Real de la Almudena is the episcopal seat of the Archdiocese of Madrid. It is a
temple of 102 meters long and 73 high, built during the 19th and 20th century in a mixture of different styles:
neoclassical exterior, neo-Gothic interior and neo-Romanesque crypt and neo-Byzantine abse's paints. The cathedral
was built in the same place which was built the Moorish citadel (al-mudayna) in Madrid. It was consecrated by Pope
John Paul II on his fourth trip to Spain on June 15, 1993, thus being the only Spanish cathedral dedicated by a pope.
Madrid 141

Madrid has been one of the great centers of Spanish literature. In this city
were born some of the best writers of the Spanish Golden Century, including:
Lope de Vega (Fuente Ovejuna, The Dog in the Manger, The Knight of
Olmedo), who reformed the Spanish theater, a work continued by Calderon
de la Barca (Life is a Dream), Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish nobleman and
writer famous for his satires, which criticized the Spanish society of his time,
and author of ´El Buscón. And finally, Tirso de Molina, who created the
famous character Don Juan. In addition, Cervantes and Góngora also lived in
the city, although they not born there. The homes of Lope de Vega, Quevedo,
Gongora and Cervantes are still preserved, and they are all in the Barrio de las
Letras (Letters Neigtbourhood).
Lope de Vega.
Other writers born in Madrid in later centuries have been Leandro Fernandez
de Moratín, Mariano José de Larra, Jose de Echegaray (Nobel Prize in
Literature), Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Dámaso Alonso, Enrique Jardiel
Poncela and Pedro Salinas.
Madrid is home to the Royal Academy of Spanish Language, internationally
important cultural institution dedicated to language planning by enacting
legislation aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and among the several
Hispanic states; ensure a common linguistic standard, in accordance with its
Cervantes Institute headquarters. founding statutes "to ensure that the changes undergone [by the language] [...]
not break the essential unity that keeps all the Hispanic. ".[58]

Madrid is also home to another internationally cultural institution, the

Instituto Cervantes, whose task is the promotion and teaching of Spanish
language as well as the dissemination of the culture of Spain and Latin
The National Library of Spain is a major public library, the largest in Spain.
The library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items including
15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 30,000 manuscripts, 143,000
Spanish National Library. newspapers and serials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 510,000 music scores,
500,000 maps, 600,000 sound recording, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000
electronic documents, more than 500,000 microforms, etc.".[59]

The nightlife in Madrid is undoubtedly one of the city's main attractions. Tapas bars, cocktail bars, clubs, jazz
lounges, live music venues, flamenco theatres and establishments of all kinds cater for all tastes and ages. Every
night, venues pertaining to the Live Music Venues Association La Noche en Vivo host a wide range of live music
shows. Everything from acclaimed to up-and-coming artists, singer-songwriters to rock bands, jazz concerts or
electronic music sessions to enjoy music at its best.
Nightlife and young cultural awakening flourished after the death of Franco, especially during the 80s while
Madrid's mayor Enrique Tierno Galván (PSOE) was in office, at this time is well-known the cultural movement
called la movida and it initially gathered around Plaza del Dos de Mayo. Nowadays, the Malasaña area is known for
its alternative scene.
Madrid 142

Some of the most popular night destinations include the neighbourhoods of: Bilbao, Tribunal, Atocha, Alonso
Martinez or Moncloa, together with Puerta del Sol area (including Opera and Gran Via, both adjacent to the popular
square) and Huertas (barrio de Las Letras), destinations which are also filled with tourists day and night. The district
of Chueca has also become a hot spot in the Madrilenian night life specially for gay population. Chueca is popularly
known as the gay quarter, comparable to The Castro district in San Francisco.
What is also popular is the practice of meeting in parks or streets with friends and drinking alcohol together (this is
called 'botellón', from 'botella', bottle), but in recent years, drinking in the street is punished with a fine and now
young madrileños drink together all around the city instead of in better-known places.

Bohemian Culture
The city has venues for performing alternative art and expressive art. They are mostly located in the centre of the city
include in Opera, Anton Martin, Chueca and Malasaña. There are also several festivals in Madrid including the
Festival of Alternative art the Festival of the Alternative Scene.[60] [61] [62] [63]
The neighbourhood of Malasaña as well as Anton Martin and Lavapies hosts several bohemian cafe/galleries. These
cafes are typified with period or retro furniture or furniture found on the street, a colourful non traditional
atmosphere inside, and usually art displayed each month by a new artist, often for sale. Cafes include the retro cafe
"Lolina" and bohemian cafes "La Ida", "La Paca" and "Cafe de la Luz" in Malasaña, "La Piola" in Huertas and "Cafe
Olmo" and "Aguardiente" in Lavapies.[64]
In the neighbourhood of Lavapies, there are also "hidden houses", which are illegal bars or abandoned spaces where
concerts, poetry reading and[65] [66] [67] the famous Spanish Botellon (a street party or gathering now illegal but
rarely stopped).

Classical music and opera

The Auditorio Nacional de Música [68] is the main venue for classical
music concerts in Madrid. It is home to the Spanish National
Orchestra, the Chamartín Symphony Orchestra[69] and the venue for
the symphonic concerts of the Community of Madrid Orchestra and the
Madrid Symphony Orchestra. It is also the principal venue for
orchestras on tour playing in Madrid.

The Teatro Real is the main opera house in Madrid, located just in
front of the Royal Palace, and its resident orchestra is the Madrid
Symphony Orchestra.[70] The theatre stages around seventeen opera National Auditorium of Music.
titles (both own productions and co-productions with other major
European opera houses) per year, as well as two or three major ballets and several recitals.
The Teatro de la Zarzuela is mainly devoted to Zarzuela (the Spanish traditional musical theatre genre), as well as
operetta and recitals.[71] [72] The resident orchestra of the theatre is the Community of Madrid Orchestra.
The Teatro Monumental is the concert venue of the RTVE Symphony Orchestra.[73]
Other concert venues for classical music are the Fundación Joan March and the Auditorio 400, devoted to
contemporary music.
Madrid 143

Madrid hosts the largest Plaza de Toros (bullring) in Spain, Las Ventas, established in 1929. Las Ventas is
considered by many to be the world centre of bullfighting and has a seating capacity of almost 25,000. Madrid's
bullfighting season begins in March and ends in October. Bullfights are held every day during the festivities of San
Isidro (Madrid's patron saint) from mid May to early June, and every Sunday, and public holiday, the rest of the
season. The style of the plaza is Neomudéjar. Las Ventas also hosts music concerts and other events outside of the
bullfighting season.

Local festivities
• 15 May, San Isidro Labrador (Madrid's patron saint).
• 13 June, San Antonio de la Florida (Moncloa neighbourhood's patron saint)..
• 16–25 July, Virgen del Carmen festivities (Vallecas neighbourhood's patron saint).
• 6–14 August, Virgen de la Paloma festivities (Madrid's popular patron saint)
• 7 August, San Cayetano (Cascorro neighbourhood's patron saint).
• 10 August, San Lorenzo (Lavapiés neighbourhood's patron saint).
• 9 November, Virgen de la Almudena festivities (Madrid's patron saint).

Madrid is home to La Liga football club Real Madrid, who play their
home games at the Santiago Bernabéu. Their supporters are referred to
as Madridistas or Merengues (Merengues). Real Madrid is one of the
most prestigious football clubs in the world (FIFA selected Real
Madrid the best team of the 20th century), having won a record 9
European Cups. Their hometown rivals, Atlético Madrid, are also well
The Santiago Bernabéu, a FIFA elite stadium. supported in the city. The players (and supporters) are referred to as
Colchoneros (The Mattress Makers), in reference to the team's red &
white jersey colours, which were determined by mattress material being the cheapest at the time of the club's
formation. In 1982, Madrid hosted the FIFA World Cup Final. Along with Barcelona, Glasgow and Lisbon, Madrid
is one of only four cities in Europe to contain two UEFA 5-star stadia: Real Madrid's Santiago Bernabéu and Atlético
Madrid's Vicente Calderón both meet the said criteria.

Some of Spain's top footballers are Madrileños (born in Madrid), including Real Madrid former player Emilio
Butragueño and co (La Quinta del Buitre, "The Vulture's Quint"), Premier League's Pepe Reina, Fernando Torres
and Real Madrid veterans Raúl González, Guti Hernandez and Iker Casillas.
Madrid boasts a prominent place in Spanish basketball, with two clubs
in the country's top-level Liga ACB. Real Madrid's basketball section
has won 30 Spanish League championships, 22 Spanish Cup
championships, 8 Euroleague Championships, 4 Saporta Cups, 4
Intercontinental Cups and have won 2 Triple Crowns. Madrid's other
professional basketball club is Estudiantes that have won 3 Spanish
Cup championships.

Madrid hosts the Mutua Madrileña Madrid Open. The tournament is

classified as an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the Madrid Arena interior
Association of Tennis Professionals tour, and a Premier Mandatory
event on the Women's Tennis Association tour. Caja Mágica (The Magic Box, and also known as the Manzanares
Park Tennis Centre) is a tennis structure located at Manzanares Park, used for the Madrid Masters tournament.
Madrid 144

The city is also host to the Circuito Permanente Del Jarama, a motorsport race circuit.
Historically, the city serves as the final stage of the Vuelta a España cycling event, in the same way Paris serves as
the conclusive stage of the Tour de France.
Skiing is possible in the nearby mountains of the Sierra de Guadarrama, where the ski resorts of Valdesqui and
Navacerrada are located.
In the past, Madrid has bid to host the 1972 Summer Olympics, the 2012 Summer Olympics, and the 2016 Summer
Olympics, which were host to Munich, London, and Rio de Janeiro respectively. The city has two major annual road
running events – the Madrid Marathon and the San Silvestre Vallecana 10 km (6 mi) run – tens of thousands of
runners take part in these races each year.[74]

Club League Sport Venue Established Capacity

Real Madrid C.F. La Liga Football Santiago Bernabéu 1902 80,354

Atlético Madrid La Liga Football Vicente Calderón 1903 54,851

Getafe La Liga Football Coliseum Alfonso Perez 1983 14,400

Rayo Vallecano Liga Adelante Football Teresa Rivero 1924 15,500

Real Madrid Baloncesto ACB Basketball Caja Mágica 1932 12,000

CB Estudiantes ACB Basketball Palacio de Deportes de Madrid 1948 16,000

State Education in Spain is free, and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The current education system is called LOGSE
(Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo).[75]

Madrid is home to a large number of public and private universities. Some of them are among the oldest in the
world, and many of them are the most prestigious universities in Spain.
The Complutense University of Madrid is the largest university in
Spain and one of the oldest universities in the world. It has 10,000 staff
members and a student population of 117,000. Nearly all academic
staff are Spanish. It is located on two campuses, in the university
quarter Ciudad Universitaria at Moncloa in Madrid, and in
Somosaguas.[76] The Complutense University of Madrid was founded
in Alcala de Henares, old Complutum, by Cardinal Cisneros in 1499.
Nevertherless, its real origin dates back from 1293, when King Sancho
IV of Castile built the General Schools of Alcalá, which would give
rise to Cisnero's Complutense University. During the course of
Complutense University of Madrid, founded 1293
1509–1510 five schools were already operative: Artes y Filosofía (Arts
& Philosophy), Teología (Theology), Derecho Canónico (Canonical
Laws), Letras (Liberal Arts) and Medicina (Medicine). In 1836, during the reign of Isabel II, the University was
moved to Madrid, where it took the name of Central University and was located at San Bernardo Street.
Subsequently, in 1927, a new university area was planned to be built in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca, in lands
handed over by the King Alfonso XIII to this purpose. The Spanish Civil War turned the "Ciudad Universitaria" into
a war zone, causing the destruction of several schools in the area, as well as the loss of part of its rich scientific,

artistic and bibliographic heritage. In 1970 the Government reformed the High Education, and the Central University
became the Complutense University of Madrid. It was then when the new campus at Somosaguas was created to
Madrid 145

house the new School of Social Sciences. The old Alcalá campus was reopened as the independent UAH, University
of Alcalá, in 1977. Complutense also serves to the population of students who select Madrid as their residency
during their study abroad period. Students from the United States for example, might go to Madrid on a program like
API (Academic Programs International) and study at Complutense for an intense immersion into the Spanish
Language. The beautiful setting of the campus allows students living temporarily in Madrid to have access to all of
the city's public features including Retiro Park, El Prado Museum, and much more. After studying at the University,
students return home with a fluent sense of Spanish as well as culture and diversity.[77]
The Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Technical University of
Madrid), is the top technical university in Spain. It is the result of the
merge of different Technical Schools of Engineering.
The Autonomous University of Madrid was instituted under the
leadership of the famous physicist, Nicolás Cabrera. The Autonoma is
widely recognised for its research strengths in theoretical physics.
Known simply as la Autónoma in Madrid, its main site is the
Cantoblanco Campus, situated 10 miles (16 km) to the northeast of the
capital (M-607) and close to the municipal areas of Madrid, namely
School of Mines, Technical University of Madrid.
Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes, Tres Cantos and Colmenar
Viejo. Located on the main site are the Rectorate building and the
Faculties of Science, Philosophy and Fine Arts, Law, Economic Science and Business Studies, Psychology, Higher
School of Computing Science and Engineering, and the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. The Medical
School is sited outside the main site and beside the Hospital Universitario La Paz.[78]

The Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, whose philosophy is to create responsible free-thinking people with a
sensitivity to social problems and an involvement in the concept of progress based on freedom, justice and tolerance.
The undergraduate degrees in Business Administration, Economics and Law are ranked first, first and second
respectively among those offered by public and private universities in Spain,[79] and its Master and PhD programs
also rank top in the country.[80] The Department of Economics[81] is among the 50 best worldwide, and in the top 10
in Econometrics.[82]
Some other prestigious universities include Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, rebuilt at Alcalá de Henares in 1975;
and the Universidad Pontificia Comillas, involved in a number of academic exchange programmes, work practice
schemes and international projects with over 200 Higher Education Institutions in Europe, Latin America, North
America and Asia.
Other universities in Madrid, some of them private, are: Rey Juan Carlos University (public), Universidad Alfonso
X, Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, Universidad Camilo José Cela, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Universidad
Europea de Madrid, Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca Campus de Madrid, Saint Louis University Madrid
Campus and Universidad San Pablo CEU (all of them private).
Madrid is also home to the Escuela Superior de Música Reina Sofía, the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de
Madrid and many other private educational institutions.

Business schools
IE Business School (formerly Instituto de Empresa) has its main campus on the border of the Chamartín and
Salamanca districts of Madrid. IE Business School recently ranked #1 in WSJ's 2009 rankings for Best MBA
Programs under 2 years. It scored ahead of usual stalwarts, INSEAD and IMD, giving it top billing amongst
International MBA programs. Although based in Barcelona, both IESE Business School and ESADE Business
School also have Madrid campuses. These three schools are the top-ranked business schools in Spain, consistently
rank among the top 20 business schools globally, and offer MBA programs (in English or Spanish) as well as other
Madrid 146

business degrees. Other Madrid universities that have MBA programs include:
• Universidad Carlos III de Madrid through the Centro de Ampliación Estudios (in English or Spanish).
• Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid (in Spanish only).
• Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (in Spanish only).

Madrid is served by highly-developed communication infrastructures, making the Spanish capital the leading
logistics hub for both Spain and all of southern Europe. It also boasts a network of motorways, encompassing both
ring roads and radial roads, and provides the backbone for Spain’s railway network, thereby providing effective
connections with not only other parts of the region, but also the rest of Spain and Europe as a whole. Madrid ranks
alongside Tokyo and Paris as one of the world’s three largest high-speed railway hubs. Madrid is also home to the
Madrid-Barajas airport, Spain’s flagship airport and one of the largest to be found worldwide.

Madrid is served by Barajas Airport. Barajas is the main hub of Iberia Airlines. It
consequently serves as the main gateway to the Iberian peninsula from Europe,
America and the rest of the world. Current passenger volumes range upwards of
49.8 million passengers per year, making it the country's largest and busiest
airport, and in 2009 it was the world's 11th busiest airport[83] and Europe's fourth
busiest airport. Given annual increases close to 10%, a new fourth terminal has
been constructed. It has significantly reduced delays and doubled the capacity of
the airport to more than 70 million passengers per year. Two additional runways
have also been constructed, making Barajas a fully operational four-runway

Located within the city limits of Madrid, just 9 km (5.6 mi) from the city's
financial district and 13 km (8.1 mi) northeast of the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's
Madrid Barajas Airport (T4 Station) historic centre. The airport name derives from the adjacent district of Barajas,
which has its own metro station on the same rail line serving the airport.
The Councillor of Transports of the Community of Madrid, Manuel Lamela, announced in 2007 that the city will
also be served by two new airports which are expected to be fully operative in 2016, the first of which will be located
in Campo Real, it will be initially be used for cargo flights, but also as hub for low-cost carriers, and the second one,
expected to be built between the two municipalities of El Álamo and Navalcarnero, which will only take over the
routes operating in Cuatro Vientos Airport.
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National rail
Spain's railway system, the Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles Españoles
(Renfe) operates the vast majority of Spain's railways. Cercanías
Madrid is the commuter rail service that serves Madrid and its
metropolitan area. It is operated by Cercanías Renfe, the commuter rail
division of Renfe. The total length spans 339.1 km. Main rail terminals
are Atocha in the south and Chamartín in the north.

The most important project in the next decade is the Spanish high
speed rail network, Alta Velocidad Española AVE. Currently, an
ambitious plan includes the construction of a 7,000 kilometre Atocha railway station
(4,350 mi) network, centred on Madrid. The overall goal is to have all
important provincial cities be no more than 4 hours away from Madrid,
and no more than 6 hours away from Barcelona. As of 2008, AVE
high-speed trains link Atocha station to Seville, Málaga, Córdoba,
Ciudad Real and Toledo in the south and to Cuenca, Albacete,
Valencia, Zaragoza, Lleida, Tarragona and Barcelona in the east. AVE
trains also arrive from Valladolid in the north.

RENFE offers:
• Alaris
• Altaria
• Talgo

Madrid Metro Map

Serving a population of some four million, the Madrid Metro is one of
the most extensive and fastest-growing metro networks in the
world.[84] With the addition of a loop serving suburbs to Madrid's
south-west "Metrosur", it is now the second largest metro system in
Western Europe, second only to London's Underground. In 2007
Madrid's metro system was expanded and it currently runs over 283
kilometres (176 miles) of line. The province of Madrid is also served
A modern metro train (type 2000)
by an extensive commuter rail network of 370 kilometres (230 miles)
called Cercanías.

The system is the sixth longest metro in the world after London, New York, Moscow, Seoul and Shanghai, though
Madrid is approximately the fiftieth most populous metropolitan area in the world. Its fast growth in the last 20 years
has also put it among the fastest growing networks in the world, on par with the Shanghai Metro and the Beijing
Subway. Unlike normal Spanish road and rail traffic, Madrid Metro trains use left-hand running on some lines due to
historical reasons.
Madrid 148

This railway network is ably supported by an ever-expanding network of city buses. The overall length of the bus
network of Madrid’s Municipal Transport Corporation (Empresa Municipal de Transportes, or EMT) at yearclose
2008, when 426 million passengers were transported, stood at 3,690 kilometres, marking a 31% increase over the last
eight years. These routes are serviced by a growing fleet of over 2,000 vehicles, while the network as a whole is
undergoing a continuous improvement process with a view to attaining the utmost standards of speed, quality and

Madrid is the most important hub of Spain's motorway network and is
surrounded by four orbital motorways: M30, M40, M45 and M50. M30
circles the central districts and is the inner ring motorway of Madrid.
Significant portions of M30 runs underground and its urban motorway
tunnels have sections of more than 6 km (3.73 mi) in length and 3 to 6
lanes in each direction, between the south entry of the Avenida de
Portugal tunnel and the north exit of the M-30 south by-pass there are
close to 10 km (6.21 mi) of continuous tunnels. M40 is a ring
motorway which borders Madrid at a mean distance of 10.07
Madrid's motorway hub network.
kilometres (6.26 mi) and it has a total length of 63.3 km (39.33 mi).
M45 is a partial ring around the city serving the metropolitan area of
Madrid. It was built to help alleviate the congestion of the M40 from the southern to the north-eastern, runs between
the M40 and the M50 where the two ring motorways are more separated. M50 is the outer of the Madrid orbital
motorways and has a total length of 85 km (52.82 mi). It services mainly the metropolitan area at a mean distance of
13.5 km (8.39 mi).

The most important radial autovías of Madrid are:

Signal Denomination Itinerary

 A-1  Autovía del Norte Madrid – Aranda de Duero – Burgos – Miranda de Ebro – Vitoria – San Sebastián

 A-2  Autovía del Nordeste Madrid – Guadalajara – Zaragoza – Lérida – Barcelona

 A-3  Autovía del Este Madrid – Valencia

 A-4  Autovía del Sur Madrid – Córdoba – Sevilla – Jerez – Cádiz

 A-5  Autovía del Suroeste Madrid – Talavera de la Reina – Navalmoral de la Mata – Mérida – Badajoz – Portugal

 A-6  Autovía del Noroeste Madrid – Medina del Campo – Benavente – Astorga – Ponferrada – Lugo – La Coruña

 A-42  Autovía de Toledo Madrid - Illescas - Toledo

Radial tolled autopistas (named R-n instead of A-n) form a new system of accesses to the capital that merges with
their autovía counterparts far from Madrid. The main advantage to these roads is that they allow true fast travel from
the first kilometer.
Madrid 149

Signal Denomination Itinerary

 R-2  Autopista Radial 2 Madrid (M-40)—M-50—Guadalajara (A-2)

 R-3  Autopista Radial 3 Madrid (M-30)—Arganda del Rey (A-3)

 R-4  Autopista Radial 4 Madrid (M-50)—Aranjuez—Ocaña (A-4/A-40/AP-36)

 R-5  Autopista Radial 5 Madrid (M-40)—Navalcarnero (A-5)

 M-12  Eje aeropuerto Madrid (M-40)—M-11—Airport terminal 4—A-1

International relations

Twin Towns and Sister Cities

List of twin towns, sister cities and partner cities: [85]

• Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates • Lima, Peru • Rabat, Morocco

• Asunción, Paraguay • Lisbon, Portugal • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
• Beijing, China • Managua, Nicaragua • Rome, Italy
• Berlin, Germany • Manila, Philippines • San José, Costa Rica
• Bogotá, Colombia • Mexico City, Mexico • San Juan, Puerto Rico
• Bordeaux, France • Montevideo, Uruguay • San Salvador, El Salvador
• Brussels, Belgium • Moscow, Russia • Santiago de Chile, Chile
• Budapest, Hungary • New York City, US • Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
• Buenos Aires, Argentina • Nouakchott, Mauritania • Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
• Caracas, Venezuela • Panama City, Panama • Sofia, Bulgaria
• Guatemala City, Guatemala • Paris, France • Tegucigalpa, Honduras
• La Habana, Cuba • Quito, Ecuador • Tripoli, Libya
• La Paz, Bolivia • Prague, Czech Republic • Warsaw, Poland

Other historic buildings

Cisneros House. Casa de la Villa. San St. St. Barbara's Royal

Ginés Michael's Church. Observatory.
Church. Basilica.

Congress of Palacio de Spanish Ministry of Bank of Spain. Palacio de Hospital de

Deputies. Linares. Agriculture. Cristal. Maudes.
Madrid 150

Carrión Spanish Air Torres Arch of Casa Gallardo Royal Palace of

Building. Force Blancas. la Madrid
Headquarters. Victoria.

Notes and references

[1] "Los fuegos que conmocionaron Madrid" (http:/ / www. 20minutos. es/ noticia/ 149137/ 0/ cronologia/ incendios/ madrid/ ) (in spanish). 6 September 2006. . Retrieved 13 August 2008. (Spanish)
[2] D. Ramón de Mesonero Romanos (1881). "El antiguo Madrid: paseos históricos-anecdóticos por las calles y casas de esta villa" (http:/ /
www. cervantesvirtual. com/ servlet/ SirveObras/ 12253853120148273432435/ p0000002. htm). In Oficinas de la Ilustración Española y
Americana. . Retrieved 13 August 2008. (Spanish)
[3] "El Madrid Medieval (Medieval Madrid). Includes Pre-historic, roman and medieval up to the Catholic Monarchs times." (http:/ /
elmadridmedieval. jmcastellanos. com/ ) (in Spanish). History of Madrid.. José Manuel Castellanos. . Retrieved 28 October 2007.
[4] http:/ / www. munimadrid. es/ portales/ munimadrid/ en/ Home?vgnextfmt=default&
vgnextchannel=1ccd566813946010VgnVCM100000dc0ca8c0RCRD& idioma=en& idiomaPrevio=en& combo=1
[5] (http:/ / www. ine. es/ ) Instituto Nacional de Estadística (National Statistics Institute)
[6] "World Urban Areas: Population & Density" (http:/ / www. demographia. com/ db-worldua. pdf) (PDF). Demographia. . Retrieved 10 August
[7] Eurostat, (http:/ / www. urbanaudit. org/ DataAccessed. aspx), accessed on 12 March 2009. Data for 2004.
[8] Thomas Brinkoff, Principal Agglomerations of the World (http:/ / www. citypopulation. de/ world/ Agglomerations. html), accessed on 12
March 2009. Data for 1 January 2009.
[9] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision) (http:/ / www. un. org/ esa/
population/ publications/ wup2007/ 2007WUP_Highlights_web. pdf), (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007.
[10] Member of the Governing Council. Delegate for Economy, Employment and Citizen Involvement. Page 6 (http:/ / www. madrid. es/
UnidadesDescentralizadas/ UDCObservEconomico/ MadridEconomia/ Ficheros/ MadridEconomia2010Ingles. pdf)
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ashx?MediaDetailsID=1562). Pricewaterhouse Coopers. . Retrieved 20 November 2009.
[12] Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. "The World According to GaWC 2008"
(http:/ / www. lboro. ac. uk/ gawc/ world2008t. html). .
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[14] "Madrid is the most touristic city of Spain" (http:/ / www. madridiario. es/ 2007/ Enero/ feria/ feriamadrid/ 8577/ turistas-madrid. html). 30 January 2007. . Retrieved 18 October 2010.
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[16] "Top 20 liveable cities - 10 Madrid" (http:/ / www. monocle. com/ sections/ affairs/ Magazine-Articles/ Top-20-liveable-cities---10-Madrid/
). . Retrieved 18 October 2010.
[17] Greenest cities in Europe (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ environment/ greenest-cities-europe. html). City Mayors (2010-03-03). Retrieved
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[18] "Madrid" (http:/ / www. indiana. edu/ ~overseas/ flyers/ mad_ies. html). 10 July 2006. .
[19] "Madrid: " (http:/ / www. easyexpat. com/ madrid_en/ overview_geography. htm). Easy expat. 11 August 2006. .
[20] "Madrid History - Museums - Suggested Itineraries Madrid" (http:/ / www. indigoguide. com/ spain/ madrid-history. htm).
. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
[21] Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, éditions errance 2003. p. 258.
[22] "El origen del nombre." (http:/ / www. nova. es/ ~jlb/ mad_es05. htm). JLL & JRP. 16 August 2006. .
[23] (http:/ / elmadridmedieval. jmcastellanos. com/ ) Pre-historic times in Madrid (Spanish Only)
[24] "Madrid, de territorio fronterizo a región metropolitana. Madrid, from being the "frontier" to become a Metropole." (http:/ / www. ucm. es/
info/ hcontemp/ leoc/ madrid I. htm#INDICE) (in Spanish). History of Madrid.. Luis Enrique Otero Carvajal (Profesor Titular de Historia
Contemporánea. Universidad Complutense. Madrid). . Retrieved 28 October 2007.
[25] "Climate in Madrid" (http:/ / www. meteomad. net/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=13& Itemid=32). Meteomad. .
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[26] "Mediterranean" (http:/ / www. globalbioclimatics. org/ form/ tb_med. htm). . Retrieved 13 April 2010.
Madrid 151

[27] "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Madrid" (http:/ / www. aemet. es/ es/ elclima/ datosclimatologicos/ valoresclimatologicos?l=3195&
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[29] "Overview: Economy of Madrid" (http:/ / www. easyexpat. com/ madrid_en/ overview_economy. htm). EasyExpat. 16 August 2006. .
[30] "Madrid Economy" (http:/ / www. esmadrid. com/ recursos/ doc/ en/ Negocio/ ObservatorioEconomico/ 829557579_161200885839. pdf)
(PDF). Empresa Municipal Promoción de Madrid. . Retrieved 15 August 2008.
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[32] Colpisa. "Ocho regiones españolas superan ya el PIB medio de la Unión Europea. La Verdad" (http:/ / www. laverdad. es/ murcia/
20080218/ economia/ ocho-regiones-espanolas-superan-20080218. html). . Retrieved 8 July 2009.
[33] "The world's best financial cities" (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ economics/ financial-cities. html). City Mayors. .
[34] "El salario medio bruto se acerca a 2.000 euros en el segundo trimestre del año" (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ mundodinero/ 2007/ 09/ 20/
economia/ 1190291524. html). 2007-09-20. . Retrieved 2009-07-08.
[35] "World's richest cities in 2008" (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ economics/ richest_cities. html). City Mayors. . Retrieved 2009-07-08.
[36] "World's most expensive cities in 2009 - Ranking" (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ economics/ expensive_cities2. html). City Mayors. .
[37] http:/ / www. ine. es/ jaxi/ menu. do?type=pcaxis& path=%2Ft20%2Fe260& file=inebase& L=1
[38] "Foreign Population in the city of madrid. A study by the Dirección General de Estadística of the municipality of Madrid" (http:/ / www.
munimadrid. es/ UnidadesDescentralizadas/ UDCEstadistica/ Publicaciones/ PoblacionExtranjera/ 1Julio2007/ Extranjeros_Julio07. pdf)
(PDF). . Retrieved 13 April 2010.
[39] "Pleno de Madrid (Spanish Only)" (http:/ / www. munimadrid. es/ portal/ site/ munimadrid/ menuitem.
5fbdbaf471a1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/ ?vgnextoid=da51a5a66b2ce010VgnVCM1000000b205a0aRCRD&
vgnextchannel=f4ea39b48936c010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD) (in (Spanish)). . Retrieved 13 April 2010.
[40] "Local Government Organization (Spanish Only)" (http:/ / www. munimadrid. es/ portales/ munimadrid/ es/ Inicio/ El-Ayuntamiento/
Gobierno-y-Administracion/ Junta-de-Gobierno-de-la-Ciudad-de-Madrid/ Junta-de-Gobierno-de-la-Ciudad-de-Madrid?vgnextfmt=especial3&
vgnextoid=f22aad613938d010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD& vgnextchannel=18b9e3d5d3e07010VgnVCM100000dc0ca8c0RCRD) (in
(Spanish)). . Retrieved 13 April 2010.
[41] "Museo del Prado, official english webpage" (http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ en/ ). .
[42] "Museo Reina Sofía (MNCARS), official english webpage" (http:/ / www. museoreinasofia. es/ index_en. html). .
[43] Jonathan Kandell, "Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza, Industrialist Who Built Fabled Art Collection, Dies at 81," (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
2002/ 04/ 28/ nyregion/ baron-thyssen-bornemisza-industrialist-who-built-fabled-art-collection-dies-81. html?pagewanted=all) New York
Times, 28 April 2002.
[44] "Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, official english webpage" (http:/ / www. museothyssen. org/ en/ thyssen/ home). .
[45] "The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Museum, Madrid" (http:/ / www. gomadrid. com/ museums/ bellas-artes. html). . Retrieved 2011-04-14.
[46] (http:/ / karaart. com/ botero/ fernando_botero. html)
[47] .http:/ / www. patrimonionacional. es/ Home/ Palacios-Reales/ Palacio-Real-de-Madrid. aspx
[48] http:/ / man. mcu. es/
[49] http:/ / museodeamerica. mcu. es
[50] http:/ / www. mncn. csic. es/
[51] "Patrimonio Nacional - Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales" (http:/ / www. patrimonionacional. es/ Home/ Monasterios-y-Conventos/
Monasterio-de-las-Descalzas-Reales. aspx). . Retrieved 2011-04-14.
[52] "Fundación Lázaro Galdiano museum website" (http:/ / www. flg. es/ museo/ museo. htm). . Retrieved 2011-04-14.
[53] [
[54] http:/ / museoromanticismo. mcu. es
[55] http:/ / museocerralbo. mcu. es
[56] http:/ / mnantropologia. mcu. es/
[57] http:/ / museosorolla. mcu. es/
[58] "Real Decreto 1109/1993, de 9 de julio, por el que se aprueba los Estatutos de la Real Academia Española" (http:/ / noticias. juridicas. com/
base_datos/ Admin/ rd1109-1993. html). 2011-01-21. . Retrieved 2011-04-14.
[59] Libray's website (http:/ / www. bne. es/ es/ Colecciones/ |National)
[60] - http:/ / www. mso. net. & #32; "Things to do in Madrid - Popular sightseeing activities & things to do in Madrid" (http:/ / www.
directline-citybreaks. co. uk/ Madrid Things To Do). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[61] "11 Festival Escena Contemporánea" (http:/ / escenacontemporanea. com/ 2011/ ). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[62] "Festival Alternativo de las Artes Escénicas, Madrid, Spain - Things to Do Reviews" (http:/ / www. nileguide. com/ destination/ madrid/
things-to-do/ festival-alternativo-de-las-artes-escenicas/ 369837). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[63] Addis Network S.L.. "SpainTube - Art Madrid ¿Alternativo o complementario a ARCO? - Galeria Arte Rita Castellote/Arte Contemporaneo
en Madrid" (http:/ / www. galeriaritacastellote. es/ content/ 132/ 158/ 0/ 1/ 1/ SpainTube-Art-Madrid-Alternativo-o-complementario-a-ARCO.
htm). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
Madrid 152

[64] France, Jon. "The 5 Best Cafés in Madrid | Venere Travel Blog" (http:/ / www. venere. com/ blog/ madrid-cafes/ ). . Retrieved
14 June 2010.
[65] "Madrid's Bohemian Best: Exploring Lavapiés - La Castiza" (http:/ / en. momondo. com/ blogs/ lacastiza/ archive/ 2009/ 10/ 28/
lavapi-233-s. aspx). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[66] "Madrid Neighbourhoods: Lavapiés... Going out, eating, drinking, and bohemian cool! - Notes from Madrid – Tapas bars, restaurants,
shopping, and nightlife in Madrid" (http:/ / www. notesfrommadrid. com/ category/ by-barrio/ lavapies/ ). 15
November 2007. . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[67] "El Rastro & Lavapiés" (http:/ / www. whatmadrid. com/ lavapies. html). . Retrieved 14 June 2010.
[68] "Auditorio Nacional de Música" (http:/ / www. timeout. com/ madrid/ music/ venue/ 13683/ auditorio-nacional-de-musica). Time Out. .
Retrieved 19 August 2009.
[69] "Orquesta Sinfónica Chamartín-Historia (in Spanish)" (http:/ / www. oschamartin. org/ osc/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view&
id=12& Itemid=35). Orquesta Sinfónica Chamartín. 20 February 2008. . Retrieved 28 August 2008.
[70] "Teatro Real (Timeout Madrid)" (http:/ / www. timeout. com/ madrid/ music/ venue/ 13686/ teatro-real). . Retrieved 31 January 2009.
[71] History of the Teatro de la Zarzuela (http:/ / teatrodelazarzuela. mcu. es/ teatro/ historia. asp)
[72] "''Teatro de la Zarzuela - Timeout Madrid''" (http:/ / www. timeout. com/ madrid/ music/ venue/ 13687/ teatro-de-la-zarzuela).
. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
[73] "La Orquesta Sinfónica (in Spanish)" (http:/ / www. rtve. es/ orquesta/ orquesta/ index. php). RTVE. . Retrieved 24 August 2009.
[74] Valiente, Emeterio (25 April 2010). Course record for Cherogony, while Gebrselassie 'jogs' to 10 km (6.21 [[mile|mi (http:/ / www. iaaf. org/
LRR10/ news/ newsid=56564. html)]) victory - Madrid Marathon report]. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-04-29.
[75] "Sistema Educativo LOE by the Spanish Ministry of Education(Spanish Only)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080412073035/ http:/ /
www. mec. es/ educa/ sistema-educativo/ loe/ sistema-educativo-loe. html) (in (Spanish)). Archived from the original (http:/ /
www. mec. es/ educa/ sistema-educativo/ loe/ sistema-educativo-loe. html) on 12 April 2008. . Retrieved 13 April 2010.
[76] "Universidad Complutense" (http:/ / www. umsl. edu/ services/ abroad/ universities/ complutense. html). Missouri-St. Louis University. 10
July 2006. .
[77] "Complutense University of Madrid" (http:/ / portal. ucm. es/ en/ web/ en-ucm/ seven-centuries-of-history). UCM. .
[78] "Universidad Autónoma" (http:/ / www. uam. es). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. 10 July 2006. .
[79] ""El Mundo" 50 Carreras 2008" (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ especiales/ 2008/ 05/ cultura/ 50carreras/ index. html). .
[80] ""El Mundo" 250 Masters 2007" (http:/ / aula2. elmundo. es/ aula/ especiales/ 2007/ 250masters/ index. html). .
[81] "Department of Economics, U. Carlos III de Madrid" (http:/ / www. eco. uc3m. es). .
[82] "" (http:/ / www. econphd. net/ rankings. htm). .
[83] "ACI Passenger Traffic Data - 2009" (http:/ / www. airports. org/ cda/ aci_common/ display/ main/ aci_content07_c. jsp?zn=aci&
cp=1-5-54-55-9812_666_2__). 2010-08-05. . Retrieved 2011-04-14.
[84] "Madrid Metro" (http:/ / urbanrail. net/ eu/ mad/ madrid. htm). Robert Schwandl. 17 August 2006. .
[85] Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas" (http:/ / www. munimadrid. es/ portal/ site/ munimadrid/
menuitem. dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/ ?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD&
vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD& vgnextfmt=especial1&
idContenido=1da69a4192b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD). Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Madrid city council webpage.

External links
• Metro of Madrid (
• Transport Information System of Madrid (
• Madrid travel guide from Wikitravel
• City of Madrid (
• The Official Website for Madrid on Tourism and Business (
• WikiSatellite view of Madrid at WikiMapia (
• Photos of Madrid (
• OPENCities participant (
• History of Madrid (
• Development and History of the city of Madrid (
• "Renta en los Distritos de Madrid 1996" (
BRC1996.pdf)PDF, 1996
Madrid 153

• A guide to the natural history of Madrid (

• A guide to the gastronomy and architecture of Madrid (

History of Madrid
Although the site of modern-day Madrid (Spain) has been
occupied since prehistoric times, and there are archeological
remains of a small visigoth village near the modern location,[1] the
first historical data from the city comes from the 9th century, when
Muhammad I of Cordoba ordered the construction of a small
palace in the same place that is today occupied by the Palacio
Real. Around this palace a small citadel, al-Mudayna, was built.
Near that palace was the Manzanares, which the Muslims called
al-Majrīṭ (Arabic: ‫طيرجملا‬, "source of water"). From this came the
naming of the site as Majerit, which was later rendered to the
Ruins of Madrid's Muslim wall, built in the 9th century
modern-day spelling of Madrid. The citadel was conquered in
1085 by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile in his advance towards
Toledo. He reconsecrated the mosque as the church of the Virgin of Almudena (almudin, the garrison's granary). In
1329, the Cortes Generales first assembled in the city to advise Ferdinand IV of Castile. Sephardic Jews and Moors
continued to live in the city until they were expelled at the end of the 15th century.

In 1383, Leon VI of Armenia was named Lord of Madrid by King John I of Castile.[2] In 1375, the crusader
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had been conquered by Egyptian Mamluks and Leon V was taken prisoner to Cairo.
The king of Castile felt compassion for him and ransomed him with precious stones, silks, and birds of prey. Leon
Lusignan arrived ill and poor to Medina del Campo. John I granted him for life the town of Madrid, Villa Real and
Andújar and a yearly gift of 150,000 maravedis. He rebuilt the towers of the Royal Alcazar. According to Father
Mariana, Leon left Castile for France after the death of his protector in 1390 and died in 1391 in Paris. Federico
Bravo, however states that he left after two years of ruling and five years later, the Madrilenians were conceded the
revocation of the lordship by John. After troubles and a big fire, Henry III of Castile (1379–1406) rebuilt the city and
established himself safely fortified outside its walls in El Pardo, after a royal schedule issued in 1391. To avoid cases
like that of Leon, he ordered that Madrid would be thereinafter an unalienable possession of the Crown of Castile.
The grand entry of Ferdinand and Isabella to Madrid heralded the end of strife between Castile and Aragon.
The kingdoms of Castile, with its capital at Toledo, and Aragón,
with its capital at Barcelona, were welded into modern Spain by
Charles I of Spain. Though Charles favored Madrid, it was his son,
Philip II (1527–1598) who moved the court to Madrid in 1561.
Although he made no official declaration, the seat of the court was
the de facto capital. Seville continued to control the Spanish
Indies, but Madrid controlled Seville. Aside from a brief period,
1601–1606, when King Philip III installed his court in Valladolid,
Madrid's fortunes have closely mirrored those of Spain. During the
Plaza Mayor, from 1619
Siglo de Oro (Golden Century), in the 16th/17th century, Madrid
had no resemblance with other European capitals: the population
of the city was economically dependent on the business of the court itself.
History of Madrid 154

Philip V decided that a European capital could not stay in such a

state, and new palaces (including the Palacio Real de Madrid)
were built during his reign. However, it would not be until Charles
III (1716–1788) that Madrid would become a modern city. Charles
III was one of the most popular kings in the history of Madrid, and
the saying "the best mayor, the king" became popular during those
times. When Charles IV (1748–1819) became king the people of
Madrid revolted. After the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which was led by
his own son Ferdinand VII against him, Charles IV resigned, but
Fountain of Cybele, from 1792, at Plaza de Cibeles
Ferdinand VII's reign would be short: in May 1808 Napoleon's
troops entered the city. On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo)
the Madrileños revolted against the French forces, whose brute reaction would have a lasting impact on French rule
in Spain and France's image in Europe in general.

After the war of independence (1814) Ferdinand VII came back to

the throne, but after a liberal military revolution, Colonel Riego
made the king swear respect to the Constitution. This would start a
period where liberal and conservative government alternated, that
would end with the enthronement of Isabellla II (1830–1904). She
could not calm down the political tension that would lead to yet
another revolt, the First Spanish Republic, and the comeback of
the monarchs, which eventually led to the Second Spanish
Republic and the Spanish Civil War. The military uprising of July
1936 was defeated in Madrid by a combination of loyal police
units and workers' militias. After this, from 1936–1939, Madrid An 1888 German map of Madrid.
was held by forces loyal to the Spanish Republic and was besieged
by Spanish Nationalist and allied troops under Francisco Franco. Madrid, besieged from October 1936, saw a pitched
battle in its western suburbs in November of that year and eventually fell to the nationalists on March 28, 1939. The
Siege of Madrid saw the first mass bombing of civilians from the air by German aircraft of the Condor Legion.

During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, especially after the sixties,

the south of Madrid became very industrialized and there were massive
migrations from rural environments into the city. Madrid's
south-eastern periphery became an extensive slum settlement, which
was the base for an active cultural and political frame.
After the death of Franco, emerging democratic parties (including
those of left-wing and republican ideology) accepted Franco's wishes
of being succeeded by Juan Carlos I - in order to secure stability and
democracy - which led Spain to its current position as a constitutional

The Metropolis Building in Gran Via.

History of Madrid 155

Befitting from the prosperity it gained in the 1980s, the capital city
of Spain has consolidated its position as the leading economic,
cultural, industrial, educational, and technological center on the
Iberian peninsula.
On 11 March 2004, Madrid was hit by a terrorist attack when
terrorists placed a series of bombs on multiple trains during the
rush hour. This was the worst massacre in Spain since the end of
the civil war in 1939. At first the Basque separatists ETA were
blamed but it was later revealed that Islamic terrorists were to
blame. The Partido Popular, now in opposition, as well as certain Puerta de Europa buildings, from 1996
media outlets such as El Mundo newspaper and a small percentage
of the population, continue to support theories relating the attack to a vast conspiracy to remove them from power.
These theories consider that the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), ETA as well as members of the security
forces and national and foreign secret services were implicated in the bombings. Nevertherless, all the investigations
carried out by Del Olmo Judge in Madrid lead all suspicions towards a local terrorist Islamist cell (which mainly
resided in the "barrio" of Lavapies) that wanted to punish the Spanish government for their implication in the Iraq
war, as the terrorists themselves asserted in some video tapes found at the Madrid Muslim Mosque in the aftermath
of the attacks.

Madrid has also expressed its desire to host the Olympic Games, and was a candidate for the 2012 games, which was
finally won by London after Madrid was eliminated in the third round of the ballot. Immediately following the
announcement of London's success, the mayor of the city, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, spoke of bidding for the 2016
games, and in 2007 Madrid formally announced its candidature. Again they got eliminated in the third round, this
time to Rio de Janeiro.

[1] "El Madrid Medieval (Medieval Madrid). Includes Pre-historic, roman and medieval up to the Catholic Monarchs times." (http:/ /
elmadridmedieval. jmcastellanos. com/ ) (in Spanish). History of Madrid.. José Manuel Castellanos. . Retrieved 2007-10-28.
[2] Un Madrid insólito: Guía para dejarse sorprender, pg. 39-40. Jesús Callejo. Editorial Complutense, 2001. ISBN 84-7491-630-5. The book
however talks about Leon V of Armenia.
Madrid-Barajas Airport 156

Madrid-Barajas Airport
Madrid-Barajas Airport
Aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas


Airport type Public

Operator Aena

Serves Madrid, Spain

Location Madrid, Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes and Paracuellos de Jarama, Spain

Hub for • Air Europa

• Air Pullmantur
• EasyJet
• Iberia
• Mint Airways
• Ryanair
• Spanair

Elevation AMSL 610 m / 2,000 ft

Coordinates 40°28′20″N 003°33′39″W

Website [1]
http:/ / www. aena. es


Location within Madrid


Direction Length Surface

m ft

15R/33L 4,100 13,451 Asphalt

18L/36R 3,500 11,482 Asphalt

15L/33R 3,500 11,482 Asphalt

18R/36L 4,349 14,268 Asphalt / Concrete

Statistics (2010)

Passengers 49,863,504

Passenger change 09-10 2.9%

Madrid-Barajas Airport 157

Aircraft Movements 433,683

Movements change 09-10 0.3%

Sources: Passenger Traffic, AENA
Spanish AIP, AENA

Madrid-Barajas Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto-Madrid-Barajas Internacional) (IATA: MAD[4] , ICAO: LEMD) is

the main international airport serving Madrid in Spain. In 2010, over 49.8 million passengers used Madrid-Barajas,[2]
making it the country's largest and busiest airport, and in 2009 it was the world's 11th busiest airport[5] and Europe's
fourth busiest airport. It opened in 1928, and has grown to be one of the most important aviation centres of Europe.
Located within the city limits of Madrid, just 9 km (5.6 mi) from the city's financial district and 13 km (8.1 mi)
northeast of the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's historic centre. The airport name derives from the adjacent district of
Barajas, which has its own metro station on the same rail line serving the airport.
The Madrid-Barcelona air shuttle service, known as the "Puente Aéreo" (in Spanish), literally "Air Bridge", is the
busiest air route in Europe, with the highest number of flight operations (971 per week) before 2007.[6] The schedule
has been reduced since February 2008, when the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed rail line was opened, covering the
distance in 2½ hours, and quickly became popular. Barajas serves as the gateway to the Iberian peninsula from the
rest of Europe and the world, and is a particularly key link between Europe and Latin America. The airport is the
primary hub and maintenance base for Iberia. Consequently, Iberia is responsible for more than 60 percent of
Barajas' traffic.

The airport was first constructed in 1927, opening to national and
international air traffic on 22 April 1931, although regular commercial
operations began two years later. A small terminal was constructed
with a capacity for 30,000 passengers a year, in addition to several
hangars and the building of the Avión Club. The first regular flight was
established by Líneas Aéreas Postales Españolas (LAPE) with its line
to Barcelona. Later, in the 1930s international flights started to serve
some European and African destinations.

Originally, the flight field was a large circle bordered in white with the
Barajas Terminal 4
name of Madrid in its interior, unpaved, consisting of land covered
with natural grass. It was not until the 1940s that the flight field was
paved and new runways were designed. The first runway which started
operation in 1944 was 1,400 metres long and 45 metres wide. By the
end of the decade the airport had three runways, none of which exists
today. In the late 1940s, scheduled flights to Latin America and the
Philippines started.

In the 1950s, the airport supported over half a million passengers,

increasing to 5 runways and scheduled flights to New York City began.
The National Terminal, currently T2, began construction in 1954, and
Departures-Terminal 4 was inaugurated later that year. In the Plan of Airports of 1957, Barajas
Airport is classified as a first-class international airport. By the 1960s,
large jets were landing at Barajas, and the growth of traffic mainly as a result of tourism exceeded forecasts. At the
beginning of the decade, the airport reached the 1.2 million passengers, double that envisaged in the Plan of Airports
of 1957.
Madrid-Barajas Airport 158

In the 1970s, with the boom in tourism and the arrival of the Boeing 747, the airport reached 4 million passengers,
and began the construction of the international terminal (current T1). In 1974, Iberia, L.A.E. introduced the shuttle
service between Madrid and Barcelona, a service with multiple daily frequencies and available without prior
The 1982 FIFA World Cup brought significant reforms to the airport, with the expansion and reform of the two
existing terminals.
In the 1990s, the airport expanded further. In 1994, the first cargo terminal was constructed, and the control tower
was renovated. In 1997, it opened the North Dock, which is used as an exclusive terminal for Iberia's Schengen
flights. In 1998, it inaugurated a new control tower, 71 m tall, and then in 1999 the new South Dock opened, which
implies an expansion of the international terminal. During this time, the distribution of the terminals changed: The
south dock and most of the International Terminal were now called T1, the rest of the International Terminal and
Domestic Terminal were now called T2 and the north dock was called T3.
In November 1998, the new runway 18R-36L started operations (replacing the previous 18–36), 4,400 m long, one
of the largest in Europe under expansion plans called Major Barajas. In 2000, it began the construction of new
terminals T4 and its satellite, T4S, designed by architects Antonio Lamela and Richard Rogers, and two parallel
runways to the existing ones.
The new terminals and runways were completed in 2004, but administrative delays and equipment, as well as the
controversy over the redeployment of terminals, delayed service until 5 February 2006.
In 2007, the airport processed more than 50 million passengers.

Barajas today
Terminal 4 houses all Iberia and Vueling flights along with all
Oneworld alliance member airlines which include British Airways,
American Airlines, LAN Airlines, Finnair, among others. Terminals
T1, T2, and T3 handle Air Europa and Spanair, as well as all member
airlines of SkyTeam and Star Alliance.
Terminal 4, designed by Antonio Lamela and Richard Rogers (winning
team of the 2006 Stirling Prize), and TPS Engineers, (winning team of
Terminal 1
the 2006 IStructE Award for Commercial Structures)[7] was built by
Ferrovial[8] and inaugurated on February 5, 2006. Terminal 4 is one of
the world's largest airport terminals in terms of area, with 760,000
square meters (8,180,572 square feet) in separate landside and airside
structures. It consists of a main building, T4 (470,000 m²), and a
satellite building, T4S (290,000 m²), which are approximately 2.5 km
apart. The new Terminal 4 is meant to give passengers a stress-free
start to their journey. This is managed through careful use of
illumination, with glass panes instead of walls, and numerous domes in
the roof which allow natural light to pass through. With this new
addition, Barajas is designed to handle 70 million passengers annually.
Terminal 2
During the construction of Terminal 4, two more runways (15L/33R
and 18L/36R) were constructed to aid in the flow of air traffic arriving and departing from Barajas. These runways
were officially inaugurated on February 5, 2006 (together with the terminals), but had already been
Madrid-Barajas Airport 159

used on several occasions beforehand to test flight and air traffic

manoeuvres. Thus, Barajas came to have four runways: two on a
north-south axis and parallel to each other (separated by 1.8 km) and
two on a northwest-southeast axis (and separated by 2.5 km). This
allowed simultaneous takeoffs and landings into the airport, allowing
120 operations an hour (one takeoff or landing every 30 seconds).
Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are adjacent terminals that are home to SkyTeam
and Star Alliance airlines, as well as Air Europa. Terminal 4 is home to
Terminal 3
Iberia, its franchise Air Nostrum and all Oneworld partner airlines.
Gate numbers are continuous in terminals 1, 2 and 3 (A1 to E89), but
are separately numbered in terminal 4.
Barajas was voted "Best Airport" in the 2008 Condé Nast Traveller
Reader Awards.[9]
In December 2010, the Spanish government announced plans to tender
Madrid-Barajas airport to companies in the private sector for a period
of up to 40 years.[10]

Terminal 4 at night

Terminal 4 check in hall in 2008

Traffic and statistics

Passenger numbers

Passengers Aircraft Movements Cargo (tonnes)

2001 34,050,215 375,558 295,944

2002 33,915,302 368,029 295,711

2003 35,855,861 383,804 307,026

2004 38,718,614 401,503 341,177

2005 42,146,784 415,704 333,138

2006 45,799,983 434,959 325,702

2007 52,110,787 483,292 325,201

2008 50,846,494 469,746 329,187

2009 48,437,147 435,187 302,863

2010 49,863,504 433,683 373,380

Madrid-Barajas Airport 160

Source: Aena Statistics

Route statistics

Busiest Intercontinental Routes from Madrid-Barajas (2010)

Rank City Passengers Top Carriers

1 Rome, Italy 1,768,639 Alitalia, Iberia, Air Europa

2 Paris-Charles de Gaulle, France 1,651,423 Air Europa, Iberia, Air France

3 Amsterdam, Netherlands 1,493,927 EasyJet, Iberia, KLM, Transavia

4 London-Heathrow, United Kingdom 1,386,779 British Airways, Iberia

5 Toronto-Pearson, Canada 1,354,832 Air Canada, Iberia ,Air Transat

6 Frankfurt, Germany 1,332,735 Iberia, LAN Airlines, Lufthansa, Spanair

7 Shanghai-Pudong, China 1,269,902 China Airlines, Air China, Spanair, Iberia

8 Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Argentina 1,268,541 Iberia, Aerolineas Argentinas, Air Europa

9 New York-JFK, United States 1,256,672 Air Europa, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Iberia

10 Milan-Malpensa, Italy 1,236,988 EasyJet, Iberia, Lufthansa

11 Munich, Germany 1,128,196 Iberia, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine

12 Casablanca, Morocco 1,116,982 Iberia, Royal Air Maroc, Air Europa

13 Brussels, Belgium 1,075,981 Brussels Airlines, Iberia

14 Mexico City, Mexico 987,462 Aeroméxico, Iberia

15 Lima, Peru 973,219 Air Europa, Iberia, LAN Perú

16 São Paulo-Guarulhos, Brazil 932,801 Air China, Iberia, TAM Airlines

17 Bangkok - Suvarnabhumi 912,948 Iberia, Thai Airways International

18 Tokyo, Japan 897,352 Japan Airlines, Iberia, All Nippon Airways

19 Bogotá, Colombia 873,074 Avianca, Iberia

20 Nairobi, Kenya 846,273 Iberia, Air Kenya, British Airways

21 Delhi, India 834,928 Air India, Iberia

22 Miami, United States 815,213 Air Europa, American Airlines, Iberia

23 Havana, Cuba 801,473 Air Europa, Cubana de Aviación, Iberia, Iberworld

24 Caracas, Venezuela 789,482 Air Europa, Conviasa, Iberia, Santa Bárbara Airlines

25 Athens, Greece 764,218 Olympic Air, Iberia, Aegean Airlines

26 Santiago de Chile, Chile 761,845 Iberia, LAN Airlines

27 Incheon, South Korea 743,231 Iberia, Korean Air

28 Istanbul-Atatürk, Turkey 718,903 Iberia, Turkish Airlines

29 Sydney, Australia 711,917 Qantas, Iberia

30 Beijing, China 711,792 Air China, Iberia

Madrid-Barajas Airport 161

Busiest Domestic Routes from Madrid-Barajas (2010)

Rank City Passengers Top Carriers

1 Barcelona, Catalonia 3,106,678 Air Europa, Iberia, Spanair, Vueling Airlines

2 Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands 1,694,854 Air Berlin, Air Europa, Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

3 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands 1,561,475 Air Europa, Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

4 Tenerife-North, Canary Islands 1,316,014 Air Europa, Iberia, Spanair

5 Valencia, Valencian Community 1,023,681 Air Nostrum, Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

6 Alicante, Valencian Community 884,006 Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

7 Bilbao, Basque Country 837,966 Iberia, Spanair

8 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 836,415 Air Europa, Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

9 Vigo, Galicia 663,285 Air Europa, Iberia

10 Malaga, Andalusia 618,505 Iberia, Spanair

11 Ibiza, Balearic Islands 611,481 Air Europa, Air Nostrum, EasyJet, Spanair, Vueling Airlines

12 A Coruña, Galicia 609,758 Iberia, Spanair

13 Lanzarote, Canary Islands 581,010 Air Europa, EasyJet, Iberia, Iberworld, Ryanair, Spanair

14 Asturias, Principality of Asturias 560,267 Air Europa, Iberia

15 Jerez de la Frontera, Andalusia 449,107 Iberia, Ryanair

16 Tenerife-South, Canary Islands 403,938 Air Europa, Iberia, Ryanair, Spanair

17 Seville, Andalusia 385,115 Iberia

18 Santander, Cantabria 370,696 Air Nostrum, Ryanair

19 Fuerteventura, Canary Islands 366,229 Air Europa, EasyJet, Iberia, Iberworld, Spanair

20 Granada, Andalusia 335,437 Iberia

Terminals, airlines and destinations

Note: † denotes charter flights and their destinations

A Qatar Airways A330-300 taxiing

Madrid-Barajas Airport 162

A Vueling Airbus A320-200 parked at a gate

A Germanwings Airbus A319-100 parked at a


Airlines Destinations Terminal

Aegean Athens 2
Aer Lingus Dublin, Washington-Dulles 1
Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo 1
Aerolíneas Buenos Aires-Ezeiza 1
Aeroméxico Mexico City 1
Aerosur Santa Cruz de la Sierra 1
Air Algérie Algiers 4
Air Berlin Palma de Mallorca 2
Air Canada Seasonal: Toronto-Pearson 1
Air China Beijing-Capital, São Paulo-Guarulhos 1
Air Europa Arrecife, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cancun, Caracas, Dakar, Havana, Lima, London-Gatwick, 1
Malabo, Marrakech, Mexico City [begins 2 June], Miami, New York–JFK, Punta Cana, Santo
Domingo, Tunis
Air Europa Asturias, Barcelona, Fuerteventura, Ibiza, Gran Canaria, Lisbon, Minorca, Palma de Mallorca, 2
Paris-Orly, Rome-Fiumicino, Santiago de Compostela, Tenerife-North, Tenerife-South,
Venice, Vigo
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 2
Air Moldova Chisinau 1
Air Transat Seasonal: Montréal-Trudeau, Toronto-Pearson 1
AirBaltic Seasonal: Riga 2
Madrid-Barajas Airport 163

Alitalia Milan-Linate, Rome-Fiumicino 2

American Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York–JFK 4
Armavia Yerevan [begins 2 June] 1
Avianca Bogotá, Cali, Medellín 4
Blue Air Bucharest-Băneasa, Sibiu 1
British Airways London-Heathrow 4
British Airways London-City 4
operated by BA
Brussels Brussels 2
Bulgaria Air Sofia 4
Continental Newark 1
Conviasa Caracas 1
Cubana de Havana, Santiago de Cuba 1
Czech Airlines Prague 4
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, New York–JFK 1
EasyJet Amsterdam, Berlin-Schönefeld, Bordeaux, Bristol, Bucharest-Henri Coandă, Casablanca, 1
Edinburgh, Ibiza, Lanzarote [resumes 24 June], Lisbon, Liverpool, London-Gatwick,
London-Luton, Lyon, Manchester [begins 2 November], Marrakech, Milan-Malpensa, Naples,
Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Rome-Fiumicino, Tangier, Toulouse, Venice
EasyJet Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva 1
EgyptAir Cairo 1
El Al Tel Aviv 4
Emirates Dubai 4
Finnair Helsinki 4
Iberia A Coruña, Algiers, Alicante, Amsterdam, Asturias, Athens, Barcelona, Berlin-Tegel, Bilbao, 4
Bogotá, Bologna, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest-Otopeni [resumes 20 July], Buenos
Aires-Ezeiza, Cairo, Caracas, Casablanca, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Córdoba, Dakar,
Düsseldorf, Fortaleza, Frankfurt, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Granada, Gran Canaria, Guatemala
City, Guayaquil, Havana, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jerez de la Frontera, Johannesburg, La Palma,
Lagos, Lanzarote, Lima, Lisbon, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Malabo, Malaga,
Marrakech, Mexico City, Miami, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Montevideo,
Moscow-Domodedovo, Munich, New York–JFK, Oran, Palma de Mallorca, Panama City,
Paris-Orly, Prague, Quito, Rabat [begins 1 July] , Recife, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão,
Rome-Fiumicino, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, San Salvador, Santiago de Chile, Santiago
de Compostela, Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seville, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tangier,
Tel Aviv, Tenerife-North, Tenerife-South, Venice, Vienna, Vigo, Zürich
Seasonal: Damascus, Dubrovnik, Saint Petersburg, Zagreb
Iberia operated Almería, Badajoz, Bologna, Bordeaux, Dublin, Düsseldorf, Genoa, Granada, Ibiza, La Palma 4
by Air Nostrum [starts 21 July], Leon, Logroño, Lyon, Marseille, Marrakech, Melilla, Milan-Malpensa,
Minorca, Montpellier, Munich, Murcia, Nantes, Naples, Nice, Paris-Orly, Pamplona, Pisa,
Porto, San Sebastián, Santander, Strasbourg, Tangier, Toulouse, Turin, Valencia, Vitoria
Seasonal: A Coruña, Asturias, Catania, Corfu, Malta, Olbia
Madrid-Barajas Airport 164

Icelandair Seasonal: Reykjavik-Keflavik 1

KLM Amsterdam 2
Korean Air Amsterdam, Seoul-Incheon 1
LAN Airlines Frankfurt, Paris-Charles de Gaulle [ends 14 July], Santiago de Chile 4
LAN Ecuador Guayaquil, Quito 4
LAN Perú Lima 4
LOT Polish Warsaw 2
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich 2
Lufthansa Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Munich 2
operated by
Luxair Luxembourg 4
Malév Budapest 4
Meridiana Fly Florence [ends 31 August] 4
Mint Airways † Amman, Aswan, Cairo, Luxor 1
Niki Vienna 2
Orbest † Cancun, Edinburgh, Menorca, Punta Cana, Santa Cruz de la Palma 1
Pullmantur Air Cancun, Punta Cana 1

Qatar Airways Doha 1
Royal Air Casablanca, Marrakech 4
Royal Amman 4
Ryanair Alghero, Alicante, Almería, Ancona, Bari, Beauvais, Bergamo, Bologna, Brussels 1
South-Charleroi, Cagliari, Dublin, Eindhoven, Faro, Fez, Hahn, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera,
Krakow, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, London-Gatwick, London-Stansted, Malta, Manchester,
Marrakech, Marseille, Moss-Rygge, Nador, Oujda, Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Porto, Poznań
[begins 24 May], Rome-Ciampino, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Stockholm-Skavsta,
Tangier, Tenerife-South, Trapani, Turin, Verona, Weeze
S7 Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo 4
Sata Seasonal: Ponta Delgada, Terceira 1
Santa Bárbara Caracas 1
Saudi Arabian Jeddah, Riyadh 1
SAS Copenhagen 2
Scandinavian Seasonal: Oslo-Gardermoen, Bergen
Madrid-Barajas Airport 165

Sky Work Bern [begins 31 October] 2

Spanair A Coruña, Alicante, Asturias, Barcelona, Bilbao, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Fuerteventura, Ibiza, 2
Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Málaga, Minorca, Palma de Mallorca, Santiago de Compostela,
Stockholm-Arlanda [begins 2 July], Tenerife-North, Valencia, Vigo
Swiss Geneva, Zürich 2
Air Lines
Syrian Air Damascus 4
TACV Sal 1
TAM Airlines São Paulo-Guarulhos 1
TAP Portugal Funchal, Lisbon 2
TAP operated Lisbon, Porto 2
by Portugalia
TAROM Bucharest-Henri Coandă 4
Thai Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 1
Transavia Rotterdam, Amsterdam 1
Travel Service Budapest, Prague 2
Tunisair Tozeur, Tunis 1
Turkish Istanbul-Atatürk 1
Ukraine Kiev-Boryspil, Lviv 4
US Airways Philadelphia 1
Seasonal: Charlotte
Uzbekistan Geneva, Tashkent 4
Vueling Alicante, Bucharest-Henri Coandă, Barcelona, Fuerteventura, Ibiza, Lanzarote, Lisbon, 4
Malaga, Malta, Minorca, Palma de Mallorca, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Rome-Fiumicino,
Warsaw Seasonal: Mykonos [begins 30 June]
Wizz Air Bucharest-Băneasa, Budapest, Cluj-Napoca, Katowice, Prague, Târgu Mureş [begins 19 June], 1
Seasonal: Warsaw
Wizz Air Sofia 1

Cargo airlines
Madrid-Barajas Airport 166

Airlines Destinations
DHL Aviation Beijing-Capital, Copenhagen, Miami
FedEx Feeder operated by Air Contractors Dublin, Paris-Charles de Gaulle
Gestair Cargo Maastricht/Aachen
TNT Airways Brussels
Turkish Airlines Cargo Istanbul-Ataturk
UPS Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Cologne/Bonn, London-Stansted

Ground transport

The Madrid Metro Line connects the airport with Madrid’s city centre
station Nuevos Ministerios in the heart of Madrid’s financial district.
The Barajas Line 8 provides a fast route from the underground
stations at Terminal 2 (access to T1 and T3) and Terminal 4 into
central Madrid. The metro also provides links to stations on the
Spanish railway network. The first ride in the morning leaves from
Nuevos Ministerios around 6:05 am, arriving at Terminals 1-2-3
around 6:30, and at Terminal 4 around 6:40. Metro line at Aeropuerto T2 Station

The Nuevos Ministerios metro station allowed checking-in[11] right by

the AZCA business area in central Madrid, but this convenience has
been suspended indefinitely after the building of Terminal 4.[12] In
October 2006, a bid was launched for the construction of a Cercanías
link between Chamartín Station and Terminal 4. When finished in
2009, a single Cercanías Line will link Madrid Barajas Terminal 4,
with Chamartín Station and Atocha AVE high-speed train stations.[13]

EMT (Madrid Municipal Transport Company) runs regular public bus Shuttle train that links Terminal 4 with its
services between the airport and Madrid (Avenida de América station): satellite

bus 200 runs as a complete line – dropping passengers off at departures

of terminals 1, 2 and 4 before collecting passengers in the reverse order at arrivals EMT also have an express bus
linking Barajas airport to Renfe's Atocha Station; the main rail station in Madrid.[14] The EMT public night bus
service N4 (nicknamed "Buho", Owl) also services from Madrid downtown (Plaza Cibeles) to Barajas (Plaza de los
Hermanos Falcó y Alvarez de Toledo, 400m from the airport through a passageway above the highway).
Madrid-Barajas Airport 167

Airport parking
Long- and short-term car parking is provided at the airport with seven public parking areas. P1 is an outdoor car park
located in front of the terminal building; P2 is an indoor car park with direct access to terminals T2 and T3. A
Parking 'Express' facility, available for short periods only, is located at Terminal 2, and dedicated long-term parking
is also available with 1,655 spaces; a free shuttle operates between the long-stay car park and all terminals. There are
also VIP car parks.

Accidents and incidents

• On 30 September 1972, Douglas C-47B EC-AQE of Spantax crashed on take-off. The aircraft was being used for
training duties and the student pilot over-rotated and stalled. One of the six people on board were killed.[15]
• On 27 November 1983, Avianca Flight 011 crashed while attempting to land. Flight 011 struck a series of hills,
causing the plane's right wing to break off. The 747 then cartwheeled, shattering into five pieces before coming to
rest upside-down. Only 11 of the 169 passengers survived – there were no survivors among the 23 crew.[16]
• On 7 December 1983, Iberia 727 Flight 350 [17] collided during takeoff with Aviaco DC9 Flight 134.[18] The
Aviaco DC9 had accidentally entered the runway as the Iberia flight was taking off.[19] 135 people were killed,
including 93 from the Iberia and 42 from the Aviaco.
• On 15 July 2006, the winglet of a Thai Airways International Boeing 747–400 HS-TGY operating flight TG943
from Madrid Barajas Airport in Spain to Rome Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport cut off the tail of an Air
France ERJ-145 while taxing to the runway for take-off. No injuries were reported.[20]
• On the morning of 30 December 2006, an explosion took place in the carpark building module D attached to
Terminal 4. A bomb threat was phoned in at approximately 8:15 local time (7:15 GMT), with the caller stating
that a car bomb carried with 800 kg of explosive would explode at 9:00 local time (8:00 GMT).[21] After receipt
of the warning, police were able to evacuate part of the airport.[22] Later, an anonymous caller stated that ETA
claims responsibility for the bombing.[23] As a result of the explosion, two Ecuadorians who were sleeping in
their cars died. The whole module D of the car park was levelled to the ground, around 40,000 tonnes of debris. It
took six days to recover the body of the second victim from the rubble.
• On 20 August 2008, Spanair Flight 5022 which was travelling to Gran Canaria, veered off to the right and into the
ground while climbing immediately after lifting off from runway 36L at 14:45 local time. The McDonnell
Douglas (now Boeing) MD-82 with registration "EC-HFP", was carrying 172 people, including 162
passengers.[24] In the accident, 154 people were killed, 2 were seriously injured and 12 were slightly injured.
Prime Minister Zapatero ordered 3 days of national mourning.[25]
• On 3 December 2010, during the Spanish air traffic controllers strike, Madrid-Barajas Airport remained
unoperative when all spanish air traffic controllers walked out in a coordinated wildcat strike. Following the
walkout, the Spanish Government authorized the Spanish military to take over air traffic control operations.[26]
On the morning of December 4, the government declared a 'State of Alert', ordering on the controllers back to
work. Shortly after the measure was implemented, controllers started returning to work and the strike was called
Madrid-Barajas Airport 168

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical
Research Agency.
[1] http:/ / www. aena. es/ csee/ Satellite?cid=1049727006353& pagename=subHome& SiteName=MAD& c=Page& Language=EN_GB
[2] AENA passenger statistics and aircraft movements (http:/ / www. aena. es/ csee/ Satellite?pagename=Estadisticas/ Home)
[3] Spanish AIP (AENA) (http:/ / www. aena. es/ csee/ Satellite?Language=EN_GB& Section=7& SiteName=NavegacionAerea& c=Page&
cid=1078418725020& pagename=subHome)
[4] Accident history for MAD (http:/ / aviation-safety. net/ database/ airport/ airport. php?id=MAD) at Aviation Safety Network
[5] ACI Passenger Traffic Data – 2009 (http:/ / www. airports. org/ cda/ aci_common/ display/ main/ aci_content07_c. jsp?zn=aci&
[6] OAG reveals latest industry intelligence on the busiest routes (http:/ / www. oag. com/ oag/ website/ com/ OAG+ Data/ News/ Press+ Room/
Press+ Releases+ 2007/ OAG+ reveals+ latest+ industry+ intelligence+ on+ the+ busiest+ routes+ 2109072)
[7] TPS expertise recognised at Madrid Terminal 4 (http:/ / www. carillionplc. com/ news/ news_story. asp?id=429)
[8] Ferrovial history (http:/ / www. ferrovial. com/ en/ index. asp?MP=21& MS=594& MN=5)
[9] Readers' Travel Awards 2009| Condé Nast Traveller, Photo 1 of 27 (Condé Nast Traveller) (http:/ / cntraveller. com/ ReadersAwards/ 2008/
Airports/ ). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[10] El Gobierno cambia de modelo y privatiza la gestión de aeropuertos · ELPAÍ (http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ espana/ Gobierno/
cambia/ modelo/ privatiza/ gestion/ aeropuertos/ elpepuesp/ 20101202elpepinac_16/ Tes). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[11] Inaugurado el intercambiador de Nuevos Ministerios en Madrid con servicio directo de metro al aeropuerto (http:/ / www. vialibre-ffe.
com/ hemeroteca/ 454/ revista/ actualidad/ actualidad1. htm), Vía Libre, N° 454, June 2002
[12] Las aerolíneas descartan retomar la facturación en Nuevos Ministerios (http:/ / www. sepla. es/ news/ archives/ 010026. php), ABC, 24 July
2007 (copy hosted by SEPLA).
[13] Fomento (http:/ / www. fomento. es/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 014B6AD9-93FD-49C0-825F-A8E0226E4665/ 24660/ Fe20_25. pdf)
[14] Línea Exprés Aeropuerto. Inicio (http:/ / www. emtmadrid. es/ lineaAeropuerto/ index. html). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[15] "EC-AQE Accident description" (http:/ / aviation-safety. net/ database/ record. php?id=19720930-0). Aviation Safety Network. . Retrieved 7
September 2010.
[16] ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-283B HK-2910 Madrid-Barajas Airport (MAD) (http:/ / aviation-safety. net/ database/ record.
php?id=19831127-0). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[17] Accident Database: Accident Synopsis 12071983 (http:/ / www. airdisaster. com/ cgi-bin/ view_details. cgi?date=12071983& reg=EC-CFJ&
airline=Iberia). (1983-12-07). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[18] Accident Database: Accident Synopsis 12071983 (http:/ / www. airdisaster. com/ cgi-bin/ view_details. cgi?date=12071983&
reg=EC-CGS& airline=Aviaco). (1983-12-07). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[19] Accident Photo: Iberia 350 (http:/ / www. airdisaster. com/ photos/ ib350/ photo. shtml). AirDisaster.Com (1983-12-07). Retrieved on
[20] THAI clarifies incident concerning flgiht TG 943 routed Madrid – Rome (http:/ / www. asiatraveltips. com/ news06/ 187-ThaiAirways.
shtml). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[21] "Explosion hits parking lot at Madrid airport" (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ nm/ 20061230/ ts_nm/ spain_explosion_dc_1). Reuters.
2006-12-30. . Retrieved 2006-12-31.
[22] "Madrid bomb shatters ETA cease-fire" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 12/ 30/ madrid. blast/ index.
html?section=cnn_latest). Reuters. 2006-12-31. . Retrieved 2006-12-31.
[23] Webb, Jason; Sanz, Inmaculada (2006-12-30). "Four hurt in Madrid airport bomb, ETA claims attack" (http:/ / today. reuters. com/ news/
articlenews. aspx?type=newsOne& storyID=2006-12-30T104600Z_01_L30851238_RTRUKOC_0_US-SPAIN-EXPLOSION. xml&
WTmodLoc=Home-C2-TopNews-newsOne-3_latest). Reuters. . Retrieved 2006-12-31.
[24] http:/ / www. spanair. com/ web/ en-gb/ DSite/ Last-official-notice/
[25] La tragedia aérea de Barajas se salda con 153 muertos y 19 heridos, varios de ellos graves (http:/ / elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2008/ 08/ 20/
espana/ 1219237335. html). Retrieved on 2011-05-02.
[26] "Spanish airports reopen after strike causes holiday chaos" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2010/ dec/ 04/
spanish-airport-strike-state-emergency). December 4, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-12-05.
[27] "Spanish air traffic controllers marched back to work as airports reopen" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ travel/ travelnews/ 8181158/
Spanish-air-traffic-controllers-marched-back-to-work-as-airports-reopen. html). December 4, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-12-05.
[28] http:/ / www. afhra. af. mil/
Madrid-Barajas Airport 169

External links
• Madrid Barajas Official Website in English (
• Madrid Airport information (
• Madrid Barajas Airport information (
• Architect Website on Barajas Terminal 4 (,4,23,648)
• Accident history for MAD ( at Aviation
Safety Network


Small control Iberia aircraft in Terminal 4 T4 – Upper level to check-in, Terminal 4 overview with
tower in lower levels to Arrivals and Madrid city in the background
Terminal 4 metro station)

The Traffic on Runway 36L with

main Terminal 4 in the background
tower in
Madrid Metro 170

Madrid Metro
Madrid Metro


Locale Madrid

Transit type Rapid transit

Number of lines 13

Number of stations 272

Daily ridership 627 million/year


Began operation 1919

Number of vehicles 2404


System length [1]

293.0 km (182.1 mi)

Track gauge 1445 mm (4 ft 8.9 in)

Madrid Light Metro


Locale Madrid

Transit type Light rail / Tramway

Number of lines 3

Number of stations 38


Began operation 2007


System length 28 km (17 mi)

Madrid Metro 171

The Madrid Metro (Spanish: Metro de Madrid) is a metro system

serving the city of Madrid, capital of Spain. The system is the sixth
longest metro in the world after London, New York, Moscow, Seoul
and Shanghai, though Madrid is approximately the fiftieth most
populous metropolitan area in the world. Its fast growth in the last 20
years has also put it among the fastest growing networks in the world,
rivaled by many Chinese metros such as the Shanghai Metro,
Guangzhou Metro or the Beijing Subway. Unlike normal Spanish road
and rail traffic, Madrid Metro trains use left-hand running on all lines
due to historical reasons.

A light rail system feeding the metro opened in 2007 called Metro
Ligero (light metro).[2]

History Unofficial map - network as of October 2010

The first line of the Madrid metro opened on 17 October 1919 under
the direction of the Compañía de Metro Alfonso XIII, with 8 stations
and 3.5 km (2.2 mi). It was constructed in a narrow section and the
stations had 60 m platforms. The enlargement of this line and the
construction of two others followed shortly after 1919. In 1936, the
network had three lines and a branch line between Opera and Norte
railway station. All these stations served as air raid shelters during the
Spanish Civil War.
Typical Madrid metro entrance, designed by
After the civil war the public works to extend the network went on Antonio Palacios, at Tribunal station
little by little. In 1944 a fourth line was constructed and it absorbed the
branch of line 2 between Goya and Diego de León in 1958, a branch that had been intended to be part of line 4 since
its construction but was exploited as a branch of line 2 until the construction of line 4.
In the sixties, a suburban railway was constructed between Plaza de
España and Carabanchel, linked to lines 2 (at Noviciado station with a
long transfer) and 3. A fifth metro line was constructed as well with
narrow section but 90 m platforms. Shortly after opening the first
section of line 5, the platforms in line 1 were enlarged from 60 to 90 m,
closing Chamberí station since it was too close to Iglesia (less than 500
m). Chamberí has been closed ever since and has recently been opened
as a museum.
At the beginning of the seventies, the network was greatly expanded to
Lago station in the old Line S (now Line 10) is
cope with the influx of population and urban sprawl from Madrid's
one of the few surface stations in the Metro
network. economic boom. New lines were planned with large 115 m platforms.
Lines 4 and 5 were enlarged as well. In 1979, bad management led to a
crisis. Works already started were finished during the eighties and all remaining projects were abandoned. After all
those projects, 100 km (62 mi) of rail track had been completed and the suburban railway had also disappeared since
it had been extended to Alonso Martínez and thence converted to line 10.

At the beginning of the nineties, control of the network was transferred to a public enterprise, Metro de Madrid.
More large-scale expansion projects were carried out. Lines 1, 4 and 7 were extended and a new line 11 was
constructed towards the outlying areas of Madrid. Lines 8 and 10 were joined together into a longer line 10 and a
new line 8 was constructed to expand the underground network towards the airport. The enlarged line 9 was the first
Madrid Metro 172

to leave the outskirts of Madrid to arrive in Rivas-Vaciamadrid and Arganda del Rey, two towns located in the
southeast suburbs of Madrid.
In the early 2000s, a huge project installed approximately 50 km (31 mi) of new metro tunnels. This construction
included a direct connection between downtown Madrid (Nuevos Ministerios) and the airport, the lengthening of
(line 8), and adding service to the outskirts with a huge 40 km loop called MetroSur serving Madrid's southern
MetroSur, one of the largest ever civil engineering projects in Europe, opened on 11 April 2003. It includes 41 km
(25 mi) of tunnel and 28 new stations, including a new interchange station on Line 10, which connects it to the city
centre and stations linking to the local train network. Its construction began in June 2000 and the whole loop was
completed in less than three years. It connects Getafe, Móstoles, Alcorcón, Fuenlabrada, and Leganés, five towns
located in the area south of Madrid.
Most of the current efforts of Madrid regional government are channeled towards the enlargement of the Metro
network. In the recently finished 2003-2007 term, President Esperanza Aguirre funded a multi-billion dollar project,
which has added to, joined, or extended almost all of the metro lines. The project included the addition of 90 km
(56 mi) and the construction of 80 new stations. It has carried the underground railway to many districts that had
never previously had Metro service (Villaverde, Manoteras, Carabanchel Alto, La Elipa, Pinar de Chamartín) and to
the eastern and northern outskirts as well (Coslada, San Fernando de Henares, Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los
Reyes). For the first time in Madrid, 3 interurban light rail (Metro Ligero or ML) lines were built to the western
outskirts (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Boadilla del Monte) - mL2 and mL3 - and to the new northern districts of Sanchinarro
and Las Tablas - mL1. As a last-minute addition, a project on line 8 connected it to the new T4 terminal of
Madrid-Barajas Airport.

Future expansion
The Metro Authority closed sections of Line 6 during the summer of 2009 order to install rigid overhead lines (see
below) and install a new train control and signalling system that will reduce wait times and improve train circulation.
Line 6 re-opened in mid-September 2009 along its entire length.
There are numerous expansion and improvement projects pending; many suspended due to the current financial
crisis (as of 2010). For example, lines 1 and 5 reaching Valdebebas, extending line 11 further North towards Atocha
railway station and beyond, as well as extending line 9 to the North, opening the station Arroyo del Fresno on line 7
and extending line 3 further South.

Station design and setup

Stations in the Madrid metro reveal their age in their design: older
stations on the narrow lines are often quite compact, rather like the
stations on the Paris Metro. They were decorated with tilings in
different colour schemes depending on the station. In recent years,
most of these stations have been refurbished with single coloured
plates matching those in the newest ones. The stations built
between the late 70s and the early 90s are slightly more spacious
and most of them have cream colored walls.

On the other hand, the most recent stations are built with space in
mind, and are considered amongst the best in the world for their Alonso Martínez station in Line 4: old stations are often
natural-like lighting and ample entryways. The colour scheme compact, and usually not too deep underground
Madrid Metro 173

varies between stations, using single-colored plates and covering

the whole station in light colors. Recently built transfer stations
have white walls, but this is not the norm.
Most stations are built with two side platforms, and a handful of
them (the busiest transfers) have a central island platform in
addition to the side platforms theoretically dedicated to exits. This
system was originally used on the Barcelona Metro and is called
the Spanish solution. Stations with this setup include:
• Line 2 Cuatro Caminos
• Line 4 Argüelles
• Line 5 Campamento, Carabanchel
• Line 6 Avenida De América, Manuel Becerra, Sáinz De
Baranda, Pacífico, Plaza Elíptica, Oporto, Laguna
• Line 7 Avenida De América, Pueblo Nuevo
Some stations have cross-platform interchange arrangement which
allows extremely fast transfers between two lines. The only
stations with this setup are Príncipe Pío ( ) and Casa de
Campo ( ). On both occasions, Line 10 uses the outside
tracks, so passengers unboarding there leave through the "right"
side of the train instead of the usual left side. Getafe Central in Line 12, with a Cercanías transfer:
new stations are built deliberately ample, with several,
In addition, a few stations are built with just one island platform
cross-visible levels and elevators for disabled people.
instead of the usual side platforms. These stations are:
• Line 3 Almendrales, Villaverde Alto
• Line 5 Aluche
• Line 8 Campo De Las Naciones, Aeropuerto T4
• Line 9 Rivas Urbanizaciones, Arganda del Rey
• Line 10 Joaquin Vilumbrales
Another system is where there is one island platform with one side platform. This system is used in the stations on
Lines 7, 9 & 10 where it is required for passengers to change to smaller trains to continue their journeys, normally to
towns outside Madrid like Alcobendas or Coslada. This is done so the island platform can be used for passengers to
change easily between trains. These stations are:
• Line 7 Estadio Olimpico
• Line 9 Puerta De Arganda
• Line 10 Tres Olivos
Madrid Metro 174

Overhead Power Supply

Since 1999 Metro de Madrid uses a new patented system for its installations: a solid track hung from the ceiling of
the tunnels, instead of the usual copper or aluminium wire. This type of catenary (or overhead line) is rigid, making
it more robust and less prone to failures. Installations outside of tunnels are rare, as they require many more support
structures compared to traditional wire based overhead lines, making them more expensive to install.
This system of rigid overhead power supply is also used elsewhere.

The Metro network has 231 stations on 12 lines plus one branch line, totalling 282 km, of which approximately 92%
is underground. The only surface parts are: Campamento-Eugenia de Montijo ( ), Lago-Casa de Campo ( ) and
Puerta de Arganda-Arganda del Rey ( ). Additionally, some 30 km of Metro Ligero (modern tram) lines serve the
various regions of the metropolitan area which have been deemed not populated enough to justify the extraordinary
spending of new Metro lines. Most of the ML track length is on surface, usually running on platforms separated from
normal road traffic. However, ML1 line has some underground stretches and stations. Traditionally, the Madrid
metro was restricted to the city proper, but today nearly one third of its track length runs outside the border of the
Madrid municipality. Today, the Metro network is divided in five regions:
• MetroMadrid (zone A): the core network inside the Madrid city borders, with over two thirds of the overall
length. Also includes the light rail line .
• MetroSur (zones B1 and B2): line and the last two stations of line , Joaquín Vilumbrales and Puerta del
Sur. Runs through the southern cities of Alcorcón, Leganés, Getafe, Fuenlabrada and Móstoles.
• MetroEste (zone B1): a prolongation of line from Estadio Olímpico to Hospital de Henares through the
municipalities of Coslada and San Fernando de Henares.
• MetroNorte (zone B1): opened in 2007, includes the stretch of line from La Granja to Hospital Infanta Sofía.
Services the northern outskirts of Madrid and the towns of Alcobendas and San Sebastián de los Reyes. There is a
train interchange inside the line at Tres Olivos station.
• MetrOeste (zones B1 and B2): comprised by the Metro Ligero lines and . Connects the towns of Pozuelo de
Alarcón and Boadilla del Monte to line at Colonia Jardín station.
• TFM (zones B1, B2 and B3): a prolongation of line from Puerta de Arganda, the first ever outside the borders
of Madrid, services the cities of Rivas-Vacíamadrid and Arganda del Rey.
At most of the borders between the regions, one has to switch trains even when staying in the same line, because the
train frequency is higher in the core MetroMadrid than in the outer regions.
Madrid also has an extensive commuter train (Cercanías) network operated by Renfe, the national rail line, which is
intermodal with the metro network. In fact, 22 Cercanías stations have connections to the Metro network, which is
indicated on the official map by the Cercanías logo. Many of the new lines since 1999 have been built to link to or
end at Cercanías stations, like the ML2 line, which ends at the Aravaca station providing a fast entry into Madrid
though the C-7 or C-10 commuter lines and arriving in only one step to the bus and Metro hub Príncipe Pío (
See also the list of Madrid metro stations.
Madrid Metro 175

Line Terminus Length Stations Loading Platform Main service by Configuration


Pinar de Chamartín – Valdecarros 23.8 km 33 narrow 90 m CAF s. 2000-A M.R-M.R-R.M

(14.8 mi)

La Elipa – Cuatro Caminos 9.5 km 16 60 m CAF s. 3000 MRRM

(5.9 mi)

Villaverde Alto – Moncloa 16.4 km 18 90 m CAF s. 3000 MRSSRM

(10.2 mi)

Argüelles – Pinar de Chamartín 16.0 km 23 60 m CAF s. 3000 MRRM

(9.9 mi)

Alameda de Osuna – Casa de Campo 23.2 km 32 90 m CAF s. 2000-B M.R-M.R-R.M

(14.4 mi)

Circular 23.5 km 28 wide 115 m CAF s. 5000 M.M-M.M-M.M

(14.6 mi)

Pitis – Estadio Olímpico – Hospital del 31.2 km 29 AnsaldoBreda s. MRSSRM

Henares (19.4 mi) 9000

Nuevos Ministerios – Aeropuerto 16.4 km 8 CAF s. 8000 MRSM

(10.2 mi)

Herrera Oria – Puerta de Arganda – 38.0 km 26 CAF s. 6000 & MRM-MRM

Arganda del Rey (23.6 mi) 8000

Hospital Infanta Sofía – Tres Olivos – 39.9 km 31 AnsaldoBreda s. MRSSRM

Puerta del Sur (24.8 mi) 7000

Plaza Elíptica – La Fortuna 5.3 km 6 CAF s. 3000 MRSSRM

(3.3 mi)

MetroSur 40.7 km 28 CAF s. 8000 MRM-MRM

(25.3 mi)

Ópera – Príncipe Pío 1.1 km 2 narrow 60 m CAF s. 3000 M.R-R.M

(0.7 mi)

ML Pinar de Chamartín – Las Tablas 5.4 km 9 tramway 32 m Alstom Citadis 302 MRRRM
(3.4 mi)

ML Colonia Jardín – Estación de Aravaca 8.7 km 13

(5.4 mi)

ML Colonia Jardín – Puerta de Boadilla 13.7 km 16

(8.5 mi)

• Line is a shuttle service (R stands for "ramal" = "branch")
• Old stations are not accessible to people with disabilities but since 1995 all new stations must be accessible by
law. Thus, both new stations and renewed old ones have elevators for people on wheelchairs, huge signs for the
visually impaired, etc.
• All narrow loading gauge lines except line had originally 60m platforms. Line was the first to have theirs
extended to 90m, while line had to wait until the 2000s: prior to its recent extension to the southern district of
Villaverde, it was completely closed for nearly a year and thoroughly renewed. Thus, one of the worst lines of the
network, both in terms of trains and facilities, became the shiniest between the narrow-gauged, and was the first
to receive the all-new Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles Series 3000 trains.
• Configurations: M - engine (Motor), R - passive (Remolque), S - cabless engine (motor Sin cabina). Dots/dashes
mean crossable/complete basic unit separation, while their absence implies a walkable aisle throughout the joined
Madrid Metro 176

• Alstom Citadis 302 tramways have one motor "car", one suspended, one with bogie but without motors, one
suspended, one motor.

Rolling stock
Traditionally, the trains operating in the Madrid Metro have been built and supplied by the Spanish company
Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF). This was particularly true under Francisco Franco's dictatorship,
due to the politic of autarchy his administration initially pursued. However, in recent years the Italian Ansaldobreda
has also provided trains for the wide-profile lines.
Every rolling unit in the Madrid Metro has a unique ID that singles it out in the whole network. Those IDs are
grouped by the rolling unit model (the "series") and thus is used to categorize the trains, as they bear no user-visible
statement of the model specified by the manufacturer. An ID is made up of:
• A letter indicating the type of rolling unit: M for a car with both engines and driver's cabin (Spanish Motor), R for
an engineless car, with or without drivers cabin (Spanish Remolque) and S for a cabinless car with engines
(Spanish motor Sin cabina).
• A dash separating the two components
• A three or four digit number indicating the unit's series and the position within it. Usually, the series is indicated
by the thousands and hundreds (i.e. 5281 indicates a series 5000, subseries 200 train).

Trainsets currently in use

Narrow profile

• CAF series 2000: This series has two separate sub-series usually
called A and B. The first batch, while reliable and practical, was
extremely "box-like" in its looks. They are nicknamed 'Pandas',
after a car by Seat with the same name and similar boxy design. In
contrast, the B sub-series train sets can be told apart by its sleeker,
rounder forms, which has granted them the nickname of "bubble"
(Spanish burbuja) for their round driver cabin window. Series
2000A are currently the more numerous in the network: 530 cars[3] A series 2000-B "bubble" metro train on line
[4] at Marqués de Vadillo station.
were built and delivered between 1985 and 1993, having serviced
every narrow profile line. They are also among the oldest stock in
operation in the Madrid Metro, so some of them (namely, those servicing lines and ) have been scheduled
for retirement with the purchase of newer series 3000 sets. However, the most reliable ones are being refurbished
and painted with new, lighter colors like the ones used in Series 3000, and will continue to service line for the
time being. Series 2000B were delivered in lesser numbers (about 126 cars) between 1997 and 1998,[5] with the
inclusion of air conditioning and station announcements through pre-recorded voice messages and LED displays.
They are currently used in line , with no plans for retirement.

• CAF series 3000: The newest of the narrow line trainsets, series 3000 were commissioned for the reopening of
line after its complete renewal in the early 2000s. Their constituent subunits can be completely joined through
crossable articulations, making it possible to go from the head to the tail without actually exiting the train. This
has earned them the nickname of "boa", a term usually applied in Spain to double-length buses with such joints.
They are currently servicing lines and , but newer purchases are also scheduled to replace the trains in lines
and before 2010. Series 3000 trains look rather like a narrowed version of series 8000, while the interior
uses mainly yellow and light blue tones.
Madrid Metro 177

Wide profile
• CAF series 5000: Currently servicing line , this model has had a long history: the first trainsets were delivered
in 1974[6] for the newly-opened, first wide-profile line , while the latest subseries, 5500, of which 24 trainsets
of 6 cars each were built, entered service in 1993.[7] They were the last to use the old, square "box-like" design
from CAF, which was already becoming unpopular for its exaggerate priming of effectiveness versus aesthetics.
The first iteration featured a wood lookalike coating for the inner walls and a novel seat distribution in two-seat
rows perpendicular to the train walls, making them look not unlike older regional trains. Subseries 5100-5200
returned to the traditional seating along the train walls, but still included another feature from the first iteration,
automatic opening of all the gates in the train. The final subseries, 5500, has a distinct, darker color scheme and
returns to the usual on-demand opening of train gates with a button on each one. Being the oldest rolling stock in
operation in the wide profile lines, this series is scheduled for replacement by the newer Ansaldobreda series 9000
in 2008-2009, while negotiations are open for its sale to the Buenos Aires Metro.
CAF series 6000':This model, of which 29 trainsets were built and
delivered in 1998,[8] was the first by CAF to feature a new, sleeker and
rounder design. As it was to serve TFM, the stretch of line
connecting Madrid to Arganda del Rey (the first extension of the Metro
network outside Madrid proper), its interior resembles the regional
Cercanías trains more closely than any other Metro trains: compact
seats in couples set perpendicularly to the train walls, more places to
A CAF series 6000 train entering Concha Espina
grasp in case of a sudden brake/acceleration, etc. They were also the
first to include luminous panels stating their destination, as the line
they service was effectively split in two stretches, and travellers had to
switch trains at Puerta de Arganda. Finally, they primed the "boa train" layout (see CAF s.3000), but the walkable
aisle only spanned two cars, while a trainset would usually carry 4 or 6. Series 6000 is currently the main service for
line .
• Ansaldobreda series 7000 & 9000: The first purchase to a manufacturer other than CAF, and to a non-Spanish
dealer, 37 series 7000 trainsets service the extremely busy line , while occasionally venturing out into line
for rush hour support. They were the first in the network to feature a full "boa" layout, allowing commuters to
traverse the whole six cars. They are extremely functional, with ample 1.3m doors and a sleek, unobtrusive design
for a total capacity of 1,260 people per trainset (180 seated). This model also features two TV screens in each car,
but they are left unused, both regularly or in emergencies. Series 9000 trains are similar to their previous
incarnation, but include better accesses for disabled people and more safety measures, such as visual and auditive
warnings for the train gates and more effective emergency brakes. Series 7000 currently service the main part of
line , from Puerta del Sur to Tres Olivos; while series 9000 comprise the main fleet of line , the part of
from Tres Olivos to Hospital Infanta Sofía, and are occasionally used for rush hour support on . The next batch
has already started entering service on line before 2009, replacing the part of the 15-year-old CAF 5000 fleet.
CAF series 8000: Originally designed for the MetroSur line , 45
trainsets were built and delivered by CAF in 2002.[9] Each one is
composed of three cars joined in the "boa" layout, which service line
as-is, while MetroSur service uses two such trainsets to form a
MRM-MRM configuration for a maximum of 1,070 passengers (144
seated). The interior distribution is rather like that of series 7000, with
a bigger clear area (i.e. without seating) in the first car for people A series 8000 train waiting on line at
carrying luggage to/from the airport and disabled people in Colombia station
Madrid Metro 178

wheelchairs. Like the narrower series 3000 trainsets, its bogies are insonorized and feature a hybrid
rubber-pneumatic suspension system. Series 8000 primed the introduction of regenerative braking in the Madrid
Metro. The system reverses the normal circuit of the electric motors when braking, thus making the deceleration
return power to the network. Also, they feature the now-standard informative panels and gate activity warnings in
the interior. This model has a stable population, which neither purchases nor retirements planned as of 2008, though
as the most current model from CAF it remains on the table for future enlargements of the Metro network. It
currently services lines and , while also providing rush hour support to lines and .

Light rail (named Metro Ligero)

Alstom Citadis 302: The vehicles serving the light rail lines are
low-floor articulated trams in a five-section "boa" configuration, which
allows for a maximum of 450 passengers per tram (60 seated). They
can reach a top speed of 100 km/h (65 mph), but in practice they are
limited to 70 km/h (45 mph) in most track stretches, and even less in
urban sprawls. The tram features a bell-like proximity warning that is
activated when the train approaches a station or a level crossing with
A tram on "Metro Ligero" line mL2 at Aravaca
pedestrians, which has stirred complaints from people living near the
tracks for the noise generated. Safety features also include door activity
warnings for passengers and emergency brakes comparatively more
effective than in any other train dedicated to Metro service, as the trams, though remaining in their own lanes
separated from other traffic, can cross roads and populated areas.

Historic rolling stock

Until the early 1990s and the transfer of the Metro system to the Autonomous Community of Madrid, the rate of
investment in the network by the central government was extremely low,[10] and thus very old trains were used way
beyond their intended lifespans. Particularly loathed was the case of line , which was serviced by the nearly
40-year-old series 300 and 1000 from CAF. It was not uncommon that a child would ride to school on the same train
his/her parents took decades earlier. Some renewals, along with the purchases of series 2000A and 5000, were
started by the socialist regional government of Joaquín Leguina, but in 1995 the People's Party took over the
government with the promise to widely extend and improve the Metro service. New lines were built and old ones
refurbished: line service was disturbed for several years as some stations at a time were closed and refitted, while
line was closed for two consecutive summers in order to expand its platforms to 90m. Then, new rolling stock was
also requested: 1998 saw the arrival of the first CAF series 2000B, retiring the infamous series 1000. Initially the
better-preserved series 300 were refitted and painted in the new blue-white color scheme (from the old red corporate
image), but they were also retired with the arrival of more series 2000B and, finally, series 3000.
Madrid Metro 179

The Madrid Metro network is split into the six "functional" zones
mentioned above. Each one has a "single" ticket (Billete Sencillo),
valid for one trip within the zone, and a 10-trip ticket for a
comparatively lower price. When crossing zone boundaries, one has to
buy a new ticket for the zone being entered. There is also a "combined"
ticket, which provides for a single trip between any two points of the
network except the Airport stations, which have an additional
supplement of €1. All in all, it is possible to go from the airport to any
other point of the network for €3.00.

Also, the Consorcio Regional de Transportes (Regional Transportation

Authority) has a division of its own, with geographic zones named A
through C2. This body sells monthly and annual passes for unlimited
trips within their zone of validity, and also a range of Tourist Passes The Regional Transportation Consortium sells
for 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. All of them are accepted at the Metro stations monthly and yearly passes worth unlimited trips
within their zones, and passengers using a CRT pass do not have to pay within the zone covered on every transportation
method adscribed to it
the airport supplement.

Name Valid for Expires after Price

MetroX Sencillo MetroX zone 1 trip €1

Metrobús MetroMadrid and EMT buses 10 trips €9.30

MetroX 10 viajes MetroX

Sencillo Combinado Whole network 1 trips €2.00

Abono Transportes Joven A - C2 (<21 y.o.) One calendar month €29.50 - €52.10

Abono Transportes Normal A - C2 €46.00 - 83,50 €

Abono Transportes 3ª Edad A - C2 (>65 y.o.) €10.90

Abono Transportes Anual Normal A - C2 One calendar year €506.00 - €918.50

Abono Transportes Anual 3ª Edad A - C2 (>65 y.o.) €119.90

Abono Turístico A 1 – 7 days €5.20 - €23.60

Abono Turístico T (all CRT zones) €10.40 - €47.20

The metro is operated by its own company, under the Department of Public Works, City Planning, and
Transportation of the autonomous community of Madrid. The passage between Puerta de Arganda (Line 9) and
Arganda del Rey (Line 9) is operated by Transportes Ferroviarios de Madrid (TFM). All of Madrid's rapid transit
systems are members of the Consorcio Regional de Transportes, which sells monthly passes for unlimited use of the
metro, bus and commuter train networks within the area covered by the pass.
Madrid Metro 180

[1] "Metro De Madrid Figures" (http:/ / www. metromadrid. es/ en/ conocenos/ infraestructuras/ red/ index. html). Metro De Madrid Official
Website. . Retrieved 2011-03-28.
[2] Von Mach, Stefan (March 2008). "Madrid Light Rail: Three lines to feed the metro". Metro Report International, of Railway Gazette
International (UK).
[3] Trainset sizes vary between lines: 90m lines use six cars per train, while 60m lines use only four. Thus the actual number of trains varies
between 88 and 132.
[4] CAF description for s.2000A (http:/ / www. caf. net/ caste/ productos/ proyecto. php?cod=1& id=112& sec=desc) (reversed, title says 2000B)
[5] CAF description for s.2000B (http:/ / www. caf. net/ caste/ productos/ proyecto. php?cod=1& id=196& sec=desc) (reversed, title says 2000)
[6] Andén 1 - Historia del Metro (http:/ / www. anden1. org/ historia. php?pa=1956)
[7] CAF description for s.5000 (http:/ / www. caf. net/ caste/ productos/ proyecto. php?cod=1& id=307& sec=desc) - sales information and
photos correspond to subseries 5500
[8] CAF description for s.6000 (http:/ / www. caf. net/ caste/ productos/ proyecto. php?cod=1& id=470& sec=desc)
[9] CAF description for s.8000 (http:/ / www. caf. net/ caste/ productos/ proyecto. php?cod=1& id=197& sec=desc)
[10] A similar case happens as of 2008 with the Cercanías commuter network, as the Spanish government is focused in the expansion of the
nationwide AVE high speed network

External links
• Schematic map of the Metro network ((from the official site, in Spanish)) (
• Metro de Madrid (official site, in Spanish) (
• (
• Consorcio Regional de Transportes de Madrid (
• Andén 1 - Association of friends of Madrid Metro (
• ENGLISH User guide, ticket types, airport supplement and timings (
• Madrid Metro+railway Map. Bilingual Spanish/English. Updated October 2007 (
rfi_comunidad_oct2007.pdf)PDF (750 KiB)
• Network map (real-distance) (

Things to do in Madrid

Royal Palace of Madrid

Royal Palace of Madrid

Courtyard of the Royal Palace of Madrid

General information

Architectural style Baroque, Classicism

Country Spain

Construction started April 7, 1738

Technical details

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Design and construction

Client Philip V of Spain

Architect Filippo Juvarra (first of many)

The Palacio Real de Madrid (The Royal Palace of Madrid) is the official residence of the King of Spain in the city
of Madrid, but it is only used for state ceremonies. King Juan Carlos and the Royal Family do not reside in the
palace, choosing instead the more modest Palacio de la Zarzuela on the outskirts of Madrid. The palace is owned by
the Spanish State and administered by the Patrimonio Nacional, a public agency of the Ministry of the Presidency.
The palace is located on Bailén Street, in the Western part of downtown Madrid, East of the Manzanares River, and
is accessible from the Ópera metro station. The palace is partially open to public, except when it is being used for
official business.
Another name used to refer to the building is the "Palacio de Oriente" (The Orient Palace). This name originates
from a square on one side of the palace, the Plaza de Oriente, which also houses the Teatro Real.
The palace is on the site of a 9th-century fortress, called mayrit, constructed as an outpost by Muhammad I of
Córdoba and inherited after 1036 by the independent Moorish Taifa of Toledo. After Madrid fell to Alfonso VI of
Castile in 1085, the edifice was only rarely used by the kings of Castile. In 1329, King Alfonso XI of Castile
convoked the cortes of Madrid for the first time. Philip II moved his court to Madrid in 1561.
Royal Palace of Madrid 182

The Antiguo Alcázar ("Old Castle") was built on the location in the 16th century. It burned on December 24, 1734;
King Philip V ordered a new palace built on the same location. Construction spanned the years 1738 to 1755[1] and
followed a Berniniesque design by Filippo Juvarra and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo in cooperation with Ventura
Rodríguez, Francesco Sabatini, and Martín Sarmiento. The new palace was occupied by Charles III in 1764.
The last monarch who lived continuously in the palace was Alfonso XIII, although Manuel Azaña, president of the
Second Republic, also inhabited on it, making it the last head of state to do so. During that period was known as
«Palacio Nacional». There is still a room next to the Real Capilla, which is known by the name «office of Azaña».
Interior of the palace is notable for its wealth of art, both as regards the use of all kinds of fine materials in its
construction and the decoration of its rooms with artwork of all kinds, including paintings by artists such
Caravaggio, Velázquez, Francisco de Goya and frescoes of Corrado Giaquinto, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Anton
Raphael Mengs. Other collections of great historical and artistic importance that are preserved in the building are the
Royal Armoury, Porcelain, Watches, Furniture and Silverware. Currently, the Patrimonio Nacional, an autonomous
body under the Ministry of the Presidency, manages the owned of public property in the service of the Crown,
including the Royal Palace.

History of the building

The direct antecedent of the Royal Palace is the Royal
Alcazar, a fortress built on the same site where today stands
the baroque building. Its structure was the subject of several
reforms (especially the facade), because the King Henry III of
Castile made it one of the most popular residences, and the
site gets the adjective «real». His son John II built the Capilla
Real and several dependencies. However, during the War of
the Castilian Succession (1476) the troops Joanna la
Beltraneja were besieged in the Alcázar, causing several
damage to the royal building.

Under the Habsburg Spain, enthroned in 1516, the Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor undertook a major
restoration of the Alcázar, to Renaissance features
unambiguous in order to transform the outdated medieval
residence in a palace suitable for his court. Philip II continued
the work and showed special emphasis on the decoration of Historical evolution of the Royal Alcazar of Madrid.
the building, which hired craftsmen from Italy, France and the
Netherlands. However, the most important contributions of this monarch were the Golden Tower and the Royal
Armory, demolished in 1894. The Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II) continued the project of Philip II,
particularly related to the trace of the building and the facades.

Philip V of Bourbon came to the throne of Spain in 1700. The alcázar of the Habsburgs, austere in comparison to the
French palace where the new king had grown again, went through several reforms led by Teodoro Ardemans and
René Carlier. On the other hand, the main rooms have been redecorated to the French taste by the Queen Maria
Luisa of Savoy and the Princess of Ursins.
Do not know many details of the inner side of the enclosure; but yes know lots of documentation about its plant and
exterior, like a drawing made in 1534 by Cornelius Vermeyen. It was a rectangular building, medieval appearance
and is structured around various dependencies like the Capilla Real de los Trastámara, the Patio del Rey to the west
and the Patio de la Reina to the east. Its patios (courtyards) were open to the public for many years and these were
allowed the installation of markets. It also highlights the picture gallery of the alcázar, with works by Tintoretto,
Royal Palace of Madrid 183

Veronese, Ribera, Bosch, Sánchez Coello, Van Dyck, El Greco, Annibale Carracci, Leonardo da Vinci, Guido Reni,
Raphael, Jacopo Bassano and Correggio, many which were lost in the disaster of 1734.

The baroque palace

Christmas Eve of 1734 the alcázar was
destroyed by a fire originated in the
rooms of the French painter Jean Ranc.
Failed to be detected in time, due the
warning bells were confused with the
call to mass. For fear of looting, the
doors of the building remained closed,
hampering the inevitable evacuation of
the recint. Many paintings were lost, as
the Expulsion of the Moors, by Diego
Velázquez. Others, such as Las
Meninas, were rescued and thrown
View of part of the Royal Palace from Cuesta de la Vega, by Fernando Brambila (c.
through the windows. However,
[2] shortly before the fire, the king ordered
1790-1832). Preserved in the collection of the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
that much of his collection was moved
to the Buen Retiro Palace. This fire wiped out definitely the old Alcázar, whose last walls were finally demolished in

Filippo Juvarra was responsible for directing the work of the new palace. The Italian devised a monumental project
of enormous proportions, which was not realized because of the inopportune death of the artist. Juan Bautista
Sachetti, disciple of Juvarra, was chosen to continue the work of his teacher. Raised a square structure centered by a
large patio also square and solving the different angles with outgoing bodies.
In 1760 Charles III called to Sicilian Francesco Sabatini, architect of classicist taste that permeated the works of the
palace, who was commissioned to enlarge the building. The original idea was to frame the Plaza de la Armería with
a series of galleries and arcades which accommodate the different dependences and the construction of two wings
over the same square, of which only completed the extension of the southeast tower known as «ala de San Gil».
Moreover, also planned to extend the north side by a large building that echoed the same style of the building and
included three square courtyards in size somewhat smaller than the large central courtyard. The works of this
expansion started quickly but were soon interrupted, leaving its foundations buried under a platform from which later
built the royal stables were, demolished in the 20th century and replaced by the Sabatini Gardens. Thus, the palace
began to be inhabited in 1764.
Ferdinand VII, who spent many years imprisoned in the Château de Valençay, began the most thorough renovation
of the palace in the 19th century. The aim of this reform was to turn the old-fashioned Italian style building in a
modern French style palace. However, his grandson Alfonso XII was raised to turn the palace into a Victorian style
residence. The works were designed by the architect José Segundo de Lema and consisted in the empowerment of
several rooms, replacing marble floors for parquet and the addition of furniture of the time.
Royal Palace of Madrid 184

Exterior of the palace

The main facade of the Palace was built on a base pad,
on which rises a series of big Tuscan pillars. It is also
adorned with a series of statues of saints and kings,
relocated under the reign of Charles III to give to the
gates of the recint a classicist touch.
At the time, Italian Sachetti decided fourteen vases and
placed at the corners statues of the Aztec tlatoani
Moctezuma II and the Inca Atahualpa, works by Juan
Pascual de Mena and Domingo Martínez, respectively.
Near the Tuscan columns are representations of
Honorius, Theodosius I, Hadrian and Trajan. A
medallion with classical figures topped the set. Detail of the facade. Reccared II and Erwig, Visigoth kings, flanking
the arms of Spain. The statues do not match the names on the bases.
On the southern front were placed the statues of Philip
V, Maria Luisa of Savoy and Elisabeth Farnese, and
that of Ferdinand VI and his wife Barbara of Portugal. Also found flanking both sculptural series an allusion to
Zodiac of the Greeks.
Is remarkable the intervention of Juan Domingo Olivieri and his workshop, who labored more than half of the
sculptures that adorned the palace at the time of Ferdinand VI. It was also the author of many heads of mask and
other allegorical figures of Greek mythology, that not occupied a place as visible as other works.

Plaza de la Armería
The square as we see it now was laid out in 1892,
according to a project by the architect Enrique María
Repullés. However, the history of this square dates
back to 1553, the year in which Philip II ordered a
building to house the royal stables. Renovated in 1670
by José del Olmo, the building survived until 1884,
when it had to be demolished after a fire.[3]

The Almudena Cathedral faces the palace across the

square. Its exterior is neo-classical to match its
surroundings while its interior is neo-gothic.
Construction was funded by King Alfonso XII to house
the remains of his wife Mercedes of Orléans.[4] The
Night view of the facade that facing the plaza.
works of construction of the temple began in 1878 and
concluded in 1992.

Narciso Pascual Colomer, the same architect who crafted the Plaza de Oriente, designed the layout of the plaza in
1879, but failed to materialize. The site now occupied by the Plaza de la Armería was used for many decades as
anteplaza de armas. Sachetti tried to build a cathedral to finish the cornice of the Manzanares, and Sabatini proposed
to unite this building with the royal palace, to form a single block. Both projects were ignored by Charles III.
Ángel Fernández de los Ríos in 1868 proposed the creation of a large wooded area that would travel all around the
Plaza de Oriente, in order to give a better view of the Royal Palace. A decade later Segundo de Lema added a
staircase to the original design of Fernández, which led to the idea of Francisco de Cubas to give more importance to
the emerging church of Almudena.
Royal Palace of Madrid 185

Plaza de Oriente
It is a rectangular square of curved header, of monumental character, whose final layout responds to a design in 1844
by Pascual y Colomer. One of its main proponents was King Joseph Bonaparte, who ordered the demolition of the
medieval houses located on its site.
Plaza de Oriente is rectangular, although his head
located to east, forming a closed curve, headed by the
Teatro Real. It can distinguish three main plots: the
Central Gardens, the Cabo Noval Gardens and the
Lepanto Gardens.
The Central Gardens are arranged around the central
monument to Philip IV, in a grid, following the
barroque model garden. They consist of seven
flowerbeds, each packed with box hedges, forms of
cypress, yew and magnolia of small size, and flower
plantations, temporary. These are bounded on either
side by rows of statues paths, popularly known as the
Statues of the Gothic kings in the Plaza de Oriente.
Gothic kings, acting as line of division of the other two

The square houses a sculpture collection of twenty Spanish kings corresponding to five Visigoth kings and fifteen
kings of the early Christians kingdoms in the Reconquista. These statues, made of limestone, are distributed in two
rows that cross the recint toward east-west, on both sides of the Central Gardens. Known popularly as the «Gothic
kings», mark the dividing line between the main body of the plaza and the Cabo Noval Gardens at north, and the
Lepanto Gardens at south. The group of statues is part of a series dedicated to all monarchs of Spain, ordered to
make for the decoration of the Royal Palace of Madrid during the reign of Ferdinand VI. Were executed between
1750 and 1753.[5]

Campo del Moro Gardens

These gardens are named after allegedly camped in this
place the troops of the Muslim leader Ali ben Yusuf in
1109 during an attempted reconquest of Madrid. The
first works to condition the area are due to Philip IV,
whose reign it were built fountains and planted
different kinds of vegetation, but the overall look of the
place remained largely neglected. During the
construction of the new palace were various
landscaping projects based in the gardens of the Royal
Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso, but there was no
doing anything due the lack of funds, not being until
View of Paseo Principal, part of Campo del Moro Gardens.
the reign of Isabel II in which started a landscaping
more seriously. At this time it design a big park of
Romanticist style and were installed fountains brought from the Royal Palace of Aranjuez. With the fall of Isabel II
the gardens suffer a period of abandonment and neglect in which it lose a part of the design and not until the regency
of Maria Christina of Austria when it began a series of rehabilitation works, giving the current design, which follows
the layout of the English gardens of 19th century.
Royal Palace of Madrid 186

From time to time throughout his reign, for example to hold his saint day of Saint John, King Juan Carlos has held
receptions and gala dinners in the gardens during the summer months.[6]

Sabatini Gardens
Located on the north side, between the Royal Palace,
the calle de Bailén and the cuesta de San Vicente. Of
French design, are a monumental gardens created in the
30's of 20th century. Receive the name Sabatini
because in this place were the stables built by the
architect for service of the Palace. These gardens are
adorned with a pond around which place some of the
statues of Spanish kings who were originally intended
to crown the Royal Palace. Geometrically sited
between its rides, there are several fountains.

The Republican government ordered the seizure of

different properties of the Spanish Royal Family, Sabatini Gardens.
including this one, giving to the City Council of Madrid
to build a public park. The project was awarded to Zaragozan architect Fernando García Mercadal after he win in the
same held competition.[7]

Interior of the palace

Ground floor

Royal Library
The Royal Library was founded during the regency of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, using many of the funds
that had accumulated for centuries the royal family. Most shelves were purchased by Charles IV and Alfonso XII.
Also on display a selection of the best medals from the Royal Collection.
Among the printed books highlights the Book of hours of Isabella I of Castile, a codex of the time of Alfonso XI of
Castile, a Bible of Doña María de Molina and the Fiestas reales, dedicated to Ferdinand VI by Farinelli. Also
important are the maps kept in the library, which analyze the extent of the kingdoms under the Spanish Empire.
The bindings also play an important role, because through
them it observe the evolution of bind style according to the
time: rococo in gold with iron lace, neoclassical in
polychrome and romantic with gothic and renaissance motifs.
The Archives of the Royal Palace contains about twenty
thousand dossiers ranging from the Disastrous decade
(1823-1833) until the proclamation of the Second Spanish
Republic in 1931. In addition, it retains some scores of
musicians of the Royal Chapel, privileges of different kings,
the founding order of the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de
Royal Pharmacy. El Escorial, the testament of Philip II and correspondence of
most of the kings of the House of Bourbon.
Royal Palace of Madrid 187

Royal Pharmacy
During the reign of Philip II the Royal Pharmacy became an appendage of the royal family and ordered the supply of
medicines, a role that continues today. The bottles were made in factories of La Granja de San Ildefonso and the
Buen Retiro, there are also other items of 17th century made in Talavera de la Reina pottery.

Royal Armoury

Considered together with the imperial of Vienna, one

of the best in the world, consists of pieces ranging from
the 15th century onwards. These highlight the pieces of
tournament made for Charles V and Philip II by leading
armorers of Milan and Augsburg. Among the most
remarkable pieces stands the armory and full tools that
Emperor Charles V used in the Battle of Mühlberg, and
which was portrayed by Titian in the famous equestrian
portrait of the Museo del Prado. Unfortunately, part of
the armory was lost during the Peninsular War and
during the Spanish Civil War. Still, the armory retains
some of the most important pieces of this art in Europe
and worldwide, including several signed by Filippo Royal Armoury.

Negroli, one of the most famous architects of the guild.

The vast palace is richly decorated by artists such as Velázquez, Tiepolo, Mengs, Gasparini, Juan de Flandes,
Caravaggio, and Goya. Several royal collections of great historical importance are kept at the palace, including the
Royal Armoury and weapons dating back to the 13th century, and the world's only complete Stradivarius string
quintet, as well as collections of tapestry, porcelain, furniture, and other objects of great historical importance.
Below the palace, to the west, are the gardens of the Campo del Moro that were given this name due to the fact that
here in the year 1109, Muslim leader Ali ibn Yusuf, encamped with his men in the attempt to recapture Madrid and
its Alcázar (fortress) from the Christians. The east façade of the palace gives onto the Plaza de Oriente and the
Teatro Real opera house. To the south is a vast square, the Plaza de la Armas, surrounded by narrow wings of the
palace, and to the south of that is located the Catedral de la Almudena. To the north are the Jardines de Sabatini
(Sabatini Gardens), named after one of the architects of the palace.
On the Plaza de Armas facade, two life-size statues on both sides of the main entrance honor the two native
Emperors from the Americas, Moctezuma, Emperor of the Aztecs, and Atahualpa, Emperor of the Incas.
The wedding banquet of Prince Felipe and Letizia Ortiz took place on 22 May 2004 at the central courtyard of the
The palace is open to the public and it is closed when used by the king for state functions like state banquets for
visiting heads of state, official government receptions and the presentation of new ambassadors to the king.
Royal Palace of Madrid 188


Main facade. The Royal Chapel. The The 'Room

staircase of of
the Royal Porcelain'.

The Dining Room. Fuente de las Conchas Campo del Little house in the Campo del
(Fountain of the Shells). Moro. Moro.

Sabatini Gardens, beside the

north façade of the Royal Palace.

[1] "Palacio Real de Madrid" (http:/ / www. patrimonionacional. es/ Home/ Palacios-Reales/ Palacio-Real-de-Madrid. aspx). .
[2] Ministry of Economy and Finance of Spain «View of part of the Royal Palace taken from la Cuesta de la Vega». (http:/ / serviciosweb.
minhac. es/ apps/ museo/ Pintura5/ Brambila1. htm)
[3] Madripedia. «Plaza de la Armería» (http:/ / madripedia. es/ wiki/ Plaza_de_la_Armería).
[4] Madripedia. «Cathedral of Almudena» (http:/ / madripedia. es/ wiki/ Catedral_de_la_Almudena).
[5] Madripedia. «Plaza de Oriente» (http:/ / madripedia. es/ wiki/ Plaza_de_Oriente).
[6] Madripedia. «Campo del Moro» (http:/ / madripedia. es/ wiki/ Campo_del_Moro).
[7] Madripedia. «Sabatini Gardens» (http:/ / madripedia. es/ wiki/ Jardines_de_Sabatini).
Royal Palace of Madrid 189

External links
• Palacio Real (Cyberspain) (
• Palacio Real de Madrid — pictures (
• Royal Palace on Google Maps (,-3.67424&
• Royal Palace ( Description and pictures (Spanish)
• Madrid Royal Palace (
Museo del Prado 190

Museo del Prado

Museo del Prado

Established 1819

Location Paseo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Visitor figures [1]

2,763,094 (2009)
• Ranked 1st nationally
• Ranked 11th globally

Director Miguel Zugaza

Website [2]

The Museo del Prado is a museum and art gallery located in Madrid, the capital of Spain. It features one of the
world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former
Spanish Royal Collection. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture, it also contains important collections of
other types of works. A new, recently opened wing enlarged the display area by about 400 paintings, and it is
currently used mainly for temporary expositions. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, and it is
considered to be among the greatest museums of art. The principal attraction takes root in the wide presence of
Velázquez, Francisco de Goya (the artist more extensively represented in the collection), Titian, Rubens and Bosch,
of that it possesses the best collections that exist on a global scale
The collection currently comprises around 7,600 paintings, 1,000 sculptures, 4,800 prints and 8,200 drawings, in
addition to a large number of works of art and historic documents. By 2012 the Museum will be displaying about
1300 works in the main buildings, while around 3,100 works are on temporary loan to various museums and official
institutions. The remainder are in storage.[3]
The best known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez. Velázquez not only provided the
Prado with his own works, but his keen eye and sensibility was also responsible for bringing much of the museum's
fine collection of Italian masters to Spain.
Pablo Picasso's renowned work Guernica was exhibited in the Prado upon its return to Spain after the restoration of
democracy, but was moved to the Museo Reina Sofía in 1992 as part of a transfer of all works later than the early
19th century to other buildings for space reasons.
Museo del Prado 191


Spanish painting
The Museo del Prado has the largest collection of Spanish painting
in the world, numbering more than 4,800 paintings and dating
from the Romanesque period to the 19th century. This
internationally-renowned collection includes masterpieces by
artists such as Bartolomé Bermejo, Pedro Berruguete, Sánchez
Coello, El Greco, Ribera, Zurbarán, Murillo, Alonzo Cano,
Velázquez, Goya, Vicente López, Fortuny, Carlos de Haes,
La maja desnuda, by Francisco de Goya, oil on
Federico de Madrazo.
canvass, (circa 1797–1800)
The two artists who are best represented in the Prado are
Velázquez and Goya. The Museum has almost 50 paintings by the former, mostly from the Spanish Royal
Collection. They include almost all the artist's major compositions.
The Goya collection is also rich, comprising more than 140 paintings. While the artist worked for many years in the
service of the Spanish royal family, only a few works in the Museum's collection are from royal residences, such as
The Family of Charles IV. When the Museum opened Goya was still alive and it was only after his death that
successive directors made great efforts to acquire his paintings, for example Federico de Madrazo, who purchased
the tapestry cartoons. Madrazo's intention from the outset was to place Goya on the level of the great artists of the
past in an homage to the leading painter of modern times. This explains why, in contrast to Velázquez, the Museum
has acquired most of its works by Goya through donations, bequests and purchases.

Romanesque, Gothic and Early Renaissance painting

The frescoes from San Baudelio de Berlanga and Santa Cruz de

Maderuelo are particularly important among the Romanesque paintings
in the collection. The latter are installed in a specially designed chapel
within the Museum, which reproduces the original arrangement of the
Franco-Gothic painting is well represented by the Saint Christopher
Altarpiece, while examples of the Italo-Gothic are The Saint John the
Baptist Altarpiece and The Mary Magdalen Altarpiece by Jaime Serra.
The International Gothic is represented by The Altarpiece of the Life of
the Virgin and Saint Francis by Nicolás Francés.
The Prado possesses one of the masterpieces of Hispano-Flemish
painting: Bartolomé Bermejo's Saint Domingo of Silos, as well as two
major works, The Pietà with Donors and Christ blessing, by Fernando
Gallego, the best known painter working in Castile at this period. A
notable work by Juan de Flandes, Court Painter to Isabella I of Castile,
is the Crucifixion, acquired in 2005.

Early Spanish Renaissance paintings are represented in the Prado by

the series of works by Pedro Berruguete from the monastery of Santo Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-de-fe, by
Pedro Berruguete (1475).
Tomás in Ávila, notably Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe.
Other works of this period are The Virgin of the Knight of Montesa by
Paolo da San Leocadio and The Flagellation by Alejo Fernández.
Museo del Prado 192

El Greco and Renaissance painting. Early naturalism

The Museo del Prado's collection includes one of the great masterpieces of Spanish Renaissance painting, Saint
Catherine by Fernando Yáñez, as well as one of the best known works of this period, Juan de Flandes’ The Last
Supper. Other Spanish Renaissance artists well represented in the Museum are the Toledan painter Juan Correa de
Vivar and Luis de Morales from Extremadura, particularly through his Virgin and Child compositions. Worth special
mention is the group of Renaissance court portraits including images by Alonso Sánchez Coello and Juan Pantoja de
la Cruz.
The most important artist in this section of the Museum's collection is undoubtedly El Greco. The Prado owns two
works painted in Italy, namely The Annunciation and The Flight into Egypt, as well as more than thirty painted in
Spain. Among the latter is The Trinity from the altarpiece painted for Santo Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo, one of
the first works that El Greco executed after he moved to Toledo; the five great canvases from the Altarpiece of the
Colegio de Doña María de Aragon; and the famous Knight with his hand on his Breast, along with a fine group of
other portraits.
Among early naturalist works are outstanding paintings by Ribalta, Maino and Herrera the Elder. Also dating from
this period are various important still lifes, such as Game Fowl, Fruit and Vegetables by Sánchez Cotán, and the
group of works by Juan van der Hamen that was enriched in 2006 by the acquisition of the Naseiro Collection.

Baroque painting

Represented by almost 50 works, more than one third of his total

output, Velázquez is the towering genius of this period in the Prado's
collection. Among his most popular paintings in the collection is The
Adoration of the Magi from his Sevillian phase. From his period as
Court Painter are the portraits of Philip IV, Prince Baltasar Carlos, the
Infante Don Carlos and Queen Mariana of Austria, together with a
sizeable collection of portraits of court dwarves such as Pablo de
Valladolid. Also dating from the artist's years in the service of Philip
IV are various "history" paintings including Los Borrachos, Vulcan's
Forge and The Surrender of Breda, in addition to two major
compositions from the end of his life, namely The Fable of Arachne
(The Spinners) and Las Meninas. The 1743 Family of Philip V is here.

Highly important works are also to be seen by the other figures of the
Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, is the
museum's most famous work of art. Spanish Golden Age: Ribera, Murillo, Zurbarán and Alonso Cano.
Like Velázquez, Ribera is represented by around 50 paintings, among
them masterpieces such as Jacob and Esau and The Martyrdom of Saint Philip. Murillo is represented in the Prado
by around 40 paintings, some as celebrated as The Good Shepherd, The Holy Family with the Bird and The
Immaculate Conception of los Venerables (The "Soult" Immaculate Conception). Zurbarán is also represented by a
collection of works including Saint Elizabeth of Portugal and two paintings from the series on "The Life of Saint
Pedro Nolasco" from the Cloister of the Merced Calzada in Seville. The same can be said of Alonso Cano,
represented by paintings such as The Dead Christ supported by an Angel.

The Prado has numerous religious paintings from the 17th-century Madrid school, including works by Fray Juan
Ricci, Pereda, Francisco de Herrera el Mozo and Claudio Coello, as well as some magnificent portraits by Carreño
de Miranda. Other 17th-century Spanish schools are represented, such as the Sevillian, which includes examples of
the work of Valdés Leal.
Museo del Prado 193

Goya and 18th-century painting

More than 140 paintings by Francisco de Goya offer the visitor to the
Prado the chance to analyse the artist's development in considerable
depth. Goya's art arises from the Spanish tradition and Velázquez was
his master, as he himself said. Goya was a brilliant and unique artist on
a level with the other great masters of painting and far above his
contemporaries in Spain. Among the most important works by the
artist in the collection of the Museo del Prado are the tapestry cartoons
The Parasol and The Crockery Vendor, and portraits of The Duke and
Duchess of Osuna and their Children, The Countess of Chinchón, Don
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, The Family of Charles IV and The
Charles IV of Spain and His Family, 1800-1801,
Marchioness of Santa Cruz. In addition there are the two Maja by Francisco de Goya
paintings, which have acquired near-iconic status. Goya as a history
painter is represented by major works such as The Assault on the Mamelukes and The Executions on Príncipe Pío,
better known as The Second and Third of May, respectively. Among works from the last two periods of Goya's career
are the Black Paintings, executed in Madrid, and The Milkmaid of Bordeaux, which the artist completed during his
final years when he lived in that French city.

Also forming part of the 18th-century Spanish collection is a large group of still lifes by Luis Melédez; small,
cabinet paintings by Paret y Alcázar such as The Masked Ball and Charles III eating before the Court; tapestry
cartoons by the Bayeu brothers; and other paintings such as Antonio Carnicero's The Ascent of a Montgolfier Balloon
in Aranjuez.

19th-century painting
Goya's influence on 19th-century Spanish painting can be seen in various works by Eugenio Lucas and Leonardo
Alenza such as Prisoners Condemned by the Inquisition and The Spanking.
Outstanding among historical works are various compositions such as The Death of Viriato by Madrazo, The
Testament of Isabel the Catholic by Eduardo Rosales, and Juana la Loca before the Tomb of her Husband by
Francisco Pradilla.
The 19th-century portrait collection is extremely extensive and includes some outstanding works. Among the most
important are Vicente López's Portrait of Goya, Federico de Madrazo's The Countess of Vilches, and Esquivel's The
Contemporary Poets.
The most important group within the landscape section comprises more than 80 works by Carlos de Haes. Also well
represented is Péréz Villaamil with his Romantic landscapes.
The Museum has some extremely fine paintings by Fortuny including Fantasy on ‘Faust’ and Nude on the Beach at
Portici. Also worth noting are the works by Sorolla in the collection. These allow for a study of his stylistic
development, from the dark tonality of And they still say Fish is dear! to the better known Luminist style of Boys on
the Beach.
Museo del Prado 194

Italian painting
In terms of quality and quantity the Prado's collection of Italian paintings, numbering more than 1,000 works, is
second only to its Spanish holdings. Many of these works were formerly in the royal collection.
There were few examples of 14th- and 15th-century Italian painting in the royal collection as this was a less
appreciated area until the 19th century. For this reason it is not as well represented in the Museum, although there are
a small number of great 15th-century masterpieces by Fra Angelico, Mantegna, Antonello da Messina and Botticelli,
which entered the collection by different routes.

Christ Washing the Disciples' Feet, by Tintoretto, oil on canvas (c. 1548).

16th-century painting comprises a more coherent and complete group, mainly originating from the royal collection.
Venetian art of this date is the best represented among the various Italian schools. As a result of his commissions
from Charles V and Philip II, Titian became the Habsburg painter par excellence. The Prado possesses more than 40
paintings by Titian alone, as well as exceptional works by Veronese, Tintoretto and the Bassano. The extraordinary
group of works by Raphael acquired by Philip IV initiated a new taste for that artist, who replaced Titian in Bourbon
eyes and became the favourite of the new dynasty. Also represented in the Prado are other great masters such as
Correggio and Parmigianino of the School of Parma, Sebastiano del Piombo of the Roman School and Andrea del
Sarto of the Florentine.
The collection of 17th- and 18th-century Italian paintings is also one of the most extensive in the Museum and once
again the royal collection accounts for most of them. Many works arrived through the negotiations undertaken by
Spanish ambassadors and viceroys in Rome and Naples who were instructed to secure paintings to decorate the Buen
Retiro Palace, built in the 17th century. Another important group is due to the presence of Italian artists in Italy such
as Luca Giordano, Corrado Giaquinto and Giambattista Tiepolo.

The 15th and 16th centuries

Museo del Prado 195

The Annunciation, 1430-1432, by Fra Angelico.

Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, 1548, by Titian.

The Museo del Prado has various Italian paintings from the 15th century, such as The Death of the Virgin by
Mantegna, acquired for Philip IV, The Annunciation by Fra Angelico, and Scenes from the Story of Nastagio degli
Onesti by Botticelli. Also worthy of mention is The Dead Christ supported by an Angel by Antonello da Messina,
whose purchase in 1966 signified an important addition to the collection due to the work's outstanding quality.
The 16th-century paintings include the Raphael collection, with compositions such as The Holy Family with the
Lamb, The Virgin of the Fish and Portrait of a Cardinal. The Venetian school, which is one of the strengths of the
Prado's collection, includes a group of works by Titian including Charles V at Mühlberg, The Worship of Venus,
Danäe, Venus and Adonis and the artist's Self-portrait. Notable works by Veronese are Venus and Adonis, Moses
rescued from the Nile, and Christ among the Doctors, while important works by Tintoretto include Christ washing
the Disciples’ Feet and the seven paintings of Old Testament scenes purchased by Velázquez during his second
Italian trip.
Other well represented Italian artists of this period are Correggio with the Noli me tangere, and Andrea del Sarto
with The Virgin and Child between Saint Matthew and an Angel. The Prado also has pantings by Parmigianino,
Sebastiano del Piombo and the Bassano.

The 17th century

The Museum has one work by Caravaggio, David defeating Goliath, as well as various by his followers, including
Orazio Gentileschi who developed towards a clearly Venetian style, as evident in Moses rescued from the Nile.
The most important artist of the Bolognese School, Annibale Carracci, is well represented in the Museum with
Venus, Adonis' and Cupid. Other artists from this school include the classicising Guido Reni, present with works
such as Hippomenes and Atalanta and Saint Sebastian, and Guercino, with Susannah and the Elders and Saint Peter
freed by the Angel.
The Prado has a large collection of paintings by the Neapolitan artist Luca Giordano. They number around 80 and
span his entire career from his early years in Italy with paintings such as Rubens painting the Allegory of Peace to
late works from the end of his Spanish years such as Charles II on Horseback, The prudent Abigail and The Capture
of a Fortress.
Museo del Prado 196

The 18th century

The Prado has an collection of 18th-century Italian landscapes and a number of paintings depicting events related to
the Spanish royal family. These include a View of the Palace of Aranjuez by Francesco Battaglioli, and The
Embarkation of Charles III in Naples by Antonio Joli. The group of three compositions with ruins by Pāṇini is worth
singling out.
A small but interesting group of Grand Tour portraits should be mentioned. These include Francis Basset, Ist Baron
Dunstanville, and George Legge, Viscount Lewisham, both by Batoni.
Among the extensive group of works by Corrado Giaquinto in the Prado, worth separate mention are the preparatory
oil sketch for the fresco in the Royal Palace in Madrid entitled The Birth of the Sun and the Triumph of Bacchus, and
the allegorical composition of Justice and Peace.
Among the best examples of works by the Tiepolo family in the Prado's collection are Giambattista Tiepolo's
Immaculate Conception, the eight canvases on the Passion from the Madrid church of San Felipe Neri by his son
Giandomenico, and various pastel portraits by another son Lorenzo.

Flemish painting
After the Spanish School, the Flemish School is almost comparable to
the Italian in terms of quality and quantity. It comprises more than
1,000 paintings and, again like the Spanish paintings, most have a
provenance from the royal collection. 15th- and 16th-century painting
is a particularly well-represented area within the Museum. While the
Low Countries formed part of the Spanish Crown from the 16th
century, Philip's II's interest in earlier Flemish Primitive paintings
meant that the monarch acquired various masterpieces by its most
important artists, from Rogier van der Weyden to Bosch, as well as
works by later artists such as Patinir. In addition, mention should be Descent of Christ from the Cross, by Rogier van
made of Flemish and Netherlandish artists who worked for the king, der Weyden (1435)

such as the Netherlandish portrait painter Antonis Mor. The Prado,

however, lacks paintings by some of the important artists of the Flemish school, for example Jan van Eyck and Hugo
van der Goes

The southern provinces of the Low Countries remained under Spanish

rule after the separation of the northern provinces (modern-day
Holland) in 1581. Thereforethe Prado possess works by the leading
17th-century Flemish painters, who were subjects of the Spanish
Crown. The group of paintings by Rubens is of outstanding
importance, numbering more than 90, many of them true masterpieces
and some executed in Spain during the two visits that the artist made in
1603 and 1628.

Paintings by Rubens’ followers Van Dyck and Jordaens complete the

holdings of the leading names of 17th-century Flemish painting, which
also include paintings by Jan Brueghel the Elder, Paul de Vos and
David Teniers the Younger.

The Three Graces, by Rubens (1636-1638).

Museo del Prado 197

The 15th and 16th centuries

The Museo del Prado does not possess a work by Jan van Eyck, the greatest master of the Flemish School, but it
does have an exceptionally interesting painting entitled The Fountain of Grace executed in the master's workshop by
a close pupil.
Two works by Robert Campin, who initiated the 15th-century Flemish style, should be mentioned: Saint John the
Baptist and the Franciscan Theologian Heinrich von Werl and Saint Barbara. His pupil, Rogier van der Weyden, is
represented in the Prado by two of his most important masterpieces, The Descent from the Cross and The Virgin and
Child. Magnificent works by other leading 15th-century Flemish painters in the Museum include the Triptych on the
Life of Christ by Dirk Bouts and The Adoration of the Magi Triptych by Hans Memling, as well as the panel of The
Rest on the Flight into Egypt by Gerard David.
The Flemish Primitive School culminates in the Prado's collection with
the superb collection of panel paintings by Hieronymous Bosch, the
largest in any single public collection and, most importantly, the
collection that includes the greatest number of major works by this
painter from s’Hertogenbosch. These include the three triptychs of The
Garden of Earthly Delights, The Adoration of the Magi and The
Haywain, and The Tabletop of the Seven Deadly Sins.
The Garden of Earthly Delights, by Bosch
Among 16th-century Flemish painting a notable place is occupied by (1503-1504)
the four panels by Joachim Patinir, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt,
Landscape with Saint Jerome, Charon crossing the Styx, and The Temptations of Saint Anthony, painted in
collaboration with Quintin Massys. As in the case of Bosch, this group is the largest and most important one by the
artist to be found in any museum.
Among the 16th-century Flemish paintings in the Museo del Prado are various masterpieces by major artists. These
include Quintin Massys’ Ecce Homo, Barend van Orley's Holy Family, Christ between the Virgin and Saint John by
Gossaert and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Among genre paintings, notable works are those by
Marinus Reymerswaele and Jan Sanders van Hemessen.
Portraits of this period in the Prado include the magnificent series by Anthonis Mor, most notably the Portrait of
Mary Tudor and The Court Jester Pejerón. They can be considered high points of this genre in the 16th century and
in particular within court portraiture, along with those by Titian.

The 17th century

The collection of over 90 paintings by Rubens includes a large number of his masterpieces, among them The
Adoration of the Magi, Adam, Eve, The Holy Family with Saint Anne, Marie de’Medici, The Duke of Lerma, The
Three Graces, The Judgement of Paris, and The Garden of Love. Other works are the collaborative compositions
executed by Rubens with other artists such as the series on the Five Senses which involved the participation of Jan
"Velvet" Brueghel.
The collection of portraits by Van Dyck is exceptional, particularly Sir Endymion Porter and Van Dyck, and Martin
Ryckaert among the male portraits and Diana Cecil, Countess of Oxford and Maria Ruthwen among the female ones.
Of the paintings by Jacob Jordaens in the Museum, the most notable are Three strolling Musicians, The Wedding of
Thetis and Peleus and the splendid Family Portrait.
The most important genre painter of this school and period is David Teniers, of whom the Prado owns more than 50
paintings. Among animal painters particular attention should be paid to Frans Snyders and Paul de Vos, while Clara
Peeters and Daniel Seghers are notable for their still lifes.
Museo del Prado 198

French painting
The French School is the fourth best represented in the Prado after the Spanish, Italian and Flemish. With more than
300 paintings, mainly from the Spanish royal collection, it offers an incomplete but interesting overview of French
paintings from the 16th to the early 19th centuries. Best represented within this group are the 17th and 18th
centuries. As in the case of the other foreign schools, historical events and the artistic taste of the Spanish monarchs
determined the presence of these works in greater or lesser numbers in the various royal residences. A number of
paintings by Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorraine, the leading French, classicising painters, were directly
commissioned from the artists during the reign of Philip IV to decorate the Buen Retiro Palace.
In the 18th century the reign of Philip V marked the start of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain and French art became
more appreciated by royal collectors. Various French artists worked for the first Bourbon monarch, such as
Michel-Ange Houasse, Jean Ranc and Louis-Michel van Loo. A considerable number of works also arrived from
France at this time or were acquired on the international market, including paintings by Watteau, Coypel and Rigaud.

German painting

Self-portrait (1498).

Adam and Eve (1507)

Despite the close relationship between Spain and the Holy Roman Empire during the period of the Habsburgs, the
German School is minimally represented in the Prado's collection. Nonetheless, among its holdings, which mostly
come from the former royal collection, there are various key works by Albrecht Dürer, the most important German
artist of this period. In addition, the German School collection includes 18th-century paintings by Anton Raphael
Mengs, Court Painter to Charles III and another leading name in German art.
With regard to the 16th century, the Prado has four works by Dürer: a Self-portrait, Adam and Eve, and Portrait of
an Unknown Man, all of which came to the Alcázar in Madrid during the reign of Philip IV. With a provenance
dating back to Philip II's collection are the two panels by Hans Baldung Grien, 'Harmony or The Three Graces and
The Ages of Man, and two works by Lucas Cranach the Elder: Hunt in Honour of Charles V at the Castle of Torgau
and Hunt in Honour of Ferdinand I, King of the Romans, at the Castle of Torgau.
The largest number of 18th-century German paintings in the collection are by Mengs, and visitors can see Spanish,
Neapolitan and Tuscan court portraits by this artist, some of them depicting royal children, as well as a Self-portrait
and various religious compositions.
Museo del Prado 199

Dutch painting
The Museo del Prado possesses almost 200 paintings of the
17th-century Dutch School. It lacks works by the most important artists
such as Vermeer and Frans Hals but taken together this group offers an
overview of the different trends within this school. Due to historical
circumstances and the hostility (at times open war) between the House
of Orange and the Spanish Crown following their split in 1581, few
Dutch works arrived in Spain in the 17th century, as might be
expected. Most of the paintings in the Prado come from the former
royal collection and almost all were acquired in the 18th century.
Notable among them is Rembrandt's Artemisia, purchased during the
reign of Charles III.
Artemisia by Rembrandt, oil on canvas (1634).
The Museum has various paintings by Matthias Stomer and Salomon
de Bray, including The Incredulity of Saint Thomas and Judith and Holofernes, as well as still lifes by the most
important artists of the Haarlem School: Pieter Claesz, Willem Claesz Heda, and Jan Davidsz de Heem.
Dutch genre painting is represented by Philips Wouwerman and Adriaen van Ostade. The landscape paintings
include various works by Jan Both, Herman van Swanevelt and Jacob van Ruisdael.
An example of an intimately expressed portrait is Gerard Ter Borch's Portrait of Petronella de Waert, while animal
painting, one of the most characteristic Dutch genres, is represented by Gabriel Metsu's Dead Cockerel.

British painting
For historical reasons, British painting is the least well represented area in the Prado's collection. Political conflicts
between Spain and England from the 16th century until the early 20th century, limited contact between the
aristocratic families of the two countries, and a lack of royal alliances prior to the wedding of Alfonso XIII all
impeded appreciation of British art in Spain. Nonetheless, the Prado has a group of works which, although small in
number, are of fine quality and were mostly acquired in the 20th century. Most are portraits painted in the second
half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th, by Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney and Hoppner. The
best-represented portraitist is undoubtedly Thomas Lawrence, with significant works such as the portraits of John
Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland, Miss Martha Carr and A Lady from the Storer Family.
David Roberts, who is an important artist due to his associations with Spanish Romanticism, is present in the form of
three paintings: The Torre de Oro, Seville, The Castle of Alcalá de Guadaira and The Interior of the Mosque,

The Prado's sculpture collection numbers more than 900 works, in addition to around 200 fragments. Most are
classical, Renaissance and Baroque sculptures and works from the 18th and 19th centuries, but the Museum also
possesses some Oriental and Medieval pieces.
The first group derives from the royal collection and principally comprises Greco-Roman sculptures in addition to
Renaissance bronzes by artists such as the Leoni, who executed sculpted portraits of the Spanish monarchs in the
16th century. With the importation of sculptures from Italy, the taste for the classical revived in 17th-century Spain.
This was in fact one of the main reasons for Velázquez's second trip to Italy, and during his stay in Rome he was
involved in the selection of works on behalf of Philip IV. Particularly important were the acquisitions made in the
18th century by Philip V and his queen, Isabella Farnese, who purchased the collection of Queen Christina of
Sweden, to which that of José Nicolás de Azara was later added.
Museo del Prado 200

With regard to more recent acquisitions, an important addition was the small but significant group of archaic Greek
sculpture donated by Mario Zayas in 1944, an area not represented by a single work in the Spanish royal collection.
Two sculptures of Epimetheus and Pandora by El Greco are also recent acquisitions for the collection.

Greek sculpture
The Prado has two original works from the Archaic period, one of
which is a 6th-century BC kouros.
Fifth-century classicism can be studied through Roman copies of
Greek sculptures by Phidias, Polyclitus, Myron and Callimachus.
These include the Athena Parthenos, a magnificent miniature copy of
the great image that Phidias created for the Parthenon in Athens; a
copy of Myron's Athena from the group of Athena and Marsyas; a
copy of Polyclitus's magnificent Diadumenos; and a copy of the four
Maenad reliefs by Callimachus.
Fourth-century BC classicism is represented by Roman copies of the
best artists of the period: the magnificent Head of the Cnidian Venus,
the Satyr in Repose by Praxitiles, Scopas's Hercules, and the Head of
Silenus and Head of Hercules by Lysippus.
The Prado has numerous works from the Hellenistic period, all Roman
copies apart from the Head of Diadocus, which is possibly Greek.
Particularly fine examples among these copies are the Faun with Kid
from the Pergamene School, which is the only known copy of the
Greek original. Other notable works are the Hipnus, Ariadne, and a
Greek horse head from the Archaic Period.
sizeable group of Hellenistic Venuses of various types: Crouching
Sculpted in marble towards 515 BC.
Venus, Venus with the Dolphin, The Venus of Madrid, Venus with an
Apple, and Venus with a Cockle Shell.

Roman sculpture
Museo del Prado 201

The Saint Ildefonso Group is one of the best examples of Neo-Attic

eclecticism produced in the first decades of the Roman Empire.
Another exceptional piece is The Apotheosis of Claudius, which stands
on a Baroque pedestal.
The collection of Roman portraits is extensive. On display are three
representative works of the three main iconographic models used to
represent the emperor: Augustus in a Toga, symbolising the emperor's
religious and civil power; Figure in a Cuirass, presented as the leader
of the armies; and Augustus or Tiberius in heroic Nude, depicted as a
divinity after death.

A sizeable group of male and female busts, including Augustus,

Antoninus Pius, Clodius Albinus and Vibia Sabina indicate the interest
in capturing the sitter's personality evident in Roman art of this period.
Large-scale sculptures of the type characteristic of cult images are also
to be found in the collection, including Jupiter and Neptune, as well as Bust of Vibia Sabina, sculpted in marble around
various mythological reliefs, among them the Bacchic Altar, a 130 AD.

Neo-Attic work of the late Hellenic period, and the Sarcophagus with
the Story of Achilles and Polyxena.

The sixteenth century

The Prado, considers the finest examples of Renaissance sculptures in
the museum to be the group of full-length portraits, busts and reliefs of
Charles V and his family: the Empress Elizabeth, their son Philip II
and Charles's sisters, Mary of Hungary and Leonora of Austria.[4]
These bronzes and marbles portraits were created by the Italian
sculptor Leone Leoni and his son Pompeo Leoni. The group include
the legendary bronze of Charles V and the Fury.

The collection also includes other works by various Spanish sculptors,

such as the Venus by Bartolomeo Ammanati and the alabaster relief of
the Allegory of Francisco I de’Medici by Giambologna.
El Greco's sculptures of Epimetheus and Pandora are particularly
significant due to the importance of the artist and the fact that they are
one of the very few known examples of sculpted nudes of a
mythological type produced in Spain during the time of the Council of
Sculpture of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, by Trent.
Leone and Pompeo Leoni (1500–1558). Made of
bronze towards 1553.
17th and 18th centuries
The Museum has two works commissioned by Velázquez from Matteo Bonarelli de Lucca during his second trip to
Italy. These are the bronze lions that support various pietra dura panels converted into tables, and the
Hermaphrodite, a copy of a classical work that was in a Roman collection. The collection also includes a copy by an
unknown artist of the famous classical sculpture The Spinario.
The Prado also has a series of sculpted equestrian portraits of small size depicting various Spanish monarchs. Those
of Philip IV by Pietro Tacca and Charles II by Foggini date from the 17th century, while Philip V by Lorenzo
Vaccaro is an 18th-century work.
Museo del Prado 202

The Museo del Prado also has an collection of drawings representative of various schools and dating from the 15th to
the 19th centuries. The collection is made up of a core group originally from the Spanish royal collection to which
3,000 or so works from the Pedro Fernández Durán Bequest were subsequently added, along with various
subsequent additions and the occasional donation. As a result, the drawings collection now numbers over 8,200

Spanish drawings
The Spanish school is the best represented among the Museum's holdings of drawings, with works dating from the
late Medieval period to the Modern Age.
A notable 15th-century drawing is the project for the altarpiece on the high altar of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo,
attributed to Juan Guas. The collection of 16th-century drawings is larger and includes works by the Valencian
painter Juan de Juanes and painters from El Escorial such as Bartolomé Carducho and Patricio Cajés.
The 17th-century drawings include magnificent sheets by Alonso Cano, Ribera, Valdés Leal, Ribalta, Vicente
Carducho, Eugenio Cajés, Pereda, Claudio Coello and Palomino.
However, it is the 18th century that is best represented, both in terms of number and quality. In addition to the very
large group of more than 400 drawings by Francisco Bayeu, there are also drawings by other leading painters such as
Ramón Bayeu, Salvador Maella, González Ruiz and Paret y Alcázar.
Without doubt, however, the most important and celebrated part of the Prado's drawings collection is the large group
of works by Goya, numbering more than 500. Albums and series such as the Sanlúcar Album, the Madrid Album,
The Disasters of War, The Tauromaquia and The Proverbs mean that it is possible to study the artist's stylistic
Goya's influence is to be seen in the numerous drawings in the collection by Zapata, Alenza and Lucas. The group of
drawings by Carlos de Haes is magnificent, more than 130 of which came from the Museo del Arte Moderno in
addition to the album with a further 22 sheets purchased in 2005. In addition to the names mentioned above, there is
a significant group of 19th-century drawings by artists such as Fortuny, Vicente López, Federico de Madrazo, Pérez
Villaamil and Eduardo Rosales.

Other schools
The Italian School is very well represented in the collection with a large number of drawings dating from the Early
Renaissance to the onset of Neo-classicism. There are almost 650 drawings dating from the 16th century,
outstanding among which are two by Michelangelo, Study of a Man's right Arm and Study of a right Shoulder and
Chest, re-discovered and attributed to the artist in 2004. In addition there are drawings by artists of the status of
Pablo Veronese, Giulio Romano, Luca Cambiaso, Il Bergamesco and Naldini.
The 17th century is represented by important examples by some of the leading painters of the time such as Annibale
Carracci, Guido Reni, Guercino and Luca Giordano.
Among 18th-century drawings the Prado has magnificent pastels by Lorenzo Tiepolo, as well as very interesting
works by Giambattista Tiepolo, Giaquinto, Batoni and Bibiena.
Drawings from other schools such as the Flemish, French and German comprise a smaller group but there are
significant works by Rubens, Jordanes, Teniers, Corneille Blanchard and Mengs.
Museo del Prado 203

The print collection numbers around 4,800 works of which more than 600 came from the library of José María
Cervello, recently acquired by the Museum.
As in the case of the drawings, the most important prints in the Prado's collection are by Goya. The Museum has
prints from his first series, The Paintings of Velázquez, and from later ones such as The Caprichos, The Disasters of
War, The Tauromaquia and The Disparates.
Other prints worthy of mention are those by Mariano Fortuny, many of them related to his period in Morocco, the
two series of the Essays in Etching by Carlos de Haes and various works by Joaquín Pi i Margall, namely, The Iliad,
The Odyssey, The Days and The Theogony or The Divine Comedy.
Various artists collaborated on the collections of The Paintings from the Casón del Bueno Retiro, The Lithographic
Collection of the Paintings of the King of Spain, Selected Paintings from the Real Academia de San Fernando and
The Etcher.
Among prints by non-Spanish artists, the Museum has four by Dürer: Hercules at the Crossroads, The Penance of
Saint John Chrysostom, The Four Angels holding back the Winds, and Saint Michael defeating the Dragon, the last
two from the Apocalypse series.
The Prado also has prints by Anthony van Dyck, Annibale Carracci, Rembrandt and Giambattista Tiepolo. By the
latter the Museum has the set of ten prints from the Vari Capricci published in 1785.

The building that is now the home of the Museo Nacional del Prado was designed on the orders of Charles III in
1785 by the architect Juan de Villanueva in order to house the Natural History Cabinet. Nonetheless, the building's
final function was not decided until the monarch's grandson, Ferdinand VII, encouraged by his wife, Queen María
Isabel de Braganza, decided to use it as a new Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures. The Royal Museum,
which would soon become known as the National Museum of Painting and Sculpture and subsequently the Museo
Nacional del Prado, opened to the public for the first time in November 1819. It was created with the double aim of
showing the works of art that belonged to the Spanish Crown and to demonstrate to the rest of Europe that Spanish
art was of equal merit to any other national school. The first catalogue of the Museum, published in 1819 and solely
devoted to Spanish painting, included 311 paintings, although at that time the Museum housed 1,510 from the
various Reales Sitios [royal residences] including works from other schools. The exceptionally important royal
collection, which forms the nucleus of the present-day Museo del Prado, started to increase significantly in the 16th
century during the time of Charles V and continued under the succeeding Habsburg and Bourbon monarchs. Their
efforts and determination meant that the Royal Collection was enriched by some of the masterpieces now to be seen
in the Prado. These include The Descent from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden, The Garden of Earthly Delights
by Hieronymous Bosch, Knight with his Hand on his Breast by El Greco, The Death of the Virgin by Mantegna, The
Holy Family, known as "La Perla", by Raphael, Charles V at Mülhberg by Titian, Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet
by Tintoretto, Dürer's Self-portrait, Las Meninas by Velázquez, The Three Graces by Rubens, and The Family of
Charles IV by Goya.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with
further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been
added to that of the Prado were the Museo del la Trinidad in 1872, and the Museo de Arte Moderno in 1971. In
addition, numerous legacies, donations and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the
Various works entered the Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad, including The Fountain of Grace by the School of
Van Eyck, the Santo Domingo and San Pedro Martír altarpieces painted for the monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila
by Pedro Berruguete, and the five canvases by El Greco executed for the Colegio de doña María de Aragón.
Museo del Prado 204

Most of the Museum's 19th-century paintings come from the former Museo de Arte Moderno, including works by
the Madrazo, Vicente López, Carlos de Haes, Rosales and Sorolla.
Upon the deposition of Isabella II in 1868, the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of "Museo del
Prado". The building housed the royal collection of arts, and it rapidly proved too small. The first enlargement to the
museum took place in 1918.
The main building was enlarged with short pavilions in the back between
1900 and 1960. The next enlargement was the incorporation of two buildings
(nearby but not adjacent) into the institutional structure of the museum: the
Casón del Buen Retiro which housed the bulk of the 20th century art from
1971 to 1997, and the Salon de Reinos (Throne building), formerly the Army

The last enlargement (2007), designed by architect Rafael Moneo, is an

underground building which connects the main building to another one
entirely reconstructed.
During the Spanish Civil War, upon the recommendation of the League of
Nations, the museum staff removed 353 paintings, 168 drawings and the
Dauphin's Treasure and sent the art to Valencia, then later to Girona, and
One of the main promenade entrances to finally to Geneva. The art had to be returned across French territory in night
the Prado is dominated by this bronze
trains to the museum upon the commencement of World War II.
statue of Diego Velázquez.
Since the creation of the Museo del Prado more than 2,300 paintings have
been incorporated into its collection, as well as a large number of sculptures, prints, drawings and works of art
through bequests, donations and purchases, which account for most of the New Acquisitions. Numerous bequests
have enriched the Museum's holdings, such as the outstanding collection of medals left to the Museum by Pablo
Bosch; the drawings and items of decorative art left by Pedro Fernández Durán as well as Van der Weyden's
masterpiece, The Virgin and Child; and the Ramón de Errazu bequest of 19th-century paintings. Particularly
important donations include Barón Emile d'Erlanger's gift of Goya's Black Paintings in 1881. Among the numerous
works that have entered the collection through purchase are some outstanding ones acquired in recent years
including two works by El Greco, The Fable and The Flight into Egypt acquired in 1993 and 2001, Goya's Countess
of Chinchón bought in 2000, and Velázquez's portrait of The Pope's Barber acquired in 2003.

In 2007, the Museum executed the Moneo's project to expand its exposition room to 16,000 square meters, hoping to
increase the yearly number of visitors from 1.8 million to 2.5 million. The 16th-century Cloister of Jerónimo has
been removed stone by stone to make foundations for increased stability of surrounding buildings and will be
re-assembled in the new museum's extension. Hydraulic jacks had to be used to prevent the basement walls from
falling during construction.[5]
Museo del Prado 205

Historic structure
The Museo del Prado is one of the buildings constructed during
the reign of Charles III (Carlos III) as part of a grandiose
building scheme designed to bestow upon Madrid a monumental
urban space. The building that lodges the Museum of the Prado
was initially conceived by José Moñino y Redondo, conde de
Floridablanca and was commissioned in 1785 by Charles III for
the reurbanización of the Paseo del Prado. To this end, Charles
III called on one of its favorite architects, Juan de Villanueva,
author also of the nearby Botanical Garden and the City Hall of
Madrid.[6] The prado ("meadow") that was where the museum
now stands gave its name to the area, the Salón del Prado (later Gate of Goya in the north facade of the museum.
Paseo del Prado), and to the museum itself upon nationalisation.
Work on the building stopped at the conclusion of Charles III's reign and throughout the Peninsular War and was
only initiated again during the reign of Charles III's grandson, Ferdinand VII. The structure was used as headquarters
for the cavalry and a gunpowder-store for the Napoleonic troops based in Madrid during the War of Independence.

Nearby museums
Very close to the Prado, the Villahermosa Palace houses the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, the bulk of whose
collection was originally privately gathered and not part of the state collection, but which well serves to fill the gaps
and weaknesses of the Prado's collection, such as Dutch and German painting; the Thyssen Bornemisza has been
controlled as part of the Prado system since 1985.[7]
Near the Museo del Prado are two other national museums: the Museo Arqueológico houses some art of Ancient
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome formerly in the Prado Collection; the Museo Reina Sofía houses
20th-century artwork. These two museums supplement the Prado, as do the Buen Retiro and Thyssen-Bornemisza
Museum (all within a short walk of each other).

The serial Directors of the Prado have affected its development.
• Diego Angulo Íñiguez, 1968-1970.[8]
• Xavier de Salas, 1970-1978.[9]
• José Manuel Pita Andrade
• Francisco Calvo Serraller, 1993-1994.[10]
• Jose Maria Luzon Nogué
• Alfonso y Pérez Sánchez
• Fernando Checa, 1997-2002.[11]
• Miguel Zugaza, 2002- present.[12]
Museo del Prado 206

Works of art

The Holy The Knight The Surrender of Breda, Agnus Dei, 1635-1640, by
Trinity, with His Hand 1634-1635, by Diego Francisco Zurbarán
1577–1579, on His Breast, Velázquez
by El c. 1580, by El
Greco Greco

La Inmaculada de Soult, 1678,

by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo

The Prado in Google Earth

In 2009, the Prado Museum selected 14 of its most important paintings to be displayed in Google Earth and Google
Maps at extremely high resolution, with the largest displayed at 14,000 megapixels. The images' zoom capability
allows for close-up views of paint texture and fine detail.[13] [14] The displayed paintings are:
• Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez
• The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch
• The Descent from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden
• Artemisia by Rembrandt
• Self Portrait by Albrecht Dürer
• The Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya
• The Nobleman with his Hand on his Chest by El Greco
• Portrait of a Cardinal by Raphael
• Emperor Charles V on Horseback by Titian
• Jacob's Dream by José de Ribera
• The Immaculate Conception by Giambattista Tiepolo
• The Annunciation by Fra Angelico
• Crucifixion by Juan de Flandes
• The Three Graces by Peter Paul Rubens
Museo del Prado 207

[1] "Exhibition and museum attendance figures 2009" (http:/ / www. theartnewspaper. com/ attfig/ attfig09. pdf). London: The Art Newspaper.
April 2010. . Retrieved 20 May 2010.
[2] http:/ / www. museodelprado. es
[3] Prado website (http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ en/ ingles/ collection/ description/ ). See also Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas,
1996, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, No ISBN, which lists about 7,800 paintings. Many works have been passed to the Museo
Reina Sofia and other museums over the years; others are on loan or in storage. On the new displays, see El Prado se reordena y agranda. here (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. europapress. es/ cultura/ noticia-museo-prado-reordena-agranda-20090302171352. html)
[4] http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ en/ the-collection/ sculpture/ the-sixteenth-century/
[5] "Chronology of the expansion" (http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ en/ ingles/ the-extension/ chronology-of-the-extension/ ). . Retrieved
[6] Chronology of Museo del Prado, 1785 (http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ index. php?id=904)(Spanish)
[7] Museo del Prado Articles and Information (http:/ / neohumanism. org/ m/ mu/ museo_del_prado. html)
[8] Sánchez, Alfonso y Pérez. "Angulo Íñiguez, Diego," (http:/ / www. museodelprado. es/ enciclopedia/ enciclopedia-on-line/ voz/
angulo-iniguez-diego/ ) Enciclopedia Online, Museo Nacional del Prado (Spain), retrieved 2011-05-07
[9] "Xavier de Salas," (http:/ / www. biografiasyvidas. com/ biografia/ s/ salas_xavier. htm) Biografias y vidas (Spain), retrieved 2011-05-07
[10] Riding, Alan. "The Prado Loses Another Director," (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1994/ 05/ 16/ arts/ the-prado-loses-another-director. html)
New York Times (US). May 16, 1994, retrieved 2011-05-07
[11] Tremlett, Giles. "Prado director is hung out to dry," (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2001/ dec/ 15/ gilestremlett) The Guardian (UK).
15 December 2001; "Spanish museum director quits," (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 1691151. stm) BBC News (UK). 4
December 2001, retrieved 2011-05-07.
[12] Titova, Irina. "The Hermitage wears Prado," (http:/ / www. sptimes. ru/ story/ 33652) The St. Petersburg Times (Russia). March 2, 2011,
retrieved 2011-05-07; Tremlett, 15 December 2001.
[13] Giles Tremlett (14 January 2009), "Online gallery zooms in on Prado's masterpieces (even the smutty bits)" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/
artanddesign/ 2009/ jan/ 14/ museums-internet-google-earth-prado), The Guardian,
[14] "The Prado in Google Earth" (http:/ / www. google. com/ intl/ en/ landing/ prado/ ). . Retrieved 2009-01-24.

External links
• Museo del Prado website (
• Prado's online Shop (
• Museo del Prado, the 15 main paintings (
• The Prado Museum - History and Photos (
• Works of Art Owned by the Prado (
• The Prado Museum - Description and Photos (
• Information about the Prado museum (map, price, contact, opening hours, etc.) (
• Prado in Google Earth, extra high resolution (
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía 208

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

Museo Nacional Centro de
Arte Reina Sofía

Established September 10, 1992

Location Madrid, Spain

Visitor figures 2,087,415 (2009)[1]

• Ranked 2nd nationally

• Ranked 15th globally

Director [2]
Manuel Borja-Villel

Website http:/ / www. museoreinasofia. es

The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS) is the official name of Spain's national museum of
20th century art (informally shortened to the Museo Reina Sofía, Queen Sofia Museum, El Reina Sofia, or simply
The Sofia). The museum was officially inaugurated on September 10, 1992 and is named for Queen Sofia of Spain.
It is located in Madrid, near the Atocha train and metro stations, at the southern end of the so-called Golden Triangle
of Art (located along the Paseo del Prado and also comprising the Museo del Prado and the Museo
The museum is mainly dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's
two greatest 20th century masters, Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí. Certainly the most famous masterpiece in the
museum is Picasso's painting Guernica. The Reina Sofía collection has works by artists such as: Juan Gris, Joan
Miró, Julio González, Eduardo Chillida, Antoni Tàpies, Pablo Gargallo, Pablo Serrano, Lucio Muñoz, Luis Gordillo,
Jorge Oteiza, José Gutiérrez Solana and others.
International artists are few in the collection, but there are works by Robert Delaunay, Yves Tanguy, Man Ray,
Jacques Lipchitz, Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Max Ernst, Richard Serra, Bruce Neuman, Julian Schnabel, Clyford
Still, cubist still lifes by Georges Braque and a large work by Francis Bacon.
It also hosts a free-access library specializing in art, with a collection of over 100,000 books, over 3,500 sound
recordings and almost 1,000 videos.
The central building of the museum was once a 18th century hospital. Extensive modern renovations and additions to
the old building were made starting in 1980. In 1988, portions of the new museum were opened to the public, mostly
in temporary configurations; that same year it was decreed by the Ministry of Culture as a national museum. Its
architectural identity was radically changed in 1989 by Ian Ritchie with the addition of three glass circulation towers.
An 8000 m2 (86,000 ft2) expansion costing €92 million designed by French architect Jean Nouvel opened October
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía 209

[1] "Exhibition and museum attendance figures 2009" (http:/ / www. theartnewspaper. com/ attfig/ attfig09. pdf). London: The Art Newspaper.
April 2010. . Retrieved 20 May 2010.
[2] New Director named (http:/ / www. typicallyspanish. com/ news/ publish/ article_14290. shtml)

Popular culture references

The museum features, as a major protagonist, in Jim Jarmusch's The Limits of Control (2009).

External links
• Official website (http://
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum 210

Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum

Established 1992

Location Paseo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Director Guillermo Solana

Website [1]
http:/ / www. museothyssen. org

The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, or in Spanish Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, is an art museum near the Prado
Museum in Madrid, Spain. It is known as a part of the "Golden Triangle of Art", which also includes the Prado and
the Reina Sofia galleries. The Thyssen-Bornemisza fills the historical gaps in its counterparts' collections: in the
Prado's case this includes Italian primitives and works from the English, Dutch and German schools, while in the
case of the Reina Sofia the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, once the second largest private collection in the world
after the British Royal Collection,[2] includes Impressionists, Expressionists, and European and American paintings
from the second half of the 20th century, with over 1,600 paintings. The competition was won after in 1986 Baron
Thyssen having tried to enlarge his Museum in Villa Favorita and searched for a location in Europe.

The collection started in the 1920s as a private collection by Heinrich, Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kászon
(1875–1947). In a reversal of the movement of European paintings to the United States during this period, one of the
elder Baron's sources was the collections of American millionaires coping with the Great Depression and inheritance
taxes, from which he acquired such exquisite old master paintings as Ghirlandaio's portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni
(once in the Morgan Library) and Carpaccio's Knight (from the collection of Otto Kahn).[2] The collection was later
expanded by Heinrich's son Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza (1921–2002),[3] who assembled most of the
works from his relatives' collections and proceeded to acquire large numbers of new works to produce what is one of
the world's finest private art collections.
In 1985, the Baron married Carmen Cervera (a former Miss Spain 1961) and introduced her to art collecting.
Carmen's influence was decisive in persuading the Baron to decide on the future of his collection and cede the
collection to Spain. The museum was opened in 1992 after an agreement was reached between the Baron and the
Spanish government. A year later, the collection was bought outright.
The Baroness remains involved with the museum. She personally decided the salmon pink tone of the interior walls
and in May 2006 publicly demonstrated against plans of the Mayor of Madrid, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón to redevelop
the Paseo del Prado as she thought the works and traffic would damage the collection and the museum's appearance.
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum 211

The collection
The Old Masters were mainly bought by the elder Baron, while Hans focused more on the 19th and 20th century,
resulting in a collection that spans eight centuries of European painting, without claiming to give an
all-encompassing view but rather a series of highlights.
One of the focal points is the early European painting, with a major collection of trecento and quattrocento (i.e. 14th
and 15th century) Italian paintings by Duccio, and his contemporaries, and works of the early Flemish and Dutch
painters like Jan Van Eyck, Albrecht Dürer, and Hans Holbein. Other highlights include works by the most famous
Renaissance and Baroque painters, including Titian, Sebastiano del Piombo, Caravaggio, Rubens, Van Dyck,
Murillo, Rembrandt and Frans Hals and wonderful portraits by Domenico Ghirlandaio and Vittore Carpaccio. Also
important for the Museum's collection are Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works by artists like Claude Monet,
Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Vincent Van Gogh, as well as twentieth century masterpieces, like a Cubist work
by Picasso or late works by Piet Mondrian and Edward Hopper.
A collection of works from the museum is housed in Barcelona in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya.

[1] http:/ / www. museothyssen. org
[2] Jonathan Kandell, "Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza, Industrialist Who Built Fabled Art Collection, Dies at 81," (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
2002/ 04/ 28/ nyregion/ baron-thyssen-bornemisza-industrialist-who-built-fabled-art-collection-dies-81. html?pagewanted=all) New York
Times, 28 April 2002.
[3] Tomàs, Llorens; Laura Suffield (translator) (1998). Guide to the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (2nd edition ed.). Spain: Lunwerg editores SA.
ISBN 8488474482.

External links
• Official website (http://
• EducaThyssen ( website of the Research and Further Studies Department
• Virtual visit ( in the Google Art Project
Temple of Debod 212

Temple of Debod
The Templo de Debod or Temple of Debod is an ancient
Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid, Spain.
The temple was built originally 15 km south of Aswan[1] in
southern Egypt very close to the first cataract of the Nile and to the
great religious center dedicated to the goddess Isis, in Philae. In
the early 2nd century BC, Adikhalamani (Tabriqo), the Kushite
king of Meroë, started its construction by building a small single
room chapel dedicated to the god Amun.[1] It was built and
decorated on a similar design to the later Meroitic chapel on which
the Temple of Dakka is based.[1] Later, during the reigns of Temple of Debod
Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII and Ptolemy XII of the Ptolemaic
dynasty, it was extended on all four sides to form a small temple,
12 X 15 m, which was dedicated to Isis of Philae. The Roman
emperors Augustus and Tiberius completed its decorations.[2]

From the quay there is a long processional way leads to the

stone-built enclosure wall, through three stone pylon gateways and
finally to the temple itself.[1] The pronaos, which had four
columns with composite capitals collapsed in 1868, and is now
lost.[1] Behind it lay the original sanctuary of Amun, the offering
table room and a later sanctuary with several side-rooms and stairs
to the roof.[1]
The Temple of Debod at night
In 1960, due to the construction of the Great Dam of Aswan and
the consequent threat posed to several monuments and
archeological sites, UNESCO made an international call to save
this rich historical legacy. As a sign of gratitude for the help
provided by Spain in saving the temples of Abu Simbel, the
Egyptian state donated the temple of Debod to Spain in 1968.

The temple was rebuilt in one of Madrid's parks, the Parque del
Oeste, near the royal palace of Madrid, and opened to the public in
1972.[3] The reassembled gateways appear to have been placed in
a different order than when originally erected. Compared to a
photo of the original site, the gateway topped by a serpent flanked Templo de Debod in Egypt before relocation to Spain.
sun appears not to have been the closest gateway to the temple
proper.[4] It constitutes one of the few works of ancient Egyptian architecture which can be seen outside Egypt and
the only one of its kind in Spain.
Temple of Debod 213

[1] Dieter Arnold, Nigel Strudwick & Sabine Gardiner, The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I.B. Tauris Publishers, 2003. p.64
[2] Dieter Arnold, Temples of the Last Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1999. p.193
[3] Arnold, Temples of the Last Pharaohs, p.193
[4] http:/ / digitalgallery. nypl. org/ nypldigital/ dgkeysearchdetail. cfm?trg=1& strucID=110052& imageID=76467& word=col_id%3A179&
s=1& notword=& d=& c=& f=& k=0& lWord=& lField=& sScope=images& sLevel=&
sLabel=The%20Middle%20East%20in%20Early%20Prints%20and%20Photographs& total=9195& num=800& imgs=20& pNum=&

External links
• Ayuntamiento de Madrid |Templo de Debod ( (Spanish)
• 19th century travellers' descriptions and prints of the Debod temple (

Buen Retiro Park

The Jardines del Buen Retiro or Parque del Buen
Retiro (literally "Gardens" or "Park of the Pleasant
Retreat"), or simply El Retiro, is the largest park of the
city of Madrid, capital of Spain. The park belonged to
the Spanish Monarchy until the late 19th century, when
it became a public park.

Buen Retiro Park (Parque del Buen Retiro) is a large
and popular 1.4 km2 (350 acres) park at the edge of the
city center, very close to the Puerta de Alcalá and not
far from the Prado Museum. A magnificent park, filled
with beautiful sculpture and monuments, galleries, a
peaceful lake and host to a variety of events, it is one of
Madrid's premier attractions. The park is entirely
Monument to Alfonso XII
surrounded by the present-day city.

History of the park and palace

In 1505, at the time of Isabella I (r. 1474–1504) the
Jeronimos monastery was moved from an unsuitable
location elsewhere to the present site of San Jeronimo
el Real Church, and a new monastery built in Isabelline
Gothic style. The royal family had a retreat built as part
of the church.

King Philip II (r. 1556–1598) moved the Spanish court

Paseo de la Argentina
to Madrid in 1561. Philip had the Retiro enlarged by
his architect Juan Bautista de Toledo, and formal
avenues of trees were laid out.
Buen Retiro Park 214

The gardens were extended in the 1620s, when Gaspar de Guzmán,

Count-Duke of Olivares, Philip IV's powerful favourite, gave the king
several tracts of land in the vicinity for the Court's recreational use.
Olivares determined to build, in a place that the king liked, a royal
house which should be superior to those villas that Roman nobles had
been setting up in the hilly outskirts of Rome during the previous
century. Although this second royal residence was to be built in what
were then outlying areas of Madrid, it was actually not far from the
existing Alcázar or fortress residence, and the location in a cool,
Crystal Palace
wooded area proved to be ideal.

In the 1630s, under the supervision of architects Giovanni Battista

Crescenzi and Alonso Carbonell, several building were erected in great
haste, two of which are still standing: the "Casón del Buen Retiro"
which served as a ballroom, and the building that today houses the
military museum, the Museo del Ejército, which includes the grand
entrance hall, the "Salón de Reinos" (Hall of Kingdoms), its wall
decorated with paintings by Velázquez and Zurbarán and frescoes by
Luca Giordano.[1]

The Count-Duke of Olivares commissioned the park in the 1630s,

worked on by Cosimo Lotti, a garden designer who had worked under
Bernardo Buontalenti on the layout of the Boboli Gardens for Cosimo
I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Water was a distinguishing trait of the
garden from the outset: the great pond, Estanque del Retiro, which
served as the setting for mock naval battles and other aquatic displays, Fountain of the Falling Angel
(detail), by Ricardo Bellver (1877)
the great canal, the narrow channel, the chamfered or bellflower pond,
created —along with the chapels— the basic layout of the gardens.
Buen Retiro was described as "The world art wonder of the time",
probably the last great creation of the Renaissance in Spain. Buen
Retiro became the center of Habsburg court life at a time when Spain
was the foremost power in the world. During the reigns of Philip IV
and Charles II several magnificent plays were performed in the park
for the royal family and the court.

The gardens were neglected after the death of Philip IV in 1665, but
have been restored and changed on many occasions, notably after
being opened to the public in 1767 and becoming the property of the Monument to General Arsenio Martínez-Campos
municipality in 1868.[2]
Philip V (1700–1746) ordered the creation of a parterre, the only French-style garden in the complex. During the
reign of Ferdinand VI, Buen Retiro was the setting for magnificent Italian operas. Charles III (1759–1788) saw to
the beautification of its perimeter, replacing the old walls with elegant wrought-iron railings. Juan de Villanueva's
Astronomical Observatory was built during the reign of Charles IV (1788–1808).
Buen Retiro Park 215

The Buen Retiro Palace was used until the era of Charles III. Most of
the palace was destroyed during the Peninsular War (1807–1814) with
the First French Empire.
The reign of Queen Isabella II saw profound changes in the "Retiro".
During the queen's minority, the gardens enjoyed a particularly
prosperous period, with the planting of shade and fruit trees, and
previously unplanted areas like the "Campo Grande", were landscaped
as well. The gardens eventually passed to public ownership in 1868, at
the time of the overthrow of Queen Isabella.
Parque del Buen Retiro
El Retiro gradually became the green heart of the city. At the
beginning of the 20th century, the monument to Alfonso XII was
erected next to the pond, designed by architect José Grases Riera.
Countless statues, fountains and commemorative monuments have
filled the park and converted it into an open-air sculpture museum.
The nineteen-thirties and forties witnessed the creation of new gardens
attributed to Chief Gardener Cecilio Rodriguez who designed and built
the rose bed and the gardens that have been named to honor him.
Rosaleda del Retiro

Features of the Park

Close to the northern entrance of the park is the Estanque del Retiro
("Retiro Pond"), a large artificial pond. Next to it is the monument to
King Alfonso XII, featuring a semicircular colonnade and an
equestrian statue of the monarch on the top of a tall central core.
The Rosaleda rose garden. Among the many rose bushes of all kinds
stands the Fountain of the Falling Angel, erected in 1922, whose main
sculpture El Angel Caído (at the top) is a work by Ricardo Bellver
(1845–1924) inspired by a passage from John Milton's Paradise
Lost,[3] which represents Lucifer falling from Heaven. It is claimed that Casita del Pescador

this statue is the only known public monument of the devil.

The few remaining buildings of the Buen Retiro Palace, including

Casón del Buen Retiro and the Museo del Ejército, now house museum
collections. The Casón has a collection of 19th and 20th century
paintings, including art by the Spanish painter Joaquín Sorolla. The
Ejército is one of Spain's foremost Army museums and it houses "La
Tizona" the sword of the famous Spanish warrior El Cid. There are
displays of armor, a cross carried by Christopher Columbus on his sea
voyage to the New World and other artifacts.

Artificial mountain
Buen Retiro Park 216


Since assuming its role as a public park the late 19th century, the "Parque del Retiro" has been used as avenue for
various international exhibitions. Several emblematic buildings have remained as testimony to such events, including
the Minig building, popularly known as the Velázquez Palace (1884) by architect Ricardo Velázquez Bosco, and the
Palacio de Cristal ("Crystal Palace"), a glass pavilion inspired by The Crystal Palace in London, undoubtedly the
gardens' most extraordinary building. Built along with its artificial pond in 1887 by architect Ricardo Velázquez
Bosco for the Philippine Islands Exhibitions, it was first used to display flower species indigenous to the islands. The
landscape-style gardens located in the former "Campo Grande" are also a reminder of the international exhibitions
that have taken place here in the past.
The Paseo de la Argentina, also popularly known as Paseo de las Estatuas ("Statue Walk"), is decorated with some
of the statues of kings from the Royal Palace from the Royal Palace, sculpted between 1750 and 1753.
There are now art galleries in the Crystal Palace, Palacio de Velázquez, and Casa de Vacas.
In the Retiro Park is also the Forest of the Departed (Bosque de los Ausentes), a memorial monument to
commemorate the 191 victims of the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks.

From late May through early October,[4] every Sunday at midday, the Banda Sinfónica de Madrid gives free concerts
from the bandstand in the park near the Calle d'Alcala. Manuel Lillo Torregrosa composed 'Kiosko del Retiro' to this
The Park also features an annual Book Fair.
Around the lake, Retiro Pond, many puppet shows perform, and all manner of street performers and fortune tellers.
Rowboats can be rented to paddle about the Estanque, and horse-drawn carriages are available.
Buen Retiro Park 217

[1] The creation of Buen Retiro is narrated in Jonathan Brown and J.H. Elliott, A Palace for a King: the Buen Retiro and the Court of Philip IV,
[2] Gardens Guide: Buen Retiro (http:/ / www. gardenvisit. com/ garden/ parque_del_buen_retiro)
[3] Catálogo de la Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes ("Catalogue of the National Fine Arts Exhibition"), Madrid, 1878, p. 86-87. Also
mentioned, among others, by professor Carlos Reyero in his book Escultura, museo y estado en la España del siglo XIX: historia, significado
y catálogo de la colección nacional de escultura moderna, 1856-1906, Alicante, 2002, ISBN 84-931949-6-4
[4] Christopher Webber (21 May 2006). "Banda Sinfónica Municipal de Madrid" (http:/