Managerial Effectiveness Through Training & Development

Research Report 2010
Submitted for fulfillment of the requirement For the award Of

Submitted By: Name: Pragya Saxena Roll No.: 0822370026

Under the Supervision of: Academic Guide: Ms. Neha Agrawal


As a part of the fulfillment of the MBA programme at VIVEKANAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, GHZIABAD, this research report done with the MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT.

This research report is based on assessment managerial effectiveness through training & development system. Mys objectives are to present level of effectiveness of managerial effectiveness through training & development that is being awarded to the employees. The other objectives of the research report is analyse the problems related to the training programme, to give valuable suggestions to improve the training & development program and to make it more effective.However, organizations today have realized the human resources as more valuable than other resources and their proper management can tremendously help organizations to maximize the utilizations of other resources.

One step forward in this direction is the proper maintainance of proper training & development program in an organization. Training program is a step where management finds out how efeective it has been hiring and placing an employee. The taining plans serves as a basic employees about their strengths and weaknesses, for development.improving the productivity, efficiency and for enhancing managerial effectiveness through training and development program.


At the very outset I wish to express my gratitude to all those concerned persons who extended all kind of their help, guidance and suggestions without whom it could not have been possible for me to complete this research report,entitled ³Managerial Effectiveness through training and development ´

I would like to thank Dr. Rahat Ali (HOD MBA Department) as without his support and help this research report would have been possible.

I would further like to thank my internal HR faculty Mis Neha Agrawal as without her support and valuable help this research report would not have been what it is.

And finally I would like to thanks God, my parents& friends who inspired a lot for the completion .



REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14««17 Chapter 3-INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC 18«.Report Index TITLE NO. Chapter 1.55 Chapter 4-RESEARCH METHODOLO 56««71      Introduction Research Design Scope of study Sources of data collection Data Analysis Chapter 5-FINDINGS Chapter 6-CONCLUSION Chapter 7-SUGGESSTIONS Chapter 8-BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 75 77 79 4 .13      Statement of problem Scope of project Objective of study Statement of hypothesis Limitations PAGE Chapter 2.INTROUCTION 5««..


From among a broad spectrum of problems. and utility of programs. the executive¶s opinions of the experience. Evaluation is «a standard practice in training that measure changes in a behavior that occurs as a result of the training. Evaluations can be used to measure whether or not specific objectives were attained. The different personality if required in different kind of businesses. critical problem areas need to be identified and given priorities. The evaluation process enables a library to monitor the progress of the training program and measure whether or not the goals have been 6 . a process that modifies knowledge and behavior through teaching and experience. Training is «a systematic approach to access the conceptualization. Education is a longer-term process that incorporates the goals of training and explains why certain Information must be known. Each & every organization has a number of complex problems regarding the persuasion of their internal customer to their external one. modifying behavior and increasing competence. With the help of the Evaluation one can easily judge the worth of the training and whether the training is really meeting its objectives or not. then. Training is widely understood as communication directed at a defined population for the purpose of developing skills.Many companies do the Training Program in India but rarely some do the evaluation for the same. implementation. design. Both training and education induce learning. the training environment and the trainer¶s performance.

It can consist of evaluations completed by learners at the end of class and formative evaluations completed by the trainer or training committee. You should ask questions that are tied to the goals and competencies set at the beginning of the process and any possible concepts you want to add for future training. 7 .achieved. The information you collect can inform improvements or changes to the training program to meet the evolving needs of the staff and public and respond to the ever-changing world of technology.

Thatswhy this research report implies that ³how to increase the managerial efficency through training and development´. 8 . This research report is based on how to increase the efficency of the employees during the training & development program.Statement of the problem During the training program there are faced many problems.

middle and lower management. 9 . which in turn helps to enhance the productivity of the individual as well as the whole organization.Scope of the Project: This research report will help any organization to identify the training and development need for the top.

10 .Objective of Study y To understand ³How to increase The Managerial Effectiveness´ through Training & Development. y To find the factors which affect managerial effectiveness. y Suggestions to improve managerial effectiveness.

Statement of Hypothesis HYPHOTHESIS ‡ HYPOTHESIS The following hypotheses are formulated for the research:‡ H0: Training & development program are the most suitable plans for the employee¶s. If this hypothesis is rejected then the alternative hypothesis is ‡ ‡ Ha: Employees are aware about the effective training & development but they are not satisfied with these plan. 11 . TEST FOR HYPOTHESIS H0: Employees are aware about the training & development program and there is procedure for worker¶s participation and collective bargaining.


 13 .  There is no particular format for the study.  It is mainly based on the data available in various websites.y  y  y  y  y The study is general.  The inferences made is purely from the past year¶s performance.  Sufficient time is not available to conduct an in -depth study.

Review of Literature 14 .

Review of Literature 1. The methodology employed consists of survey questionnaire and fieldwork involving semi-structured interviews as the main sources of qualitative and quantitative data. The study tested the validity and relevance of the ³integrated model´ of managerial skills in order to identify the required categories of skills and knowledge. namely task. there seems to be a gap between what is offered and what managers actually need. Also it was discovered that in Iran business managers tend to place more emphasis on the importance of the task and self-development categories of knowledge and skills rather than the peoplerelated ones. However. people. and self-related skills. Title: Management education and increased managerial effectiveness: The case of business managers in Iran Author(s): Farhad Analoui. These results have numerous implications 15 . It aims to understand the foundation of appropriate business administration for managers and to explore their views and perceptions in relation to the skills and knowledge required of them. The results showed that a combination of these skills enables the managers to work more effectively. The respondents were current participants in business administration programs at the Payame Noor University. Mirza Hassan Hosseini Journal: Journal of Management Development Abstract: This paper addresses the effectiveness of the processes involved in business administration programmes for managers in Iran.

particularly general managers and clinical managers. R.for the implications for the business schools and other universities who deal with managers in Iran. A. 3. 16 . It recommends that managers pay more attention to political awareness.. It utilises a qualitative case study approach. Industrial and Commercial Training. Blackburn. Title: Managerial effectiveness in an NHS Hospital Trust: Some observations based on contrasting organizational perspectives. This reveals differences in the way in which managerial effectiveness is configured and help throw light on aspects of managerial effectiveness at an NHS Trust hospital in the UK. Willcocks Journal: International Journal of Public Sector Management Abstract: The article utilises contrasting heuristical perspectives contingency and political theory . 21. (1989). skills and understanding. subjective and more about difference than objective rationality. Hankinson. It concludes that managerial effectiveness is complex. 2. Data were collected by semi-structured interview from different stakeholders. Author(s): Stephen G. Vol. "Training in the smaller business: investment or expense". It may be relevant to other public sector organizations in the UK and elsewhere.

. Jones.. 5. Arthur.. Ireland.. University of Limerick. Walsh.. A. Research Paper No. (1994). . M. London. (1991). 17 . D. unpublished MBS thesis. Hendry. "Human resource development: an exploratory study of training and development practices in small firms located in Ireland". Human Resource Development in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises.4. Employment Department.. Pettigrew A. 88. C.


sharpen their skills & keep themselves abreast of the latest development & changes. The one who refers to change will be left behind & will be lost. y y y To face the tuff compitions in every field & survive gracefully.It is application of knowledge. To except & adapt to the changes in the field of service & technology. 19 . Therefore Training & development is very important. To upgrade & sharpen one¶s skill that are needed to do the job successfully. Under such circumstances individuals as well as organization survive & progress only if they update their knowledge.INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC Training & Development is an important component of every organization¶s survival strategy. Technologies are changing is very fast & so is the information explosion terrific. It gives people an awareness of the rule and procedures to guide them behaviors. It attempts to improve then performance on the current job or prepare them for intended future job. MEANING OF TRAINING Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior . y To learn the current way of doing things or doing things right way for an improved job performance & consequently job satisfaction.

To help in company fulfill its future personnel needs.DEFINITION OF TRAINING According to D. Skills: It helps him to increase his technical & minerals efficiency necessary to do the job. µTraining is a process which enables the trainees to achieve the goals and objectives of their organizations¶ According to FILLIPO: µThe purpose of training is to achieve a change in behavior of these and to enable them to perform better. 5. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING OF EMPLOYEE 1. policies. To increase productivity.P. 3. In order to achieve these objectives. 20 . Personal growth. Chowdary. procedure & rules pertaining to his job. 6. 4. Attitude: It moulds his behaviors towards his co-workers & supervisor & creates a sense of responsibility in the trainee. To improve quality. 2. To improve health & safety. any programme should to brings positive changes in: Knowledge: It helps a trainee to know facts. To increase organization climate.

21 . Organizational viability & the transformation process.NEED FOR TRAINING Every organization should provide training to all employees irrespective of their squalification. As such an organization has to retain the old employees. Training is not something that is done once to new employees. suitability for the job etc. technological changes. 2. To match the employee specifications with the job requirements & organizational needs. 3. automation. Organizational Complexity. require up-dating the skill & knowledge. Change in the Job Assignment. Specifically. 4. the need for training raises due to the following reasons: 1. skill. 5. Technological Advances. Further. it is used continuously in every well run established.

For Executives:- 22 . outside Consultants. outside consultants or industry associations.Who are the trainees? They can be-: New employees Old employees Unskilled employed Semi-skilled employed Supervisors Executives Who are the trainers? For new employees:‡ Trainers could be immediate supervisors or co-workers. For supervisors ‡ Trainers could be member of the personnel staff. For old employees:‡ Trainers could be member of personnel staff.



TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS A multitude of methods of training are used employees. The most commonly used methods are: ON THE JOB TRAINING y y y y y Understudy Multiple Management Job Instruction Training (JIT) Coaching Job Rotation OFF THE JOB TRAINING y y y y y y Transactional Analysis Case Study Management Games Role Playing Managerial Grid Brainstorming .

These methods are most suited to technical personnel & scientists. promotion or death . This technique provides an equally competent successor to a senior manager who is currently holding the post. practicum & internships. These methods are popular among trainees also. Multiple Management Multiple Management is also known as committee management. under this technique a committee consisting of some managers is formed & given an assignment to study the company problems & to make advice or give recommendations to the top management.On The Job Methods On the job methods of development are very popular and used widely by majority organizations. Under Study It is a development technique to prepare a manager for taking over the charge of his senior after his retirement. The following is the brief resume of on-the-job methods of executive development. It is the responsibility of supervisors 26 . These are low cost methods. training is conducted by the supervisor. includes apprenticeship. They are more effective and not boring as in case of classroom method. Job Instruction Training (JIT) It consists of a formal systematic programme for conducting training in the workplace.

The important off the job development methods are the following.Job Rotation The job Rotation is a very good method of transforming a functional specialist into a generalist executive. A senior manager must play an active role in guiding & teaching skills. Case Study 27 . Transactional Analysis The transactional Analysis (TA) is an attempt to understand & analysis trainee¶s personality through the communicative interaction. On the job training is given by superior as he teaches job knowledge & skill to a subordinate. The job Rotation refers to managers from one job to another or from one department to another or one section to another in a planned manner. Coaching Coaching is an activity of guiding a manager by a senior one. Off the Job Training On the job development techniques are insufficient for the total development of executives of any organization. Transactional Analysis is an important psychiatric technique for the executive development of recent origin used by many organizations. The interaction between individual human being is viewed as transaction. Coaching involves direct personnel instructions & guidance usually with demonstration & continuous critical evaluation & correction. This gap can be bridged by adopting off the job development techniques. A senior one.

Role Playing Role Playing is a method of learning that involves human interaction in an imaginary situation. marketing. Brainstorming is a process for developing creative 28 . Managers are given opportunity to find out the latest problems & suggest alternatives to tackle theThis technique helps in improving the decision making skills by making analytical judgment. intergroup relations & develops leadership style. Each rival group has to discuss a given subject relating to production. Managerial Grid It is multiphase programme ranging from three to five years. Brain Storming: It is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem.Role playing helps the trainees to develop better perspective in performing then job because they may see job from different angles. This technique helps in building team spirit among executives. Management Games Under this technique the trainee executives are divided into rival groups assuming the management of simulated companies. pricing etc & at a decision. They get immediate feedback on their performance. The groups react to the decision of each other. Role playing is a technique which is used in groups where various individuals are given the role of different managers who are required to solve a problem or to arrive at a decision . It improves managerial skills.Under this technique the cases based on actual business situations are prepared & given to the trainee managers for discussion & arriving at a proper decision.

Brainstorming is a process for developing creative solution to problems . It works by focusing on a problem & then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible & by pushing the ideas as far as possible 29 . It works by focusing on a problem & then deliberately coming with as many solutions as possible & by pushing the ideas as far possible. Brainstorming It is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem .solution to problems.

specific. reduction in labor turnover & absenteeism.EVALUATING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS Evaluating helps to determine the results of the training & development programme. If they come to be positive then training can be considered effective. 3) BehaviorImprovement in the job behavior reflects the extent to which learning has been applied to the job. This can be check through a test or observation. 2) LearningThe extent to which the trainers have learnt the desired knowledge & skills during the period. cost reduction. 30 . and provide means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. 1) ReactionsTrainees¶ reactions to the objectives. EVALUATION CRITERIA:Evaluation can be done of following criteria. 4) ResultsResults can be terms of productivity improvement. their practices and their products. quality improvement. Evaluating must be continuous. contents and methods of training are measured.

The basic structure of Kirkpatrick has four-levels. The evaluation of training also provides useful data on the basis of which relevance of training and its integration with other functions of human resource management can be judges. Using a questionnaire to know the trainers reactions. Craving oral and written test to trainers.METHODS FOR EVALUATION Opinion and judgments of trainers.Evaluation enables an organization to monitor the training programmer and also to update or modifies in future programs of training. By filling of evaluation form by trainers. 31 . Arranging structured interviews for trainees. Cost benefits analysis of the training programmer. Compare the performance of trainees on the job before and after training. The Kirkpatrick Model The most well-known and used model for measuring the effectiveness of training programs was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in 1959. It has since been adapted and modified by a number of writers however the basic structure has well stood the test of time.

Now moving up to the next level. if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3).000. the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training evaluations at each level. evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training program react to it. So. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs.Did they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? This type of evaluation is often called a ³smilesheet. Level 1 Evaluation ± Reactions Just as the word implies. The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs costing over $50. every program 32 . you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. before starting an evaluation. Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for ³hard-skills´ programs only. Above all else. All levels of evaluation are important. It attempts to answer questions regarding the participants' perceptions . participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. be crystal clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation.´ According to Kirkpatrick.Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Program An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. It¶s not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. if participants did not learn (Level 2). perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). So. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. In fact.

measuring at this level is difficult as it is often impossible to predict when the change in behavior will occur. Methods range from formal to informal testing to team assessment and self -assessment. In addition. how often to evaluate. or attitude being used in the everyday environment of the learner? For many trainers this level represents the truest assessment of a program's effectiveness. participants take the test or assessment before the training (pretest) and after training to determine the amount of learning that has occurred. However. If possible. knowledge. and thus requires important decisions in terms of when to evaluate. Level 3 Evaluations ± Transfer This level measures the transfer that has occurred in learners' behavior due to the training program.Are the newly acquired skills. knowledge. or attitude. a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility. the participants' reactions have important consequences for learning (level two).should at least be evaluated at this level to provide for the improvement of a training program. Measurement at this level is more difficult and laborious than level one. and how to evaluate. Evaluating at this level attempts to answer the question . 33 . Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning. Level 2 Evaluation ± Learning Assessing at this level moves the evaluation beyond learner satisfaction and attempts to assess the extent students have advanced in skills.

this is the overall reason for a training program. To give instructors and course developers feed back to help them improve. From a business and organizational perspective. To influence future decisions like on what kind of course to run. improved quality. and even higher profits or return on investment. . reduced frequency of accidents. . Determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure. To revise and redefine the course to make it more effective. THE BENEFITS OF THE EVALUATION Reasons why training should be evaluated rigorously: . yet level four results are not typically addressed. decreased costs. and is hard to link directly with training. . To prove that training does not cost. To justify and perhaps enlarges the training budget. To find out where the desired expectations (goal) are and aren¶t being met. . . . this level measures the success of the program in terms that managers and executives can understand -increased production. . To identify and reduce workplace constraints that inhibits transfer.Level 4 Evaluations ± Results Frequently thought of as the bottom line. To win commitment and support of training by management. increased sales. To make the training environment more supportive of learning. . 34 .

The technological advancement is taking place at such a rapid speed that is knowledge and skill required by an individual have to be updated at regular interval. scrap. Industrial growth can not take place without manpower. patients.g. y . Effective training saves money by avoiding the untold number of errors which can result from the efforts untrained staff. or their customer groups (e. etc. re-work. 35 . sequenced training and coaching over a period of time * Conduct follow-up needs assessment * Check metrics (e. y .. Methods for Long-Term Evaluation * Send post-training surveys * Offer ongoing.) to measure if participants achieved training objectives * Interview trainees and their managers. To manage the training function more professionally. So there is great significance of effectiveness in the today scenario. other departmental staff) The significance of the effectiveness of training can be seen in this ways y .. Effective training save time by ensuring that skilled and competent staff is no hand when they are needed rather than untrained staff who will take longer to do the job and require time to spent on rectification. errors.g..

A Well trained employees makes better & economical available resources. Such as Increase in efficiency Training results about increase in quality & quantity of goods produced resulting in high productivity . Better industrial relations Training provides a platform for maintaining smooth industrial relations . Indeed it could tend. So effective training has very great practical combination to achieving the organization goal. Optimum utilization of resources results in reduced cost on production & higher profit. So the importance of training has been expressed in these words ³Training is a widely accepted problem solving device indeed our national superiority in man power productivity can be attributed in no small measure to success of our educational and industrial training program´. Role of the Training There are some role of training which are followed by the organization. rather than having them get it wrong six times first. y . In fact the likelihood of the achievement of the strategy is increase the more the training function has input. Employees develop a feeling that organization is taking care & interest in them through training program. Effective training saves effort by showing people the most effective ways to things and getting it right first time. should be argued that any planning process that has not had input from training will necessary be incomplete. Reduced supervision & direction 36 . y .y .

most of the companies have become complex . IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING The training programme can be made effective and successful if the following hints are considered: 37 . Supervision can devote their time to solve more important problems rather than concentrating on consent & regular work supervision. The technology is changing so fast that . And growing organization wishes to train the existing employees so as to place them in higher positions in future . manufacturing of multiple products & by products etc . The calls for training in the skills of cooperation . techniques of doing work . Future Man Power Through proper training employees become eligible for promotion handling more responsibility . Technical Advances The pace of the technological advancement is another reason why training is necessary . Organizational Complexity With the emergence of automation & mechanization .A trained employees knows what job has to do & how to do that job & requires no guidance & supervision . if a company wants to stay in competition it must develop the technical knowledge of its employees through continuous training . Reduced Learning Time An untrained worker consumers a lot of time to learn the methods . Skilled & trained employees reach the acceptable level of performance . intergration and adaptabilities to the requirements of growth and expansions .

1. An audit to personal needs compared to operational requirements will help to determine y the specific training needs individual employees. y It should be recognized that the entire trainee do not progress at the same rate. 38 . If deficiencies are noted in these respects. y Attempt should be made to determine if trainee has the intelligence. This background should be used as a foundation for new development and new behavior. This evaluation should form a well defined set of performance standards toward which each trainee should be directed. It should be made clear why should be removed. y If necessary a combination of training method should be selected so that variety is permitted and as many of this senses as possible are utilized. y Attempts should be made to create organizational conditions that are conductive to a good kerning environment. Objective and relevance: a) Extent of achievement of the programme. maturity and motivation to successfully complete the training. the training may be postponed or cancelled till improvements are visible.y Specific training objectives should be obtained on the basis of the type of performance required to achieve to organization goals objectives. y The training programme should be planned so that it is related to the trainee previous experience and background. Therefore. The support of the upper levels of management should be obtained before applying training of levels. flexibility should be allowed in judging the rates of the progress in the training programme.

Method of Presentation: a) Style and Delivery b) Balance between Lectures and Demonstrations c) Group Discussions d) Group Exercise e) Use of Technique f) Way of Conducting the Program 4. e) Balance between the theoretical and practical material. 3. e) Extent of learning. c) Length of the program. b) Arrangement of the program content. Instruction Materials: a) Use of Audio Visual Aids 39 . d) Value of the program content to the current job. Program contents: a) Coverage of the subject. c) Usefulness of the training to work. f) Change in the attitudes towards the job and the organization after training 2.b) Relevance of objectives to work. d) Achievement of organizational needs.

) c) Library facilities d) Secretarial assistance e) Refreshment and other services 6. Facilities: a) Seating Arrangement b) Physical classroom environment (temperature. Transfer of learning to the workplace: 40 . h) Creating a learning environment during the program. etc. 7. c) Knowledge of the subject.b) Quality of Audio Visual Aids c) Number of hand out received during the programme d) Quality of handout materials e) Relevance of handout materials to the course content f) Updating of materials 5. g) Empathy with trainees group. noise. b) Clarity in explanations. lighting. e) Interaction with trainees group. f) Responsiveness to the trainees. Trainer as a Facilitator: a) Clarifying objectives of the training. d)Organization and Presentation.

attitudes and skills. Factors to consider in the selection of training Method Human Factors:The Teacher:The teacher¶s knowledge. managerial and teaching experience.a) Applying learning to the workplace. Method of teaching must respect: a) The intellectual level and education background of the participants: b) The participants age and practical experience. Objectives of Teaching and Training As a rule. If these conditions are fulfilled.which should afterwards lead to improved managerial action. Studies should use instead of long and complex cases. and his personality has to be acceptable to the students or trainees so that effective commercial links can be established quickly and easily. simple programmed books should be recommended instead of the usual textbooks. and personality are all factors of primary importance and are intentionally mentioned at the beginning. a unfortunately the method may become an end in itself. The Participants and the Environment from which they come. Various training 41 . training needs and objectives of educational and training programmers in management are defined in terms of changes to be effected in knowledge. To put it bluntly the teacher has to have a clear and significant message to pass. and c) The social and cultural environment.

operations research management. attitudes and skills. In certain cases lectures may be replaced or supplemented with programmed books. In programmers concentrating on the behavioral aspects of management. However.situations will be concerned with various types and levels of knowledge. 2. It is usually taught through a combination of lectures (using audio-visual aids) and exercise during which the technique is practiced. case studies. skills and attitudes are inter-related and this must not be overlooked when setting the objectives of training and choosing teaching methods. influence attitudes and develop practical skills. training methods may be selected and 42 . etc. For example. personnel. operations research techniques are based on the extensive use of mathematics and statistics. simulation exercises. Method will then be selected with regard to their ability to impart new knowledge. Obviously. communication. the main thing from the management point of view is not to know the technique itself. This ability can be developed through practical projects. but to know when and how it can be used. This may be supported by reading assignments. leadership and motivation. etc) have their own specific features. to multi-functional situation and inter-disciplinary problems. knowledge. business games. A preliminary analysis of need will help to identify what objectives a particular programmed ought to have. Furthermore they are related to certain specific management functions or subject areas or. Subject Area Various subject areas (finance.

c) Promote general management skills. which give the participants numerous opportunities to analyses human behavior. which includes testing with teachers or experimental groups. in management education and training the principal problem is not how to deal with specific subject areas and functions. The length of the course predetermines the kinds of methods. 3. which can be used. and at the same tome directly influence the attitudes and behavior of the participants themselves. financial resources and other factors. Preparation time (which affects the cost of the teaching material as well) varies for the different teaching methods.combined in way. It is much more important to: a) Explain the relationship between various sides and functions of the enterprise and show the highly complex character of the management process. and making necessary revisions. The longer the course. Time and Management Factor Decisions about the choice of teaching methods are not independent of time. complex case studies and business games require long and costly preparation. the 43 . the various functions of management. As a rule. However. b) Help the participants to avoid a one-sided and oversimplified approach to multidimensional situations. and to combine and co-ordinate. which essentially lie in an inter-disciplinary approach to management.

00-16. Motivation The motivation to learn is enhanced if the presentation of the material is interesting emphasizes applicability and shows benefits to be drawn from application. e. To some extent this can be obtained through any method.g. This is not to imply that participative methods.00) it is more desirable to have enjoyable and attractive sessions that require active involvement. in small towns. which are not time consuming and are liable to quickly pass the message can be used in these courses. The diverse ways in which they can be combined and sequenced can add to the enjoyment of learning and minimize participant fatigue. 1. Factor such as the number of rooms available for group discussions or syndicates or the accessibility of audio-visual aids should be anticipated and the methods altered in advance. The time of day is more important than many course designers would imagine. Active involvement 44 . many participative methods are directly concerned with applying theoretical knowledge to real life situations. in the post-lunch period (14. 2. including a good lecture.better are the teachers will be able to use business games. The teaching facilities may be a limiting factor in some institutes. However. complex cases and practical projects. or in course given outsides the institute. Some selected aspects of the relationship between principles of learning and teaching methods are discussed in the following paragraphs. For example.

Involvement also depends on organization of case study preparations. the higher the motivation. That is why in certain situations the teacher cannot do without lectures and reading assignments. Feedback 45 . 5. many limitations and that is why group-training programmers should also involve work outside the enterprise. thinking. which can be based on the training. exercise. with full regard to his present and future job. therefore. 4. The overall course design and methods of teaching have to provide. needs of one individual. the more the participants retain and the better they are equipped to apply it. 3. Sequencing and Structuring Some methods are better suited than others for introducing new topics and ideas. but also the opportunity for individual reading. and application of knowledge.The principle of active involvement is perhaps the main ³raison deter´ of participative teaching methods. for correctly sequencing them or for explaining the structure of a vast and complex area. leadership style and other factors. that the method itself. The must take into account the fact that individuals have different capabilities and learn at different paces. The participant may also be passive if the considers the material to be of poor quality or the performance of the teachers to be below his own professional level. not only work in group and terms. although considered as highly participative. the deeper the involvement. does not assure that each person will be fully involved. As a rule. It should not be overlooked. however. however. Individual Approach On the job training is a method. It has. have personal styles of study and application and should be subject to individual control of performance.

business games and sensitivity training (group dynamics). which. Examining teaching methods from the viewpoint of principles of learning shows the necessity to property sequence and combines various teaching methods in order to secure the greatest impact on learning.Different types of feedback are needed and have to be provided in learning. study of literature or discussions do not pay much attention to this transfer.. whereas in case discussions the only feedback on the individual¶s analytical abilities is the opinion of other participants and of the discussion leader. those with high motivational feedback and transfer on what was actually learned. in fact.Feedback on ones competence and behavior (as seen by the other course participants. Neither should it lead to the other method. which are needed for different purposes. Practical exercises. 6. String feedback on behavioral patterns is provided by participation in role playing. and on one¶s ability to effectively apply it direct feedback on the soundness of decisions is an integral part of business games. of course. does not eliminate other methods. On the other hand. may fulfill its role only in combination with other methods (business games) or serve only very special purposes (sensitivity training). like lectures. This. It also explains why there is a growing interest in certain methods. Some teaching methods. 46 . Transfer This principle requires that education and training help the individual to transfer what he has or learned to live situations. by the trainee himself). in many simulation and practical application some teachers as the most effective ones consider projects. consultancy assignment and application projects provide feedback on the practical usefulness of learning.

2. To replace elderly executive who have risen from the ranks by highly competent and academically qualified professionals. To ensure availability of required numbers of managers with the needed skills. Objectives of Development 1. To prevent obsolescence by exposing them to the latest concepts and techniques in their respective area of specialization.Development Development is a long-term educational process utilizing systematic and organized procedures by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. 47 . To sustain good performance of managers throughout their careers. Development complements training because human resources can exert their full potential only when the learning process goes far beyond simple routine. Development involves preparing the individual for a future job and growth of the zzindividual in all respects. It involves philosophical and theoretical educational concepts and it is designed for managers. 5. 6. To improve the performance of managers at all levels in their present job. 3. It involves broader education and its purpose is long term development. 4. To provide opportunities to executives to fulfill there career aspirations. so as to meet present and anticipated future needs of the organization.

functions and key executive positions. Therefore. health.Process of Development 1. Planning Individual Development Programs Each one of us has a unique set of physical. It is necessary to determine how many and what type of executives are required to meet the present and future needs. intellectual and emotional characteristics. His personal traits are also analyzed to estimate his potential for development. development plan should be trail made for each individual. education. Then job description and specifications are executive positions. Inventory of Executive Manpower This inventory is prepared to obtain complete information about each executive. Data on the age. Analysis of development needs First of all present and future needs of organization are ascertained. Appraisal of present Managerial Talent A qualitative assessment of the existing executives is made to determine the type of executive talent available within the organization. The performance of every executive is compared with the standard expected of him. experience. prepared for all 2. 4. 3. Analysis of this result will show the strengths as well as deficiencies of executives in certain functions relative to the future needs of the organization. test result and performance appraisal result is collected. Such tailor- 48 . A critical analysis of organization structure in the light of future plans will Reveals what the organization needs in term of department.

s: The human resource department prepares comprehensive and well conceived programs. etc. The department identifies development needs and may launch specific courses in fields of leadership. human relation.made programs of development should give due attention to the interests and goals of the subordinates as well as to the training and development opportunities existing in the organization. On the basis of its recommendations. 49 . decision-making.

50 .Findings : The managerial roles To meet the many demands of performing their functions. The ten roles are described individually. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. Henry Mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. but they form an integrated whole. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal. informational. managers assume multiple roles. The decisional roles make significant use of the information. and decisional. A role is an organized set of behaviors. The informational roles link all managerial work together.

the manager represents the organization in all matters of formality. the manager initiates change. the manager negotiates on behalf of the organization. while the supervisor uses it to maintain the routine flow of work. The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a unique position to get information. The supervisor represents the work group to higher management and higher management to the work group. In the role of disseminator. the manger interacts with peers and people outside the organization. the three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work. the manager transmits special information into the organization. In the figurehead role. The top level manager represents the company legally and socially to those outside of the organization. the manger deals with threats to the organization. the top level manager is seen as an industry expert. The unique access to information places the manager at the center of organizational decision making. In the entrepreneur role. In the disturbance handler role. In the monitor role. while the supervisor is seen as a unit or departmental expert.The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. the manager receives and collects information. In the role of spokesperson. Thus. The leader role defines the relationships between the manger and employees. the manager chooses where the organization will expend its efforts. Thus. The top level manager makes the decisions about the 51 . There are four decisional roles. In the liaison role. The top level manager receives and transmits more information from people outside the organization than the supervisor. The top level manager uses the liaison role to gain favors and information. In the resource allocator role. the manager disseminates the organization's information into its environment. In the negotiator role.

and predictors for effectiveness (Goodman. effectiveness keeps proving to be an elusive concept. The supervisor performs these managerial roles but with different emphasis than higher managers. or to generate normative theories. Shrum and Alon. Since leadership permeates all activities. which lies at the heart of many organization theories (Lewin and Minton. Difficulties pertain to definitions. The quest for universal theories of effectiveness seems doomed to failure in the face of the complexity of organizations. 1984) managers pursue value-maximizing ends in proportion to the buffers they can secure for themselves 52 . Atkin and Schoorman. the figurehead role becomes less significant and the disturbance handler and negotiator roles increase in importance for the supervisor.organization as a whole. the leader role is among the most important of all roles at all levels of management. Supervisory management is more focused and short-term in outlook. 1987). This is also manifested in the effectiveness concept. levels of analysis. Thus. 1983. the aim of organization and management theory has always been to gain practical knowledge.g. while the supervisor makes decisions about his or her particular work unit. Shenhav. MacDonald. when scrutinized more closely. According to the principal agents theory (e. 1994). At the same time the literature shows an uneasiness with the fact that. Managerial Effectiveness To varying degrees. criteria for measurement.

Managerial leadership theory stresses the competing values that are concurrently put forward. but exclusively focusses on shifting managerial emphasis among these roles.and power-free. economic perspective. Instead it is seen as emerging and developing within a specific social context through interaction processes (Maas. 1990) does explicitly acknowledge different (competing) effectiveness criteria and specifies accompanying effective managerial roles. Neither theory generates insights into why or how the concept of managerial effectiveness changes.against the demands and pressures put on them. Effectiveness is no longer considered as a predetermined. Faerman. Nevertheless. Quinn. A social constructivist view approaches effectiveness from a different point of view. and McGrath. Here. independent of the subject. managerial effectiveness is evaluated from an external. the body of knowledge is to be seen as part of the institutionalized context in which managers operate . From this perspective. This approach (e. externally defined construct. on the other the negotiation itself is not value. and existing practices will influence the interaction.g. 1988). the content of effectiveness is socially negotiated. It helps to concentrate on the ways in which skillful practitioners make sense of their organizational situation. Thompson. and how they come to define the content of effectiveness. while on the one hand the outcome of this negotiation is not predetermined. In the appraisal of managerial effectiveness a great deal of attention is generally paid to the positive choices of 53 . In the terms of Weick and Daft (1983).

societal and institutional webs of relations they are embedded in influence. constrain. 1992). and even define their range of choices (Neu. An structurationist framework acknowledges both the socially constructed nature ofµeffectiveness¶ and the institutional influences on this construction process. 54 .managers. while in reality the individual.


So in this project report I have done the survey on employees of SPRL to assess the effectiveness of training provided by their department.´ Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation. RESEARCH DESIGN: Our research design is basically Exploratory in nature which helps in developing the new ideas and insights about the problem under study. and hence many different facets of a problem can be considered. According to John it is best defined as ³the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observation that may lead to the developments of generalization principles.Research in common parlance refers to search for knowledge. These are flexible in nature that helps in gathering the relevant data to the problem. resulting prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. SCOPE OF THE STUDY: 56 . One can also define research as a ³Systematic and scientific search for pertinent information on a specific topic".

Scope of the study is to find out how far the existing training developments cater to the requirement of the employees. 57 .they were being. The necessary records and files were exposed the investigation to have clear understanding of its policies and to have employees existing training and development.the purpose of the visit was made clear to them . The study will be table to throw light on the dark spots where it needs some sort of improvement in the training developments that have been implementedThe investigation was taken around the work place and offered an opportunity to be with men at work . convinced and made to understand that the study was only of academic interest.

magazines.Sources of Data collection: SECONDARY DATA: This type of data is collected through books. Data collected by me was carefully gone through and the relevant and useful matter was assorted and properly organized. Data Analysis Method: Statistical method of analysis was adopted for analysis and interpretation of the data collected during the survey. 58 . Each question of the questionnaire is interpreted with the help of Pie Charts which clearly demonstrates the level of effectiveness of the training provided by the department to the employees. Data once collected needed to be organized for further processing. Internet etc.


Question 1 : Before any training program should there be any test for the purpose of selection of the trainees ? FIGURE 1 Training should be 56% Training should not be 44% Training should not be Training should be 60 .

Question 2 : Which type of quality of training program should be provided? Outstanding 20% Average 12% Average Good Outstanding Good 68% 61 .

Question 3 : Do you think that in the training program trainees get new ideas ? Poor 4% Poor ¤ ¥ ¦¥ ¨§ O 62 § ding 52% £ ¢ F ¡  R 3 Good 44% Good O nding ¤ ¥ ¦¥ .

Question 4: Does the training program help in self development of the trainees? 63  u anding 56  u       ©  F R 4 Good Good anding    .

Question 5: Is the training program is relevant to current job for the trainees ? !  F R 5 Rele en 35 $ " Rele en Ve u h ele en 65 " # ( ' $ % & % % & 64 " % ( ' Ve u h ele en # # " # .

Question 6: Is the training material interested or benefited to the Trainees FIGURE 6 Not interested 4% Interested 36% Much interested 60% Not interested Interested Much interested 65 .

Question 7: Is the training program to be cleared to all the trainees Or not ? 66 3 7 3 5 7 No lea ed 56 No 3 6 5 3 44 2 1 ) 0 F R 7 Clea ed Clea ed lea ed 6 .

Question 8: Is the training program helpful to enhance the skill of the trainees ? Figure 8 Good 36% Excellent Good Excellent 64% 67 .

Question 9: Do the trainees rated the trainees program on the basis o Of Personality ? Question 10: In your opinion what should be the frequency of the 68 CDDC B Ex nt 52% CDDC B A @ 8 9 F R 9 Good 48% Good Ex nt .

Training program in your company ? FIGURE 10 Every 3 month 36% Once a year 12% Every 6 month 20% Once a year Every 6 month Every month Every 3 month Every month 32% Question : 11 In your opinion what should be the duration of the 69 .

Training program in your company ? FIGURE 11 20 hrs 20% 20 hrs 12 hrs 52 hrs 52% 12 hrs 28% 52 hrs 70 .


If this Hypothesis is rejected then alternative hypothesis is accepted. If this hypothisis is accepted then null hypothsis is rejected.  Ha (Alternative hypothesis) in this employees are aware about the training & development program but they are not satisfied with this program. 72 .In this Research Report we have to find:  Ho ( Null Hypothisis) test implies that the training & development program is most suitable program for the employees.  In the null hypothesis test the employees are aware about the training & development program and they are interested to join the training & development program.



As we know, in today¶s global scenario the employees are the most important assets for any organization. In order to cope up with the changing market conditions, development of technology, rising expectations of employees & introduction of nemanagement systems, it is essential to increase emphasis on training & development. It is very essential for any to create a workforce proficient in their technical / professional knowledge & core / job specific competencies prepared to take on future opportunities from the research, it can be identified that the basic objective of training program for a particular level differs from that of other level. Rank & file employees need specific job training while management group needs broad based training. Thus a particular training program would be suitable only to a particular group of people. Again, within a particular group, an individual may need a particular training while others may need some other program. Thus the training program would be determined by the level of an individual in the organization & his own personality characteristics.




So that it maintain interest of the trainees. So that only needed trainees can get the training. 4. It can be suggested that program should be clear & more understandable to the trainees. The quality of the training program should be relevant to the current job of the trainees so that they can get new ideas & increase their efficiency. 3. 5. The duration of the training should not be so longer. There should be a test before conducting any training program related to selection of trainees.1. The training program should in the direction of self development & enhancement of their skill. 2. 76 .


com .co.R.B. ³Personnel Management´. revised edition 2 www.. Hill Book Company. ³Personnel Management´ 21 st revised and enlarged edition 2001. ³Research Methodology´.Bibliography BOOKS 1 Mamoria C. MAGAZINES Company¶s catalogues & annual report year 2005. 2 Kothari C. 3 Flippo B sixth edition. WEBSITES 1 www. Himalaya Publishing House. Vishwa Prakashan.

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