Partial Fulfilment for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF (Ms. Sangeeta Mehrolia)



Advertising has played a major role in consumer marketing, and has enabled companies to meet communication and other marketing objectives. Typically, advertising is used to inform, persuade, and remind consumers. It importantly reinforces their attitudes and perceptions. Advertising has been a target of criticism for decades. Advertising has been hailed as a capitalistic virtue, an engine of free market economy, and a promoter of consumer welfare. Its detractors on the other hand accuse it of an array of sins ranging from an economic waste to purveying of harmful products, from sexism to deceit and manipulation, from triviality to intellectual and moral pollution (Mittal, 1994). Advertising is seen by many as a threat to the cultural identity and self realisation of many developing countries: it brings to many people alien ethical values; it may deviate consumer demands in developing countries to areas which can inhibit development priorities; it affects and can often deform ways of life and lifestyles (Mac Bride, 1980). Advertising is considered unethical when it degrades rival’s product or substitute product, gives misguiding information, gives false information, conceals information that vitally affects human life (e.g., side effects of drugs), makes exaggerated claims, is obscene or immoral or is against broad national interest. While comparative advertising may be considered legal and its widespread use may have granted it acceptance, the debate on whether or not it is ethical, still continues. There is no unanimity among advertising professionals and marketing clients regarding such questionable practices. However, all agree to one aspect that while considering the question of unethical practices, the focus must be to safeguard the interest of buyers at the micro level and the society at the macro level as their satisfaction is the key to the marketing success. The criticism has been related not only to its intended effects on society, but also to its unintended effects. Most of the criticism has come from "elite" observers of society. In contrast, the general public has historically viewed advertising in a more positive way. Whereas criticisms of advertising have generally originated from the highest socio-economic classes since the earliest days of the modern marketing era and before, lower and middle class people have historically been more positive toward advertising (Bauer & Greyser, 1968; Fullerton & Nevett, 1986; Steiner, 1976; Zanot, 1984).

HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000s bc, among the Babylonians. One of the first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern situated in another town. In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of advertising, the use of so-called town criers. The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares. Later they became familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlements. The town criers were forerunners of the modern announcer who delivers radio and television commercials. Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printed advertising made little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press by German printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. This invention made the mass distribution of posters and circulars possible. The first advertisement in English appeared in 1472 in the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale. Two hundred years later, the first newspaper ad was published offering a reward for the return of 12 stolen horses. In the American colonies, the Boston News-Letter, the first regularly published newspaper in America, began carrying ads in 1704, and about 25 years later Benjamin Franklin made ads more readable by using large headlines. In the United States, the advertising profession began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1841 when Volney B. Palmer set up shop as an advertising agent, the forerunner of the advertising agency. Agents contracted with newspapers for large amounts of advertising space at discount rates and then resold the space to advertisers at a higher rate. The ads themselves were created by the advertisers. In 1869 Francis Ayer bought out Palmer and founded N. W. Ayer & Son, an agency that still exists today. Ayer transformed the standard agent practice by billing advertisers exactly what he paid to publishers plus an agreed upon commission. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but was also conducting market research and writing the advertising copy.

The chrome strip on the glove compartment is blemished and must be replaced…We pluck the lemons. He also believed that good advertising began with respect for the public's intelligence. but because of the high cost of TV sets and the lack of programming. This wit together with a conversational and believable style was a hallmark of the advertising created by Doyle Dane Bernbach and that style became highly influential. when Bernbach's agency picked up the account for the Henry S. founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach in New York City. and witty. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium. No longer did advertising simply present the product benefit. you get the plums. The tone of the advertising was also changing. Leo Burnett. The ad's copy explained that 'this Volkswagen missed the boat. The ad showed a Native American eating a slice of the bakery's rye bread with the headline. the Volkswagen ads stood out because they admitted failure in a witty way and gave facts in a believable manner that underlined the car's strengths. For example. a borough of New York City. Bill Bernbach. Bernbach believed that advertising had to be creative and artistic or it would bore people. sophisticated. founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago.' An equally unconventional ad carried the headline 'lemon' beneath a photo of an apparently flawed Volkswagen. 'You don't have to be Jewish to love Levy's. At a time when American cars were getting bigger and bigger and the advertising for them trumpeted that bigger was better.Advertising agencies initially focused on print. it was not immediately embraced. . But the introduction of radio created a new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s. Illinois. 'think small. Television had been introduced in 1940. the agency created an ad that entertained New Yorkers and provided fodder for many conversations.' Bernbach's agency captured the spirit of the new age. The ads his agency created were understated. so did the sale of TV sets and the advertising that paid for the popular new shows. advertising had established itself in radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their own programs. Levy Bakery in Brooklyn. Instead it began to create a product image. The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that were known as soap operas because they were sponsored by soap companies. all came to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and led what has been called the 'creative revolution. founder of Ogilvy & Mather in New York City. and David Ogilvy. Doyle Dane Bernbach created a magazine ad that showed a small picture of the Volkswagen Beetle surrounded by a sea of white space with the headline.' But it was the advertising for Volkswagen that made the agency's reputation.' In an era of hype and bombast. As the American economy soared in the 1950s.

(ii) It makes mass production possible. (vi) The communication is speedy. combining the functions of a computer with access to high-speed transmission over cable lines or optical fibers. for it reaches large groups of people. by an identified sponsor. . Some industry observers believe that as consumers gain greater control over their viewing activities. for it is not delivered by an actual person. The introduction of the TV remote control and access to hundreds of cable channels mean that today advertising must interest and entertain consumers or else they will simply use the remote to change the channel. permitting an advertiser to speak to millions of buyers in a matter of a few hours. goods or services. This keeps the cost per message low. to a greater extent than ever before. (iii) It is non-personal communication. Consumers will be able to determine not only when they watch something. The development of interactive television. what they will watch. they will find it easier to avoid advertising. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. which means to turn to.” What Advertisement Is? Advertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade buyers to by products with a view to maximizing a company’s profits.The creative foundation established by Bernbach and others has been critical to the success of contemporary advertising. The elements of advertising are: (i) It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers. DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING The word advertising originates from a Latin word advertise. Chicago. will likely enable consumers to select from a vast video library. but also. (iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the advertiser of a long business life with profitable sales. has defined advertising as “any form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to announce publicly”. (v) Advertising can be economical. The American Marketing Association. nor is it addressed to a specific person. New digital devices even threaten to make it possible to edit out commercials.

or by inserts in packages). he cannot predict with accuracy what results his future advertising efforts will produce. not the medium.(vii) Advertising is identified communication. Advertising funds come from sales revenue and must be used to increase sales revenue. (ii) It should suggest better solutions to their problems. . Advertising includes the following forms of messages: The messages carried inNewspapers and magazines. either immediately or in the future. (ii) Advertising is not a toy. Circular of all kinds. motion pictures used for advertising. Window display and counter – display materials and efforts. (iv) Advertising without persuasion is ineffective. Dealer help materials. Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser. (i) Advertising is not a game. advertising expenses should not increase disproportionately. Store signs. is a waste of money. It should give them a more satisfactory expenditure of their rupees. (whether distributed by mail. The advertisement that fails to influence anyone. Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise. What is Included in Advertising? (i) The information in an advertisement should benefit the buyers. What is excluded from Advertising? Advertising is not an exact science. thorough tradesmen. both the buyer and the seller benefit from it. On radio and television broadcasts. (v) The function of advertising is to increase the profitable sales volume. An advertiser’s circumstances are never identical with those of another. because if advertising is done properly. by person. Advertiser cannot afford to play with advertising. That is. The advertiser signs his name to his advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity. (iii) The content of the advertisement is within the control of the advertiser.

This requires that the target consumers should be specifically identified and that the effect which advertising is intended to have upon the consumer should be clearly indicated. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales force and of distributors. The payment of advertising allowances which are not used for advertising. This involves decision regarding copy . Advertising seeks to condition the consumer so that he/she may have a favourable reaction to the promotional message. former and future consumers. wholesalers. The objectives of advertising were traditionally stated in terms of direct sales. e. The basic objectives of an advertising programme may be listed as below: (i) To stimulate sales amongst present. TV rather than print . This means that specific objectives should be set for each particular advertisement campaign. it thus contributes to enthusiasts and confidence attitude in the organizational. it is to view advertising as having communication objectives that seek to inform persuade and remind potential customers of the worth of the product.. (iv) To increase support. The desire and hope for repeat sales insures a high degree of honesty in advertising. show and conventions. Advertising objectives serve as guidelines for the planning and implementation of the entire advertising programme. . The entertainment of customers Advertising Objectives Each advertisement is a specific communication that must be effective. Advertising may be used to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase. thus building loyalty to the brand name or the firm.g. (ii) To communicate with consumers. the objectives of advertising should be specific. The activities excluded from advertising are: The offering of premiums to stimulate the sale of products. not just for one customer.(iii) Advertisements are not designed to deceive. involving news releases and the activities of personal selling forces. and retailers. The use of exhibitions and demonstrations at fairs. but for many target buyers. Advertising is a form of promotion and like a promotion. The use of samples and activities. : . (iii) To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. It involves a decision regarding the media. Now.

It can force middlemen to stock the product by building consumer interest. Advertising assumes real economic importance too. but also at the government. Lower consumer prices then allow these products to become available to more people. and the general public. Importance of Advertising Generally. The production cost per unit of output is lowered. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of respect and trust for an organization. The health department popularizes family planning through advertising Labour organizations have also used advertising to make their viewpoints known to the public at large. Outlay on advertising certainly is the voucher. advertising is a relatively low-cost method of conveying selling messages to numerous prospective customers. This message is aimed not only at consumers. it is seldom solely relied upon. Advertising has become increasingly important to business enterprises –both large and small. the price of newspapers. Advertising strategies that increase the number of units sold stimulate economies in the production process. Advertising has become an important factor in the campaigns to achieve such societal-oriented objectives such as the discontinuance of smoking. stressing the advantages of a military career. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen by convincing readers to request more information and by identifying outlets handling the product. and the like might be prohibitive without advertising. shareholders. Though in India. Non-business enterprises have also recognized the importance of advertising. advertising pays for many of the enjoyable entertainment and educational aspects of contemporary life. its growing productive capacity and output necessitates the finding of consumers and advertising plays an important . physical fitness. radio and TV programmes. Advertising is to stimulate market demand. It can help train dealers salesmen in product uses and applications. to directly move customers to buying action. Advertising is efficiently used with at least one other sales method. professional sports.(v) To project an image. advertising was accepted as a potent and recognized means of promotion only 25 years ago. such as personal selling or point-of-purchase display. In short. Similarly. The attempt by army recruitment is bases on a substantial advertising campaign. and the elimination of drug abuse. preference. It in turn leads to lower prices. It can build dealer and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building familiarity. or even demand for the product. While sometimes advertising alone may succeed in achieving buyer acceptance. family planning.

. Industrial Advertising 5. National advertising B. consumers. Product advertising is of three types. Consumer Advertising B. Product Advertising A. and the country’s economy. Institutional Advertising C. Wholesale Advertising 6. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. Advertising According to Medium Utilized 1. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while helping the consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for his selection. . CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF ADVERTISING 1. Pioneering Advertising B. Product – Related Advertising A. In India. Primary Demand (Stimulation) B. Because of this fact. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising 4. Informative Product Advertising B. advertising as a profession is in its infancy. A. Functional Classification A. Regional advertising 7. Local advertising C.role in this process. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. Selective Demand (Stimulation) B. Competitive Advertising C. Persuasive Product Advertising C. there is a tremendous scope for development so that it may be productively used for the benefit of producers. viz. traders. Public Service Advertising 3. Trade Advertising A. Retail Advertising B. Product – Related Advertising It is concerned with conveying information about and selling a product or service. Advertising Based on Area of operation A. Retentive Advertising 2.

it provides prices. Indirect Type: It attempts to pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation that the consumer’s action will be affected by it when he is ready to buy. Air India attempts to bid for the consumer’s patronage either immediately . A much softer selling approach is used. Retentive Advertising A. and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. . In this type of advertising. the advertiser wants to keep his product’s name before the public. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. Competitive Advertising C. the initial advertisement for black – and – white television and color action-in which case. 2.A. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the product has reached the market-growth and especially the market-maturity stage. Retentive Advertising: This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market – that is. Pioneering Advertising B. It conveys information about. the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or behaviour and benefit the public at large. or eventually – indirect action – when it suggests that you mention Air India’s name when talking to your travel agent. Example: Airline advertising. Pioneering Advertising: This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a product. Generally in such times. The effectiveness of product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. Such advertisements appeal to the consumer’s emotions and rational motives. B. For example. maturity or declining stage. or only the name may be mentioned in “reminder” type advertising. Public Service Advertising This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. It seeks to sell a specific brand rather than a general product category. time tables and phone numbers on which the customer may call for reservations. B. It is of two types: A. Advertisements on not mixing drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate buying action. C. It stimulates “selective” demand.

(iii) It may try to cause indirect action or direct action. suppliers. HMT or DCM. for example. ii. Institutional Advertising Institutional Advertising may be formative. emphasizing the quality and research behind its products. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product. selective demand advertising is attempted. Functional Classification Advertising may be classified according to the functions which it is intended to fulfil. such as voters. Primary Demand Stimulation Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular brand. and not the brand of that product. It may be of either the direct or the indirect type. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. primary demand stimulation is appropriate. . To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an acceptable sort of market. Institutional advertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups.3. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered the market. It aims at building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders. Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. financial institutions. or Vimal fabrics. or the general public. legislators. persuasive or reminder oriented in character. This type of advertising is used frequently by large companies whose products are well known. At this time. employees. does considerable institutional advertising of its name. The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total amount of consumption of that product. Competitive advertising stimulates selective demand. Surf detergent powder. (ii) It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand. It is not to stimulate the demand for the product or service. When a product is new. Selective Demand Stimulation This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes. the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand. (i) Advertising may be used to stimulate either the primary demand or the selective demand. government officials. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. B. i. suppliers. the marketer must inform consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from its use. This sells only the name and prestige of the company. etc. If it is effective. A.

comprehension. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. Indane’s Cooking Gas is a case in point. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention. B. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising A. supports the socialistic pattern of society or provides employment opportunities in the community. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand.the target groups will respond with goodwill towards. . HMT once told the story of the small-scale industries supplying it with component parts. C. It does not attempt to sell a particular product. It notifies the consumers that the company is a responsible business entity and is patriotic. thus indicating how it aided the development of ancillary industries. iii. is an affairmotive action employer. designed to promote the sale or reputation of a particular product or service that the organization sells. It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and. It is of three types as follows:A. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of product to develop an initial demand. and confidence in the sponsor. it benefits the organization as a whole. It deals with the nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service. Informative Product Advertising B. such as public service work. this may be referred to as institutional advertising because it is intended to build an overall favorable attitude towards the company and its family of products. It is used in the maturity period as well as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle. It was the original approach to advertising. It is also a useful method or introducing sales persons and new product to consumers. to some extent. attitude change or action for an offering. that its management takes ecologically responsible action. When Indian Oil advertisements describe the company’s general activities. in the maturity period of the product life cycle. Product Advertising Most advertising is product advertising. Persuasive Product Advertising C.

and general management publications. To help get items in the news column of a publication. etc. the derived demand. to create or change a company’s image. The objectives vary according to the firm and the situation. all these products are all package goods that the consumer will often buy during the year. Advertising agencies are much less useful in industrial advertising. To provide support for the salesman. They are: To inform. Trade journals are the media most generally used followed by catalogues. Baring a few. Consumer Advertising Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising. Marketers of pharmaceuticals. There is a heavy competition among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand. To recognition for the firm or its products. To get the advertiser’s name on the buyer’s list of sources. Industrial Advertising A. Consumer Advertising B. Industrial Advertising Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising. and The basic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the buyer or help in achieving his non-monetary objectives. To induce inquiries. To reduce selling costs. . To bring in orders. cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are examples. cosmetics. exhibits. To establish recognition for the firm or its product. scooters. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts. To motivate distributors.4. detergents and soaps. To motivate distributors. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. To create or change a buyer’s attitude. direct mail communication. B. The task of the industrial advertiser is complicated by the multiple buying influence characteristics like.

generally. 6. It refers to advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. The result is that advertising is often relegated to a secondary position in a retail store. National advertising It is practiced by many firms in our country. B. Retail Advertising B. such as beauty shops. The famous national advertisers are: Hindustan Levers DCM ITC .5. It includes. Local Advertising A. It encourages the consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. either for themselves or for their suppliers. together with their normal functions. National Advertising B. Retail Advertising This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. From the retailer’s point of view. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. co-operative advertising permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been available. petrol pumps and banks. Trade Advertising A. One aspect of retail advertising is co-operative advertising.” Advertising agencies are rarely used. They also need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a way advantageous to them. also advertising by establishments that sell services to the public. Most national advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product. Wholesale Advertising Wholesalers are. Advertising based on Area of Operation It is classified as follow: A. Wholesale Advertising A. The store personnel are usually given this responsibility as an added task to be performed. Regional Advertising C. not advertising minded.

P. Advertising has not only come to reflect pop culture but has also become an important element of economic growth. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors. photographers. C. It provides a quality . Almost all advertising is therefore arranged through an advertising agency which provides the necessary skill to turn the message into a memorable and effective advertisement. skills and experience needed to produce effective advertising campaigns. It has played a significant role in the development of modern advertising. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness. Advertising According to Medium The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used. Regional advertising It is geographical alternative for organizations. These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products. 7. Local advertising It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. magazine. artists. near Lucknow). Advertising Agency Getting the best out of advertising is a highly skilled job. newspaper and direct mail advertising. business periodical. For example: TV. until recently. The advertising agency has evolved to provide the specialized knowledge. It requires the inputs of experts in many different fields like writers. Advertising agency is one of the most important components of advertising industry. it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil brands distribution to Malihabad district (in U. every person connected with the Indian economy or public should be fully aware what advertising really is and why effective advertising campaigns can be performed by full-service advertising agencies. For example. designers. outdoor. and so on. Today. television production crews and many others. location.Jay Engineering TISCO B. radio. Amrit Vanaspati based in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer in the Punjab. Even the biggest advertisers cannot afford to employ all these experts. prices. But.

creative and personable men and women with a wellrounded education and a good business sense. You should plan to have your ad approved and an estimate of the cost done at least one month prior to the date when you want the ad to be published. Advertising Process When preparing your search proposal. Getting Approval for the Text of the Ad . The advertising process for professional staff and faculty positions involves five basic steps: 1. articulate. prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services. called an advertising campaign. and in the planning and execution of promotional campaigns for products and services of their clients.” The glamour. bright. And competition is stiff. there are never many entry-level positions open in advertising agencies (dozens rather than hundreds). The industry. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. is constantly on the look out for skilled. design and placement of advertisements. Agencies may be hired to produce single ads or. Advertising is demanding. however. The Association of Advertising Agencies of America (AAAA) defines advertising agency as “An independent business organization composed of creative and business people who develop. Advertising requires a mix of personal abilities. ongoing series of related ads. hard work. the unlimited expense accounts. non-profit organizations and government agencies. you should take into account that the “lead-in” time needed to place an ad can vary anywhere from days to months depending on the publication. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations. An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating. Compared to larger industries. Writing an Ad 2. and the exhilarating lifestyle .all these popular portraits of life in the big-time advertising agency are misleading. It is also interesting and fulfilling.range of service greater than any single advertiser could afford or would need to employ. planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for their clients. An advertising agency is a firm that specializes in the creation. challenging. and an ability to work under pressure to meet deadlines. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. considerable business skills. more commonly.

Placing Ads & Posting Announcements 5. press ads. collaterals Media Scheduling and media booking All release approvals for creative & media Material dispatch to media Media release monitoring Any post-testing if required Billing and collection .or two-person shops to large multinational. produce work for Internal briefing to the creative and media Any research briefing if required Ad campaign and media plan development Internal review and finalization Presentation to client and approvals Any pre-testing if required Budget and estimate approvals Production of film. Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas. such as print ads or television commercials. Some agencies specialize in particular types of advertising.3. multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group. especially larger ones. Paying for Ads Typical work flow in agency STAGE Briefing Stage WORK PERFORMED AT STAGE • Briefing from the client • • Creation Stage • • • • Production Stage • • • • Post Production Stage • • • • Types of advertising agencies Ad agencies come in all sizes. Other agencies. from small one. Estimating the Cost of the Ad 4. WPP Group.

The advertiser should make list of all possible agencies that can serve his purpose and the agency best qualified to provide required and effective services are selected. It performs almost all functions that an outside advertising agency would perform and that’s why some . Fees are charged for actual work undertaken. product design etc. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency' however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases they do qualify technically as an 'advertising agency' as well as recent studies suggest that both SEO and SEM are set to outpace magazine spending in the next 3-5 years. Today selection of ad-agency is very difficult. This type is owned completely by the advertiser. Following are major types of advertising agencies that are currently serving the advertising industry. media planning etc. Lately. packaging. Thus an advertiser may commission an agency’s creative department to develop an ad campaign while obtaining other agency services elsewhere.many types of media. In House agencies Those companies. which prefer to have closer control over advertising. Or. distribution. Companies that create and plan their own advertising are said to do their work in house. Full Service Agencies A full service ad agency is one that provides a range of marketing services. artwork. Modular agencies A modular agency is a full service agency that sells its services on a piece meal basis. Some advertiser may select more than one advertising agency to handle effectively the various product lines. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as 'agencies' due to the fact that they are creating media and implementing media purchases of text based (or image based in some instances of search marketing) ads. production of ads. have their own in-house agency. It also provides such services in respect of pricing. A full services agency provides services that are directly related to advertising such as copywriting. Not all advertising is created by agencies. an advertiser may hire an agencies media department to plan and execute a program for advertising that another agency has developed.

Such revenue increases the funds and profits of the company. for instance Soubhagya advertising agency concentrate on specialized in financial advertising. artwork and production of ads. because it is just available in the same building as that of the head office of advertiser. a London based agency who started the movement and at present it is the third largest agency network in the world. There is another version of in-house agency whereby advertiser handles the total agency functions by buying service unit to buy time. the difference between an in-house agency and an advertising department is that the inhouse agency can undertake to serve several other clients. Such in-house agency also benefits the owner as it can bring revenue through agency commission that are offered by the media and by way of fees that are collected from outside parties for undertaking their advertising work. It was in 1986. Creative Boutiques These are shop agencies that provides only creative functions and not fullservice. Saachi & Saachi. if the owner so desires. Mega agencies A significant of 1980’s is the development of mega agency. Agencies worldwide merge with each other serve their clients in much better way. but also offers convenience for its owner. they charge a fee or percentage of full service agencies. . but an advertising department solely undertakes that work of its owner and not of outside clients.people refer to it as full-service advertising department of the advertiser. However. space and place the ads. Secondly an advertising department may not be equipped the personnel and facilities. there are agencies that specialize only in financial services or only in publicity or only in point-of-purchase material etc. Such an In-house agency is an administrative center (under the direction of an advertising director) that gathers and directs varying outside for its operation. and as such most of them convert into a full service agency or merge with other agencies to provide a wide range of services. In-house agency not only provides control over advertising schedule and costs. which an in-house agency would posses. The specialized creative functions include copy writing. The Specialists Agency There are some agencies who undertake advertising work only in certain areas.

It may be a totally new product. People are not going to beat a path to your door.The functions of an advertising agency: • • To accelerate economic growth and create public awareness To provide a total. for example: • For whom is the product or service designed? Who would use it? Who is the "target group"? • • . designing and making that item is only part of the battle. experienced service which is very personal in its nature • To take the advertiser's message and convert it into an effective and memorable communication The Benefits of Using an Advertising Agency • • • • • • • • • • Added Expertise Media Knowledge and Unbiased Advice Easier Administration Media Buying Quality Control Information Fending off the media And when things go wrong Cost Saving Time Saving Advertising Agency's Role Suppose you are a company with a product. Ad agency need to consider. professional. You have to seek a channel of communication. As a company with a product or service to sell.

Public Media Ad Company with a Agency product or service The process of advertising involves considerable specialized knowledge and expertise • about people . their specific appeal about the company and its product – and about competing companies and their products Services offered by ad agency Total Advertising Services Strategic planning. preferences. • • How extensive a region should your company try to cover? How often? Communication and marketing decisions involve specialized expertise. wants. magazines and radio. Advertising agencies exist to help companies to communicate with the public. creative development and media services for advertising. their effectiveness. This is where advertising agencies fit in.• What's special about the product? In what way is it distinct? Unique? Different? • • • • What's its "position" in relation to other similar products? What do you want to convey to the public about your product? How should your company contact the public? What medium should it use? Radio? TV? Newspapers? Magazines? Billboards? Bus/subway ads? Direct mail? etc. newspapers. Many companies that design and produce products or offer services lack these specific capabilities.their reach.their interests. particularly in television. needs. Market the company's product. lifestyles. providing the best creative designed to capture the imagination of consumers . expectations • • about media .

animated content. music and other forms of entertainment. including system integration services. e-business consulting and customer relationship management (CRM).Marketing Services Provision of a number of advertising related services. media buying. although all four areas work closely together to produce an advertising campaign in its entirety. including sales promotion. Content Business Sales of sponsorship. films. e-Solution Services e-solution services. . PR and event marketing. Integrated Media Services Bringing value to both clients and media-related companies by offering a wide range of media solution services Sales Promotion Providing comprehensive sales promotion planning designed to complement mass media and other activities Event Marketing Assisting clients by providing dynamic vehicles for their messages in the form of onthe-spot interactive communications Integrated Branding Services Assuring clients the highest quality of branding services for their communication needs Organization Structure The activities within an advertising agency are typically divided into 4 broad groups: account management. These divisions are usually physically separated. market research. and research. the creative department. broadcasting and other rights. and the production and marketing of such media / content as sporting events. TV programs. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and e-promotions using the Internet and mobile.

ADVERTISEMENT AND STUDENT There is so much written these days about the impact of ‘new’ media. As for television. and promotional services. television and films on our youth. The creative department designs original themes or concepts for ads. one cannot overlook the critical role played by the ‘old’ media which are competing aggressively with the ‘new’ media. direct marketing. that we forget the reach of ‘old’ media — newspapers.TV and print have been quietly reinventing themselves to grab TRPs and readership. So as one looks at the impact of media on youth behaviour. but young minds reading these headlines day after day are bound to develop anxiety and question the sanity of our times. many create stressful situations where participants begin to question their sense of worth in our success-driven society. have been brought inhouse in many agencies. continues to dominate youth attention with its umpteen reality shows. The research department provides data about consumers to help the agency and the client make informed advertising decisions. As the academic Mark Crispin Miller observed: ‘Technology now infiltrates rather than . many youngsters do flip through the daily newspaper at home. not even poor Santa was spared! He was positioned as a scary character with five pictures to support this tall claim. which the media guru. Marshal McLuhan.Account managers usually have daily interaction with a counterpart at the client's office and coordinate the activities of the other departments according to the client's wishes.Even if we presume they read less these days. be it internet or i-pods.A routine story perhaps. Recently added to advertising agencies' roster of services are public relations. while the media department places finished ads within the media in which they will receive the most exposure to a target audience.Sensational headlines often catch their attention especially when they are about their own generation — the Rathore scandal and student suicides are cases in point. In a recent newspaper article. a 23-year old rapes an 8-year old. Another headline screamed: ‘Neighbour arrested for raping and killing minor’. Other activities that used to be completed by outside vendors. such as photography and high-tech print work.While some promote talent. described as an ‘extension of our senses’. which recently has been identified as one of the influencing factors in teen suicides.

rural youth looking forward to moving to big cities. But where are the programmes to help youngsters deal with career selection. at the same time.No longer appearing as an alien force.No one wants youngsters to become prudes.” Not that the ‘new’ media does not finds ways to draw people. of Children’s Hospital Boston. TV is irresistible. A recent development in UK of allowing product placement in programmes has resulted in a hue and cry by British doctors and teachers. when they are neither children nor adults. when recent studies point a finger at an over-burdened education system. our TV barons are not sitting quietly for the demise of the ‘idiot box’. it was time to stop arguing over whether it was good or bad and accept it as part of children’s environment. including behaviour problems and lower grades. Television blinds us to any visual event that takes longer than an instant to comprehend and keeps us sitting down. computer. Dr Michael Rich. staying home. the storyline is altered to promote a particular product.Moreover. the study found. TV remains the main source of information and entertainment.’ In smaller towns and rural areas. they are very impressionable to environmental conditions. 2010) headlined ‘Backlash over plan to extend TV advertising’. but in this transitional age. who directs the Centre on Media and Child Health. But. has said that with media use so ubiquitous. where the internet has not made much headway.Denis Campbell writes: “This will result in millions of pounds of extra revenue but the medicos fear it will also result in increased obesity as sugar-based products are promoted in many programmes… often. And television is the world’s most popular babysitter. personality development and social issues like juvenile crimes? In an effort to understand the contributory factors of teen suicides.Cell phones have literally metamorphosed into ‘magic boxes’ which can do practically anything!The growth of internet is phenomenal. Regional television often feeds the hunger of the aspiring. as it were. that heavy media use is associated with several negatives. blending in with the woodwork. . let us not underestimate the impact and continuing growth of the all-pervading ‘old’ media. according to a new study from the Kaiser Family Foundation. (January 3. Umpteen ads prey upon greed and bring in their own brand of sexuality and consumerism.In an article in the Guardian News. The average young American now spends practically every waking minute — except for the time in school — using a smart phone. television or other electronic device.invades.

Let’s make youth aware of how media influences. .' the firm's chief strategic officer explained in a Selling to Kids interview.. Teenagers are probably more influenced by advertising than any other age group. Increasingly. By the time a child is 18. entertainment.. "Finger Lickin' Good". "Just Do It".000 food commercials advertising food low in nutrition. There are enormous opportunities for the marketer who is able to understand both the reality and fantasy of teen life. We need to guide our youth in this media-saturated society. "Have It Your Way". them. Selling to Kids. "Got Milk?". Teens are ?.000 commercials a year. our educationists should also think in terms of developing a ‘medialiterate’ society.As we reconsider our educational system and the influence of all media in face of rising suicides. Advertisers spend over billion each year on television commercials. such research is taking place in schools. The Gepetto Group conducts focus groups and consults with psychologists to help businesses better understand how to market to teens by exploiting their vulnerabilities. interested in shutting out the adult world. playing video games and using the computer." (Linn 2) "And according to USA TODAY. movies. magazines. grade schools in Connecticut accepted . "Reach Out and Touch Someone". The average child sees approximately 20. an oppositional subculture. According to the industry newsletter. we must also involve them in the creation of programmes that help cope with life.Going further. Saatchi & Saatchi hired clinical psychologists and cultural anthropologists to record more than 500 hours of interviews and observations of children between the ages of six and 20. It is estimated that teenagers between the ages of 13 and 19 spend 0 a week or 4 billion per year on clothing. Therefore I Am".000 from a company in exchange for permission to interview 10-to 12-year-old students in classrooms after school. and they are really not aware of it. newspapers. About 57% of viewers surveyed in 1996 enjoy commercials as much as television programs. What they all have in common is that they are directed toward teenagers. even manipulates. "It's Everywhere You Want To Be". "Ipod. "The advertising industry itself has funded dozens of studies on children designed to enhance marketing effectiveness. "Be All You Can Be"--We have heard these slogans many times during the course of a day in some fashion or other." (Linn 2) "It has been documented that the average teenager spends about 6 ¾ hours a day (38+ hours/week) using media--television. he or she will have seen about 20.

hear. radio. We often notice that advertising geared toward this demographic is often very visual. They are more insecure and more rebellious than people of any other age group. .and fast food. They have become very creative when it comes to marketing to this group. employs celebrities to pitch the products. television. teenagers are being left more on their own to make decisions that have a direct impact on families. Is it any wonder that this particular age group is targeted? We as adults have the ability to think logically when it comes to making purchases. manpower. incorporates catchy slogans. It is no longer up to the parents alone to decide what the family needs. and these decisions are often influenced by what advertising they see--through print. "CEA's (Consumer Electronics Association) research says teens may be more open to impulse purchases because they tend not to overanalyze. or what a celebrity whom they admire or respect says they need. it is estimated that 78% of children influence what their parents buy (McDougal Littell. They are less likely than others to compare prices or seek recommendations(Vision 3). 2001). Advertisers now realize that children not only influence the purchases of the goods and services that appeal to them. but they also influence many of the purchases in the entire household. Do teenagers give any serious thought about the role that advertising plays in what they buy? Do they realize that a great deal of time. on the other hand. They know that teenagers' tastes will change on any given day what's popular today can be passé tomorrow. and then make a purchase." They buy based upon what their friends are buying. With our fast-paced society. and is simple yet effective in its language. research the product to see what best fits those needs. We see something that we need. and taste trigger their desires to accumulate more and more "stuff?" Advertisers have found their niche with teenagers. and money goes into developing products and services and marketing them to young people? Do they truly understand how the images they see. and the internet. This is an advertisers dream. interactive. These purchases can be small to large ticket items. what will make them more popular with their peer group. touch. Advertisers are aware of this and desperately try to meet their fluctuating--and they are succeeding. smell. effort. For example. Teenagers. are "impulse" purchasers.

Students will learn that since the advent of our technological age. low attendance. video games. For the past few years. They are in desperate need of life skills. fun and relevant to their lives takes a great deal of effort and planning. As with all urban schools. This unit was developed to show my students just how much of a role it plays and how they can use it to their advantage. has afforded the advertising industry numerous vehicles to expose young people to more and more advertising. as a teacher. where I have taught for thirty-four years. Educating young people who must deal with some of these problems can be an awesome task. Making learning interesting." and the different strategies and techniques that are incorporated in their advertising campaigns. cell phones. Because of their backgrounds and environmental conditions. feel obligated to .000 or more.000 students that is 97% high income group. there are many problems for students. West Delhi High School has a population of approximately 1. where you can easily find a house selling for upwards of 0. This unit will aim to show my students how this is done and how they are influenced by it. They need to become informed consumers who make choices based on facts and not always on emotions. Students will learn how advertisers change their "wants" into "needs. Sometimes school students are thought of as the forgotten children. Ironically. The design of this unit has been directly influenced by the circumstances under which I teach. I am the Business/Technology Coordinator at West Delhi High School. such as Foundations or Edison Schools. a very large percentage of students have scored below basic on standardized testing. and ipods. Seventy-nine percent of students at West Delhi High School come from low-income households (School District of Philadelphia/Demographics). including a high dropout rate. The advent of cable television. advertising plays an important role in their lives. the school also sits in a neighborhood where gentrification has caused housing prices to rise. computers. This has placed the school in the unenviable position of being slated for takeover--possibly by one of the private companies. violence in the neighborhood. they are being bombarded by advertising at an alarming pace. and fragmented family structure. I.This project objective is to how they are being manipulated to buy certain products or services.

shorter etc. chances are. rules. tell us a product or service is good only to find out after purchase that it is not good at all. Reputation is important. So its manufacturer helps us in our lack of awareness and tells us: "Our new and improved product is now even better! Go out and buy it!". if we were using it before. Even though the message is the same as it was the last time it was improved. Before. This happy message really pleases the consumer in us and if the product is one that we use we are pleased that it has now been improved (again) and is even better. and when a company sticks to its original . larger. So far so good. New and improved products are developed all the time and we can't be expected to keep track of these developments ourselves. in those good old days (when everybody complained). etc. and so forth.Unfortunately many advertisements. faster acting. This is all very good. Positive Effects The positive side of advertising is that it makes you aware that a product or service is available. despite rigorous guidelines. When a good product is improved it does become a better product.try and bridge this gap between reality and fantasy. we got to recognize certain brands and products as good quality and we stuck by them. that we will continue to use it and that we react positively to the latest improvement. So we are grateful for advertisements because they keep us up to date on the improvement of existing products and the creation of new ones. And this is definitely not good. laws and consumer magazines and organisations. as we have mentioned before. And sometimes we get mad because we feel we have been taken for a ride. I feel that the debunking of the myths of advertising is but one way of providing this information for my students. right? The ad will tell us in a variety of ways that it is any or all of the following: • • • • • • • • • better than the competitor's product cheaper than the competitor's product easier to use than the competitor's product has more prestige value than any similar product lasts longer the competitor's product it's made of superior parts or ingredients it's healthier for you it's wholly organic it's stronger.

No one can deny that an unbelievable quantity of bad products are for sale. Depending on the power of the manufacturer it can be blatantly obvious that we are dealing with a bad or substandard product. the ad is so sophisticated in its execution that. etc. The ad is made by the product's manufacturer and that already tells us that it will never be objective. And that is good because in our busy modern lives we have plenty to worry about already. In retrospect. we are wholly convinced with what we are dealing is genuinely great product. Negative Effects The negative side of an ad is that it is not usually a neutral and objective statement. have been banned in your country for at least 30 years because of their carcinogenic effects (cancer inducing) • • • there's really nothing in the product that is in the least bit beneficial to your physical or mental health it could be dangerous to your children it's made up of animal byproducts they are destroying a rain forest to produce it it's been designed exclusively to use all those other bits and pieces they would otherwise be stuck with it would kill any insect better than any spray if you would feed it to them instead of eating it yourself • • • .success formula we can trust them and continue to use their products or services without having to worry about it too much. colorings. after the sale in other words. But if the manufacturer has a lot of power. we can find out that the ad failed to let us know any or all of the following: • • • • • • • it's made of substandard materials it tastes bad it's badly made it's made from leftovers and rejected materials it's made by someone undergoing forced labor it's far too expensive and should cost 10% of what it does because it is made much much cheaper somewhere else some of its ingredients or additives such as preservatives. According to the box every product is the best after all.

(c) Coupon blank etc.can be undertaken.e. The technique is known as keying the advertising. This chapter deals these three problems. The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured in any of the following ways – (a) By giving different addresses to different media. and so forth. Whether. never buy a product or anything else manufactured by that company. Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising . Thus in measuring the effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising campaign. or use that service again. affect the future sale of the product.• it's made from organic materials. In the background of all these efforts. There are several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising copy.e. i. The list is quite endless once you get going the reality of it is quite depressing.. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy. etc.. LITRATURE REVIEW All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business. marketing and advertising objectives i. The only thing we can do is learn from our failures. As soon as the advertising campaign is over. it has achieved the desired results i. May be provided with the advertisement or (d) Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this advertising activity. bio-material even an experimental laboratory would label bio-hazard etc. two types of tests pre tests and post tests. not mentioning that those organics are animal byproducts and leftovers. advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. desired sales profitability or results in terms the change in customer’ behaviour in favour of the company’s product which will naturally. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. to increase the sales turnover and thus to market the maximum profit. until we are absolutely sure it is now really worth our hard earned money and time. is an attempt to attract the customer towards the product through advertising. (b) Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments.e.

change in consumer attitudes. It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. message or appeal of the advertising. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of additional profits. (4) To justify the Investment in Advertising The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. the advertisement can be considered as effective one. The main purpose of advertising is communicated the general public. The investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. (6) Compare two markets Under this procedure.(1) It acts as a Safety measure Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and advertising campaigns. (3) Avoids possible failure Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign. and existing and prospective consumers. advertising is published in test markets and results are contrasted with other. METHODS OF MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising is aimed at improving the sales volume of a concern so its effectiveness can be evaluated by its impact on sales. The rate and size of return should be determined in advance. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided. Most of the managers believe that the . (5) To know the communication Effect The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their communication effects on the target consumers or audience. various information about the product and the company. (2) Provides feedback for remedial measures Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid complete loss. Markets – so called control markets – which have had the regular advertising program. The measurements made to determine results may be measurements of change in sales. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard or in other words whether they have communicated the theme. changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser.

advertisement directly affects the sales volume and hence they evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign by the increase in the sales volume. There may be two types measures (i) (ii) Direct measures: and Indirect measures:- (1) Direct Measures of Advertising Effectiveness Under direct measures. A multiple regression analysis of advertising expenditure and sales over several time periods may be calculated. First of all. a relationship between advertising and sales is established. Cities in which advertising campaigns are affected may be named as test cities and other cities may be called central cities. This method is quite expensive when related to other advertising effectiveness measures yet it is possible to isolate advertising contribution to sales. A comparison of sales of two periods or two periods or two markets may be done and the corresponding changes may be noted. One experimental approach to measuring the sales effectiveness of advertising is test marketing. the normal sales level is . the variation in sales over the time periods covered in the study (b) Experimental Control The other measure of advertising effectiveness is the method of experimental control where a casual relationship between advertising and sales is established. Media schedules expenditure levels or some combination of these advertising decision areas. (i) Before-after with Control Group Design This classic design uses several test and control cities in this design two types of cities are selected. It would show how the changes in advertising expenditure have corresponding changes in sales volume. Moreover this can be done as a pre-test to aid advertising in choosing between alternative creative designs. (a) Historical Sales Method Some insights into the effectiveness of past advertising may be obtained by measuring the relationship between the advertising expenditure and the total sales of the product. This technique estimates the contribution that advertising has made to explaining in a co relational manner rather than a casual sales. The following are some of the methods that are generally used in measuring that advertising effects.

eight possible geographic areas have been exposed and eight have not been exposed. Thus. therefore used by some very large firm because of their diagnostic value. For any single medium.Brown. The management is concerned about the number of target audiences who see or hear the organization message set in the advertisement. newspaper or journal sold the number of persons passing the billboards or riding in transit facilities.calculated for both type of cities prior to advertising campaign. former Fords Director of Marketing Research. The most commonly used measures are – (i) Exposure to Advertisement In order to be effective. and radio sets at various points of time.V. the advertisement must gain exposure. This number can be estimated by interviewing the numbers of the audience for different media. be measured by subtracting the amount of post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test cities (ii) Multivariable Experimental Designs While the experimental design discussed above yields a reasonably accurate estimate of the effects of the advertising on sales. advertisement is bound to failure. Despite the uncertainties about the relationship between the intermediate effects of advertising and the ultimate results. Multivariable designs Produce these explanations and are. most firms rely heavily on indirect measures. and the number of persons switching on their T. These measures do not evaluate the effects of advertisements directing on sales or profits but all other factors such as customer awareness or attitude or customer recall of advertising message affect the sales or profits or goals of the business indirectly.H. can then. in this experimental model it is possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible combinations with other media. there is no other alternative but to use indirect measures. Without exposure.The power of this multivariable factorial design is explained by G. The effect of advertising campaign. it is not successful in explaining the success or failure of the campaign itself. (2) Indirect Measures As it is very difficult to measure the direct effect of advertising on company’s profits or sales. or the number of persons living in the televiewing or radio listening area. Marketers or advertisers may obtain an idea of exposure generated by the medium by examining its circulation or audience data which reveal the number of copies of the magazine. and then the advertising campaign is presented to the test cities and not the central cities. .

changes in awareness can often be attributed to the influence of advertising. (iv) Comprehension Consumers generally use advertisements as a means of obtaining information about the product. One is pre-test and the other is post-test. There are two methods for evaluating the attention getting value of the advertisements. they have already seen. Attention value is the chief quality of the advertising copy the advertisements cannot be said to be effective unless they attract the attention of the target consumers. (iii) Brand Awareness The marketers who rely heavily on advertising often appraise its effectiveness by measuring the customer’s awareness about the particular product or brand. for new products. It is also affected by many other factors.(ii) Attention or Recall of Advertising Message Content This is one of the widely used measures of advertising results. brand or the manufacturer. Various tests for valuating comprehension are available – One is recall tests – an indicator of comprehension because it is evident that consumers recall what they comprehend. hear or listen to the advertisement and then researchers ask question regarding the advertisement just to test the recall and then evaluate it. They cannot be informed unless they comprehend the message (grasp the message mentally and understand it fully). Here consumers read. This type of measure is also subject to the same criticisms as is applicable to direct measures of effectiveness (sales measures because awareness is also not the direct result of the advertisements. Various mechanical devices are being used in the western countries which provide indices of attention such as eye-camera etc. But. In post-test method. In a pre-test evaluation. the consumers are asked to indicate the extent to which they recognise or recall the advertisement. Another measure of the variable is to ask questions about subjects how much they have comprehended a message they have . the consumers are asked questions about the indication of recognition or recall after the advertisement has been run. Under this measure. The assumption of this type of measure is that there is a direct relationship between the advertisements and the awareness. These measures assume that customers can recall or recognize what they have viewed or listened to. a recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospective customers is measured within 24 hours of the exposure of the advertisement. This test is conducted in the laboratory setting.

The action or intention to take an action may be measured on the intention to buy measuring instrument. Several measures are used ranging from asking the questions about willingness to buy the likelihood of buying to the measurement of the extent to which specific attributes (such as modern or new) are associated with a product. One may employ somewhat imprecise test of the comprehension of a newspaper and radio advertisement. Thus. Logic suggests that measurement of sales is preferable to other measurements. By regular evaluation of the effectiveness. The assumption is that if an increase in sales follows a decrease in advertising expenditure. the results are very often measured in terms of attitudes among groups exposed to advertising communication.recently heard or seen. service or organisation. the short comings and the plus points would be revealed and the management would be able to improve the campaign by negating the shortcomings and retaining the favorable point. the change in sales levels are good indicators of the effectiveness of advertising. (v) Attitude Change Since advertising is considered to be one way of influencing the state of the mind of the audience towards a product. (vi) Action One objective of advertisement may be assumed to be to stimulate action or behavior. But this is very difficult task because measurements are imperfect and imprecise. it is very necessary to know how advertising affects the buyer’s behaviors. One type of action that advertisers attempt to induce is buying behavior. It seems from the analysis of the above methods of measuring effectiveness that directly or indirectly changes in sales or profits are taken as the measuring rod of the effectiveness of the advertising. Under this type of measure. If it succeeds in attaining the objectives. One may ask typical target consumers from time to time such questions like ‘what did you think of our new commercial?’ and ‘Did it get the message across’? The answers of these questions will provide sufficient insight into advertising decision making. The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the extent. For this purpose. these above measures (direct or indirect) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisements. COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT The management should attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign if the firm’s advertising goals are to be achieved and the ad effectiveness is to be increased. consumers are asked to respond why they are interested in purchasing the product or brand. it to which it achieves the objectives set for it. Advertising can be .

In a very real sense the integrity of promotional activities rests on how well those activities work. Both practitioners and critics feel that promotional activities should only be accepted as socio – economic – institution with full right and privileges “when the means exist to prove that advertising super are productive rupees’ It is undoubtedly a source of embarrassment that we cannot exactly measure the effectiveness of advertising in definitive terms. Weather conditions or the goodwill of the firm etc.(a) The reaction of consumer – buyers to the advertising efforts cannot be known in advance. The advertisement is seen and the response is much greater than it is anticipated. it is a source of discomfort that specific results of advertising activities have not always been subject to precise measurement. The exact result of advertisement expenditure is very difficult to predict because. The advertising executives are much concerned about the assessment of the effectiveness .5000 on advertisement with a local newspaper for a special sales even. An advertising budget that is spent on some poorly defined task or on undefined tasks may be regarded as an economic waste as compared to that spent to achieve the well defined objectives for which the results can be measured. What caused the success of sale? They message theme colors etc. The overwhelming success of the sale is the joint result of all the above variables and it is quite impossible to isolate the role of any one variable. of the advertisement or the low prices quoted during the sale of the superior quality of the product or absence of competition in the market on the day or the favorable. advertising can be recognized as a business activity like other activities. In this sense. Such events may influence the results of the advertising efforts.) cannot be accurately anticipated. (b) The reaction of competitors in the field cannot be guessed in anticipation and (c) The unexpected events (such as change in social and economic environment and the government policies etc. Any social institution upon which a significant portion of our total productive efforts is expanded should be able to point to its specific accomplishment. If we take a hypothetical case of a retailer who contract to spent Rs.. It is entirely possible that a poor advertising support may push up the sale because everything else falls into its proper place or the reverse may be possible. It is so because the cause and effect – relationship cannot be established in advance when a multitude of variable impinge upon a particular event. Indeed. But it does not mean that that we cannot measure the effects of particulars advertising effort.said to be effective otherwise it will be a waste of money and time.

of the advertising efforts. For this purpose, the management needs answers to such questions as: was the advertising campaign really successful in attaining the advertising goals? Were our T.V. commercials as good as those of our competitors? Will the print advertisement, which we have designed, make consumers aware of our new product? To get answers of these questions, various tests of effectiveness (Pretests and post – tests ) are deeded to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used, and if they are not satisfactory how they might be improved, and whether on going campaign should be stopped continued or changed. Pre- tests are conducted before exposing target consumers to the advertisements and post tests after consumers have been exposed to them. As indicated earlier, the advertisers are interested in knowing what they are getting for their advertising rupees, So they test the proposed advertisement with pre test and measure the actual results with a post test. In the past, protesting was done by the advertising agencies but now the advertisers have been taking an increasingly active role in protesting process. Pre test may be done either before an advertisement has been designed or executed after it is ready for public distribution or at both points. During protesting there is often research on three vital questions:(i) Do consumers feel that the advertisement communicates something desirable about the product? (ii) Does the message have an exclusive appeal that differentiates the product from that of the competitors? (iii) Is the advertisement believable? Although a lot of money is spent on protesting yet the advertisers like to confirm the results by post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the following reasons:(i) There is a need produce more effective advertising by retaining the good and removing the bad. (ii) The advertising executives can prove to the satisfaction of the management that a higher advertising budget will benefit the firm. (iii) There is a need for measuring the results to determine the level of expenditure that is most promising. Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect because it is a long run process. In the short run, however sales may be slight and important but in the long run its effects ob brands and companies may be of great importance. Indirectly it will affect the sales in the long run, by changing the consumer awareness

and attitude. The advertisers are therefore, concerned with their impact on consumer awareness and attitude. The communication effect on sales may be presented in the following figure:Communication Effect on Sales Awareness builds a favorable or at least a curious attitude towards the product which leads to experimentation. If consumer is satisfied with the trial he may decide to purchase the product. There are many critical and unresolved issues in determining how to test the communication effects of advertising. Among these are:(1) Exposure Conditions – Should advertising be tested under realistic conditions or under more controlled laboratory conditions? (2) Execution – Protesting a finished advertisement as an expensive and time consuming. Does protesting a preliminary execution produce accurate and useful data? (3) Quality Vs. Quantity Data- Quantitative data are the easiest and the almost precise measurement. But qualitative data collected through interviews may provide information that short answer questions never can. Many types of advertising tests are conducted (different methods of pre tests and post – test are given in question number) In T.V. commercials are tested by inviting a group of people to the studio to view a program. The audience is then surveyed about the commercials. Print advertisements are tested through dummy magazine portfolio tests. Compunction Effectiveness Vs Sales Effectiveness It is easier to assess the communication effect of advertising than the sales effect. Many firms try to measure the effectiveness of advertising in terms of sales results but this practice is always misleading. Since, the effect is the result of so many variables, a distinct effect of advertising on sales cannot be correctly measured, Although there may be some exceptions. For example direct mail advertising can effectively be measured by the inquiries received. But in many situations the exact relationship between advertising activity and sales cannot be established satisfactorily. We can correctly assume that some sales will occur even though there is no advertising or little advertising or conversely there will be no increase in sales after the point of saturation is reached or it may be that sales will show a decreasing trend at this point in spite of large amount of expenditure on advertising is done. It is so because advertising is no the only variable that effect the sales.

Thus, we may conduct that sales effect of advertising is difficult to measure because a number of variables affect the quantum of tales and the contribution of advertisement cannot be measured separately unless all other variables are presumed to be constant. This situation is quite hypothetical and almost nonexistent. Added to this is the fact that advertisement itself is made of a variety of variables such as media, messages, colours, page or time of the day, locations, the size of the headline and the appeals used. Thus even if the advertising variable is separated this would still not answer the question about the effectiveness of the individual components of the advertising campaign. So advertisers try to measure the communication effect of the advertising. Suitability In small business firms where the marketing research resources are limited advertising managers may decide on less expensive and less relevant measures. The big business house, which has more access to research, may decide on the more relevant and expensive measures. Factors Affecting Advertising The final external factor in the planning framework concerns environmental factor social, legal, and global. Law forbids deceptive advertising. One solution is to create brand advertising that is vague and contains little specific information. However, such an approach can result not only in ineffective advertising; by it can lessen the social value of advertising by reducing the amount for useful information that it provides to society. Thus, and advertiser who attempts to provide specific, relevant information must be well aware of advertising regulation. Even more difficult consideration for people involved in the advertising effort is broad social and economic issues. Another concern is that advertising, especially when it is more irritating than entertaining, is an intrusion into an already excessively polluted environment. A whole set of rules is emerging to cover advertising directed at children, and advertising for products such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the use of environmental and health claims in advertising. Thus advertising has a tremendous impact on international marketing and the two concepts therefore go hand in hand and are dependent on each other. IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT

Many economists believe that increased competition leads to lower prices. Other critics express concern over the way advertising has affected women and racial minority groups. advertising simply moves sales from one company to another. advertising enables manufacturers and others to sell their products in larger quantities. culture. enabling them to recoup the costs of developing new products. and political system. Although millions of women worked outside the home in the 1960s. Other economists. These economists also argue that by interesting consumers in purchasing goods. Economic Impact Most economists believe that advertising has a positive impact on the economy because it stimulates demand for products and services. rather than increasing sales overall and thereby benefiting the economy as a whole. They argue that advertising creates a consumer culture in which buying exciting new products becomes the foundation of the society's values. however. Social Impact Advertising can have wide-ranging repercussions on a society. Ads in the 1950s depicted women primarily as decoration or sex objects. believe that advertising is wasteful. 1. Whether owing to the feminist movement or to women's increasing economic power. Manufacturers know that advertising can help sell a new product quickly. By stimulating the development of new products. strengthening the economy by promoting the sale of goods and services. ads continued to focus on their role as homemakers. This is especially true in the United States where the advertising industry plays such a prominent role. sell them at a lower price. Advertising thus benefits consumers by helping lower prices. thereby benefiting consumers and the economy as a whole.Advertising has an important effect on a country’s economy. pleasures. society. advertising helps increase competition. after the 1960s it became more . and goals. 2. They argue that the cost of advertising adds to the cost of goods and that most advertising simply encourages consumers to buy one brand rather than another. According to this view. The increased volume of sales enables companies to produce individual units at lower costs and therefore. Some critics suggest that advertising promotes a materialistic way of life by leading people to believe that happiness is achieved by purchasing products.

some critics warn that because advertising plays such a major economic role. including Hispanics. many ads today still emphasize a woman’s sexuality. Asians. offer less variety. Newspapers. may be hesitant to develop a news story that criticizes a major advertiser. however. Reporters and editors. However. for example. There is still considerable debate over how advertising influences public perception of gender and of particular ethnic groups. many of these forms of mass communication might not exist to the extent that they do today. or they might be considerably more expensive. As ads have begun to more fully reflect the lives of women and African Americans in the United States. if not free. however. or business people. a diversity of magazines. companies that sponsor TV programs prefer relatively wholesome. and free entertainment might no longer be widely available. too. increasing attention has been paid to the way in which advertising shows other ethnic groups.common to see women depicted in professional roles. At the same time. Most members of the news media deny that pressure from an advertiser prevents them from pursuing news stories involving that advertiser. Advertising has a major social impact by helping sustain mass communications media and making them relatively inexpensive. but some members of the media acknowledge that they might not be inclined to investigate an issue aggressively if it threatened to offend a major advertiser. it may exercise undue influence on the news media and thereby curtail the free flow of information in a free society. Prior to 1960. This preference . or even be subject to government control through subsidies. many African American organizations and community activists continue to object to the way that alcohol and tobacco companies have seemingly targeted low-income minority communities with a heavy preponderance of outdoor advertising for their products. In-depth news programs. noncontroversial programming to avoid offending a mass audience. However. The way advertising has depicted racial minorities has also been harmful. magazines. and Eastern Europeans. and broadcast television all receive their primary income from advertising. radio. advertisers by the 1980s had begun to depict African Americans as students. African Americans were usually shown in a subordinate position. professionals. Due to the influence of the civil rights movement. Advertisers may affect media programming in other ways. critics charge. to the public. Native Americans. Without advertising. society might not be alerted to harmful or potentially harmful conduct by the advertiser. As a result. For example.

making them more susceptible to questionable advertising claims. particularly among 18 to 34 year olds. As a result. shows that are more likely to interest and to be of value to older audiences are not produced. If the ratings show that a program is not attracting large audiences. 3. thin models. The result is that society may be denied the benefits of being able to view challenging or highly original entertainment programs or news programs on controversial issues. and may even take drugs that have harmful side effects in order to develop more muscle. advertisers often withdraw support. political advertising has grown in sophistication and complexity.S. But since then. television shows are often developed with this audience in mind. Research indicates that many adolescent girls are unduly influenced by this standard of beauty. Political advertising enables candidates to convey their positions on important issues and to acquaint voters with their accomplishments and personalities. buffed bodies. Political Impact Advertising is now a major component of political campaigns and therefore has a big influence on the democratic process itself. Research suggests that children see television advertising as just another form of programming and react uncritically to its messages. Political advertising is a relatively new development in U. but some elderly people no longer process messages as easily as younger people. Because advertisers are especially interested in attracting the 18 to 34 year olds who account for most consumer spending. Those over the age of 60 are thought to be less influenced by advertising. history. Advertising professionals did not become involved in electoral campaigns until the 1950s. There is also concern about the way in which adolescent girls respond to advertising that features beautiful. many become dissatisfied with their own body image. and may develop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure. Television . which causes a program to be canceled. As a result. devote large amounts of time to weightlifting. which makes them especially vulnerable to advertising. That amount of spending placed political advertising in the ranks of the country’s 30 leading advertisers that year. New research suggests that adolescent boys are also being influenced by advertising images of bulked-up. In 1998 more than $467 million was spent on election campaigns in the United States. become dissatisfied with their own bodies. The impact of television on young children has received much attention.causes TV networks to emphasize this type of programming.

4. Candidates can also use advertising to respond effectively to the charges of their opponents. Because of the high cost of television ads. however. multinational corporations often use the same advertising to sell to consumers around the world.advertising is especially effective for candidates running for national or statewide office because it can reach so many people at once. or they contribute to culture in a positive way. Issues are simplified. a popular ad campaign for a fast-food chain with the slogan “Where’s the beef?” became part of the 1980 Democratic presidential primary campaign between Gary Hart and Walter Mondale. Some critics argue that advertising messages are thus helping to break down distinct cultural differences and traditional values. overriding cultural differences. For example. thereby distorting the political process. have universal appeal. even after they have been elected to office. but television and radio networks have resisted this idea. making it necessary for candidates to raise money continually. As a result. Some advertising messages. Critics say this factor jeopardizes the democratic process by making elected officials beholden to wealthy contributors and by making it more likely that only the wealthy will run for office. the costs of political campaigns have skyrocketed. causing the world to become increasingly homogeneous. Cultural Impact Advertising can affect cultural values. encourage aggressive individualism. Many advertising campaigns. however. Humor in advertising has made many ad campaigns widely popular. in some cases achieving the status of folklore or taking on new life in another arena. Critics of political advertising also charge that the 30-second television spot has become more important to a political campaign than a thorough discussion of the issues. They contend that this practice is harmful to good government. for example. Various campaign finance reform proposals. voters are bombarded with image advertising rather than being acquainted with the candidate’s positions. Some reform proposals have called for free airtime. The ad ridiculed a competitor by depicting a small hamburger patty dwarfed by a . have tried to address the impact of television advertising on political campaigning. and candidates are “packaged and sold” much like a consumer product. which may clash with the traditional cultural values of a country where the collective or group is emphasized over the individual or humility or modesty is preferred to aggressiveness. With the globalization of the world economy.

During a primary debate one of the candidates used the ad slogan to suggest that his opponent’s campaign lacked substance.huge bun. .

So is the practice made by the companies fruitful or it is only an expense and whether there is a significant difference in the attitudes of school students and the college students for the advertisements. OBJECTIVES • • • To study the impact of advertisement on students in Delhi To study the association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers To study the difference between the impact of advertisement on college and school students. . The youth being one of the major people amongst the population being targeted by the companies and the companies now days are coming out with the products which are specially meant for the youth. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis I 7Ho Ha : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi. The research would be regarding the effects of advertising on the customers in with special reference to the students in Delhi region. So what really needs to be found is that do the advertisements tend to boost the sales of the company as companies are investing huge amounts in the advertising activities.CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN RESEARCH PROBLEM Advertising these days is the major tool of promotion and without advertising it is very difficult for any company to survive in this competitive world. The customers tend buy the product when they watch the advertisements and what would be the major focus of the research is that the frequency of advertisements has a impact on the repeat purchase. : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Universe Population Sampling Frame Sample : All Students in India. Rohini. : Students in Ashok Vihar. . : Students in North Delhi. Model Town. TYPE OF RESEARCH • Descriptive Type of Research. students and school students. SCOPE OF STUDY Since my research is comprises of the students only in Delhi Region. : Students in Delhi. so future researches can be conducted on the students all over India to get better and accurate results. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This would help us to know the impact of advertisements on the students who live in Delhi and would make it clear that what companies should do more in order to attract the youth towards them. Pitampura. repeat purchase level of customers. Hypothesis III Ho Ha : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students.Hypothesis II Ho Ha : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers.

so that they could make attract customers and make them buy those products. Websites. DATA COLLECTION TOOL Primary Data Secondary Data : Questionnaire. : Journals. Survey Method. Reports. CHAPTER-4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING. Magazines.Sample Size schools) : 100 Students (50 students in college and 50 students in Sampling Technique : Convenience Sampling EXPECTED OUTCOME OF THE RESEARCH The outcome which is expected is that there would be a considerable impact of advertising on the students. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION . Companies these days are investing huge amounts just to make their products known amongst the people. as students these days are more inclined towards the latest trends prevailing in the market and also like to link themselves with the known brands and products.

2. From where do you get information about the new product? Answers Television Newspapers Magazines Internet Peers (Family / Friends) No. Which means advertisement would be the best medium to get them the information to the youth . of respondents 42 26 11 6 15 Interpretation: A large size of population is influenced by Television and Newspapers. Which form of advertisement do you like more? Answers Still image Moving image No. of respondents 28 72 .1.

For you advertisement is a source of : Answers Information Entertainment No. of respondents 62 38 . 3.Interpretation: People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Specially in this case where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey result it is more likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving image advertisement rather than going for the still or print media advertisement.

Interpretation: More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment. of respondents 26 74 . 4. Out of 100 student 62% of them are going for the advertisement because of the information that they will get from that for example latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the market etc. Does entertaining advertisement affect your opinion about the product? Answers NO Yes No.

This has been told by the 74% of the students from the Delhi and from the schools and college going as well. of respondents 87 13 . 5.Interpretation: Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the product which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as Advertisement affects the customer perception towards the product. Here from this question we got to know if the advertisement is more interesting It would be liked by the students more and more. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.

Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. 6.Interpretation: Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. which means 87% of the students are said yes it is impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the students to target on. of respondents 63 37 .

Which is the one of objective to reach out because student looking for more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the 63% of students from school and college. of respondents 69 31 . Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.Interpretation: Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product. 7.

of respondents 52 48 .Interpretation: Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the students are given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad that will influence there purchasing behavior. Does intensity (frequency) of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. 8.

Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.Interpretation: The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product. 9. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the frequency of advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which is admitted by the 52% of the students from Delhi. of respondents 59 41 .

10. of respondents 87 13 .r. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? Answers Yes No No. In coming months of advertisement there are lot many social issues covered by the organization w.Interpretation: Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product.t social advertisement yes 63% of the student changes there buying behavior only because of that.

Promotion. Disagree 5. F. Quality of the product. Strongly Disagree. 87% of the people suggested for the same as per our study. Advertisement B. 1. It has been proved from this question that it will impact on the customer directly if the company launched any good advertisement. Money C. 3. What impact is most for the purchasing of any new product for you? Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Agree 2. C. Neutral 4. Price D. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Hypothesis I Ho : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi. A. .Interpretation: Advertisement helps very much in increasing the sales of any product. Brand. Agree. Availability of product E.

Advertisement Money Price Availability Quality of product.00 4.0 1.0 .0 Expected N 1.0 .0 1.0 1.0 1.00 45.0 1.00 34.00 31.00 18.0 Residual .00 Total .0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .00 45. Promotion.0 1.0 .0 10.00 17.00 11.0 1.0 .0 . Strongly Agree Agree 10 45 45 15 the 44 29 37 21 34 17 23 34 39 27 Neutral Disagree 11 40 1 2 4 31 7 22 6 12 12 9 10 14 Strongly Disagree 18 18 3 33 7 10 10 Chi-Square Test Advertisement Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.0 .0 .00 21.00 18.00 40.00 Total Money Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Price Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Availability Expected N 1.0 .0 1.0 .0 Residual .0 .00 2. Brand.0 Residual .0 1.0 .00 Total 3.

0 .000 4 Brand .0 1.00 33.0 .000 1.00 9.0 .0 Brand Observed N 2 1 1 1 5 Promotion Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Test Statistics Advertisement ChiSquare(a.0 1. The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.00 7.000 .0 .8 -.3 1. .000 1.00 12. The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.3. b 4 cells (100.0 .3 -.600 3 Promotion .00 22.000 4 Availability .0 . Sig.000 4 Quality .00 15.000 4 Price .000 4 1.3 10.3 1.0 .0 1.00 44.0 1.0 Quality 6.00 29.3 1.0. .3 Residual .0 1.0 .00 12.7.0 1.0 Residual .00 23.0 .00 37.0 1.0 1.0 Expected N 1.0 Residual .0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.00 34.00 Total Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.0 Residual .0 1.0 .0 1.0 1.3 -.000 1.0 .0 .00 39.000 1.0 1.896 a 5 cells (100.00 Total 10.000 Expected N 1.00 Total Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.b) df Asymp.00 14.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.00 27.00 Total 1.000 4 Money .

084 5 5 .392 .340 .392 Sig. (2tailed) N -. (2tailed) N -.916 5 . (2tailed) N 1 Money -.046 5 .136 5 5 1 .001 5 5 1 .514 5 .448 Sig.179 .CORRELATION TEST Correlations Advertisem ent Advertisem ent Pearson Correlation Sig.839 5 .933(*) .092 5 .372 .573 5 .514 5 .891(*) .01 level (2-tailed). .043 5 5 1 .816 .227 .650 5 .933(*) .450 5 .774 5 -.839 5 .135 .516 Availabilit y .885(*) .198 5 -.342 Sig.046 5 . ** Correlation is significant at the 0.278 . (2tailed) N .891(*) .885(*) Promotio n -.789 5 .021 5 .714 5 5 1 . (2tailed) N .373 5 -.774 5 -.166 Sig.828 5 .516 .021 5 .538 5 -.126 .372 .05 level (2-tailed).690 .789 5 .342 .066 .066 .760 .340 Sig.450 5 1 .916 5 .278 Sig.198 5 -. (2tailed) N -.179 Quality -.448 Price .126 Brand -.989(**) .575 5 5 1 .135 .828 5 .538 5 -.816 .092 5 .166 .650 5 .227 .828 Price Pearson Correlation Availability Pearson Correlation Quality Pearson Correlation Brand Pearson Correlation Promotion Pearson Correlation * Correlation is significant at the 0.828 .573 5 .989(**) . (2tailed) N Money Pearson Correlation -.373 5 -.760 .690 .

Strongly Disagree. If you have a money from where you get the maximum information about the product that you want to purchase? Please rate this factor on 1. Advertisement is impacted negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the probability that a standard deviation would be less than or equal to is 0. Agree. Ha : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi. Strongly Agree 42 34 18 15 29 Agree 38 34 17 14 39 Neutral 5 1 14 7 6 Disagree 8 11 31 31 19 T-Test One-Sample Statistics . This means (by the subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would be greater is 1 . Relative D. Advertisement B. Disagree 5.0. A. Neutral 4.As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement does not seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the advertisement on student because if we asked for the most valuable and the crucial things for the student to make a purchase decision our correlation test suggested that it would be pocket money and the quality of that product which is also correlation by the 93.44. Strongly Agree 2. 3.04. Promotion. 2.96 or . Strongly Disagree 7 20 20 33 7 Advertisement Friend Relative Direct sales team Promotion. Friend C. Direct sales team E.33% so major factor for the student is not the advertisement but the money that they have.

520 5 .0710 11.7770 2.893(*) .35610 One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Advertisement Friend Relative Direct Sales Promotion t 2. (2-tailed) N Promotion Pearson Correlation Sig.763 .860 3.520 5 -.242 .993 5 5 -. (2-tailed) N * Correlation is significant at the 0.387 .815 5 1 Direct Sales -.51920 11.00000 20.20366 6.633 5 -. Deviation 18.09902 6.N Advertisement Friend Relative Direct Sales Promotion 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 20.34394 14.0000 20.43953 6.293 .988 5 .0000 Std.3526 Upper 42. (2-tailed) N Friend Relative Pearson Correlation Sig.0000 20.005 .e.002 .899(*) .0000 20.036 .147 df 4 4 4 4 4 Sig.038 5 -.922 3.005 .041 5 5 -.988 5 .133 5 1 Promotion .7770 37.813 .993 5 -.387 . 71% as t test reflects that which means advertisement does impact when we are saying that .05 level (2-tailed).041 5 .695 5 5 Friend . As per the our alternate hypothesis suggested that the it makes sense when we are saying the advertisement makes impact over the student in Delhi Correlation test suggested that the significance level of the advertisement is much higher i. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.00000 20.095 5 5 .017 .146 . Error Mean 8.9053 5.45755 2.095 5 -.242 .038 5 1 Relative -.133 5 -.0947 34. (2-tailed) N Direct Sales Pearson Correlation Sig.00000 20.1571 37.009 .815 5 -.071 . (2-tailed) .763 .0000 20.899(*) .813 .695 5 1 Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.293 .91548 5.146 .8429 2.00000 20.9290 28.035 Mean Difference 20.009 .00000 Lower -2.097 6.893(*) .633 5 -.438 3.21267 Std.40175 14.6474 Correlations Advertisement 1 5 .

Hypothesis II Ho : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers. .Student customer behaviour influence by the various factor. So our alternative hypothesis has been proved that it makes impact to the student of Delhi.

218 .133 5 .979(**) .467 . Agree.725 . Correlations .416 .974 5 1 5 ** Correlation is significant at the 0. 3.01 level (2-tailed). Advertisement D. (2-tailed) N Offers Pearson Correlation Sig.004 5 -.285 5 -.763 .674 .357 . Necessity E.467 . Strongly Agree 2.427 5 .004 5 1 Advertisement -. Customer service’ C.725 5 -.486 5 .133 5 .763 .725 .979(**) .674 .357 .556 5 5 -.213 5 5 -.974 5 5 1 CS . Neutral 4.556 5 -.416 .213 5 -.020 .020 .166 5 -. Disagree 5. Offers Strongly Agree 44 44 20 56 19 Neutra l 6 1 19 18 6 Disagre e 9 10 31 2 19 Strongly Disagree 7 12 20 10 17 Quality Customer service’ Advertisement Necessity Offers Agree 34 33 10 14 39 Correlations Quality Quality Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Necessity Pearson Correlation Sig. Quality B. (2-tailed) N CS Pearson Correlation Sig. Strongly Disagree. A. (2-tailed) N Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.285 5 .166 5 .218 .486 5 1 Necessity .1.725 5 1 Offers .599 .427 5 -. (2-tailed) N 5 .599 . Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product or what factor most of time influence you to repurchase the same brand? Please rate this factor on 1.

427 5 -.Quality Quality Pearson Correlation Sig.416 .0000 20.000 Mean Pai r1 Pai r2 Quality Advertisement CS Advertisement .166 5 .020 .467 . Deviation 17.38083 3.934 79 9.30 249 Upper 27.44983 17. Error Mean 7.0000 20.599 .974 5 1 5 5 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.218 . (2-tailed) N 5 .674 .73415 7.416 .218 . (2-tailed) N Offers Pearson Correlation Sig.725 .020 .486 .0000 20.599 .9886 3 Std.763 . 00000 .416 -.18535 18.285 1 CS .004 5 1 5 -.2148 6 21.81853 7.427 .467 -.01 level (2-tailed).0000 N 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Std.133 5 .0000 20.133 5 .285 5 .556 Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower 27. Deviatio n 22.44983 20.674 . .58 339 27.004 5 -.357 Sig. 00000 Std.33167 3.213 5 -. (2tailed) 1.30 249 t .0000 20.725 5 1 5 -.58 339 27.218 -.556 5 -.166 5 -.33167 3.357 . (2-tailed) N Necessity Pearson Correlation Sig.000 1.33167 7.979(**) .44983 8.486 5 1 5 -.44983 7.725 .357 .66060 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Quality Advertisement CS Advertisement Advertisement Necessity Advertisement Offers Mean 20. Error Mean 9.833 62 . (2-tailed) N Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.763 .213 5 Advertisement -.97618 7.0000 5 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Quality & Advertisement CS & Advertisement Advertisement & Necessity Advertisement & Offers 5 5 5 5 Correlation -.725 .93095 3.486 5 .979(**) .725 5 -.427 5 .33167 9.974 5 Offers .000 df 4 4 Sig. Paired Samples Statistics Std.556 5 Necessity .000 . (2-tailed) N CS Pearson Correlation Sig.96869 3.467 .0000 20.

000 . Strongly Agree Neutra Disagre Strongly . 3. Watching advertisement one time B. Watching advertisement in a month.61 603 5.9% of the customer happiness and in the ANOVA test of advertisement series will have negative impact it has been prove that no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers Ha : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers. Watching advertisement every day. Disagree 5. Watching advertisement every weekends D. Strongly Disagree. Agree. C.000 .e.746 As per the null hypothesis concern i.47 481 17. No advertisement impact. Neutral 4. E. Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product if that product advertisement will repeat continuously please state when you influence most? Please rate this factor on 1.99 772 29. A.347 4 4 1. 00000 2. Strongly Agree 2.47 481 13. 2.Pai r3 Pai r4 Advertisement – Necessity Advertisement Offers .761 94 29.7381 5 12.99 772 . no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers which seams to be true from the t test and regression test which is done by the SPSS ANOVA which suggest there are various other factor which play important role while customer going for the purchasing for example customer service customer service of the product and the quality will represent 97.000 00 23.8841 0 10.

195 5 5 1 .00000 Lower 4.604 2.0205 10.54977 7.One time Every day Every weekends Month No Adv impact Agree 19 44 39 12 10 13 33 27 14 11 l 6 1 19 18 16 e 39 10 11 28 29 Disagree 23 12 4 28 34 One-Sample Statistics N One Everyday Weekends Month No 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 20.983(**) Mean Difference 20.0000 20. Error Mean 5.11555 3.00000 20.1246 36.623 .672 .61577 10.909 5 .00000 20.270 5.00000 20.214 5 -.88577 One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference One Everyday Weekends Month No t 3.402 .4086 42.004 .96869 6.101 5 -.67479 7.0000 20.017 5 5 5 .108 df 4 4 4 4 4 Sig.00000 20.5438 6.510 3.86826 Weekends Pearson Correlation Month Pearson Correlation .941(*) No . Deviation 12.402 Sig.9795 29.031 . (2tailed) N Everyday Pearson Correlation -.502 5 -.015 Correlations One One Pearson Correlation Sig.804 .1246 3.071 Sig.4835 Upper 35.023 .693 .804 Month .502 5 -.909 5 1 . (2tailed) N . (2tailed) N 1 Everyday -.017 5 .214 5 5 1 .101 5 -.066 .672 Sig. (2-tailed) .633 .0000 Std.5914 -2.81853 13.40967 17.4562 33.195 5 -.693 .930(*) .0000 20.40588 4.071 Weekends -.0000 20.5165 Std.872 4. (2tailed) N -.941(*) .

01 level (2-tailed). Family E. Neutral 4. Hypothesis III Ho : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students. Personal contact. Movie Agree 14 20 47 41 48 37 .633 Sig. 3.252 5 -. Environment of school or College D.262 5 . Friends. A. C. And form the T-test suggested that it is valid because until or unless organization not fleshing there advertisement regularly Student may changed there brand so if the company doing advertisement once in a month would not required to do that because if they will not do so 98.No Pearson Correlation . ** Correlation is significant at the 0. Movie Strongly Agree 22 56 31 32 37 38 Neutra l 17 1 2 1 1 2 Disagre e 14 11 11 25 2 11 Strongly Disagree 33 12 9 1 12 12 Advertisement Personal contact. (2tailed) N -. Disagree 5.05 level (2-tailed). In the case of Alternate hypothesis which suggested that There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers so it means if the frequency of detriment increase the repurchase will increase. Strongly Agree 2.003 5 * Correlation is significant at the 0.623 . So significance level is much higher in the case of Daily advertisement for the student. 1. F. Do you think in the only advertisement can change you purchasing power decision or other factor also influences that? Please rate this factor on 1.3% of the customer does not know about that product.022 5 1 . Advertisement B.930(*) .983(**) . Strongly Disagree. Environment Family Friends. Agree.

Specially in this case where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey result it is more likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving image advertisement rather than going for the still or print media advertisement. • More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment. Emotionally B. Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly Disagree.Ha : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students. Spreading the product knowledge C. 3. Which way of advertisement impacts you and your personal expenses. A. Agree. Brand reconnect D. Out of 100 student 62% of them are going for the advertisement because of the information that they will . CHAPTER-5 MAJOR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS • People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Strongly Agree 2. Please rate this factor on 1. Promotionally Strongly Agree 37 35 33 38 Agree 20 29 47 49 Strongly Neutral Disagree Disagree 1 14 28 1 2 1 11 11 11 24 7 1 Emotionally product knowledge Brand reconnect Promotionally It is significant from the study is there is major impact of advertisement on the school and the college student although it may vary from the product and service provided by the company because as per the study college student will go for accessories but the school student go for the play and for the sports thing for example different gaming and cartoon things or health drinks. 1.

get from that for example latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the market etc. Here from this question we got to know if the advertisement is more interesting It would be liked by the students more and more. • The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product.t social advertisement yes 63% of the student changes there buying behavior only because of that.r. • Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. • Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the students are given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad that will influence there purchasing behavior. • Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the product which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as Advertisement affects the customer perception towards the product. • Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the frequency of advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which is admitted by the 52% of the students from Delhi. Which is the one of objective to reach out because student looking for more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the 63% of students from school and college. This has been told by the 74% of the students from the Delhi and from the schools and college going as well. which means 87% of the students are said yes it is impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the students to target on. • Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. In coming months of advertisement there are lot many social issues covered by the organization w. .

Pollay and Mittal.04. 1964. CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION Despite the fact that advertising is an effective tool for the business along with its being an important element of the modern age and a fast growing industry. Advertisement is impacted negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the probability that a standard deviation would be less than or equal to is 0. promoting adverse values.1995). fake claims. All the foregoing aspects are apt to .96 or .44. Again.0. This means (by the subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would be greater is 1 . the public image of advertising is still a matter of great concern. 1986. subliminal seduction messages and persuading people to buy things they no longer need (Katona.33% so major factor for the student is not the advertisement but the money that they have. this industry is blamed of spreading unsustainable consumption patterns around the world over and encouraging excessive consumption.1993). Pollay. Advertising is criticized for its presenting misleading information.• As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement does not seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the advertisement on student because if we asked for the most valuable and the crucial things for the student to make a purchase decision our correlation test suggested that it would be pocket money and the quality of that product which is also correlation by the 93. (O’Donohoe.

. 1986). confuse the people by creating clutter effect. The results of the study also depict that the college students demand lexical changes by the regulatory authorities with the view to controlling the advertising. 1987. 2000). Wolburg and Pokrywczynski. Wright. establish brand loyalties that continue long after the college days. That is why. Therefore. Russell. promotes materialism and inculcate obscene values in the youth populace of Delhi. exclusive studies on the students’ attitude towards advertising are being carried out in different parts of the world today. 1993. The results of the research clearly reveal that most of the respondents feel that the ongoing advertising is unethical because of its deceiving. They are the outstanding asset for the product and service sellers as they are the trendsetters and early adopters. The students represent a sizeable segment of the society. 1982). 2001. Calfee and Ringold. exaggerating nature for and putting more emphasis on the sex appeals. (Wills and Ryans. At the same time majority of the respondents consider the advertising to be an important tool for the economic growth. 1981. They have dominating role in opinion making. cultural values and on the business itself. The results of the study show very significant negative feelings of the respondent about the social consequences of the current advertising. They have considerable amount of money at their disposal. They can influence the purchasing decisions of their peers and parents. and ensure a higher standard of living after their graduation (Morton. guaranteeing the quality products and an effective means to curtail prices. 1996. it is critical of the advertising concerns to follow the public opinion advertising for its for reaching impact on the economy. improvement of standard of living.hinder its effectiveness as well as efficiency as a marketing tool (Beales et al. To exploring the college students’ attitudes towards advertising is important for several reasons. They are a large and ever growing segment of the populace. The results . Pollay and Mittal. RECOMMENDATION This research study is an endeavor to secure adequate evidence on the consequences of the advertising and their relationship to the general attitude of the college students it. The advertising is considered to be the sole source which convinces the people to buy the products that they no more need. . www. positive.Saravanavel. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management – S. REFERENCES Books 1.decisionanalyst.paulbeelen. general attitude towards the advertising. general attitude of the college students towards the advertising. Advertising and Salesmanship – P. economic and social consequences of the advertising on the part of the marketers and the regulatory authorities before they launch any Internet 1.books. Marketing Management – Philip Kotler 3. The growing ethical. an overall. www. Strategic Brand Management – Kapferer 5. social and regulatory concern of the college students as indicated in the results of the study invites attention of the marketers and the regulatory authorities like to avoid any disruption in the positive.V. Branding – Geoffrey Randoll 4. the results of the study highlight the technique as to how to assess and evaluate the ethical. Advertising Management – concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan.Ratra 6. www.Gupta. Also. 3.

. 20 to 30 c......APPENDIX Name: ………………………………. Below 20 b. Student c.. Service class [ 1....... Above 40 Occupation: a.. Business class [ d.......... Sex: Age: a...... Television [ ] . 30 to 40 d. From where do you get information about the new product? a..... Female [ ] a. House hold [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] b. Male [ ] b.

Information b. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the 1. Yes b. Newspapers c. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? 1. Internet [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ ] ] e. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 1. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about 1. Entertainment a. Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) b. No product? a. Which type of advertisement influences you more? . No [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] 1. Peers (friends/family) [ 1. Yes b. No the product? a.b. Which form of advertisement do you like more? a. For you advertisement is a source of a. Yes b. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? 1. Yes b. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about 1. Yes b. No a. Moving image (Television / Internet) 1. Magazines d. Yes b. Yes b. No a. No a. No the product? a. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 1.

a. Local advertisement [ [ ] ] . National advertisement b.

Advertising and Sales Promotion Management S.V.REFERENCES Books 1. 2.decisionanalyst. Branding Geoffrey Randoll 3.Saravanavel. V. Strategic Brand Management Kapferer 5. www. . Advertising and Salesmanship Internet 1. Marketing Management Philip Kotler 3.Ratra 6.L. Advertising Management concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan. www.Gupta.paulbeelen.

Which form of advertisement do you like more? a.APPENDIX Name: Sex: Age: a.. For you advertisement is a source of a. From where do you get information about the new product? a. Television b. No [ [ ] ] ... Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) b.. 30 to 40 d.... Service class [ 1... Female [ ] a. Yes b.. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a.. No [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ ] ] 4.. b... Below 20 b.. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? 5. 20 to 30 c. Newspapers c.... Male [ ] . Student [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] b. House hold [ d.. Above 40 Occupation: a.. Magazines d.. Business class [ c.. Moving image (Television / Internet) 3. Yes b.... Entertainment a.. Peers (friends/family) [ 2... Information b..... Internet [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] e.

6. National advertisement b. No [ [ ] ] 10. Yes b. Which type of advertisement influences you more? a. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? a. Yes b. Yes b. Yes b. Yes b. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. No [ [ ] ] 8. Local advertisement [ [ ] ] . No [ [ ] ] 11. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. No [ [ ] ] 9. No [ [ ] ] 7.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful