This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Partial Fulfilment for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF (Ms. Sangeeta Mehrolia)
SUBMITTED BY DHRUV MARWAH Enrolment No.- 0931913908 IV SEMESTER
GITARATTAN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL (Affiliated to GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY) ROHINI, NEW DELHI – 10085 (2008-2010)
Advertising has played a major role in consumer marketing, and has enabled companies to meet communication and other marketing objectives. Typically, advertising is used to inform, persuade, and remind consumers. It importantly reinforces their attitudes and perceptions. Advertising has been a target of criticism for decades. Advertising has been hailed as a capitalistic virtue, an engine of free market economy, and a promoter of consumer welfare. Its detractors on the other hand accuse it of an array of sins ranging from an economic waste to purveying of harmful products, from sexism to deceit and manipulation, from triviality to intellectual and moral pollution (Mittal, 1994). Advertising is seen by many as a threat to the cultural identity and self realisation of many developing countries: it brings to many people alien ethical values; it may deviate consumer demands in developing countries to areas which can inhibit development priorities; it affects and can often deform ways of life and lifestyles (Mac Bride, 1980). Advertising is considered unethical when it degrades rival’s product or substitute product, gives misguiding information, gives false information, conceals information that vitally affects human life (e.g., side effects of drugs), makes exaggerated claims, is obscene or immoral or is against broad national interest. While comparative advertising may be considered legal and its widespread use may have granted it acceptance, the debate on whether or not it is ethical, still continues. There is no unanimity among advertising professionals and marketing clients regarding such questionable practices. However, all agree to one aspect that while considering the question of unethical practices, the focus must be to safeguard the interest of buyers at the micro level and the society at the macro level as their satisfaction is the key to the marketing success. The criticism has been related not only to its intended effects on society, but also to its unintended effects. Most of the criticism has come from "elite" observers of society. In contrast, the general public has historically viewed advertising in a more positive way. Whereas criticisms of advertising have generally originated from the highest socio-economic classes since the earliest days of the modern marketing era and before, lower and middle class people have historically been more positive toward advertising (Bauer & Greyser, 1968; Fullerton & Nevett, 1986; Steiner, 1976; Zanot, 1984).
HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000s bc, among the Babylonians. One of the first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern situated in another town. In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of advertising, the use of so-called town criers. The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares. Later they became familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlements. The town criers were forerunners of the modern announcer who delivers radio and television commercials. Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printed advertising made little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press by German printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. This invention made the mass distribution of posters and circulars possible. The first advertisement in English appeared in 1472 in the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale. Two hundred years later, the first newspaper ad was published offering a reward for the return of 12 stolen horses. In the American colonies, the Boston News-Letter, the first regularly published newspaper in America, began carrying ads in 1704, and about 25 years later Benjamin Franklin made ads more readable by using large headlines. In the United States, the advertising profession began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1841 when Volney B. Palmer set up shop as an advertising agent, the forerunner of the advertising agency. Agents contracted with newspapers for large amounts of advertising space at discount rates and then resold the space to advertisers at a higher rate. The ads themselves were created by the advertisers. In 1869 Francis Ayer bought out Palmer and founded N. W. Ayer & Son, an agency that still exists today. Ayer transformed the standard agent practice by billing advertisers exactly what he paid to publishers plus an agreed upon commission. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but was also conducting market research and writing the advertising copy.
you get the plums. The chrome strip on the glove compartment is blemished and must be replaced…We pluck the lemons. so did the sale of TV sets and the advertising that paid for the popular new shows. founder of Ogilvy & Mather in New York City. all came to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and led what has been called the 'creative revolution. As the American economy soared in the 1950s. No longer did advertising simply present the product benefit. the Volkswagen ads stood out because they admitted failure in a witty way and gave facts in a believable manner that underlined the car's strengths. He also believed that good advertising began with respect for the public's intelligence. The tone of the advertising was also changing. founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach in New York City. a borough of New York City. when Bernbach's agency picked up the account for the Henry S. Illinois. advertising had established itself in radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their own programs. and David Ogilvy.' An equally unconventional ad carried the headline 'lemon' beneath a photo of an apparently flawed Volkswagen. Bill Bernbach. the agency created an ad that entertained New Yorkers and provided fodder for many conversations. But the introduction of radio created a new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s. At a time when American cars were getting bigger and bigger and the advertising for them trumpeted that bigger was better. The ad showed a Native American eating a slice of the bakery's rye bread with the headline. but because of the high cost of TV sets and the lack of programming.' But it was the advertising for Volkswagen that made the agency's reputation. Levy Bakery in Brooklyn. 'think small. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium. Leo Burnett. The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that were known as soap operas because they were sponsored by soap companies. founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago. This wit together with a conversational and believable style was a hallmark of the advertising created by Doyle Dane Bernbach and that style became highly influential. Television had been introduced in 1940. Bernbach believed that advertising had to be creative and artistic or it would bore people. Doyle Dane Bernbach created a magazine ad that showed a small picture of the Volkswagen Beetle surrounded by a sea of white space with the headline.' In an era of hype and bombast. 'You don't have to be Jewish to love Levy's. For example. it was not immediately embraced. sophisticated. The ads his agency created were understated.' Bernbach's agency captured the spirit of the new age. and witty. Instead it began to create a product image. The ad's copy explained that 'this Volkswagen missed the boat.Advertising agencies initially focused on print. .
permitting an advertiser to speak to millions of buyers in a matter of a few hours. The American Marketing Association. nor is it addressed to a specific person. (iii) It is non-personal communication. (v) Advertising can be economical. New digital devices even threaten to make it possible to edit out commercials. (ii) It makes mass production possible. for it is not delivered by an actual person. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to announce publicly”. by an identified sponsor. The development of interactive television. for it reaches large groups of people. . Chicago. but also. to a greater extent than ever before. (iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the advertiser of a long business life with profitable sales. DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING The word advertising originates from a Latin word advertise. has defined advertising as “any form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas. This keeps the cost per message low. which means to turn to. goods or services. what they will watch. The introduction of the TV remote control and access to hundreds of cable channels mean that today advertising must interest and entertain consumers or else they will simply use the remote to change the channel.The creative foundation established by Bernbach and others has been critical to the success of contemporary advertising. Consumers will be able to determine not only when they watch something. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. (vi) The communication is speedy. will likely enable consumers to select from a vast video library. they will find it easier to avoid advertising. combining the functions of a computer with access to high-speed transmission over cable lines or optical fibers. The elements of advertising are: (i) It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers.” What Advertisement Is? Advertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade buyers to by products with a view to maximizing a company’s profits. Some industry observers believe that as consumers gain greater control over their viewing activities.
not the medium. That is. An advertiser’s circumstances are never identical with those of another. (iv) Advertising without persuasion is ineffective. (i) Advertising is not a game. advertising expenses should not increase disproportionately. (iii) The content of the advertisement is within the control of the advertiser. by person. motion pictures used for advertising. or by inserts in packages). (ii) Advertising is not a toy. Dealer help materials. Window display and counter – display materials and efforts. . Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser. is a waste of money.(vii) Advertising is identified communication. Advertising funds come from sales revenue and must be used to increase sales revenue. The advertisement that fails to influence anyone. The advertiser signs his name to his advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity. (whether distributed by mail. (ii) It should suggest better solutions to their problems. (v) The function of advertising is to increase the profitable sales volume. Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise. because if advertising is done properly. Store signs. he cannot predict with accuracy what results his future advertising efforts will produce. both the buyer and the seller benefit from it. It should give them a more satisfactory expenditure of their rupees. On radio and television broadcasts. What is excluded from Advertising? Advertising is not an exact science. Advertising includes the following forms of messages: The messages carried inNewspapers and magazines. Advertiser cannot afford to play with advertising. either immediately or in the future. What is Included in Advertising? (i) The information in an advertisement should benefit the buyers. Circular of all kinds. thorough tradesmen.
e. Advertising seeks to condition the consumer so that he/she may have a favourable reaction to the promotional message. This involves decision regarding copy . : . The activities excluded from advertising are: The offering of premiums to stimulate the sale of products. The entertainment of customers Advertising Objectives Each advertisement is a specific communication that must be effective. it thus contributes to enthusiasts and confidence attitude in the organizational. It involves a decision regarding the media. The basic objectives of an advertising programme may be listed as below: (i) To stimulate sales amongst present. it is to view advertising as having communication objectives that seek to inform persuade and remind potential customers of the worth of the product. Advertising objectives serve as guidelines for the planning and implementation of the entire advertising programme. the objectives of advertising should be specific. and retailers.. involving news releases and the activities of personal selling forces. The use of samples and activities. Now. This means that specific objectives should be set for each particular advertisement campaign. show and conventions. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales force and of distributors. not just for one customer. The use of exhibitions and demonstrations at fairs. (iv) To increase support. The desire and hope for repeat sales insures a high degree of honesty in advertising. Advertising is a form of promotion and like a promotion. The objectives of advertising were traditionally stated in terms of direct sales. This requires that the target consumers should be specifically identified and that the effect which advertising is intended to have upon the consumer should be clearly indicated. thus building loyalty to the brand name or the firm. former and future consumers. but for many target buyers. (ii) To communicate with consumers. (iii) To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. wholesalers.(iii) Advertisements are not designed to deceive. The payment of advertising allowances which are not used for advertising. TV rather than print .g. . Advertising may be used to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase.
stressing the advantages of a military career. radio and TV programmes. Lower consumer prices then allow these products to become available to more people. It can force middlemen to stock the product by building consumer interest. the price of newspapers. The production cost per unit of output is lowered. The health department popularizes family planning through advertising Labour organizations have also used advertising to make their viewpoints known to the public at large. While sometimes advertising alone may succeed in achieving buyer acceptance. Non-business enterprises have also recognized the importance of advertising. Outlay on advertising certainly is the voucher. Importance of Advertising Generally. physical fitness. In short. Advertising is efficiently used with at least one other sales method. to directly move customers to buying action. Advertising has become increasingly important to business enterprises –both large and small. It in turn leads to lower prices. preference. Similarly. Advertising is to stimulate market demand. or even demand for the product. The attempt by army recruitment is bases on a substantial advertising campaign. This message is aimed not only at consumers. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of respect and trust for an organization. such as personal selling or point-of-purchase display. advertising pays for many of the enjoyable entertainment and educational aspects of contemporary life. Advertising assumes real economic importance too. and the elimination of drug abuse. It can build dealer and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building familiarity. It can help train dealers salesmen in product uses and applications. and the general public. and the like might be prohibitive without advertising. family planning. its growing productive capacity and output necessitates the finding of consumers and advertising plays an important . it is seldom solely relied upon. Advertising has become an important factor in the campaigns to achieve such societal-oriented objectives such as the discontinuance of smoking. Though in India. advertising was accepted as a potent and recognized means of promotion only 25 years ago. advertising is a relatively low-cost method of conveying selling messages to numerous prospective customers. shareholders. Advertising strategies that increase the number of units sold stimulate economies in the production process.(v) To project an image. professional sports. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen by convincing readers to request more information and by identifying outlets handling the product. but also at the government.
National advertising B. . advertising as a profession is in its infancy. consumers. Trade Advertising A. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while helping the consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for his selection. Institutional Advertising C. Because of this fact. Product – Related Advertising It is concerned with conveying information about and selling a product or service. Public Service Advertising 3. Advertising Based on Area of operation A. there is a tremendous scope for development so that it may be productively used for the benefit of producers. Selective Demand (Stimulation) B.role in this process. Primary Demand (Stimulation) B. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising 4. Industrial Advertising 5. A. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. In India. Product – Related Advertising A. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF ADVERTISING 1. Persuasive Product Advertising C. Wholesale Advertising 6. Consumer Advertising B. Advertising According to Medium Utilized 1. Product advertising is of three types. Functional Classification A. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. Retail Advertising B. Retentive Advertising 2. Pioneering Advertising B. Informative Product Advertising B. Local advertising C. viz. Regional advertising 7. and the country’s economy. Competitive Advertising C.. traders. Product Advertising A.
Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate buying action. time tables and phone numbers on which the customer may call for reservations.A. For example. Public Service Advertising This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the product has reached the market-growth and especially the market-maturity stage. Air India attempts to bid for the consumer’s patronage either immediately . or eventually – indirect action – when it suggests that you mention Air India’s name when talking to your travel agent. It stimulates “selective” demand. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. it provides prices. C. In this type of advertising. It is of two types: A. It conveys information about. Such advertisements appeal to the consumer’s emotions and rational motives. the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or behaviour and benefit the public at large. It seeks to sell a specific brand rather than a general product category. Advertisements on not mixing drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. Pioneering Advertising: This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a product. Competitive Advertising C.direct action-in which case. or only the name may be mentioned in “reminder” type advertising. B. maturity or declining stage. Retentive Advertising A. and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. 2. the advertiser wants to keep his product’s name before the public. Generally in such times. The effectiveness of product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. Retentive Advertising: This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market – that is. Pioneering Advertising B. Example: Airline advertising. Indirect Type: It attempts to pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation that the consumer’s action will be affected by it when he is ready to buy. B. A much softer selling approach is used. . the initial advertisement for black – and – white television and color television.
When a product is new. Competitive advertising stimulates selective demand. (iii) It may try to cause indirect action or direct action. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product. or Vimal fabrics. B. primary demand stimulation is appropriate. financial institutions. This sells only the name and prestige of the company. for example. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. (i) Advertising may be used to stimulate either the primary demand or the selective demand. such as voters. Functional Classification Advertising may be classified according to the functions which it is intended to fulfil. (ii) It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand. . selective demand advertising is attempted. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand. It is not to stimulate the demand for the product or service. suppliers. Surf detergent powder. does considerable institutional advertising of its name. It may be of either the direct or the indirect type. and not the brand of that product. etc. Primary Demand Stimulation Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular brand. i. This type of advertising is used frequently by large companies whose products are well known. emphasizing the quality and research behind its products. Selective Demand Stimulation This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes. The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total amount of consumption of that product. the marketer must inform consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from its use. persuasive or reminder oriented in character. A. HMT or DCM. government officials. suppliers. ii. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered the market. If it is effective. At this time. legislators. Institutional advertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups. employees. To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an acceptable sort of market. Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. It aims at building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders. or the general public.3. Institutional Advertising Institutional Advertising may be formative.
Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. It deals with the nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service. Persuasive Product Advertising C.the target groups will respond with goodwill towards. It does not attempt to sell a particular product. such as public service work. Product Advertising Most advertising is product advertising. supports the socialistic pattern of society or provides employment opportunities in the community. . It is of three types as follows:A. C. it benefits the organization as a whole. It notifies the consumers that the company is a responsible business entity and is patriotic. HMT once told the story of the small-scale industries supplying it with component parts. Informative Product Advertising B. thus indicating how it aided the development of ancillary industries. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention. When Indian Oil advertisements describe the company’s general activities. that its management takes ecologically responsible action. to some extent. It is used in the maturity period as well as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle. B. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand. this may be referred to as institutional advertising because it is intended to build an overall favorable attitude towards the company and its family of products. in the maturity period of the product life cycle. and confidence in the sponsor. It is also a useful method or introducing sales persons and new product to consumers. attitude change or action for an offering. comprehension. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of product to develop an initial demand. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle. iii. It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising A. It was the original approach to advertising. Indane’s Cooking Gas is a case in point. designed to promote the sale or reputation of a particular product or service that the organization sells. is an affairmotive action employer.
To establish recognition for the firm or its product. They are: To inform. To motivate distributors. exhibits. Industrial Advertising A. to create or change a company’s image. To bring in orders. Marketers of pharmaceuticals. To recognition for the firm or its products. Industrial Advertising Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising. direct mail communication. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. cosmetics. Trade journals are the media most generally used followed by catalogues. and The basic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the buyer or help in achieving his non-monetary objectives. Consumer Advertising Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising. To create or change a buyer’s attitude. Advertising agencies are much less useful in industrial advertising. all these products are all package goods that the consumer will often buy during the year. To reduce selling costs. To provide support for the salesman. and general management publications. Consumer Advertising B. To help get items in the news column of a publication. the derived demand.4. To motivate distributors. detergents and soaps. The objectives vary according to the firm and the situation. There is a heavy competition among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand. To get the advertiser’s name on the buyer’s list of sources. B. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts. . The task of the industrial advertiser is complicated by the multiple buying influence characteristics like. cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are examples. To induce inquiries. etc. Baring a few. scooters.
also advertising by establishments that sell services to the public. One aspect of retail advertising is co-operative advertising. 6. The famous national advertisers are: Hindustan Levers DCM ITC . Advertising based on Area of Operation It is classified as follow: A. Retail Advertising This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. Retail Advertising B. petrol pumps and banks. It encourages the consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. Trade Advertising A. Most national advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product. They also need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a way advantageous to them. It refers to advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. B. either for themselves or for their suppliers. co-operative advertising permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been available. Regional Advertising C. generally. together with their normal functions. Local Advertising A. It includes. National Advertising B. Wholesale Advertising Wholesalers are. such as beauty shops.” Advertising agencies are rarely used. The result is that advertising is often relegated to a secondary position in a retail store. not advertising minded.5. From the retailer’s point of view. National advertising It is practiced by many firms in our country. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. Wholesale Advertising A. The store personnel are usually given this responsibility as an added task to be performed.
Advertising agency is one of the most important components of advertising industry. It requires the inputs of experts in many different fields like writers.P. artists. These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products. It provides a quality . The advertising agency has evolved to provide the specialized knowledge. For example: TV. location. Advertising Agency Getting the best out of advertising is a highly skilled job. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors. radio. It has played a significant role in the development of modern advertising. Advertising has not only come to reflect pop culture but has also become an important element of economic growth. business periodical. photographers. until recently. television production crews and many others. Regional advertising It is geographical alternative for organizations. it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil brands distribution to Malihabad district (in U. skills and experience needed to produce effective advertising campaigns. Amrit Vanaspati based in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer in the Punjab. near Lucknow). Advertising According to Medium The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used.Jay Engineering TISCO B. newspaper and direct mail advertising. 7. Almost all advertising is therefore arranged through an advertising agency which provides the necessary skill to turn the message into a memorable and effective advertisement. Local advertising It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. Today. For example. prices. Even the biggest advertisers cannot afford to employ all these experts. outdoor. and so on. designers. C. magazine. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness. But. every person connected with the Indian economy or public should be fully aware what advertising really is and why effective advertising campaigns can be performed by full-service advertising agencies.
range of service greater than any single advertiser could afford or would need to employ. Advertising requires a mix of personal abilities. Getting Approval for the Text of the Ad . Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations. The Association of Advertising Agencies of America (AAAA) defines advertising agency as “An independent business organization composed of creative and business people who develop. The advertising process for professional staff and faculty positions involves five basic steps: 1. you should take into account that the “lead-in” time needed to place an ad can vary anywhere from days to months depending on the publication.all these popular portraits of life in the big-time advertising agency are misleading. there are never many entry-level positions open in advertising agencies (dozens rather than hundreds). An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. more commonly. You should plan to have your ad approved and an estimate of the cost done at least one month prior to the date when you want the ad to be published. bright. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients.” The glamour. Advertising is demanding. An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating. Agencies may be hired to produce single ads or. ongoing series of related ads. design and placement of advertisements. Writing an Ad 2. Advertising Process When preparing your search proposal. and the exhilarating lifestyle . prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services. It is also interesting and fulfilling. called an advertising campaign. And competition is stiff. the unlimited expense accounts. and in the planning and execution of promotional campaigns for products and services of their clients. challenging. articulate. The industry. and an ability to work under pressure to meet deadlines. An advertising agency is a firm that specializes in the creation. however. considerable business skills. Compared to larger industries. creative and personable men and women with a wellrounded education and a good business sense. is constantly on the look out for skilled. planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for their clients. non-profit organizations and government agencies. hard work.
produce work for Internal briefing to the creative and media Any research briefing if required Ad campaign and media plan development Internal review and finalization Presentation to client and approvals Any pre-testing if required Budget and estimate approvals Production of film. such as print ads or television commercials. Estimating the Cost of the Ad 4.or two-person shops to large multinational. Placing Ads & Posting Announcements 5. multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group.3. Other agencies. from small one. Some agencies specialize in particular types of advertising. Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas. Paying for Ads Typical work flow in agency STAGE Briefing Stage WORK PERFORMED AT STAGE • Briefing from the client • • Creation Stage • • • • Production Stage • • • • Post Production Stage • • • • Types of advertising agencies Ad agencies come in all sizes. collaterals Media Scheduling and media booking All release approvals for creative & media Material dispatch to media Media release monitoring Any post-testing if required Billing and collection . especially larger ones. press ads. WPP Group.
It performs almost all functions that an outside advertising agency would perform and that’s why some . packaging. Some advertiser may select more than one advertising agency to handle effectively the various product lines. Or. product design etc. an advertiser may hire an agencies media department to plan and execute a program for advertising that another agency has developed. distribution. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency' however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases they do qualify technically as an 'advertising agency' as well as recent studies suggest that both SEO and SEM are set to outpace magazine spending in the next 3-5 years.many types of media. This type is owned completely by the advertiser. have their own in-house agency. Companies that create and plan their own advertising are said to do their work in house. media planning etc. production of ads. It also provides such services in respect of pricing. artwork. Following are major types of advertising agencies that are currently serving the advertising industry. Modular agencies A modular agency is a full service agency that sells its services on a piece meal basis. The advertiser should make list of all possible agencies that can serve his purpose and the agency best qualified to provide required and effective services are selected. A full services agency provides services that are directly related to advertising such as copywriting. In House agencies Those companies. Lately. Full Service Agencies A full service ad agency is one that provides a range of marketing services. Thus an advertiser may commission an agency’s creative department to develop an ad campaign while obtaining other agency services elsewhere. Today selection of ad-agency is very difficult. Not all advertising is created by agencies. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as 'agencies' due to the fact that they are creating media and implementing media purchases of text based (or image based in some instances of search marketing) ads. which prefer to have closer control over advertising. Fees are charged for actual work undertaken.
which an in-house agency would posses. but also offers convenience for its owner. Such in-house agency also benefits the owner as it can bring revenue through agency commission that are offered by the media and by way of fees that are collected from outside parties for undertaking their advertising work. artwork and production of ads. The specialized creative functions include copy writing. for instance Soubhagya advertising agency concentrate on specialized in financial advertising. space and place the ads. Secondly an advertising department may not be equipped the personnel and facilities. if the owner so desires. Agencies worldwide merge with each other serve their clients in much better way. Saachi & Saachi. a London based agency who started the movement and at present it is the third largest agency network in the world. Mega agencies A significant of 1980’s is the development of mega agency. The Specialists Agency There are some agencies who undertake advertising work only in certain areas. because it is just available in the same building as that of the head office of advertiser. Creative Boutiques These are shop agencies that provides only creative functions and not fullservice. In-house agency not only provides control over advertising schedule and costs. but an advertising department solely undertakes that work of its owner and not of outside clients. there are agencies that specialize only in financial services or only in publicity or only in point-of-purchase material etc. Such an In-house agency is an administrative center (under the direction of an advertising director) that gathers and directs varying outside for its operation. There is another version of in-house agency whereby advertiser handles the total agency functions by buying service unit to buy time.people refer to it as full-service advertising department of the advertiser. However. they charge a fee or percentage of full service agencies. the difference between an in-house agency and an advertising department is that the inhouse agency can undertake to serve several other clients. It was in 1986. . Such revenue increases the funds and profits of the company. and as such most of them convert into a full service agency or merge with other agencies to provide a wide range of services.
You have to seek a channel of communication. As a company with a product or service to sell. Ad agency need to consider. experienced service which is very personal in its nature • To take the advertiser's message and convert it into an effective and memorable communication The Benefits of Using an Advertising Agency • • • • • • • • • • Added Expertise Media Knowledge and Unbiased Advice Easier Administration Media Buying Quality Control Information Fending off the media And when things go wrong Cost Saving Time Saving Advertising Agency's Role Suppose you are a company with a product. People are not going to beat a path to your door. for example: • For whom is the product or service designed? Who would use it? Who is the "target group"? • • . professional.The functions of an advertising agency: • • To accelerate economic growth and create public awareness To provide a total. designing and making that item is only part of the battle. It may be a totally new product.
particularly in television.their reach. newspapers. preferences. their specific appeal about the company and its product – and about competing companies and their products Services offered by ad agency Total Advertising Services Strategic planning.• What's special about the product? In what way is it distinct? Unique? Different? • • • • What's its "position" in relation to other similar products? What do you want to convey to the public about your product? How should your company contact the public? What medium should it use? Radio? TV? Newspapers? Magazines? Billboards? Bus/subway ads? Direct mail? etc. needs. • • How extensive a region should your company try to cover? How often? Communication and marketing decisions involve specialized expertise. expectations • • about media . providing the best creative designed to capture the imagination of consumers . Market the company's product. creative development and media services for advertising. wants. their effectiveness. Many companies that design and produce products or offer services lack these specific capabilities. lifestyles. Advertising agencies exist to help companies to communicate with the public. magazines and radio. This is where advertising agencies fit in. Public Media Ad Company with a Agency product or service The process of advertising involves considerable specialized knowledge and expertise • about people .their interests.
Marketing Services Provision of a number of advertising related services. films. media buying. broadcasting and other rights. animated content. and research. although all four areas work closely together to produce an advertising campaign in its entirety. These divisions are usually physically separated. market research. Content Business Sales of sponsorship. music and other forms of entertainment. e-business consulting and customer relationship management (CRM). Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and e-promotions using the Internet and mobile. PR and event marketing. . and the production and marketing of such media / content as sporting events. the creative department. including system integration services. including sales promotion. TV programs. e-Solution Services e-solution services. Integrated Media Services Bringing value to both clients and media-related companies by offering a wide range of media solution services Sales Promotion Providing comprehensive sales promotion planning designed to complement mass media and other activities Event Marketing Assisting clients by providing dynamic vehicles for their messages in the form of onthe-spot interactive communications Integrated Branding Services Assuring clients the highest quality of branding services for their communication needs Organization Structure The activities within an advertising agency are typically divided into 4 broad groups: account management.
not even poor Santa was spared! He was positioned as a scary character with five pictures to support this tall claim.A routine story perhaps. As for television.Account managers usually have daily interaction with a counterpart at the client's office and coordinate the activities of the other departments according to the client's wishes. ADVERTISEMENT AND STUDENT There is so much written these days about the impact of ‘new’ media. direct marketing. many create stressful situations where participants begin to question their sense of worth in our success-driven society. The creative department designs original themes or concepts for ads.TV and print have been quietly reinventing themselves to grab TRPs and readership. Marshal McLuhan. In a recent newspaper article. As the academic Mark Crispin Miller observed: ‘Technology now infiltrates rather than . that we forget the reach of ‘old’ media — newspapers. The research department provides data about consumers to help the agency and the client make informed advertising decisions. Recently added to advertising agencies' roster of services are public relations. Other activities that used to be completed by outside vendors. one cannot overlook the critical role played by the ‘old’ media which are competing aggressively with the ‘new’ media. which the media guru.Sensational headlines often catch their attention especially when they are about their own generation — the Rathore scandal and student suicides are cases in point.While some promote talent. a 23-year old rapes an 8-year old. which recently has been identified as one of the influencing factors in teen suicides. many youngsters do flip through the daily newspaper at home. and promotional services. but young minds reading these headlines day after day are bound to develop anxiety and question the sanity of our times. while the media department places finished ads within the media in which they will receive the most exposure to a target audience. be it internet or i-pods. continues to dominate youth attention with its umpteen reality shows. described as an ‘extension of our senses’. So as one looks at the impact of media on youth behaviour. have been brought inhouse in many agencies. Another headline screamed: ‘Neighbour arrested for raping and killing minor’.Even if we presume they read less these days. television and films on our youth. such as photography and high-tech print work.
the study found. let us not underestimate the impact and continuing growth of the all-pervading ‘old’ media. that heavy media use is associated with several negatives.Moreover. Television blinds us to any visual event that takes longer than an instant to comprehend and keeps us sitting down. who directs the Centre on Media and Child Health. of Children’s Hospital Boston. the storyline is altered to promote a particular product. But where are the programmes to help youngsters deal with career selection.No one wants youngsters to become prudes. computer.No longer appearing as an alien force. 2010) headlined ‘Backlash over plan to extend TV advertising’. Dr Michael Rich. A recent development in UK of allowing product placement in programmes has resulted in a hue and cry by British doctors and teachers. at the same time.” Not that the ‘new’ media does not finds ways to draw people. TV remains the main source of information and entertainment.’ In smaller towns and rural areas. rural youth looking forward to moving to big cities. has said that with media use so ubiquitous. but in this transitional age. And television is the world’s most popular babysitter. it was time to stop arguing over whether it was good or bad and accept it as part of children’s environment. TV is irresistible. Umpteen ads prey upon greed and bring in their own brand of sexuality and consumerism. Regional television often feeds the hunger of the aspiring. they are very impressionable to environmental conditions. when recent studies point a finger at an over-burdened education system. . when they are neither children nor adults. (January 3. But. personality development and social issues like juvenile crimes? In an effort to understand the contributory factors of teen suicides. according to a new study from the Kaiser Family Foundation. The average young American now spends practically every waking minute — except for the time in school — using a smart phone.Denis Campbell writes: “This will result in millions of pounds of extra revenue but the medicos fear it will also result in increased obesity as sugar-based products are promoted in many programmes… often.In an article in the Guardian News.invades. our TV barons are not sitting quietly for the demise of the ‘idiot box’. including behaviour problems and lower grades. blending in with the woodwork. where the internet has not made much headway. staying home. as it were. television or other electronic device.Cell phones have literally metamorphosed into ‘magic boxes’ which can do practically anything!The growth of internet is phenomenal.
The Gepetto Group conducts focus groups and consults with psychologists to help businesses better understand how to market to teens by exploiting their vulnerabilities. interested in shutting out the adult world. "Have It Your Way".Let’s make youth aware of how media influences. "The advertising industry itself has funded dozens of studies on children designed to enhance marketing effectiveness. "Finger Lickin' Good". magazines. "It's Everywhere You Want To Be". movies. grade schools in Connecticut accepted . "Be All You Can Be"--We have heard these slogans many times during the course of a day in some fashion or other. It is estimated that teenagers between the ages of 13 and 19 spend 0 a week or 4 billion per year on clothing. playing video games and using the computer. he or she will have seen about 20. We need to guide our youth in this media-saturated society. Advertisers spend over billion each year on television commercials. What they all have in common is that they are directed toward teenagers.000 from a company in exchange for permission to interview 10-to 12-year-old students in classrooms after school. them.As we reconsider our educational system and the influence of all media in face of rising suicides. even manipulates." (Linn 2) "And according to USA TODAY. Teenagers are probably more influenced by advertising than any other age group.' the firm's chief strategic officer explained in a Selling to Kids interview. About 57% of viewers surveyed in 1996 enjoy commercials as much as television programs. Teens are ?. an oppositional subculture. Selling to Kids. such research is taking place in schools. "Reach Out and Touch Someone". we must also involve them in the creation of programmes that help cope with life. Increasingly. our educationists should also think in terms of developing a ‘medialiterate’ society.000 food commercials advertising food low in nutrition. "Just Do It". newspapers. and they are really not aware of it." (Linn 2) "It has been documented that the average teenager spends about 6 ¾ hours a day (38+ hours/week) using media--television. . "Ipod.000 commercials a year.Going further. entertainment. By the time a child is 18. Saatchi & Saatchi hired clinical psychologists and cultural anthropologists to record more than 500 hours of interviews and observations of children between the ages of six and 20. Therefore I Am". There are enormous opportunities for the marketer who is able to understand both the reality and fantasy of teen life. According to the industry newsletter... "Got Milk?". The average child sees approximately 20.
They are more insecure and more rebellious than people of any other age group. Is it any wonder that this particular age group is targeted? We as adults have the ability to think logically when it comes to making purchases. and the internet. 2001). For example. it is estimated that 78% of children influence what their parents buy (McDougal Littell. Do teenagers give any serious thought about the role that advertising plays in what they buy? Do they realize that a great deal of time. or what a celebrity whom they admire or respect says they need. Advertisers now realize that children not only influence the purchases of the goods and services that appeal to them. Advertisers are aware of this and desperately try to meet their fluctuating--and they are succeeding. interactive. but they also influence many of the purchases in the entire household. and then make a purchase. manpower. effort. These purchases can be small to large ticket items." They buy based upon what their friends are buying. and these decisions are often influenced by what advertising they see--through print. We see something that we need. hear. television. This is an advertisers dream. We often notice that advertising geared toward this demographic is often very visual. research the product to see what best fits those needs. With our fast-paced society. They are less likely than others to compare prices or seek recommendations(Vision 3). and taste trigger their desires to accumulate more and more "stuff?" Advertisers have found their niche with teenagers. It is no longer up to the parents alone to decide what the family needs. what will make them more popular with their peer group. employs celebrities to pitch the products. teenagers are being left more on their own to make decisions that have a direct impact on families. smell.and fast food. "CEA's (Consumer Electronics Association) research says teens may be more open to impulse purchases because they tend not to overanalyze. . and money goes into developing products and services and marketing them to young people? Do they truly understand how the images they see. are "impulse" purchasers. and is simple yet effective in its language. radio. on the other hand. They have become very creative when it comes to marketing to this group. incorporates catchy slogans. They know that teenagers' tastes will change on any given day what's popular today can be passé tomorrow. touch. Teenagers.
Making learning interesting. As with all urban schools. They are in desperate need of life skills. This unit was developed to show my students just how much of a role it plays and how they can use it to their advantage. video games. I.000 students that is 97% high income group. where I have taught for thirty-four years. This has placed the school in the unenviable position of being slated for takeover--possibly by one of the private companies. Seventy-nine percent of students at West Delhi High School come from low-income households (School District of Philadelphia/Demographics). and ipods. fun and relevant to their lives takes a great deal of effort and planning. cell phones. the school also sits in a neighborhood where gentrification has caused housing prices to rise. feel obligated to . violence in the neighborhood. I am the Business/Technology Coordinator at West Delhi High School. This unit will aim to show my students how this is done and how they are influenced by it. has afforded the advertising industry numerous vehicles to expose young people to more and more advertising. a very large percentage of students have scored below basic on standardized testing. Students will learn that since the advent of our technological age. West Delhi High School has a population of approximately 1. The advent of cable television.000 or more." and the different strategies and techniques that are incorporated in their advertising campaigns. they are being bombarded by advertising at an alarming pace. such as Foundations or Edison Schools. advertising plays an important role in their lives. For the past few years. computers. there are many problems for students. where you can easily find a house selling for upwards of 0. as a teacher. Educating young people who must deal with some of these problems can be an awesome task.This project objective is to how they are being manipulated to buy certain products or services. The design of this unit has been directly influenced by the circumstances under which I teach. low attendance. They need to become informed consumers who make choices based on facts and not always on emotions. Ironically. Because of their backgrounds and environmental conditions. Students will learn how advertisers change their "wants" into "needs. and fragmented family structure. Sometimes school students are thought of as the forgotten children. including a high dropout rate.
chances are. that we will continue to use it and that we react positively to the latest improvement. shorter etc. larger. laws and consumer magazines and organisations. Reputation is important. When a good product is improved it does become a better product. and when a company sticks to its original .try and bridge this gap between reality and fantasy. And this is definitely not good. And sometimes we get mad because we feel we have been taken for a ride. So its manufacturer helps us in our lack of awareness and tells us: "Our new and improved product is now even better! Go out and buy it!". in those good old days (when everybody complained). tell us a product or service is good only to find out after purchase that it is not good at all. etc. we got to recognize certain brands and products as good quality and we stuck by them. Even though the message is the same as it was the last time it was improved. New and improved products are developed all the time and we can't be expected to keep track of these developments ourselves. as we have mentioned before. and so forth. This happy message really pleases the consumer in us and if the product is one that we use we are pleased that it has now been improved (again) and is even better. This is all very good. Before. if we were using it before. Positive Effects The positive side of advertising is that it makes you aware that a product or service is available. rules. despite rigorous guidelines. So far so good. faster acting.Unfortunately many advertisements. So we are grateful for advertisements because they keep us up to date on the improvement of existing products and the creation of new ones. I feel that the debunking of the myths of advertising is but one way of providing this information for my students. right? The ad will tell us in a variety of ways that it is any or all of the following: • • • • • • • • • better than the competitor's product cheaper than the competitor's product easier to use than the competitor's product has more prestige value than any similar product lasts longer the competitor's product it's made of superior parts or ingredients it's healthier for you it's wholly organic it's stronger.
The ad is made by the product's manufacturer and that already tells us that it will never be objective. And that is good because in our busy modern lives we have plenty to worry about already. No one can deny that an unbelievable quantity of bad products are for sale. we are wholly convinced with what we are dealing is genuinely great product. we can find out that the ad failed to let us know any or all of the following: • • • • • • • it's made of substandard materials it tastes bad it's badly made it's made from leftovers and rejected materials it's made by someone undergoing forced labor it's far too expensive and should cost 10% of what it does because it is made much much cheaper somewhere else some of its ingredients or additives such as preservatives. the ad is so sophisticated in its execution that. etc. after the sale in other words.success formula we can trust them and continue to use their products or services without having to worry about it too much. have been banned in your country for at least 30 years because of their carcinogenic effects (cancer inducing) • • • there's really nothing in the product that is in the least bit beneficial to your physical or mental health it could be dangerous to your children it's made up of animal byproducts they are destroying a rain forest to produce it it's been designed exclusively to use all those other bits and pieces they would otherwise be stuck with it would kill any insect better than any spray if you would feed it to them instead of eating it yourself • • • . Negative Effects The negative side of an ad is that it is not usually a neutral and objective statement. According to the box every product is the best after all. In retrospect. But if the manufacturer has a lot of power. Depending on the power of the manufacturer it can be blatantly obvious that we are dealing with a bad or substandard product. colorings.
it has achieved the desired results i. advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. or use that service again. two types of tests pre tests and post tests. LITRATURE REVIEW All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business. The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured in any of the following ways – (a) By giving different addresses to different media..• it's made from organic materials. (c) Coupon blank etc. i. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this advertising activity. There are several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising copy. not mentioning that those organics are animal byproducts and leftovers. This chapter deals these three problems. affect the future sale of the product. Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising . Whether.e.. desired sales profitability or results in terms the change in customer’ behaviour in favour of the company’s product which will naturally.e.e. until we are absolutely sure it is now really worth our hard earned money and time. to increase the sales turnover and thus to market the maximum profit. The only thing we can do is learn from our failures. never buy a product or anything else manufactured by that company. is an attempt to attract the customer towards the product through advertising. As soon as the advertising campaign is over. May be provided with the advertisement or (d) Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information. The technique is known as keying the advertising.can be undertaken. In the background of all these efforts. a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. bio-material even an experimental laboratory would label bio-hazard etc. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. Thus in measuring the effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising campaign. marketing and advertising objectives i. (b) Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments. etc. The list is quite endless once you get going the reality of it is quite depressing. and so forth.
(2) Provides feedback for remedial measures Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements. The investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. (4) To justify the Investment in Advertising The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of additional profits. change in consumer attitudes. changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser. (3) Avoids possible failure Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign. and existing and prospective consumers. Markets – so called control markets – which have had the regular advertising program. the advertisement can be considered as effective one.(1) It acts as a Safety measure Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and advertising campaigns. METHODS OF MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising is aimed at improving the sales volume of a concern so its effectiveness can be evaluated by its impact on sales. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided. The measurements made to determine results may be measurements of change in sales. message or appeal of the advertising. various information about the product and the company. (6) Compare two markets Under this procedure. It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. The main purpose of advertising is communicated the general public. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard or in other words whether they have communicated the theme. Most of the managers believe that the . (5) To know the communication Effect The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their communication effects on the target consumers or audience. advertising is published in test markets and results are contrasted with other. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid complete loss. The rate and size of return should be determined in advance.
Moreover this can be done as a pre-test to aid advertising in choosing between alternative creative designs.advertisement directly affects the sales volume and hence they evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign by the increase in the sales volume. The following are some of the methods that are generally used in measuring that advertising effects. There may be two types measures (i) (ii) Direct measures: and Indirect measures:- (1) Direct Measures of Advertising Effectiveness Under direct measures. A comparison of sales of two periods or two periods or two markets may be done and the corresponding changes may be noted. a relationship between advertising and sales is established. the variation in sales over the time periods covered in the study (b) Experimental Control The other measure of advertising effectiveness is the method of experimental control where a casual relationship between advertising and sales is established. Media schedules expenditure levels or some combination of these advertising decision areas. (a) Historical Sales Method Some insights into the effectiveness of past advertising may be obtained by measuring the relationship between the advertising expenditure and the total sales of the product. This technique estimates the contribution that advertising has made to explaining in a co relational manner rather than a casual sales. Cities in which advertising campaigns are affected may be named as test cities and other cities may be called central cities. One experimental approach to measuring the sales effectiveness of advertising is test marketing. A multiple regression analysis of advertising expenditure and sales over several time periods may be calculated. the normal sales level is . (i) Before-after with Control Group Design This classic design uses several test and control cities in this design two types of cities are selected. This method is quite expensive when related to other advertising effectiveness measures yet it is possible to isolate advertising contribution to sales. First of all. It would show how the changes in advertising expenditure have corresponding changes in sales volume.
the advertisement must gain exposure. therefore used by some very large firm because of their diagnostic value. in this experimental model it is possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible combinations with other media. eight possible geographic areas have been exposed and eight have not been exposed. . Marketers or advertisers may obtain an idea of exposure generated by the medium by examining its circulation or audience data which reveal the number of copies of the magazine. These measures do not evaluate the effects of advertisements directing on sales or profits but all other factors such as customer awareness or attitude or customer recall of advertising message affect the sales or profits or goals of the business indirectly.Brown. Multivariable designs Produce these explanations and are.The power of this multivariable factorial design is explained by G.V. most firms rely heavily on indirect measures. there is no other alternative but to use indirect measures. and radio sets at various points of time. it is not successful in explaining the success or failure of the campaign itself. advertisement is bound to failure. Without exposure. Despite the uncertainties about the relationship between the intermediate effects of advertising and the ultimate results. and the number of persons switching on their T. The effect of advertising campaign. can then. and then the advertising campaign is presented to the test cities and not the central cities.calculated for both type of cities prior to advertising campaign. be measured by subtracting the amount of post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test cities (ii) Multivariable Experimental Designs While the experimental design discussed above yields a reasonably accurate estimate of the effects of the advertising on sales. The management is concerned about the number of target audiences who see or hear the organization message set in the advertisement. This number can be estimated by interviewing the numbers of the audience for different media. Thus. or the number of persons living in the televiewing or radio listening area.H. former Fords Director of Marketing Research. The most commonly used measures are – (i) Exposure to Advertisement In order to be effective. (2) Indirect Measures As it is very difficult to measure the direct effect of advertising on company’s profits or sales. For any single medium. newspaper or journal sold the number of persons passing the billboards or riding in transit facilities.
The assumption of this type of measure is that there is a direct relationship between the advertisements and the awareness. This test is conducted in the laboratory setting. These measures assume that customers can recall or recognize what they have viewed or listened to. they have already seen. Under this measure. In post-test method. the consumers are asked to indicate the extent to which they recognise or recall the advertisement. It is also affected by many other factors. There are two methods for evaluating the attention getting value of the advertisements. (iii) Brand Awareness The marketers who rely heavily on advertising often appraise its effectiveness by measuring the customer’s awareness about the particular product or brand. hear or listen to the advertisement and then researchers ask question regarding the advertisement just to test the recall and then evaluate it. changes in awareness can often be attributed to the influence of advertising. They cannot be informed unless they comprehend the message (grasp the message mentally and understand it fully). Another measure of the variable is to ask questions about subjects how much they have comprehended a message they have . One is pre-test and the other is post-test. (iv) Comprehension Consumers generally use advertisements as a means of obtaining information about the product. Various mechanical devices are being used in the western countries which provide indices of attention such as eye-camera etc. a recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospective customers is measured within 24 hours of the exposure of the advertisement. This type of measure is also subject to the same criticisms as is applicable to direct measures of effectiveness (sales measures because awareness is also not the direct result of the advertisements. Various tests for valuating comprehension are available – One is recall tests – an indicator of comprehension because it is evident that consumers recall what they comprehend. brand or the manufacturer. the consumers are asked questions about the indication of recognition or recall after the advertisement has been run. In a pre-test evaluation. for new products. Attention value is the chief quality of the advertising copy the advertisements cannot be said to be effective unless they attract the attention of the target consumers.(ii) Attention or Recall of Advertising Message Content This is one of the widely used measures of advertising results. Here consumers read. But.
it is very necessary to know how advertising affects the buyer’s behaviors. For this purpose. The assumption is that if an increase in sales follows a decrease in advertising expenditure. service or organisation. the change in sales levels are good indicators of the effectiveness of advertising. One may ask typical target consumers from time to time such questions like ‘what did you think of our new commercial?’ and ‘Did it get the message across’? The answers of these questions will provide sufficient insight into advertising decision making. It seems from the analysis of the above methods of measuring effectiveness that directly or indirectly changes in sales or profits are taken as the measuring rod of the effectiveness of the advertising. But this is very difficult task because measurements are imperfect and imprecise. The action or intention to take an action may be measured on the intention to buy measuring instrument. Thus. these above measures (direct or indirect) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisements. the short comings and the plus points would be revealed and the management would be able to improve the campaign by negating the shortcomings and retaining the favorable point. By regular evaluation of the effectiveness. One type of action that advertisers attempt to induce is buying behavior. COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT The management should attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign if the firm’s advertising goals are to be achieved and the ad effectiveness is to be increased. Several measures are used ranging from asking the questions about willingness to buy the likelihood of buying to the measurement of the extent to which specific attributes (such as modern or new) are associated with a product. consumers are asked to respond why they are interested in purchasing the product or brand. If it succeeds in attaining the objectives. Logic suggests that measurement of sales is preferable to other measurements. it to which it achieves the objectives set for it. Advertising can be . the results are very often measured in terms of attitudes among groups exposed to advertising communication. (v) Attitude Change Since advertising is considered to be one way of influencing the state of the mind of the audience towards a product.recently heard or seen. One may employ somewhat imprecise test of the comprehension of a newspaper and radio advertisement. Under this type of measure. (vi) Action One objective of advertisement may be assumed to be to stimulate action or behavior. The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the extent.
it is a source of discomfort that specific results of advertising activities have not always been subject to precise measurement. Indeed.. of the advertisement or the low prices quoted during the sale of the superior quality of the product or absence of competition in the market on the day or the favorable. (b) The reaction of competitors in the field cannot be guessed in anticipation and (c) The unexpected events (such as change in social and economic environment and the government policies etc.5000 on advertisement with a local newspaper for a special sales even. advertising can be recognized as a business activity like other activities. The advertising executives are much concerned about the assessment of the effectiveness . Both practitioners and critics feel that promotional activities should only be accepted as socio – economic – institution with full right and privileges “when the means exist to prove that advertising super are productive rupees’ It is undoubtedly a source of embarrassment that we cannot exactly measure the effectiveness of advertising in definitive terms. It is entirely possible that a poor advertising support may push up the sale because everything else falls into its proper place or the reverse may be possible. But it does not mean that that we cannot measure the effects of particulars advertising effort. The exact result of advertisement expenditure is very difficult to predict because. If we take a hypothetical case of a retailer who contract to spent Rs. It is so because the cause and effect – relationship cannot be established in advance when a multitude of variable impinge upon a particular event. Weather conditions or the goodwill of the firm etc.(a) The reaction of consumer – buyers to the advertising efforts cannot be known in advance. The overwhelming success of the sale is the joint result of all the above variables and it is quite impossible to isolate the role of any one variable. An advertising budget that is spent on some poorly defined task or on undefined tasks may be regarded as an economic waste as compared to that spent to achieve the well defined objectives for which the results can be measured. What caused the success of sale? They message theme colors etc.) cannot be accurately anticipated. Any social institution upon which a significant portion of our total productive efforts is expanded should be able to point to its specific accomplishment.said to be effective otherwise it will be a waste of money and time. In this sense. In a very real sense the integrity of promotional activities rests on how well those activities work. The advertisement is seen and the response is much greater than it is anticipated. Such events may influence the results of the advertising efforts.
of the advertising efforts. For this purpose, the management needs answers to such questions as: was the advertising campaign really successful in attaining the advertising goals? Were our T.V. commercials as good as those of our competitors? Will the print advertisement, which we have designed, make consumers aware of our new product? To get answers of these questions, various tests of effectiveness (Pretests and post – tests ) are deeded to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used, and if they are not satisfactory how they might be improved, and whether on going campaign should be stopped continued or changed. Pre- tests are conducted before exposing target consumers to the advertisements and post tests after consumers have been exposed to them. As indicated earlier, the advertisers are interested in knowing what they are getting for their advertising rupees, So they test the proposed advertisement with pre test and measure the actual results with a post test. In the past, protesting was done by the advertising agencies but now the advertisers have been taking an increasingly active role in protesting process. Pre test may be done either before an advertisement has been designed or executed after it is ready for public distribution or at both points. During protesting there is often research on three vital questions:(i) Do consumers feel that the advertisement communicates something desirable about the product? (ii) Does the message have an exclusive appeal that differentiates the product from that of the competitors? (iii) Is the advertisement believable? Although a lot of money is spent on protesting yet the advertisers like to confirm the results by post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the following reasons:(i) There is a need produce more effective advertising by retaining the good and removing the bad. (ii) The advertising executives can prove to the satisfaction of the management that a higher advertising budget will benefit the firm. (iii) There is a need for measuring the results to determine the level of expenditure that is most promising. Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect because it is a long run process. In the short run, however sales may be slight and important but in the long run its effects ob brands and companies may be of great importance. Indirectly it will affect the sales in the long run, by changing the consumer awareness
and attitude. The advertisers are therefore, concerned with their impact on consumer awareness and attitude. The communication effect on sales may be presented in the following figure:Communication Effect on Sales Awareness builds a favorable or at least a curious attitude towards the product which leads to experimentation. If consumer is satisfied with the trial he may decide to purchase the product. There are many critical and unresolved issues in determining how to test the communication effects of advertising. Among these are:(1) Exposure Conditions – Should advertising be tested under realistic conditions or under more controlled laboratory conditions? (2) Execution – Protesting a finished advertisement as an expensive and time consuming. Does protesting a preliminary execution produce accurate and useful data? (3) Quality Vs. Quantity Data- Quantitative data are the easiest and the almost precise measurement. But qualitative data collected through interviews may provide information that short answer questions never can. Many types of advertising tests are conducted (different methods of pre tests and post – test are given in question number) In T.V. commercials are tested by inviting a group of people to the studio to view a program. The audience is then surveyed about the commercials. Print advertisements are tested through dummy magazine portfolio tests. Compunction Effectiveness Vs Sales Effectiveness It is easier to assess the communication effect of advertising than the sales effect. Many firms try to measure the effectiveness of advertising in terms of sales results but this practice is always misleading. Since, the effect is the result of so many variables, a distinct effect of advertising on sales cannot be correctly measured, Although there may be some exceptions. For example direct mail advertising can effectively be measured by the inquiries received. But in many situations the exact relationship between advertising activity and sales cannot be established satisfactorily. We can correctly assume that some sales will occur even though there is no advertising or little advertising or conversely there will be no increase in sales after the point of saturation is reached or it may be that sales will show a decreasing trend at this point in spite of large amount of expenditure on advertising is done. It is so because advertising is no the only variable that effect the sales.
Thus, we may conduct that sales effect of advertising is difficult to measure because a number of variables affect the quantum of tales and the contribution of advertisement cannot be measured separately unless all other variables are presumed to be constant. This situation is quite hypothetical and almost nonexistent. Added to this is the fact that advertisement itself is made of a variety of variables such as media, messages, colours, page or time of the day, locations, the size of the headline and the appeals used. Thus even if the advertising variable is separated this would still not answer the question about the effectiveness of the individual components of the advertising campaign. So advertisers try to measure the communication effect of the advertising. Suitability In small business firms where the marketing research resources are limited advertising managers may decide on less expensive and less relevant measures. The big business house, which has more access to research, may decide on the more relevant and expensive measures. Factors Affecting Advertising The final external factor in the planning framework concerns environmental factor social, legal, and global. Law forbids deceptive advertising. One solution is to create brand advertising that is vague and contains little specific information. However, such an approach can result not only in ineffective advertising; by it can lessen the social value of advertising by reducing the amount for useful information that it provides to society. Thus, and advertiser who attempts to provide specific, relevant information must be well aware of advertising regulation. Even more difficult consideration for people involved in the advertising effort is broad social and economic issues. Another concern is that advertising, especially when it is more irritating than entertaining, is an intrusion into an already excessively polluted environment. A whole set of rules is emerging to cover advertising directed at children, and advertising for products such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the use of environmental and health claims in advertising. Thus advertising has a tremendous impact on international marketing and the two concepts therefore go hand in hand and are dependent on each other. IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT
thereby benefiting consumers and the economy as a whole. pleasures. Whether owing to the feminist movement or to women's increasing economic power. and goals. strengthening the economy by promoting the sale of goods and services. Ads in the 1950s depicted women primarily as decoration or sex objects. advertising helps increase competition. sell them at a lower price. advertising enables manufacturers and others to sell their products in larger quantities. advertising simply moves sales from one company to another. and political system. The increased volume of sales enables companies to produce individual units at lower costs and therefore. Although millions of women worked outside the home in the 1960s. Many economists believe that increased competition leads to lower prices.Advertising has an important effect on a country’s economy. According to this view. however. Manufacturers know that advertising can help sell a new product quickly. rather than increasing sales overall and thereby benefiting the economy as a whole. They argue that advertising creates a consumer culture in which buying exciting new products becomes the foundation of the society's values. They argue that the cost of advertising adds to the cost of goods and that most advertising simply encourages consumers to buy one brand rather than another. Some critics suggest that advertising promotes a materialistic way of life by leading people to believe that happiness is achieved by purchasing products. 1. society. These economists also argue that by interesting consumers in purchasing goods. enabling them to recoup the costs of developing new products. Economic Impact Most economists believe that advertising has a positive impact on the economy because it stimulates demand for products and services. By stimulating the development of new products. Other economists. Advertising thus benefits consumers by helping lower prices. 2. Social Impact Advertising can have wide-ranging repercussions on a society. culture. believe that advertising is wasteful. Other critics express concern over the way advertising has affected women and racial minority groups. This is especially true in the United States where the advertising industry plays such a prominent role. ads continued to focus on their role as homemakers. after the 1960s it became more .
radio. too. society might not be alerted to harmful or potentially harmful conduct by the advertiser. many of these forms of mass communication might not exist to the extent that they do today. and Eastern Europeans. For example. Native Americans. noncontroversial programming to avoid offending a mass audience. The way advertising has depicted racial minorities has also been harmful. offer less variety. In-depth news programs. Without advertising. However. many African American organizations and community activists continue to object to the way that alcohol and tobacco companies have seemingly targeted low-income minority communities with a heavy preponderance of outdoor advertising for their products. may be hesitant to develop a news story that criticizes a major advertiser. advertisers by the 1980s had begun to depict African Americans as students. however. At the same time. professionals. African Americans were usually shown in a subordinate position. if not free. however. increasing attention has been paid to the way in which advertising shows other ethnic groups. This preference . Most members of the news media deny that pressure from an advertiser prevents them from pursuing news stories involving that advertiser. including Hispanics. critics charge. Reporters and editors. and free entertainment might no longer be widely available. As a result. However. Asians. but some members of the media acknowledge that they might not be inclined to investigate an issue aggressively if it threatened to offend a major advertiser. or even be subject to government control through subsidies. Newspapers. Prior to 1960. Advertising has a major social impact by helping sustain mass communications media and making them relatively inexpensive. a diversity of magazines. and broadcast television all receive their primary income from advertising. As ads have begun to more fully reflect the lives of women and African Americans in the United States. many ads today still emphasize a woman’s sexuality. some critics warn that because advertising plays such a major economic role.common to see women depicted in professional roles. Advertisers may affect media programming in other ways. companies that sponsor TV programs prefer relatively wholesome. it may exercise undue influence on the news media and thereby curtail the free flow of information in a free society. or business people. There is still considerable debate over how advertising influences public perception of gender and of particular ethnic groups. for example. Due to the influence of the civil rights movement. or they might be considerably more expensive. magazines. to the public.
Political advertising enables candidates to convey their positions on important issues and to acquaint voters with their accomplishments and personalities. and may even take drugs that have harmful side effects in order to develop more muscle. history. But since then. thin models. In 1998 more than $467 million was spent on election campaigns in the United States. The impact of television on young children has received much attention. As a result. There is also concern about the way in which adolescent girls respond to advertising that features beautiful. As a result. Because advertisers are especially interested in attracting the 18 to 34 year olds who account for most consumer spending.causes TV networks to emphasize this type of programming. Those over the age of 60 are thought to be less influenced by advertising. Research indicates that many adolescent girls are unduly influenced by this standard of beauty. New research suggests that adolescent boys are also being influenced by advertising images of bulked-up. buffed bodies. television shows are often developed with this audience in mind. Political advertising is a relatively new development in U. advertisers often withdraw support. which makes them especially vulnerable to advertising. That amount of spending placed political advertising in the ranks of the country’s 30 leading advertisers that year. devote large amounts of time to weightlifting. become dissatisfied with their own bodies. which causes a program to be canceled. The result is that society may be denied the benefits of being able to view challenging or highly original entertainment programs or news programs on controversial issues. political advertising has grown in sophistication and complexity.S. Television . 3. Research suggests that children see television advertising as just another form of programming and react uncritically to its messages. many become dissatisfied with their own body image. and may develop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure. Political Impact Advertising is now a major component of political campaigns and therefore has a big influence on the democratic process itself. particularly among 18 to 34 year olds. Advertising professionals did not become involved in electoral campaigns until the 1950s. making them more susceptible to questionable advertising claims. If the ratings show that a program is not attracting large audiences. but some elderly people no longer process messages as easily as younger people. shows that are more likely to interest and to be of value to older audiences are not produced.
in some cases achieving the status of folklore or taking on new life in another arena. Because of the high cost of television ads. 4. Candidates can also use advertising to respond effectively to the charges of their opponents. the costs of political campaigns have skyrocketed. however. Various campaign finance reform proposals. or they contribute to culture in a positive way. thereby distorting the political process. but television and radio networks have resisted this idea. Some reform proposals have called for free airtime. overriding cultural differences. As a result.advertising is especially effective for candidates running for national or statewide office because it can reach so many people at once. making it necessary for candidates to raise money continually. Issues are simplified. even after they have been elected to office. Some advertising messages. a popular ad campaign for a fast-food chain with the slogan “Where’s the beef?” became part of the 1980 Democratic presidential primary campaign between Gary Hart and Walter Mondale. which may clash with the traditional cultural values of a country where the collective or group is emphasized over the individual or humility or modesty is preferred to aggressiveness. Cultural Impact Advertising can affect cultural values. however. For example. With the globalization of the world economy. and candidates are “packaged and sold” much like a consumer product. have universal appeal. They contend that this practice is harmful to good government. causing the world to become increasingly homogeneous. Humor in advertising has made many ad campaigns widely popular. Critics of political advertising also charge that the 30-second television spot has become more important to a political campaign than a thorough discussion of the issues. The ad ridiculed a competitor by depicting a small hamburger patty dwarfed by a . multinational corporations often use the same advertising to sell to consumers around the world. Many advertising campaigns. Some critics argue that advertising messages are thus helping to break down distinct cultural differences and traditional values. voters are bombarded with image advertising rather than being acquainted with the candidate’s positions. for example. Critics say this factor jeopardizes the democratic process by making elected officials beholden to wealthy contributors and by making it more likely that only the wealthy will run for office. have tried to address the impact of television advertising on political campaigning. encourage aggressive individualism.
.huge bun. During a primary debate one of the candidates used the ad slogan to suggest that his opponent’s campaign lacked substance.
The research would be regarding the effects of advertising on the customers in with special reference to the students in Delhi region.CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN RESEARCH PROBLEM Advertising these days is the major tool of promotion and without advertising it is very difficult for any company to survive in this competitive world. The youth being one of the major people amongst the population being targeted by the companies and the companies now days are coming out with the products which are specially meant for the youth. So what really needs to be found is that do the advertisements tend to boost the sales of the company as companies are investing huge amounts in the advertising activities. OBJECTIVES • • • To study the impact of advertisement on students in Delhi To study the association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers To study the difference between the impact of advertisement on college and school students. . The customers tend buy the product when they watch the advertisements and what would be the major focus of the research is that the frequency of advertisements has a impact on the repeat purchase. : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi. So is the practice made by the companies fruitful or it is only an expense and whether there is a significant difference in the attitudes of school students and the college students for the advertisements. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis I 7Ho Ha : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi.
Model Town. : Students in Delhi. : Students in Ashok Vihar. Pitampura. repeat purchase level of customers. . Hypothesis III Ho Ha : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students. so future researches can be conducted on the students all over India to get better and accurate results. students and school students. Rohini. SCOPE OF STUDY Since my research is comprises of the students only in Delhi Region.Hypothesis II Ho Ha : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This would help us to know the impact of advertisements on the students who live in Delhi and would make it clear that what companies should do more in order to attract the youth towards them. : Students in North Delhi. TYPE OF RESEARCH • Descriptive Type of Research. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Universe Population Sampling Frame Sample : All Students in India.
DATA COLLECTION TOOL Primary Data Secondary Data : Questionnaire. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION . Companies these days are investing huge amounts just to make their products known amongst the people.Sample Size schools) : 100 Students (50 students in college and 50 students in Sampling Technique : Convenience Sampling EXPECTED OUTCOME OF THE RESEARCH The outcome which is expected is that there would be a considerable impact of advertising on the students. Magazines. as students these days are more inclined towards the latest trends prevailing in the market and also like to link themselves with the known brands and products. Websites. CHAPTER-4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING. Survey Method. : Journals. Reports. so that they could make attract customers and make them buy those products.
1. 2. of respondents 28 72 . of respondents 42 26 11 6 15 Interpretation: A large size of population is influenced by Television and Newspapers. Which means advertisement would be the best medium to get them the information to the youth . From where do you get information about the new product? Answers Television Newspapers Magazines Internet Peers (Family / Friends) No. Which form of advertisement do you like more? Answers Still image Moving image No.
Interpretation: People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. Specially in this case where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey result it is more likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving image advertisement rather than going for the still or print media advertisement. 3. For you advertisement is a source of : Answers Information Entertainment No. of respondents 62 38 .
4. Out of 100 student 62% of them are going for the advertisement because of the information that they will get from that for example latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the market etc.Interpretation: More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment. Does entertaining advertisement affect your opinion about the product? Answers NO Yes No. of respondents 26 74 .
Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. of respondents 87 13 . 5. This has been told by the 74% of the students from the Delhi and from the schools and college going as well.Interpretation: Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the product which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as Advertisement affects the customer perception towards the product. Here from this question we got to know if the advertisement is more interesting It would be liked by the students more and more.
of respondents 63 37 . Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. which means 87% of the students are said yes it is impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the students to target on.Interpretation: Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. 6.
Which is the one of objective to reach out because student looking for more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the 63% of students from school and college.Interpretation: Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product. 7. of respondents 69 31 . Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.
8. Does intensity (frequency) of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.Interpretation: Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the students are given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad that will influence there purchasing behavior. of respondents 52 48 .
Interpretation: The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the frequency of advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which is admitted by the 52% of the students from Delhi. of respondents 59 41 . Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. 9.
10. of respondents 87 13 . Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? Answers Yes No No.Interpretation: Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. In coming months of advertisement there are lot many social issues covered by the organization w.r.t social advertisement yes 63% of the student changes there buying behavior only because of that.
Strongly Agree 2. Promotion. 3. 1. Agree. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Hypothesis I Ho : There is no significant impact of advertisement on the students in Delhi. What impact is most for the purchasing of any new product for you? Please rate this factor on 1. It has been proved from this question that it will impact on the customer directly if the company launched any good advertisement. 87% of the people suggested for the same as per our study. Price D. . F. Neutral 4. Brand.Interpretation: Advertisement helps very much in increasing the sales of any product. Disagree 5. Advertisement B. Availability of product E. Money C. A. C. Quality of the product. Strongly Disagree.
00 2.0 1.00 31.0 .00 18.0 1.00 Total 3. Strongly Agree Agree 10 45 45 15 the 44 29 37 21 34 17 23 34 39 27 Neutral Disagree 11 40 1 2 4 31 7 22 6 12 12 9 10 14 Strongly Disagree 18 18 3 33 7 10 10 Chi-Square Test Advertisement Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.Advertisement Money Price Availability Quality of product.0 1.0 Residual .00 11.0 .0 .00 Total Money Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Price Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Availability Expected N 1.0 .00 18.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .0 .00 21.0 1.00 4.0 .00 40.0 Residual .0 10.0 .0 Residual .0 Expected N 1.0 .0 1.0 1.00 17. Promotion.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .00 45.0 .0 .00 34.00 45.0 1. Brand.00 Total .
3.00 14.0 .0 .000 1.00 12.00 22.600 3 Promotion .00 7.000 1.000 1.0 1.0 .00 37.000 4 1.7.00 Total 1.0 Brand Observed N 2 1 1 1 5 Promotion Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Test Statistics Advertisement ChiSquare(a.000 4 Availability .0 1.3 10.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.0 1.00 23.0 .0 .0 1.0 .0 1.0 Quality 6. b 4 cells (100.3 -.0 1.896 a 5 cells (100.00 44.0 .0 1.0 1.0 1.000 4 Quality .3 1.000 4 Price .00 Total Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.00 Total Observed N 1 1 1 1 1 5 Expected N 1.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.0 . The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.00 12.000 4 Brand .00 27.00 34.00 15.3 Residual .8 -.0 .000 4 Money .00 33. .0 Residual .0.000 . The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.00 Total 10.3 1. Sig.0 Residual .0 Expected N 1.0 1.0 1.0 Residual .000 Expected N 1.00 29.3 -.b) df Asymp.0 .00 39.0 .3 1. .0 .0 1.000 1.00 9.
516 Availabilit y .789 5 .001 5 5 1 .278 .538 5 -.126 Brand -.043 5 5 1 .650 5 .198 5 -.789 5 .916 5 .760 .227 .342 Sig.092 5 .989(**) .CORRELATION TEST Correlations Advertisem ent Advertisem ent Pearson Correlation Sig.916 5 .538 5 -.126 .046 5 .828 .816 . (2tailed) N .021 5 .514 5 .392 . ** Correlation is significant at the 0.774 5 -.760 . (2tailed) N -.392 Sig.084 5 5 .372 .450 5 .179 Quality -.774 5 -.198 5 -. (2tailed) N -. .816 .573 5 .136 5 5 1 .828 5 .05 level (2-tailed).179 .891(*) .891(*) .575 5 5 1 .573 5 .839 5 .227 .989(**) .828 5 .066 .066 .166 .021 5 .933(*) .514 5 .372 .933(*) .166 Sig.448 Sig.690 . (2tailed) N .839 5 .340 Sig. (2tailed) N -.373 5 -.135 . (2tailed) N 1 Money -.340 .046 5 .448 Price .828 Price Pearson Correlation Availability Pearson Correlation Quality Pearson Correlation Brand Pearson Correlation Promotion Pearson Correlation * Correlation is significant at the 0.885(*) .01 level (2-tailed).714 5 5 1 . (2tailed) N Money Pearson Correlation -.373 5 -.450 5 1 .278 Sig.690 .516 .885(*) Promotio n -.135 .650 5 .342 .092 5 .
0. Strongly Agree 2. Strongly Agree 42 34 18 15 29 Agree 38 34 17 14 39 Neutral 5 1 14 7 6 Disagree 8 11 31 31 19 T-Test One-Sample Statistics .As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement does not seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the advertisement on student because if we asked for the most valuable and the crucial things for the student to make a purchase decision our correlation test suggested that it would be pocket money and the quality of that product which is also correlation by the 93. If you have a money from where you get the maximum information about the product that you want to purchase? Please rate this factor on 1. Advertisement is impacted negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the probability that a standard deviation would be less than or equal to is 0. Disagree 5. 3.44. This means (by the subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would be greater is 1 . Advertisement B. A. Agree. Strongly Disagree.33% so major factor for the student is not the advertisement but the money that they have. Friend C. 2. Direct sales team E.96 or . Promotion. Ha : There is a significant impact of advertisement on students in Delhi.04. Strongly Disagree 7 20 20 33 7 Advertisement Friend Relative Direct sales team Promotion. Neutral 4. Relative D.
813 .0000 Std.860 3. (2-tailed) N Friend Relative Pearson Correlation Sig.8429 2.038 5 -.097 6.988 5 .21267 Std.133 5 -.242 .095 5 5 .815 5 1 Direct Sales -.387 .041 5 .9290 28.00000 20.813 .005 .0000 20.1571 37. (2-tailed) N Direct Sales Pearson Correlation Sig.899(*) .34394 14.095 5 -.3526 Upper 42. As per the our alternate hypothesis suggested that the it makes sense when we are saying the advertisement makes impact over the student in Delhi Correlation test suggested that the significance level of the advertisement is much higher i.51920 11.20366 6.e.633 5 -.520 5 .05 level (2-tailed).242 .293 .00000 Lower -2.035 Mean Difference 20.041 5 5 -.695 5 1 Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.43953 6.988 5 .0000 20.009 .00000 20.005 .133 5 1 Promotion .017 .6474 Correlations Advertisement 1 5 .N Advertisement Friend Relative Direct Sales Promotion 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 20.993 5 5 -.35610 One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Advertisement Friend Relative Direct Sales Promotion t 2.438 3.146 .002 .146 . 71% as t test reflects that which means advertisement does impact when we are saying that .038 5 1 Relative -.9053 5.0000 20.147 df 4 4 4 4 4 Sig.763 .7770 2.763 .293 .071 .00000 20. Deviation 18. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.036 .45755 2.695 5 5 Friend .993 5 -.387 .899(*) .0947 34.7770 37.633 5 -.815 5 -.09902 6. (2-tailed) .922 3.00000 20.0710 11.520 5 -. Error Mean 8.91548 5.40175 14. (2-tailed) N * Correlation is significant at the 0.893(*) .0000 20. (2-tailed) N Promotion Pearson Correlation Sig.009 .893(*) .
. Hypothesis II Ho : There is no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers.Student customer behaviour influence by the various factor. So our alternative hypothesis has been proved that it makes impact to the student of Delhi.
725 .004 5 1 Advertisement -. Correlations .133 5 . (2-tailed) N Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.486 5 . 3.020 . Customer service’ C.218 .725 .979(**) .979(**) . Necessity E.763 .285 5 -.674 .974 5 1 5 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.486 5 1 Necessity .357 .725 5 -.763 . Offers Strongly Agree 44 44 20 56 19 Neutra l 6 1 19 18 6 Disagre e 9 10 31 2 19 Strongly Disagree 7 12 20 10 17 Quality Customer service’ Advertisement Necessity Offers Agree 34 33 10 14 39 Correlations Quality Quality Pearson Correlation Sig. Disagree 5.974 5 5 1 CS .467 . Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product or what factor most of time influence you to repurchase the same brand? Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Disagree.357 .467 . Strongly Agree 2.01 level (2-tailed).725 5 1 Offers .556 5 -. Agree.416 . (2-tailed) N CS Pearson Correlation Sig.599 . (2-tailed) N 5 .213 5 5 -.599 .674 . Advertisement D. Quality B. (2-tailed) N Necessity Pearson Correlation Sig.166 5 .556 5 5 -.427 5 -.213 5 -.427 5 .285 5 .218 .166 5 -.020 . (2-tailed) N Offers Pearson Correlation Sig.133 5 .004 5 -.416 . A. Neutral 4.1.
020 .725 5 -. Deviation 17.486 .974 5 Offers . (2-tailed) N Offers Pearson Correlation Sig.33167 3.004 5 -.213 5 -.38083 3.2148 6 21.357 .427 5 -.218 -. 00000 Std.000 .979(**) .9886 3 Std.020 .0000 20.218 .Quality Quality Pearson Correlation Sig.467 . Error Mean 7.81853 7.357 . .97618 7.30 249 Upper 27.000 Mean Pai r1 Pai r2 Quality Advertisement CS Advertisement .0000 20.66060 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Quality Advertisement CS Advertisement Advertisement Necessity Advertisement Offers Mean 20.763 .0000 5 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Quality & Advertisement CS & Advertisement Advertisement & Necessity Advertisement & Offers 5 5 5 5 Correlation -.486 5 1 5 -.416 -.01 level (2-tailed).166 5 . Error Mean 9.44983 20.427 5 .416 .357 Sig.133 5 .934 79 9. Paired Samples Statistics Std. (2-tailed) N 5 .0000 20.486 5 . (2-tailed) N Necessity Pearson Correlation Sig.33167 3.467 -.93095 3.213 5 Advertisement -.58 339 27.58 339 27.725 5 1 5 -.467 .44983 8. (2-tailed) N Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig.556 5 Necessity .166 5 -. (2tailed) 1.44983 7. Deviatio n 22.133 5 .725 .763 .725 .96869 3.285 5 .674 .979(**) .44983 17.33167 7.556 5 -.599 .33167 9.599 .674 .18535 18.0000 20.833 62 .416 .000 1.974 5 1 5 5 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.0000 20.427 . 00000 .218 .73415 7.0000 20. (2-tailed) N CS Pearson Correlation Sig.000 df 4 4 Sig.556 Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower 27.285 1 CS .725 .30 249 t .0000 N 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Std.004 5 1 5 -.
e. 2. C. Strongly Agree Neutra Disagre Strongly .000 00 23.47 481 17.746 As per the null hypothesis concern i.761 94 29. Does advertisement is appealing you most of time to purchase same product if that product advertisement will repeat continuously please state when you influence most? Please rate this factor on 1. Strongly Disagree.47 481 13.347 4 4 1.7381 5 12. Strongly Agree 2.Pai r3 Pai r4 Advertisement – Necessity Advertisement Offers .8841 0 10.000 . Watching advertisement every day. Watching advertisement every weekends D. no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers which seams to be true from the t test and regression test which is done by the SPSS ANOVA which suggest there are various other factor which play important role while customer going for the purchasing for example customer service customer service of the product and the quality will represent 97. 00000 2. A.9% of the customer happiness and in the ANOVA test of advertisement series will have negative impact it has been prove that no significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers Ha : There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers.61 603 5. Watching advertisement in a month.000 .99 772 . Watching advertisement one time B. Neutral 4. Agree.99 772 29. E. 3. Disagree 5. No advertisement impact.
0205 10. (2-tailed) .804 .023 .00000 20.693 . Deviation 12. (2tailed) N -.1246 3.96869 6.5438 6.510 3.61577 10.623 .214 5 -.00000 20.633 .195 5 -.88577 One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference One Everyday Weekends Month No t 3.195 5 5 1 .54977 7.9795 29.909 5 1 . (2tailed) N Everyday Pearson Correlation -.67479 7.5165 Std.071 Weekends -.983(**) Mean Difference 20.941(*) No .40967 17.101 5 -.4835 Upper 35.214 5 5 1 .693 . Error Mean 5.1246 36.909 5 .00000 Lower 4.5914 -2.402 .270 5.502 5 -.402 Sig.941(*) .108 df 4 4 4 4 4 Sig.502 5 -.40588 4.872 4.00000 20.017 5 .804 Month .066 .4562 33.004 .00000 20.604 2.015 Correlations One One Pearson Correlation Sig.0000 20.81853 13.0000 Std.930(*) .071 Sig.86826 Weekends Pearson Correlation Month Pearson Correlation .0000 20. (2tailed) N 1 Everyday -. (2tailed) N .672 .0000 20.101 5 -.4086 42.031 .11555 3.017 5 5 5 .0000 20.672 Sig.One time Every day Every weekends Month No Adv impact Agree 19 44 39 12 10 13 33 27 14 11 l 6 1 19 18 16 e 39 10 11 28 29 Disagree 23 12 4 28 34 One-Sample Statistics N One Everyday Weekends Month No 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 20.
Friends. So significance level is much higher in the case of Daily advertisement for the student.623 . Movie Strongly Agree 22 56 31 32 37 38 Neutra l 17 1 2 1 1 2 Disagre e 14 11 11 25 2 11 Strongly Disagree 33 12 9 1 12 12 Advertisement Personal contact. Strongly Disagree. F.No Pearson Correlation . And form the T-test suggested that it is valid because until or unless organization not fleshing there advertisement regularly Student may changed there brand so if the company doing advertisement once in a month would not required to do that because if they will not do so 98. Agree.003 5 * Correlation is significant at the 0. C.022 5 1 . Advertisement B. Personal contact. 1.01 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.262 5 .252 5 -. Strongly Agree 2. (2tailed) N -.983(**) .3% of the customer does not know about that product.05 level (2-tailed). A. Family E. Hypothesis III Ho : There is no significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students. Movie Agree 14 20 47 41 48 37 . In the case of Alternate hypothesis which suggested that There is a significant association between frequency of advertising and repeat purchase level of customers so it means if the frequency of detriment increase the repurchase will increase. Disagree 5. Neutral 4. Environment Family Friends. Do you think in the only advertisement can change you purchasing power decision or other factor also influences that? Please rate this factor on 1.930(*) .633 Sig. 3. Environment of school or College D.
Please rate this factor on 1. Which way of advertisement impacts you and your personal expenses. Promotionally Strongly Agree 37 35 33 38 Agree 20 29 47 49 Strongly Neutral Disagree Disagree 1 14 28 1 2 1 11 11 11 24 7 1 Emotionally product knowledge Brand reconnect Promotionally It is significant from the study is there is major impact of advertisement on the school and the college student although it may vary from the product and service provided by the company because as per the study college student will go for accessories but the school student go for the play and for the sports thing for example different gaming and cartoon things or health drinks. Agree. 1. 3. Out of 100 student 62% of them are going for the advertisement because of the information that they will . Emotionally B. Strongly Agree 2. Neutral 4. A. CHAPTER-5 MAJOR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS • People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. • More number of Delhi’s Student consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment. Specially in this case where 50 college and 50 school student is contributing to this survey result it is more likely to be students are from Delhi would like more moving image advertisement rather than going for the still or print media advertisement. Brand reconnect D. Spreading the product knowledge C.Ha : There is a significant difference in the impact of advertisement on college students and school students. Disagree 5. Strongly Disagree.
Here from this question we got to know if the advertisement is more interesting It would be liked by the students more and more. This has been told by the 74% of the students from the Delhi and from the schools and college going as well. Which is the one of objective to reach out because student looking for more trendy and stylish advertisement pattern which is told by the 63% of students from school and college. This is one of our objective to be reach out also because the frequency of advertisement will increase the brand recall of the students which is admitted by the 52% of the students from Delhi. • Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product. • The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product. In coming months of advertisement there are lot many social issues covered by the organization w. • Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product because most of the student are influence by the celebrity 69% of the students are given there views that yes if any celebrity will comes to the ad that will influence there purchasing behavior.r. .get from that for example latest trend and what phone going to be launch in the market etc.t social advertisement yes 63% of the student changes there buying behavior only because of that. • Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. • Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product. • Entertaining advertisement does affect the opinion of customer about the product which is one of the objective of the project to find out where as Advertisement affects the customer perception towards the product. which means 87% of the students are said yes it is impact on there purchasing behavior so it is most important factor for the students to target on.
All the foregoing aspects are apt to . Advertisement is impacted negatively as per the chi square test tells us that the probability that a standard deviation would be less than or equal to is 0. 1964. Pollay and Mittal.1995). (O’Donohoe. CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION Despite the fact that advertising is an effective tool for the business along with its being an important element of the modern age and a fast growing industry. This means (by the subtraction rule) that the probability that the standard deviation would be greater is 1 . subliminal seduction messages and persuading people to buy things they no longer need (Katona.04. this industry is blamed of spreading unsustainable consumption patterns around the world over and encouraging excessive consumption.0. promoting adverse values.• As per the correlation and chi square test suggested that the Advertisement does not seems to be significant here and there is no significant impact of the advertisement on student because if we asked for the most valuable and the crucial things for the student to make a purchase decision our correlation test suggested that it would be pocket money and the quality of that product which is also correlation by the 93. Advertising is criticized for its presenting misleading information.44.1993). 1986.33% so major factor for the student is not the advertisement but the money that they have. the public image of advertising is still a matter of great concern. Again. Pollay.96 or . fake claims.
That is why. The results . exclusive studies on the students’ attitude towards advertising are being carried out in different parts of the world today. Calfee and Ringold. 2001. 1996. The results of the research clearly reveal that most of the respondents feel that the ongoing advertising is unethical because of its deceiving. Russell. Therefore.. RECOMMENDATION This research study is an endeavor to secure adequate evidence on the consequences of the advertising and their relationship to the general attitude of the college students it. 1981. cultural values and on the business itself. The advertising is considered to be the sole source which convinces the people to buy the products that they no more need. 1982). To exploring the college students’ attitudes towards advertising is important for several reasons. At the same time majority of the respondents consider the advertising to be an important tool for the economic growth. The students represent a sizeable segment of the society. They have considerable amount of money at their disposal. improvement of standard of living. Wolburg and Pokrywczynski. 2000). Wright. The results of the study show very significant negative feelings of the respondent about the social consequences of the current advertising. 1993. guaranteeing the quality products and an effective means to curtail prices. and ensure a higher standard of living after their graduation (Morton. confuse the people by creating clutter effect. They have dominating role in opinion making. They can influence the purchasing decisions of their peers and parents. promotes materialism and inculcate obscene values in the youth populace of Delhi. (Wills and Ryans.hinder its effectiveness as well as efficiency as a marketing tool (Beales et al. Pollay and Mittal. The results of the study also depict that the college students demand lexical changes by the regulatory authorities with the view to controlling the advertising. They are a large and ever growing segment of the populace. exaggerating nature for and putting more emphasis on the sex appeals. establish brand loyalties that continue long after the college days. They are the outstanding asset for the product and service sellers as they are the trendsetters and early adopters. 1987. it is critical of the advertising concerns to follow the public opinion advertising for its for reaching impact on the economy. 1986).
paulbeelen. The growing ethical.Saravanavel. Advertising Management – concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan. general attitude towards the advertising.books. www. REFERENCES Books 1. general attitude of the college students towards the advertising. social and regulatory concern of the college students as indicated in the results of the study invites attention of the marketers and the regulatory authorities like to avoid any disruption in the positive. Branding – Geoffrey Randoll 4. 2.V.google. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management – S.decisionanalyst.show an overall. Internet 1.Ratra 6.com . positive. economic and social consequences of the advertising on the part of the marketers and the regulatory authorities before they launch any campaign.Gupta. the results of the study highlight the technique as to how to assess and evaluate the ethical. Marketing Management – Philip Kotler 3. Advertising and Salesmanship – P.com 2. www. V.L.com 3. Also. www. Strategic Brand Management – Kapferer 5.
Male [ ] b.. House hold [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] b..... From where do you get information about the new product? a. Television [ ] .... 30 to 40 d.. Student c.... Service class [ 1.... Sex: Age: a.. Female [ ] a... Below 20 b...APPENDIX Name: ……………………………….... Above 40 Occupation: a...... Business class [ d. 20 to 30 c.....
Yes b. Yes b. No the product? a. No product? a. Peers (friends/family) [ 1. Yes b. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 1. Magazines d. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about 1. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? 1. Which form of advertisement do you like more? a. No a. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about 1. Entertainment a. Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) b. Information b. Yes b. Yes b.b. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 1. No a. Newspapers c. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the 1. Which type of advertisement influences you more? . No the product? a. No [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] 1. For you advertisement is a source of a. Yes b. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? 1. No a. Yes b. Internet [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ ] ] e. Moving image (Television / Internet) 1.
National advertisement b.a. Local advertisement [ [ ] ] .
com 3. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management S. www.Saravanavel.decisionanalyst.Gupta. 2. Strategic Brand Management Kapferer 5. Advertising Management concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan. www. www. Advertising and Salesmanship P. Internet 1.com 2.com .paulbeelen.books. Branding Geoffrey Randoll 4.google.V.REFERENCES Books 1.Ratra 6. V.L. Marketing Management Philip Kotler 3.
Yes b.. Newspapers c... Above 40 Occupation: a...... Internet [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] e. Peers (friends/family) [ 2. Male [ ] . Magazines d.... b.. 30 to 40 d.. 20 to 30 c.. From where do you get information about the new product? a. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a... Moving image (Television / Internet) 3...... Service class [ 1.. No [ [ ] ] ... Below 20 b. Which form of advertisement do you like more? a... Yes b. Student [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] b.APPENDIX Name: Sex: Age: a... For you advertisement is a source of a. Television b. Information b.. Female [ ] a. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? 5. No [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] [ [ ] ] 4. Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) b. Business class [ c. House hold [ d.. Entertainment a...
Which type of advertisement influences you more? a. No [ [ ] ] 7. No [ [ ] ] 10. Yes b. No [ [ ] ] 11. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a.6. National advertisement b. Yes b. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Yes b. Local advertisement [ [ ] ] . Yes b. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. No [ [ ] ] 8. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? a. No [ [ ] ] 9. Yes b. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a.