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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 1

Introduction

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Automatic Car Parking System

INTRODUCTION

Due to tremendous advancement in technology the prices of vehicles are


now economical to have it. But in comparison with this in cities there is shortage
of parking zones and because of this every body tries to park his vehicle properly,
which creates chaos at parking place. Therefore in today’s fast growing
technological world, regulation of parking is very important issue. With the
growing number of vehicles and the consequent shortage of parking space, there is
haphazard and totally unregulated parking of vehicles all over. The situation calls
out for an automated parking system that not only regulates parking in given area
but also keeps manual control to a bare minimum.
To cater to the need, here we present a miniature model of an automated
car parking system that regulates number of cars that can be parked in an area at
any given time based on the parking space availability. The entry and exit of
vehicles are facilitated using totally automated gate. Status signals indicate
whether space is currently available in the parking lot, and whether a car is
currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space. Our system also
guides the driver by indicating which parking slot is vacant at any given time. This
feature saves the time of parking and also fuel.
After the initial installation, the system requires no manual control.
Everything, right from maintaining the count of vehicles to opening and closing
the gate, is automatically controlled. As the circuit uses low cost easily available
discrete ICs, it is cost effective.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 2

Block Diagram
Description

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Automatic Car Parking System

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

Figure 1 shows the block diagram of Automated Car Parking System. The
system consists of transmitter, receiver and demultiplexer, up-counter, down-
counter and display sections.
The transmitter section comprises two infrared transmitters (IR1 TX1 and
IR2 TX2), which transmit infrared beams as shown in figure 2. These light
becomes are incident on the corresponding infrared receiver modules (IR3 RX1
and IR4 RX2), which produce an output of 0 volt if the beam is received
uninterrupted and +5 volt if the beam is interrupted by a car.
Whenever a car enters the parking area, it interrupts the infrared beams in
a definite sequence. This sequence is given to the up-count sequence detector,
which generates a high output only if the correct sequence has been detected.
Similarly, when the car leaves the parking area, it generates a fixed sequence,
which is given to the down-count sequence detector. The down-count sequence
detector generates a high output only if the correct sequence is produced by
exiting car.
The outputs of the up-count, down-count blocks are given to the display
section. The display sections as a counter a 7-segment display along with driver IC
to display the count. Depending on the sequence detector that generates an
actuating signal, the count is either incremented or decremented. The display
section consists of status signals, which include:
1. A yellow signal to indicate that a car is currently in the processing of
entering or leaving the parking space.
2. A green signal is indicate that the parking lot has not reached its maximum
capacity, and that space is available the parking of a car in the parking
area.
3. A red signal to indicate that the parking space is full. The activation of this
signal coincides with the disabling of the green signal, and is a companied
by the disabling (closing) of the gate for vehicles trying to enter the
parking lot.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Fig.1 Block diagram of automated car parking

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 3

System
Overview

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Automatic Car Parking System

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

A gate has been provided at the entering of the parking space, which opens
on the arrival or departure of a car.
A display section has been provided, which consists of status signals and a
display showing the number of car present in the parking space at any point of
time.
A display section also provides the information regarding the vacancy of
parking slot by glowing the corresponding LED this assist the driver while
driving.
After the maximum numbers of cars have entered the parking space, the
gate is automatically disabled (closed) for vehicles seeking entry into the parking
lot.
A logic circuit distinguishes between the cars and persons / two wheelers,
so that persons and two wheelers are not included in the count of cars.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 4

Circuit
Operation

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Automatic Car Parking System

CIRCUIT OPERATION

The automated car parking circuit as shown in figure 2 and figure 3. The
circuit primarily uses two NE555 timer ICs, four 74LS74 D flip-flop, 74155 2: 4
decoder, up/down binary counter 74193, 7-segment display driver L293D. In
addition, the circuit uses six TSOP 1738 infrared receiver modules, six infrared
transmitting LEDs, 7-segment display and green, red and yellow LEDs, along with
three-push-to-on switches.
For easy understanding the circuit, let’s divide the circuit into the
following four basic sections:
1. Sensor
2. Sequence detector
3. Counter and display
4. Gate control
5. Parking Slot indicator
The sensor section:
This section senses the movement of objects and transfers that information
to IC1 in the main circuit. The sensor section can be further divided into the
transmitter section and the receiver section. The prominent component used in the
design of the transmitter and receiver sections is the IR receiver module TSOP
1738. This is a highly selective receiver, which comprises a photo detector and a
preamplifier with IR filter in a single package to provide demodulated output. It
works efficiently with 1kHz modulation of 38 kHz bursts. This feature of the
receiver determines the composition of the transmitted signal.
For generating approximately 38kHz frequency carrier signal modulated
by a 1kHz square wave, we use too NE555 timer ICs in astable mode in the
transmitter section. One NE555 timer (IC 12) is designed to produce a square
wave of 1kHz with 50% duty cycle, while the second timer (IC 13) is designed to
produce a square wave of 38kHz with 50% duty cycle. In the order to modulate
the 38 kHz wave, output pin 3 of the first NE555 (IC 13). The final output of the
cascaded arrangement is given to a pair of IR LEDs through current-limiting
resistor R5, which prevents the IR LED from getting heated and thus damaged.
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Automatic Car Parking System

VCC

R1 R3
3.3kOhm 4 8 1.8kOhm 4 8 IR1
RST VCC RST VCC
7 DIS 7 DIS
D1 IC12 D2 IC13 R5
R2 6 THR OUT 3 R4 6 THR OUT 3
1N4148 3.3kOhm 1N4148 1.8kOhm 100 Ohm
LM555CM LM555CM
2 TRI 2 TRI
A
CON GND To CON GND
IC5
5 1 5 1 IR2
C1 C2 C3 C4
0.22uF 0.01uF 0.01uF 0.01uF
GND

Fig.2: Circuit Diagram of IR transmitter part


The receiver section consists of two identical receiver circuits, using one
infrared receiver TSOP 1738 each. The output of this receiver is open-collector
type, and hence requires a pull-up resistor, whose value must be much greater than
10k. A 4.7µ F electrolytic capacitor must be connected between the supply and
ground for this receiver to minimize the interference of spurious signals in the
operation of the receiver.
When the signal is received correctly, the original 1kHz square wave
signal is obtained at the output of the receiver. In the absence of the signal,
however, a +5V DC level is obtained. Since the ICs in the following blocks are of
TTL family, the receiver must be TTL compatible.
The +5V DC level occasionally drops to 0V, even when the signal strength
is quite low, due to the high sensitivity of the receiver. This may lead to false
triggering of the circuit, which must be eliminated. For this, a 22µ F electrolytic
capacitor is connected between the output of the receiver and ground. This
capacitor bypasses the square wave to ground and holds the DC value of the signal
(which is 0V) in the normal state and +5V when the signal is blocked. In place of
this capacitor, you may also use any capacitor of comparable value.
The output of the sensor section goes to the sequence detection section.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Fig. 3 : Circuit Diagram of Automated car parking system

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Automatic Car Parking System

The sequence detection section:


This section is the heart of the entire system. It consists of a 2:4 decoder and
flip-flops, which are used for the sequence detection. The 74155 dual 2:4 decoder
IC1 receives its select signals at pins 13(A) and 3(B) (for one of the decoders)
from receivers RX1 and RX2, respectively. The other decoder is not used. The
output lines of the enabled decoder are active low.
For convenience, the receiver before the entrance to the gate is connected to
the pin 13 of the IC1. In default state, each receiver is active and inputs 0 to the
decoder, making the Y0 output line low.
When the first sensor is blocked, the Y1 line goes low. The low going Y2 line
indicates that only the second sensor is blocked. A low Y3 line indicates that both
signals have been blocked. Refer truth table of IC1 74155 given in table 1. The
four output lines act as decoding and control signals for the remaining circuits.
TABLE 1: Truth table of 74155 (IC1)
Address/ inputs Enable Outputs
Pin 13 Pin 3 Pin 1 Pin 2 Pint 7 Pin 6 Pin 5 Pin 4
(A) (B) E1 E1 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3
0 0 H L L H H H
1 0 H L H L H H
1 1 H L H H H L
0 1 H L H H L H

The sequence detection logic circuit consists of three flip-flops for detecting
incoming as well as out going vehicles. The Y0 line is connected to the clear pins
of all the flip-flops, which gives 0 at their respective outputs. A vehicle entering
the parking area must interrupt the first sensor (before entrance), then both
sensors, and finally just the second sensor (after entrance). Thus it must generate
states 1 0, 1 1, and 0 1 necessarily in that sequence.
For identifying the states and the order in which they occur, we give the
Y2, Y3 and Y1 lines after logical inversion to the clock inputs of three successive
flip-flops, respectively. A VCC signal is input to the first flip-flop, while each
subsequent input is the output of the previous flip-flop. The logic states of the
three decoded output lines are inverted because these are active low, while the
74LS74 D flip-flops are triggered by a rising edge of the clock signal.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Only the proper sequence of logic states will cause a high logic at the
output of the third flip-flop. Any other sequence will not allowed the transfer of
the high signal through the series of flip-flops. The output of the third flip-flop is
given to the counter and display section, which increments the count. Thus when a
vehicle enters the parking area, the Y0 signal clears all the flip-flops, and this very
instant, the count is incremented.
An identical circuit is used for detecting a vehicle leaving the parking area.
In this case, however, the states generated by the vehicle are 0 1, 1 1, and 1 0,
necessarily in that order. Hence the clock signals for the three successive flip-flops
are derived from Y1, Y3 and Y2 line, respectively.
The working of this circuit is identical to the one for detecting the vehicle
entering the parking area. In this case the final D flip-flop output is given to the
counter and display section for decrementing the count. This occurs at he instant
when the outputs of the flip-flop are cleared by the low going Y0 signal (explained
in the counter and display section).
The counter and display section:
This section consists of up/down counter IC74193, BCD to 7-segment
decoder, display driver IC4511 (to drive a common cathode 7-segment display),
and three LEDs (red, yellow and green).
The counter IC74193 is capable of handling up as well as down counts, if
configured for the same. The count is incremented by one when a rising edge is
encountered on the up pin (pin 5) and decremented by one when a rising edge is
encountered on the down pin (pin4). In our circuit, the former occurs when the
vehicle has entered in the parking area and line Y0 clears the output of the final
flip-flop, causing a transition from the high to low logic state, which, when passed
through an inverter, provides a rising edge. The count decrements in the same
fashion when the flip-flops in question are those used for detecting the vehicle
leaving the parking area.
The preset data pins of the counter IC are connected to VCC, while the
load data pin is connected to one end of a push to on switch whose other pin is
grounded. Such an arrangement can be used to reset the counter, and consequently
all drivers and display unit in the circuit. The four output lines of up/ down

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Automatic Car Parking System

counter (74193) are fed to the corresponding pins in the decoder or the driver 4511
(IC9). The active high outputs of the decoder are connected to their corresponding
pins in the 7-segment common-cathode display.
The MSB and LSB lines of the outputs of the counter IC10 are ANDed
using gates N7 and N8. The output from gate 8 is fed to the anode of the red LED,
which indicates that nine vehicles are present in the parking area and there is no
further space. This happens because the output of the binary 9 on the lines makes
the extreme lines high, which gives a high at the otherwise-low anode of the red
LED, thus turning it on.
The same signal after inversion is given to the anode of the green LED,
which indicates the availability of space for at least one vehicle in the parking
area.
The yellow LED indicates that a vehicle is either entering or leaving the
parking area. Hence, this LED must be on when at least one of the sensors is being
cut. For this reason, the Y0 line of the decoder is given at the anode of the LED.
When no signal is being cut, the Y0 line is low, keeping the LED off. But as soon
as any one of the signals is cut, the Y0 line goes high, turning the yellow LED on.
The LED indication for the various situations is depicted in table 2.
TABLE 2: LED Indications
LED Indication
Yellow Car is in the process of parking
Red No vacancy
Green Parking space available

The gate control section:


The gate control section consists of IC5, IC4 and IC11, which provide the
appropriate logic used for controlling operation of the gate/barrier.
Assume that the lower position of the barrier is the default position. Now
whenever the input to motor driver IC11 is 1 0, it causes the motor to rotate,
thereby causing the barrier to move such that it opens the entrance.
Similarly, when the input to motor driver is 0 1, the motor rotates in the
opposite direction to lower the barrier, thereby closing the gate. When the input to
the motor driver is 0 0, the motor does not rotate.

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Automatic Car Parking System

When the car as entered the parking area completely, the input to the IC11
is 0 1, causing the motor to rotate such that the gate begins to close till it pushes
the lower switch at which point it stops moving.
Thus, the movement of the gate is automatically controlled on the arrival
or departure of a car. Table 3 gives clear picture of the working of the gate control
section.
TABLE 3: Truth table of 7474 (IC5)
Pin 2 Pin 13 Pin 5 Pin 9 State
(D1) (D2) Q1 Q2
0 1 0 0 Default. Lower switch S2 closed.
First sensor cut. The gate starts opening
1 0 1 0
and lower switch S2 is released.
1 0 1 0 The gate keeps opening.
The upper switch S1 closed. The gate
1 0 0 0
stops opening.
Car completely enters the parking area.
0 1 0 1 The gate starts closing and upper switch
S1 is released.
0 1 0 1 The gate continues to close.
The gate pushes lower switch S2 and
0 1 0 0
stops moving. Back to default states.

In order to disable the gate from opening for a vehicle entering the parking
area after the count of the 9, we use a simple combinational logic circuit consists
of NAND and OR gates, whose output is given to enable in 1 of the L293D motor
driver (IC11). In normal condition, the output of this logic circuit is high, enabling
IC11. When the maximum count of the 9 is reached, the output of the logic circuit
becomes low, thereby disabling the motor and keeping the gate closed for all
vehicles seeking entry to the parking area.
However, when a vehicle wishes to leave the area IC11 gets enabled, thus
opening the gate. The output current capability per channel of L293D
approximately 600mA. The truth table of L293D is given in table 4.
TABLE 4: Truth Table of L293D
Input Enable * Output
H H H
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Automatic Car Parking System

L H I
H L Z
L L Z
Note:
1. Z is high impedance output.
2. * For channel under consideration.

Parking Slot Indicator:


This section provides the indication of vacant parking slot at any given
time based on the parking slot availability. This consists of infrared transmitter
and infrared receiver as shown in figure 4 and figure 5. The identical circuit is
placed in the each parking slot so that it indicates whether the car is present in that
slot or not.
VCC
+5V

IR
R1 LED
1K

4 8
7 R2
1K T1
VR1 IC1
6 3 BC547
20K 555

2
1 5 R3
C1 22
0.001uF C2 ohm
0.01uF

Fig. 4 : IR Transmitter
The circuit diagram IR transmitter of Parking Slot indicator is shown in
figure 4. This is built around timer IC555, which is used as an astable
multivibrator to generate around 38kHz frequency. The timer output is fed to
transistor T1, which drives IR LED. Note that IR LED1 must be properly oriented
towards the IR sensor module of the receiver circuit. Its transmitting wavelength
of 900 to 1100m lies in the peak receptivity range of the TSOP1738 receiver

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Automatic Car Parking System

module. We have used two identical circuits are used for the two infrared
transmitters.
VCC
+5V

R1
100
ohm
R2
1M
2 ohm

TSOP
1738 3
R3
330
ohm
1
C1 C2 LED1
4.7uF 22uF
16V 16V

Fig. 5: IR Receiver

The receiver section consists one infrared receiver TSOP 1738. The output
of this receiver is open-collector type, and hence requires a pull-up resistor, whose
value must be much greater than 10k. A 4.7µ F electrolytic capacitor must be
connected between the supply and ground for this receiver to minimize the
interference of spurious signals in the operation of the receiver.
When the signal is received correctly, the original square wave signal is
obtained at the output of the receiver. In the absence of the signal, however, a +5V
DC level is obtained. Since the ICs in the following blocks are of TTL family, the
receiver must be TTL compatible.
The +5V DC level occasionally drops to 0V, even when the signal strength
is quite low, due to the high sensitivity of the receiver. This may lead to false
triggering of the circuit, which must be eliminated. For this, a 22µ F electrolytic
capacitor is connected between the output of the receiver and ground. This
capacitor bypasses the square wave to ground and holds the DC value of the signal

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Automatic Car Parking System

(which is 0V) in the normal state and +5V when the signal is blocked. In place of
this capacitor, you may also use any capacitor of comparable value.
The output of IR receiver is given to the LED, which indicates the current
status of the parking slot. IR receiver gives the 5V when any vehicle interrupts the
infrared beam that means LED will glow when there is car in the parking and LED
will not glow when parking slot is vacant.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 5

Preparation of
PCB

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Automatic Car Parking System

PREPARATION OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

The process of preparation of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is explained as follows:


1. The artwork is prepared of the circuit using software viz. ‘ORCAD 9.1’.
2. Then a negative of this artwork is prepared for further process.
3. Required size of PCB is marked on glass epoxy PCB clad with marker.
4. Using shearing machine the marked portion of glass epoxy PCB clad is
cut.
5. The glass epoxy PCB clad is cleaned using steel wool care should be
taken, so that one cleans it only in one particular direction.
6. Now apply photo resist chemical. This chemical can also be applied by
machine, but we have applied it manually, so as to have a thin even coat of
photo resist chemical over the clad.
7. After the clad has dried off, it is superimposed by the negative and set into
the ultraviolet exposure machine. Care should be taken while
superimposing the negative.
8. Now ‘ON’ the UV exposure for 2 minutes let the clad get exposed to UV
rays wherever required.
9. Further developing is done using photo resist developer i.e. mild
trichloroethylene.
10. Apply blue color dye and then wash it under flowing water and then let it
dry.
11. The final chemical process is etching. There are three etching chemicals
generally been used for PCB etching viz. Ferric chloride, Ammonium
persulphate and chloric acid. Here we have used Ferric Chloride for
etching process.
12. Finally holes are drilled at the islands of components, lead connections and
for wire connections.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 6

Applications
&

Limitations

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Automatic Car Parking System

APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

Applications:
Some of the application is discussed briefly as follows.
• Underground Parking
• Company Parking
• Pay-and-Park scheme.

Limitations:
1. There should be a battery back up for knowing exact number of car
passed.
2. This project caters for 9 cars only. It applies for cars only (not for
cycles / scooters).
3. Proper orientation of receiver and transmitter is very important.
4. The distance between the two transmitted beams should be less
than the length of the longest car to be parked.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 7

Conclusion

CONCLUSION

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Automatic Car Parking System

Due to tremendous advancement in technology the prices of vehicles are


now economical to have it. But in comparison with this in cities there is shortage
of parking zones and because of this every body tries to park his vehicle properly,
which creates chaos at parking place. Therefore in today’s fast growing
technological world, regulation of parking is very important issue.
Our project caters this problem by automating parking system so that it
regulates number of cars can be parked in an area. After the initial installation, the
system requires no manual control. Everything, right from maintaining the count
of vehicles to opening and closing the gate, is automatically controlled. As the
circuit uses low cost easily available discrete ICs, it is cost effective.
Future scope of our project is overcome the limitations of i.e. it caters only
nine cars. This can by easily modified by adding extra circuitry to the current
system. By cascading counter and display section, we are able to regulate the 99
vehicles. It is also possible to use microcontroller instead discrete digital IC.

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 8

Component List

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Automatic Car Parking System

COMPONENT LIST

1. Semiconductors
Component Name Specification Quantity
IC1 74LS155 dual 2:4 decoder ONE (1)
IC2 7404 hex inverter ONE (1)
IC3 7400 NAND gate ONE (1)
IC4 7432 OR gate ONE (1)
IC5 to IC8 74LS74 dual ‘D’ flip-flop FOUR (4)
IC9 4511 7-segment trigger ONE (1)
74193 4-bit up/down
IC10 ONE (1)
counter
L293D push-pull 4-channel
IC11 ONE (1)
driver without motor
IC12, IC13 NE555 timer TWO (2)
D1, D2 1N4148 diode TWO (2)
LED1 5mm yellow LED ONE (1)
LED2 5mm red LED ONE (1)
LED3 5mm green LED ONE (1)
IR1, IR2 Infrared transmitter LED TWO (2)
Infrared receiver module
IR3, IR4 TWO (2)
(TSOP1738)
LTS-543 common cathode
DIS1 ONE (1)
7-segment display

2. Resistors (all ¼ watt, +/-5% carbon unless stated otherwise):


Component Name Specification Quantity
R1, R2 3.3Kohm TWO (2)
R3, R4 1.8Kohm TWO (2)
R5, R6, R8 100Kohm THREE (3)
R7, R9 1Mohm TWO (2)

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Automatic Car Parking System

R10 to R19 330Kohm TEN (10)

3.Capacitors
Component Name Specification Quantity
C1 0.22 µ F, ceramic disk ONE (1)
C2 to C4 0.01 µ F, ceramic disk THREE (3)
C5, C7 0.47 µ F, 16V electrolytic TWO (2)
C6, C8 22 µ F, 16V electrolytic TWO (2)

4. Miscellaneous
Component Name Specification Quantity
S1 to S3 Push-to-on tactile switch THREE (3)
IC Bases 8-pin bases TWO (2)
IC Bases 14-pin bases SEVEN (7)
IC Bases 16-pin bases FOUR (4)
Power supply 5V, 1A regulated ONE (1)
Flexible wire
Motor up to 600mA
D.C. Motor ONE (1)
output convert capability

Chapter 9

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Automatic Car Parking System

Bibliography

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Automatic Car Parking System

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Basic Electronics Principle by Malvino


2. Digital Electronics by R.P Jain
3. Electronics Project Section, Electronics For You
4. TTL Data Manual
5. Principles of Basic Electronics by V. K. Mehata
6. www.datasheetcatalog.com

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Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 10

Datasheets

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