Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 1

Introduction

1

Automatic Car Parking System

INTRODUCTION
Due to tremendous advancement in technology the prices of vehicles are now economical to have it. But in comparison with this in cities there is shortage of parking zones and because of this every body tries to park his vehicle properly, which creates chaos at parking place. Therefore in today’s fast growing technological world, regulation of parking is very important issue. With the growing number of vehicles and the consequent shortage of parking space, there is haphazard and totally unregulated parking of vehicles all over. The situation calls out for an automated parking system that not only regulates parking in given area but also keeps manual control to a bare minimum. To cater to the need, here we present a miniature model of an automated car parking system that regulates number of cars that can be parked in an area at any given time based on the parking space availability. The entry and exit of vehicles are facilitated using totally automated gate. Status signals indicate whether space is currently available in the parking lot, and whether a car is currently in the process of entering or leaving the parking space. Our system also guides the driver by indicating which parking slot is vacant at any given time. This feature saves the time of parking and also fuel. After the initial installation, the system requires no manual control. Everything, right from maintaining the count of vehicles to opening and closing the gate, is automatically controlled. As the circuit uses low cost easily available discrete ICs, it is cost effective.

2

Automatic Car Parking System

Chapter 2

Block Diagram Description

3

Whenever a car enters the parking area. which transmit infrared beams as shown in figure 2. the count is either incremented or decremented. 2. which generates a high output only if the correct sequence has been detected. Similarly. up-counter. A yellow signal to indicate that a car is currently in the processing of entering or leaving the parking space. which produce an output of 0 volt if the beam is received uninterrupted and +5 volt if the beam is interrupted by a car. it generates a fixed sequence. The activation of this signal coincides with the disabling of the green signal. and that space is available the parking of a car in the parking area. 3. which include: 1. Depending on the sequence detector that generates an actuating signal. down-count blocks are given to the display section. The display sections as a counter a 7-segment display along with driver IC to display the count. downcounter and display sections. 4 . The system consists of transmitter. A green signal is indicate that the parking lot has not reached its maximum capacity. The down-count sequence detector generates a high output only if the correct sequence is produced by exiting car. The outputs of the up-count. when the car leaves the parking area. These light becomes are incident on the corresponding infrared receiver modules (IR3 RX1 and IR4 RX2). it interrupts the infrared beams in a definite sequence. and is a companied by the disabling (closing) of the gate for vehicles trying to enter the parking lot. The display section consists of status signals. receiver and demultiplexer. A red signal to indicate that the parking space is full. The transmitter section comprises two infrared transmitters (IR1 TX1 and IR2 TX2).Automatic Car Parking System BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION Figure 1 shows the block diagram of Automated Car Parking System. This sequence is given to the up-count sequence detector. which is given to the down-count sequence detector.

1 Block diagram of automated car parking 5 .Automatic Car Parking System Fig.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 3 System Overview 6 .

After the maximum numbers of cars have entered the parking space. so that persons and two wheelers are not included in the count of cars. A display section has been provided. 7 .Automatic Car Parking System SYSTEM OVERVIEW A gate has been provided at the entering of the parking space. which consists of status signals and a display showing the number of car present in the parking space at any point of time. A display section also provides the information regarding the vacancy of parking slot by glowing the corresponding LED this assist the driver while driving. A logic circuit distinguishes between the cars and persons / two wheelers. which opens on the arrival or departure of a car. the gate is automatically disabled (closed) for vehicles seeking entry into the parking lot.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 4 Circuit Operation 8 .

red and yellow LEDs. For generating approximately 38kHz frequency carrier signal modulated by a 1kHz square wave. 74155 2: 4 decoder. The final output of the cascaded arrangement is given to a pair of IR LEDs through current-limiting resistor R5. the circuit uses six TSOP 1738 infrared receiver modules. This is a highly selective receiver. The circuit primarily uses two NE555 timer ICs. 9 . up/down binary counter 74193. 7-segment display driver L293D. The sensor section can be further divided into the transmitter section and the receiver section. One NE555 timer (IC 12) is designed to produce a square wave of 1kHz with 50% duty cycle. In addition. It works efficiently with 1kHz modulation of 38 kHz bursts. 7-segment display and green. In the order to modulate the 38 kHz wave. For easy understanding the circuit. while the second timer (IC 13) is designed to produce a square wave of 38kHz with 50% duty cycle. we use too NE555 timer ICs in astable mode in the transmitter section.Automatic Car Parking System CIRCUIT OPERATION The automated car parking circuit as shown in figure 2 and figure 3. output pin 3 of the first NE555 (IC 13). Gate control 5. along with three-push-to-on switches. Parking Slot indicator The sensor section: This section senses the movement of objects and transfers that information to IC1 in the main circuit. Counter and display 4. which comprises a photo detector and a preamplifier with IR filter in a single package to provide demodulated output. The prominent component used in the design of the transmitter and receiver sections is the IR receiver module TSOP 1738. This feature of the receiver determines the composition of the transmitted signal. which prevents the IR LED from getting heated and thus damaged. Sensor 2. four 74LS74 D flip-flop. six infrared transmitting LEDs. let’s divide the circuit into the following four basic sections: 1. Sequence detector 3.

The output of this receiver is open-collector type. For this. This capacitor bypasses the square wave to ground and holds the DC value of the signal (which is 0V) in the normal state and +5V when the signal is blocked. 10 . This may lead to false triggering of the circuit. a +5V DC level is obtained.7µ F electrolytic capacitor must be connected between the supply and ground for this receiver to minimize the interference of spurious signals in the operation of the receiver.22uF GND 1 LM555CM 2 TRI CON 5 C3 0.8kOhm 6 OUT 3 LM555CM 2 TRI CON 5 C1 0. using one infrared receiver TSOP 1738 each. which must be eliminated. the original 1kHz square wave signal is obtained at the output of the receiver. The +5V DC level occasionally drops to 0V. When the signal is received correctly. whose value must be much greater than 10k. the receiver must be TTL compatible. In place of this capacitor. The output of the sensor section goes to the sequence detection section.8kOhm 7 4 RST DIS IC13 THR 8 VCC R5 100 Ohm IR1 OUT 3 D2 1N4148 A R4 1.01uF IR2 To IC5 C2 0.3kOhm 7 D1 1N4148 R2 3. and hence requires a pull-up resistor. Since the ICs in the following blocks are of TTL family. a 22µ F electrolytic capacitor is connected between the output of the receiver and ground.01uF GND 1 C4 0.01uF GND Fig. A 4.3kOhm 6 4 RST DIS IC12 THR 8 VCC R3 1. In the absence of the signal. due to the high sensitivity of the receiver. even when the signal strength is quite low. however.Automatic Car Parking System VCC R1 3. you may also use any capacitor of comparable value.2: Circuit Diagram of IR transmitter part The receiver section consists of two identical receiver circuits.

Automatic Car Parking System Fig. 3 : Circuit Diagram of Automated car parking system 11 .

and finally just the second sensor (after entrance). The low going Y2 line indicates that only the second sensor is blocked. For convenience. A vehicle entering the parking area must interrupt the first sensor (before entrance). It consists of a 2:4 decoder and flip-flops. The output lines of the enabled decoder are active low. respectively. A VCC signal is input to the first flip-flop. For identifying the states and the order in which they occur. The 74155 dual 2:4 decoder IC1 receives its select signals at pins 13(A) and 3(B) (for one of the decoders) from receivers RX1 and RX2. while the 74LS74 D flip-flops are triggered by a rising edge of the clock signal.Automatic Car Parking System The sequence detection section: This section is the heart of the entire system. A low Y3 line indicates that both signals have been blocked. making the Y0 output line low. which are used for the sequence detection. Y3 and Y1 lines after logical inversion to the clock inputs of three successive flip-flops. then both sensors. the receiver before the entrance to the gate is connected to the pin 13 of the IC1. the Y1 line goes low. The four output lines act as decoding and control signals for the remaining circuits. The Y0 line is connected to the clear pins of all the flip-flops. 12 . The logic states of the three decoded output lines are inverted because these are active low. In default state. Refer truth table of IC1 74155 given in table 1. we give the Y2. each receiver is active and inputs 0 to the decoder. while each subsequent input is the output of the previous flip-flop. and 0 1 necessarily in that sequence. The other decoder is not used. respectively. When the first sensor is blocked. TABLE 1: Truth table of 74155 (IC1) Address/ inputs Pin 13 Pin 3 (A) 0 1 1 0 (B) 0 0 1 1 Enable Pin 1 Pin 2 E1 H H H H E1 L L L L Pint 7 1Y0 L H H H Outputs Pin 6 Pin 5 1Y1 H L H H 1Y2 H H H L Pin 4 1Y3 H H L H The sequence detection logic circuit consists of three flip-flops for detecting incoming as well as out going vehicles. Thus it must generate states 1 0. 1 1. which gives 0 at their respective outputs.

provides a rising edge. This occurs at he instant when the outputs of the flip-flop are cleared by the low going Y0 signal (explained in the counter and display section). which increments the count. and 1 0. Hence the clock signals for the three successive flip-flops are derived from Y1. The counter IC74193 is capable of handling up as well as down counts. and this very instant. the states generated by the vehicle are 0 1. In our circuit. The preset data pins of the counter IC are connected to VCC. Such an arrangement can be used to reset the counter. Y3 and Y2 line. which. An identical circuit is used for detecting a vehicle leaving the parking area. display driver IC4511 (to drive a common cathode 7-segment display). BCD to 7-segment decoder. The counter and display section: This section consists of up/down counter IC74193. however. The working of this circuit is identical to the one for detecting the vehicle entering the parking area. the count is incremented.Automatic Car Parking System Only the proper sequence of logic states will cause a high logic at the output of the third flip-flop. In this case the final D flip-flop output is given to the counter and display section for decrementing the count. and three LEDs (red. while the load data pin is connected to one end of a push to on switch whose other pin is grounded. necessarily in that order. In this case. respectively. The count is incremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the up pin (pin 5) and decremented by one when a rising edge is encountered on the down pin (pin4). yellow and green). The count decrements in the same fashion when the flip-flops in question are those used for detecting the vehicle leaving the parking area. and consequently all drivers and display unit in the circuit. The output of the third flip-flop is given to the counter and display section. Thus when a vehicle enters the parking area. The four output lines of up/ down 13 . causing a transition from the high to low logic state. 1 1. the former occurs when the vehicle has entered in the parking area and line Y0 clears the output of the final flip-flop. the Y0 signal clears all the flip-flops. when passed through an inverter. Any other sequence will not allowed the transfer of the high signal through the series of flip-flops. if configured for the same.

But as soon as any one of the signals is cut. the Y0 line goes high. thereby closing the gate. which indicates that nine vehicles are present in the parking area and there is no further space. The LED indication for the various situations is depicted in table 2. TABLE 2: LED Indications LED Yellow Red Green The gate control section: The gate control section consists of IC5. Hence. Similarly. The same signal after inversion is given to the anode of the green LED. turning the yellow LED on. it causes the motor to rotate. This happens because the output of the binary 9 on the lines makes the extreme lines high. the Y0 line is low. keeping the LED off. The output from gate 8 is fed to the anode of the red LED. when the input to motor driver is 0 1. thereby causing the barrier to move such that it opens the entrance. IC4 and IC11. the motor rotates in the opposite direction to lower the barrier. The yellow LED indicates that a vehicle is either entering or leaving the parking area. 14 Indication Car is in the process of parking No vacancy Parking space available . the Y0 line of the decoder is given at the anode of the LED. When no signal is being cut. When the input to the motor driver is 0 0. the motor does not rotate. this LED must be on when at least one of the sensors is being cut. The active high outputs of the decoder are connected to their corresponding pins in the 7-segment common-cathode display. which gives a high at the otherwise-low anode of the red LED. Now whenever the input to motor driver IC11 is 1 0.Automatic Car Parking System counter (74193) are fed to the corresponding pins in the decoder or the driver 4511 (IC9). For this reason. which indicates the availability of space for at least one vehicle in the parking area. Assume that the lower position of the barrier is the default position. The MSB and LSB lines of the outputs of the counter IC10 are ANDed using gates N7 and N8. which provide the appropriate logic used for controlling operation of the gate/barrier. thus turning it on.

thus opening the gate. we use a simple combinational logic circuit consists of NAND and OR gates. the output of the logic circuit becomes low. The gate stops opening. the input to the IC11 is 0 1. Thus. whose output is given to enable in 1 of the L293D motor driver (IC11). Lower switch S2 closed.Automatic Car Parking System When the car as entered the parking area completely. when a vehicle wishes to leave the area IC11 gets enabled. Back to default states. In normal condition. causing the motor to rotate such that the gate begins to close till it pushes the lower switch at which point it stops moving. The gate starts closing and upper switch S1 is released. The output current capability per channel of L293D approximately 600mA. However. The gate starts opening and lower switch S2 is released. First sensor cut. the movement of the gate is automatically controlled on the arrival or departure of a car. the output of this logic circuit is high. When the maximum count of the 9 is reached. Car completely enters the parking area. TABLE 3: Truth table of 7474 (IC5) Pin 2 (D1) 0 1 1 1 Pin 13 (D2) 1 0 0 0 Pin 5 Q1 0 1 1 0 Pin 9 Q2 0 0 0 0 State Default. thereby disabling the motor and keeping the gate closed for all vehicles seeking entry to the parking area. The upper switch S1 closed. The gate continues to close. TABLE 4: Truth Table of L293D Input H Enable * H 15 Output H . The gate pushes lower switch S2 and stops moving. The truth table of L293D is given in table 4. enabling IC11. Table 3 gives clear picture of the working of the gate control section. The gate keeps opening. 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 In order to disable the gate from opening for a vehicle entering the parking area after the count of the 9.

The timer output is fed to transistor T1. Note that IR LED1 must be properly oriented towards the IR sensor module of the receiver circuit. This is built around timer IC555. Z is high impedance output. 2. VCC +5V R1 1K 7 VR1 20K 6 2 C1 0. which drives IR LED. This consists of infrared transmitter and infrared receiver as shown in figure 4 and figure 5.01uF 8 R2 1K 3 T1 BC547 IR LED R3 22 ohm Fig. 4 : IR Transmitter The circuit diagram IR transmitter of Parking Slot indicator is shown in figure 4.Automatic Car Parking System L H L Note: H L L I Z Z 1. The identical circuit is placed in the each parking slot so that it indicates whether the car is present in that slot or not.001uF 4 IC1 555 1 5 C2 0. which is used as an astable multivibrator to generate around 38kHz frequency. * For channel under consideration. Parking Slot Indicator: This section provides the indication of vacant parking slot at any given time based on the parking slot availability. Its transmitting wavelength of 900 to 1100m lies in the peak receptivity range of the TSOP1738 receiver 16 .

5: IR Receiver The receiver section consists one infrared receiver TSOP 1738.7uF 16V C2 22uF 16V LED1 1 Fig. Since the ICs in the following blocks are of TTL family.7µ F electrolytic capacitor must be connected between the supply and ground for this receiver to minimize the interference of spurious signals in the operation of the receiver. and hence requires a pull-up resistor. the receiver must be TTL compatible.Automatic Car Parking System module. A 4. however. even when the signal strength is quite low. a +5V DC level is obtained. For this. We have used two identical circuits are used for the two infrared transmitters. The output of this receiver is open-collector type. When the signal is received correctly. This capacitor bypasses the square wave to ground and holds the DC value of the signal 17 . the original square wave signal is obtained at the output of the receiver. a 22µ F electrolytic capacitor is connected between the output of the receiver and ground. This may lead to false triggering of the circuit. In the absence of the signal. The +5V DC level occasionally drops to 0V. due to the high sensitivity of the receiver. which must be eliminated. VCC +5V R1 100 ohm 2 TSOP 1738 R2 1M ohm 3 R3 330 ohm C1 4. whose value must be much greater than 10k.

you may also use any capacitor of comparable value. IR receiver gives the 5V when any vehicle interrupts the infrared beam that means LED will glow when there is car in the parking and LED will not glow when parking slot is vacant. 18 . The output of IR receiver is given to the LED. which indicates the current status of the parking slot. In place of this capacitor.Automatic Car Parking System (which is 0V) in the normal state and +5V when the signal is blocked.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 5 Preparation of PCB 19 .

but we have applied it manually.1’. 3. The glass epoxy PCB clad is cleaned using steel wool care should be taken. lead connections and for wire connections. so that one cleans it only in one particular direction. it is superimposed by the negative and set into the ultraviolet exposure machine. The final chemical process is etching. Now apply photo resist chemical.Automatic Car Parking System PREPARATION OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD The process of preparation of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is explained as follows: 1. 4. Ammonium persulphate and chloric acid. 7. 8. Finally holes are drilled at the islands of components. Then a negative of this artwork is prepared for further process. The artwork is prepared of the circuit using software viz. Here we have used Ferric Chloride for etching process. There are three etching chemicals generally been used for PCB etching viz. 11. so as to have a thin even coat of photo resist chemical over the clad. ‘ORCAD 9. Care should be taken while superimposing the negative. Ferric chloride. mild trichloroethylene. 5. 10. 12. Apply blue color dye and then wash it under flowing water and then let it dry. 9. After the clad has dried off. 20 . Using shearing machine the marked portion of glass epoxy PCB clad is cut. Further developing is done using photo resist developer i. Now ‘ON’ the UV exposure for 2 minutes let the clad get exposed to UV rays wherever required. Required size of PCB is marked on glass epoxy PCB clad with marker. 6. 2.e. This chemical can also be applied by machine.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 6 Applications & Limitations 21 .

3. 2. This project caters for 9 cars only. 4. 22 . Proper orientation of receiver and transmitter is very important. • • • Underground Parking Company Parking Pay-and-Park scheme. The distance between the two transmitted beams should be less than the length of the longest car to be parked.Automatic Car Parking System APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS Applications: Some of the application is discussed briefly as follows. There should be a battery back up for knowing exact number of car passed. It applies for cars only (not for cycles / scooters). Limitations: 1.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 7 Conclusion CONCLUSION 23 .

is automatically controlled. It is also possible to use microcontroller instead discrete digital IC. which creates chaos at parking place. the system requires no manual control.Automatic Car Parking System Due to tremendous advancement in technology the prices of vehicles are now economical to have it. 24 . it is cost effective. As the circuit uses low cost easily available discrete ICs. After the initial installation. it caters only nine cars. Our project caters this problem by automating parking system so that it regulates number of cars can be parked in an area. Everything. By cascading counter and display section. regulation of parking is very important issue. This can by easily modified by adding extra circuitry to the current system. we are able to regulate the 99 vehicles. right from maintaining the count of vehicles to opening and closing the gate. But in comparison with this in cities there is shortage of parking zones and because of this every body tries to park his vehicle properly. Therefore in today’s fast growing technological world.e. Future scope of our project is overcome the limitations of i.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 8 Component List 25 .

8Kohm 100Kohm 1Mohm 26 Quantity TWO (2) TWO (2) THREE (3) TWO (2) .3Kohm 1. R6. Semiconductors Component Name IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 to IC8 IC9 IC10 IC11 IC12.Automatic Car Parking System COMPONENT LIST 1. IC13 D1. +/-5% carbon unless stated otherwise): Component Name R1. Resistors (all ¼ watt. R9 Specification 3. R8 R7. IR2 IR3. D2 LED1 LED2 LED3 IR1. R4 R5. IR4 DIS1 Specification 74LS155 dual 2:4 decoder 7404 hex inverter 7400 NAND gate 7432 OR gate 74LS74 dual ‘D’ flip-flop 4511 7-segment trigger 74193 4-bit up/down counter L293D push-pull 4-channel driver without motor NE555 timer 1N4148 diode 5mm yellow LED 5mm red LED 5mm green LED Infrared transmitter LED Infrared receiver module (TSOP1738) LTS-543 common cathode 7-segment display Quantity ONE (1) ONE (1) ONE (1) ONE (1) FOUR (4) ONE (1) ONE (1) ONE (1) TWO (2) TWO (2) ONE (1) ONE (1) ONE (1) TWO (2) TWO (2) ONE (1) 2. R2 R3.

47 µ F.22 µ F. ceramic disk 0. Miscellaneous Component Name S1 to S3 IC Bases IC Bases IC Bases Power supply Flexible wire D.Capacitors Component Name C1 C2 to C4 C5.01 µ F. 1A regulated Motor up to 600mA output convert capability Quantity THREE (3) TWO (2) SEVEN (7) FOUR (4) ONE (1) ONE (1) Chapter 9 27 . 16V electrolytic Quantity ONE (1) THREE (3) TWO (2) TWO (2) 4. C7 C6.Automatic Car Parking System R10 to R19 330Kohm TEN (10) 3. C8 Specification 0. 16V electrolytic 22 µ F.C. Motor Specification Push-to-on tactile switch 8-pin bases 14-pin bases 16-pin bases 5V. ceramic disk 0.

Automatic Car Parking System Bibliography 28 .

Principles of Basic Electronics by V. Mehata 6. Basic Electronics Principle by Malvino 2. TTL Data Manual 5.Automatic Car Parking System BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. K.com 29 . Digital Electronics by R. www. Electronics Project Section.P Jain 3. Electronics For You 4.datasheetcatalog.

Automatic Car Parking System Chapter 10 Datasheets 30 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful