I.

Introduction

The new family of Burdell DC motor drives, FxZ 2.0, is currently under development and will use a processor to control and monitor the power delivered to the motor. This is done by using a digitally controlled voltage divider that sets the fire threshold level of a thyristor that is used to chop portions of a high-power full-wave rectified sine wave with the frequency of 91.1 kHz powering the DC motor. The gate of the thyristor is triggered by a triangular wave that must have the same frequency as the DC motor power signal.

Electronic oscillators are circuits that generate an alternating, periodic signal with a defined frequency and pattern such as sine wave, square wave, and triangular wave. Relaxation oscillators are oscillators that use charging and discharging of storage components such as capacitors. The FxZ 2.0 DC motor drives are designed to be used in industrial environments with harsh air conditions; therefore, the oscillator must be able to provide a constant frequency for temperatures up to 150ºC. The triangular wave generated by the oscillator must have a well-defined and shape without any ripples and distortions so that the thyristor will not fire when the triangular trigger signal is below the thyristor fire level set by the processor. Also, the triangular wave should have linear ramps due to the motor power and speed (rpm) computation methods used in the processors program.

Two two-stage relaxation oscillators that generate a 91.1 kHz triangular wave were designed with two op-amps, tested, and compared in the laboratory. These oscillators were named oscillator number 1 and number 2. Oscillator number 2 has a feedback from it's second stage output to its first stage input. Laboratory tests and analysis showed that oscillator number 1 has a higher frequent fidelity factor and even though its triangular wave is not linear a small adjustment in the processor's program could eliminate the inaccuracy cause by its non-linearity. I recommend oscillator number 1 to be used for the FxZ 2.0 DC motor drive family.

1 kHz which is fixed by a PLL to avoid variations of more than 0. Thyristor Fire Level Figure 1. The hashed areas under the rectified sine wave are what the thyristor allows to pass through and this determines how much power is delivered to the DC motor. This imposes a similar restriction on the triangular wave triggering the thyristor. These hashed areas must be centered at the peak of the sine wave. Analysis/Criteria and Comparison A.1%. the peaks of the triangular wave must occur at the same time as the peaks of the motor power sine wave. As shown in Figure 1. Therefore.II. This . it is crucial to controllability of the system to have a consistent frequency. This accuracy is of great importance because this sets the maximum power delivered to the motor and subsequently the torque. The FxZ 2. Difference in the frequencies of the triangular and the rectified sine wave would result in having unequal areas for each cycle and as a result the delivered average power to the DC motor would be inaccurate. Full-wave rectified DC motor input power and thyristor fire controller triangular wave. Frequency Fidelity The full-wave rectified 500 volt sine wave that powers the General Motors iX5 DC motor has frequency of 91. Criteria________________________________________________________ The criteria based upon which the two relaxation oscillators are being compared and ranked are: 1.0 DC motor drive is to be designed to work in industrial environments with harsh air conditions and resistor values considerably change when the temperature is above 40ºC.

(a) Relaxation oscillator number 1. But different resistor values have different temperature dependency trends and having an oscillator whose frequency is determined or affected by one resistor value is more preferable than an oscillator with more number of resistors determining its frequency. (a) (b) Figure 2.change. 1 Eq. 1 and Eq. however has a linear trend. 2 . and could be resolved with a heat sink for high temperatures up to 150ºC. f= f= 1  2 R C ln3 1  4 RC R1  R2 Eq. 2 are their frequency equations respectively. Schematics of the oscillator number 1 and oscillator number 2 are shown in Figure 2 and Eq. (b) Relaxation oscillator number 2.

3. Total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measure of purity of the signal and it is presented in percentage. A distorted triangular wave has ripples and spikes and these spikes can unexpectedly trigger the thyristor. a triangular wave with less than 20% THD is required to guarantee unexpected thyristor conduction. Every time an analog signal undergoes a processes. for the same frequency.2. Figure 2. the signal gets exposed to possible harmonic distortion. Linearity The thyristor fire level. Harmonic Distortion Both oscillators compared in this report have two stages. for the thyristor controlling the DC motor power and speed. it is the width of the chopped areas from the rectified sine wave that determines how much power is delivered to the DC motor and if the ramps of the triangular wave are not linear. . determines at what level of the triangular wave the thyristor should fire. set by a digitally controlled voltage divider. the widths of the chopped areas will be different from a triangular wave with linear ramps. The first stage in both oscillators is a square wave oscillator and the second stage is an integrator that converts (processes) the square wave to a triangular wave with the same frequency. Therefore. Effects of non-linearity of two triangular waves with the same frequency. As shown in Figure 1.

07Ω. An oscillator with a higher rank is more preferable. 1. that is non-linear. Heat sinks do not completely eliminate these variations but rather minimize them to a large extend. Different resistor values have different thermal dependency trend as shown in the graph of Figure 3. B. R2 = 10 kΩ. R1 = 5 kΩ. chops a larger area. 2 and depends on the values of R = 557. a heat sink is used to stabilize the resistor's temperature but still some small variations do occur which in the case of oscillator number 1 these variations for only one resistor does not cause any concern. and C. • Oscillator Number 2 [Rank: 1] The frequency equation of this oscillator is given by Eq. shown in Figure 1. 1 and it only depends on the values of R and C. In oscillator number 1. Since the main cause of variation in the the frequency is changes of the resistors values due to their thermal dependency properties. Comparison Based on Frequency Fidelity • Oscillator Number 1 [Rank: 2] The frequency equation of this oscillator is given by Eq. Comparison_____________________________________________________ Comparison of the relaxation oscillators number 1 and number 2. is presented here with ranking of each oscillator based each criterion.Figure 2 demonstrates the effects of non-linearity of a triangular wave on the amount of power delivered to the DC motor in comparison with a linear triangular wave with the same frequency. chops a smaller portion of the rectified sine wave at a constant thyristor fire level whereas the second cycle. But since oscillator number 2 has three resistors that determine the frequency their small dissimilar variations does add up and cause a larger change to the frequency as . the value of R is 2. The first triangular cycle of Figure 2. that is linear. Calculations of the amount of power delivered to the DC motor is based on linear triangular thyristor trigger wave and non-linearity would cause the motor drive to deliver a different amount of power than it is set to.251 kΩ.

2. (C) Figure 3. Figure 4. R (Ohms) 10 k 5k 544 40 100 Temp.oppose to oscillator number 1 which only has one resistor value that the frequency depends on. Comparison Based on Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) • Oscillator Number 1: [Rank: 1] The circuit shown in Figure 4 was assembled in the lab with LM071 op-amps and spectrum analysis was performed on its triangular wave which is shown in Figure 5 and its measurements are tabulated in Table 1. . Temperature dependency trends of different resistors. Oscillator number 1 circuit schematic.

however.0312 5 0.33% which meets the maximum 20% THD requirement.4000 2 0. Also only 5 of harmonic measurements are in Table 2 because harmonic 6 and higher orders were very close to the noise level and are negligible.39% which meets the maximum 20% THD requirement but has a 1 percent advantage over the oscillator number 1. Oscillator number 1 triangular spectrum analysis scope capture.1320 3 0. Table 1 . The calculated THD from the measurements of Table 2 is 9.0096 7 0. This makes Oscillator number 2 a better oscillator as far as THD is concerned but the main concern for the FxZ 2. • Oscillator Number 2: [Rank: 2] The circuit shown in Figure 6 was assembled in the lab with LM741 op-amps and spectrum analysis was performed on its triangular wave which is shown in Figure 7 and its measurements are tabulated in Table 2. ripples are also caused by harmonic distortion and ripples riding the ramp of the .0 DC motor drive is spikes caused by harmonic distortion which would require a THD of at least 40% and this is far from happening in either of the oscillators.0460 4 0.0148 6 0.Figure 5.0096 The calculated THD from the measurements of Table 1 is 10.Harmonic Element Calculations of the Triangular Wave of Figure 5 Harmonic V rms 1 1.

Figure 7.091 2 0.triangular waves near thyristor fire level threshold can turn the thyristor on and off when it's supposed to stay on. Table 2 .047 3 0. Oscillator number 2 circuit schematic.Harmonic Element Calculations of the Triangular Wave of Figure 7 Harmonic V rms 1 0. Figure 6.013 .022 4 0.018 5 0. Oscillator number 2 triangular spectrum analysis scope capture.

.3. Figure 8. and it has well-defined and linear ramps which is compatible with the FxZ 2. • Oscillator Number 2 [Rank: 2] The triangular output of the circuit in Figure 6 was captured with scope and is shown in Figure 9.0 DC motor drive processor power and speed (rpm) computation method. This means that this oscillator has a larger period of time above any reference level (thyristor fire level in FxZ 2. Comparison Based on Linearity: • Oscillator Number 1 [Rank: 1] The triangular output of the circuit in Figure 4 was captured with scope and is shown in Figure 8. This circuit's THD was also lower as shown in Table 2 and this is another reason why the ramps are more linear. Triangular wave output of the oscillator number 1.0 DC motor drive) in comparison with the wave shown in Figure 9. The ramps are certainly not linear as oppose to the triangular wave of oscillator number 2 shown in Figure 9.

aside from the capacitor in the circuit. To minimize thermal dependency. harmonic distortion will increase and ripples start to appear on the triangular wave ramps and this could potentially cause problem at and above the thyristor fire level. Oscillator number 2 is the most compatible oscillator with the FxZ 2. Therefore.Figure 9.0 DC motor drive . Triangular wave output of the oscillator number 2. three different costume-made heat sinks are required to make the resistors' thermal variation trend similar. its frequency is only dependent on three resistors having the same values that demonstrate almost same exact thermal variation trend. three different resistors all with different values determine the frequency. one kind of heat sink is needed for all three resistors to minimize their thermal dependency whereas in oscillator number 2. Conclusion Keeping the frequency constant with temperature variations is easier and more dependable in Oscillator number 1 because. III. But this is unlikely to happen due to cooling system of the op-amps. oscillator 2 does not have a significant advantage and THD's for both oscillators are nearly 10% lower than the 20% maximum requirement. however. Although THD of oscillator number 2 is 1% lower than that of oscillator number 1. for very high temperatures.

.0 DC motor drive. Since the frequency fidelity is capable of introducing more inaccuracy and oscillator 1 has a more stable frequency with temperature variations. Table 3 summerizes the ranking of the oscillators based on the studied criteria for FxZ 2. Table 3 – Oscillators Ranking and Final Score Oscillator Number 1 Number 2 Circuit Fig.0 DC motor drive accurately. 2. I recommend oscillator number 1 to be used for the FxZ 2.a 2. But this inaccuracy is a constant amount and not a random value. This oscillator's THD is 10% below the 20% maximum requirement and its triangular wave non-linearity could be adjusted in the controller program to produce the desired triangular wave to trigger the thyristor used in FxZ 2.0 DC motor drive.processor and its program to control motor's power and speed (rpm) because of producing a triangular wave with well-defined and linear ramps. Oscillator number 1 is considerably less linear and introduces inaccuracy to the control system. a trivial adjustment in the processor program can accommodate the inaccuracy caused by non-linearity of oscillator 1. Recommendation Oscillator number 1 only uses three resistors with the same value which makes their thermal dependency trend similar and thus a higher frequency fidelity factor.b Frequency Fidelity Rank x6 2x6 1x6 THD Rank Linearity Rank Total Score x2 x3 1x2 2x2 1x3 2x3 17 16 IV.

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