Organic Products, Social Qualities with Equal and Fair Trade It’s Constrain and Future

Why organic farming is necessary? In Pakistan most of large farms are run by absentee land lords, in this case land is cared by the workers, who have no feeling of ownership amount of production, margin of profit. On other hand small land owners, who are present on the farms, have constraints of purchasing large amount of inputs associated with risk are forced to diversify their investments. To cover risks they usually reduce farm inputs but are not able to reduce environmental degradation like soil erosion, pollution, excess water input, water logging drainage, control of perennial weeds etc. Organic farmer pays more to the labors also controls his farm as well as off farm environmental costs. They cut production cash costs by putting family labor eliminate inorganic fertilizers, pesticide and herbicides and reduce soil erosion. Conventional food may contain carcinogens, chemicals that cause diseases including cancer. Additive in processing may further activate carcinogens. This food may contain nitrates and other preservative or nitrosamine which is potent carcinogen. Conventional farmer spent more on input of fertilizers, pesticide and these wastes goes to the environment specially ground water. This type of farming enters into industrial production processing and distribution system the whole chain of which adds some more chemicals. The cost of this industrial model for agriculture are phenomenal and extremely wide reaching, yet unrecognized as industrial production making use of more chemicals and machine produces food cheaper, better in cosmetic look and yet poisoned by chemicals. Organic farming has potential of niche markets for local high valued, non-conventional, indigenous and local agricultural products like medicinal herbs, traditional agriculture and non-timber tree products. Farmer’s trends to switch to organic farming are correlated closely with the size of conversion grants. The subsides for conventionally produced food currently limit the growth of organic agriculture to the size of market that is willing to pay higher price to the consumer. Although organic products and its market outlet are limited but premium prices may boost the market.

World picture of organic farming. In 1989, subsidies were introduced in several European countries, like Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Austria, and Switzerland, to encourage conversion to organic farming, which changed 376,000 hectares of land by 10,000 farmers into organic farming. In Germany where subsidies are available for two years so 7.9% of farm of farm and 3.6% land changed to organic farming. In 1989 Europe is able to increase 200,000 hectares to 900,000 hectares organic farming. In Iran total 20,000 ha with production of 107,000 kg per year well adapted to social structure of family oriented activity. It is based on manual work, production and processing based on indigenous methods and animal manure is the main source of plant nutrition. In EU countries the number of organic farmer has increase from 6,000 in 1985 to 48,000 today. Italy has 30,000 certified organic farmers. In Scandinavian countries 8% are certified organic farmers. Australia has 10%, U.K 5% organic farmer. The total farm area in Pakistan 19.7 million hectares, which is 28% of the total area of the country. The average size farm in 1972 was 5.2 hectares. In Pakistan only few farmers are organic farmers. Ministry of Agriculture, fisheries and food in U.K pay support of 50 per ha per year for 5 years to convert to organic farming. Expected growth rate of organic farming in the World is 20-30% but organic agriculture will never be able to feed the rapidly growing world population due to low labor output in spite of high yields. Due to over use of chemicals, land is depleted of organic matter and average production per ha decreases. Food produced in excess to demand serves to reduce commodity prices, received by farmers but hungry people ill afford high priced organic food. Organic agriculture. Organic approach is to minimize the adverse impacts on the environments, by avoiding the use of materials from non-renewable

resources, recycling where possible, use minimum amount of pesticides, avoiding the use of resources which cause pollution, relying on crop rotation, using crop residue recycling animal manure, legumes, and green manure, biological pest control, minimum tilth to be used to maintain soil productivity, to minimize the energy costs of production and transportation materials, to keep soil more fertile. Organic methods improve soil health, increase population of healthy worms, fungi and other soil organisms. Organic agriculture saves the land from losses due to erosion and soil degradation, improves soil fertility and enhances moisture conservation. Diverse varieties only are used under unfavorable conditions. Organic farming is based on fewer inputs, better market demand due to having environmental and social concerns. It also based on local resources and technologies that provide farmer better independence and more control over their means of production. Environmental impacts of organic farming are:
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Improvement of soil biological activity. Improvement of physical characteristics of soil. Reducing nitrate leaching. Increasing and improving wild life habitat.

Organic farming in Pakistan. Its objective are to develop low capital less labor intensive, high yielding, better quality and healthy organic farming. Reducing the cost of production to minimum to achieve self-sufficiency in all inputs. It is recognized as a long-term solution to the problem caused by nitrate pollution. Organic agriculture in the beginnings shows lower yields than conventional cropping but as its input are lower than conventional agriculture and labor in Pakistan is cheap, in long when organic agricultural methods have improved soil characteristics, soil fauna and

established worm activity and large production of vermicasts, the yields will surpass the conventional methods. Nutritional criteria of organic products. People's choice of food is based not only on prices, taste, but also takes in to account, moral, religious and dietary reasons. Some even think in terms of exploitation of human and natural resources and degradation of environments. The organic food on the whole is nutrition and meets anatomical and physiological requirements of human. It also helps in interaction of food clean like production, processing, packaging and trading within the environment and the social structures. Organic practicing. The organic farmers used garlic pyrethrum and neem to control pest and diseases, also use predators like Encarsia Formosa used to control green house, white fly and phytoseinlus persimilis a predator mite used for two-spotted mite control also get composts are a wonder producing by recycling garden and kitchen wastes. Mulch is magic and not helps in suppressing weed but gives plants raised all macro and micro-nutrients, in chelated forms and vermicasts rich in nutrients and antibiotics. Biomass use as organic matter and also does the same. Crop rotations and inter cropping is designed to improve soil fertility. Organic matter composts and manures improve the soil health and thereby plant health to the extent that pests attack on crop is reduced and damage is negligible. Animals and organic farming. The organic farmer must work hard to integrate animals in to the farming system:

The non-agricultural public must understand that organic animal husbandry is fundamentally better the kind of animal production they constantly criticize. Some livestock farmers also find difficulty to justify conversion to organic production, due to high restructuring cost and lack of premium prices to compensate for yield reduction and also reducing in the area for organic production rotational constraints.

Market trends. Organic products have premium market which make not available to the whole population due to prices constraints. The prices of organic products is increased by factor such as: small scale production, widely dispersed farm, separate packing facilities more expensive recycled packaging and pricing policies of shops. Some consumers are ready to pay more for food that has superior quality. Consumer demand for organic products is gradually increasing due to concern about the environments and health implications of industrial agriculture although there is no relation between consumer and producer but the poor financial performance of organic farming reflects the financial problems of small farmers in some cases due to lack of access to premium market helps. Such difficulties have forced out from the business the small organic farmers. It is possible that organic farmers market their products directly but it requires more labor and organization. Organic food is supplied to supermarket also provide home delivery. Seasonal production and regional markets remain an important objective in organic farming. We have to maintain National Organic Standards Board to decide the criteria of what is organic? An international movement (IFOAM) has formulated basic standards to define organic production. Food containing products of gene technology should be labeled, so consumer has an option, Bioethics influences the marketability of products derived from biotechnology. It is the consumers who decide on the prospects of biotechnological markets.

Organic food should be labeled that consumer products not derived from genetically engineered varieties. Organic product must boost-out agribusiness, chemical-biotech Corporation and giant supermarket chain. The most developed markets for organic food are Northern World. There are 300 organic trade marks on the market. Organic label is common in 15 countries. Organic trade should strengthening the local communities for better social and environmental accountability, food security, conserving natural resources, control biological and cultural diversity. Fair trade. Healthy food and fair trade organizations accept the principal of external monitoring by labeling. Organization are awarded label of approval. The Fair Trade based on equal partnership between the Southern producers, Northern importers, labeling organization, fair trade shops and consumers this organization work with the producer organization. They produce to improve the ecological sustainability of production. It also provide protection to the new comers in this field, this will be helpful to the farmer's organization to secure working capital, long term loan for investments, market information, communication, management, and technical support and assistance, but it also required guarantee that labeled products meet fair trade criteria. Fair trade can lead to environmental benefits. Fair trade need fair and real cost covering prices for farmers all over the world but its products must be up to international standards in terms of quality and quality and must be accountable to the labeling organization. International fair-trades help strengthening local economics. National fair-trades designed their own label and define the condition under which producers, trade and industry acquire the right to use the fair trade label in their commercial promotion. The fair trade

rules exist for coffee, cocoa, banana, honey, sugar but royalties are imposed to cover operating cost when one uses these fair trade label. Certification either from fair-trade or organic Agriculture Movement produce confidence and trust. This protects the consumer's rights. Fair trade must provide social fairness, ecological responsibilities as preconditions, for sustainable production. It contributes to improve the living standard of economically disadvantaged small farmers to strengthening their self-governing organization. Certifying organization has devised special criteria for quality assurance, in-co-operation with the inspection organization IMO (Institute for Market Ecology) and in accordance with IFOAM's accreditation programme. Fair trade may have problem due to lack of management skill, private interest could be more than co-operative interest, market diversification into conventional, fair trade and organic market. Organic certification is slow, laborious and costly process and is a challenge to small producers. The price premium above the market price is insufficient, while inflexibilities inherent in fair trade model eroded a substantial part of the price premium. Fair trade movement is able to seriously challenge the social dumping that involves the exploitation of cheap labor and child labor. Constraints.

The barrier in trade is: restrictive trade policies perverse subsidies and bureaucratic regulations, integrating environmental factors are used to design better export strategies. Farmer's rights and protection of traditional plant varieties. Also trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) under aegis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATI), must include farmer privilege. Small farmer have little access to information on World market prices, lack of transparency and politically inspired distortion, small farmer usually receive low prices for their produce. Farmer has insufficient information on

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improved technologies and scientific understanding of the process involved in their farming system, in efficient extension service. Under present unstable market conditions, procedure is not adopted according to the need of farmer's organization. The factor responsible for market development is government fair and the sole of major super markets. Government price policies, monopolies on market of agriculture produce, causing low agricultural income. Organic agriculture requires time and well trained extension workers. Since organic farming is a new practice it needs competent and reliable management. Major problem is lack of public awareness of organic food. Development of viable producer and consumer linkages. Poverty alleviation, sustainable development, food security, agrarian reforms and appropriate technologies better farm management is needed. Due to lack of marketing structure, organic products are sold at the market rate of conventional produce. Artificial price structure bring disadvantage to consumer as well as producer. Organic farms spent more on labor for spreading manure. Organic farmer suffers due to high labor cost and labor scarcity.

Future.

In future we have to check the economic market and policies in which organic products produce and marketed and check in the financial results which fluctuate by the resources, farm business, better management, labor availability. In future Government design better Trade regulation which are socially fair, ecologically sound and better standards for green and fair trade. Future we have to establish promotion and training programmes to foster export opportunities for organic products.

Future attention should be given to meet the guarantee system that will ensure organic quality and allow consumer to develop their preferences for organic products with feeling of trust. In future we have to develop a practical and sophisticated monitoring procedure that is applicable to different farming structures and maintain international standards. In future need proper organic standards, rules and regulation.

About the Auther
By Farzana Panhwar (Mrs) The Sindh Rural Women's Up-lift Group 157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan. farzanapanhwar@hotmail.com Fax: 9221-5830826 and 92221-862570 I am a bio-chemist working in the field of organic agriculture and effects of pollution and environment of human and animal and plant health.