You are on page 1of 12

Agricultural Policy Perspectives

Member States factsheets – February 2011

POLAND
Main figures - Year 2010
st
Population (1 January) 38 167 329 inhabitants
Area 312 679 km2
Currency PLN – zloty
Exchange rate (1 EUR = … units) 3.9947
Nominal GDP at current prices 354.7 billion EUR
GDP per capita at current prices 9 288 EUR
GDP per capita at purchasing power 15 143 PPS
Harmonised index of consumer prices 2.6 annual % change
Unemployment rate 9.5% of labour force
Exports of goods and services 141.5 billion EUR
Imports of goods and services 143.9 billion EUR
Exports of agricultural products 11.8 billion EUR
Source: Eurostat. Imports of agricultural products 9.5 billion EUR
Current account balance -9.6 billion EUR
General government balance -28.2 billion EUR
General government gross debt 207.7 billion EUR
Sources: European Commission, Eurostat, COMEXT, DG for Economic and
Financial Affairs. Updated: February 2011.

Economic forecast
Indicators 2007 2008 2009 2010f 2011f 2012f
Annual % change
GDP growth (at current prices) 6.8 5.1 1.7 3.5 3.9 4.2
GDP deflator 4.0 3.1 3.6 1.7 2.7 2.8
Harmonised index of consumer prices 2.6 4.2 4.0 2.6 2.9 3.0
Exports (goods and services) 9.1 7.1 -6.8 10.0 6.9 7.7
Imports (goods and services) 13.7 8.0 -12.4 10.2 7.5 8.2
% of total employment
Unemployment rate 9.6 7.1 8.2 9.5 9.2 8.5
As % of GDP
Trade balance -4.0 -4.9 -1.0 -1.6 -2.0 -2.5
Current account balance -5.1 -4.8 -1.9 -2.7 -3.3 -3.7
General government balance -1.9 -3.7 -7.2 -7.9 -6.6 -6.0
General government gross debt 45.0 47.1 50.9 55.5 57.2 59.6
Source: European Commission, DG for Economic and Financial Affairs, European Economic Forecast, Autumn 2010.
Updated: November 2010.

This document does not necessarily represent the official views of the European Commission http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/perspec/index_en.htm
Contact: DG Agriculture and Rural Development, Agricultural Policy Analysis and Perspectives Unit © European Union, 2011
Tel: +32-2-29 91381 / E-mail: Agri-L1@ec.europa.eu Reproduction authorised provided the source is acknowledge 1
POLAND
1. KEY DATA

Macroeconomics
Population (new European Commission methodology)
Total population (000 inhabitants), of which: 2007 38 120.6 7.7% of EU-27
in predominantly rural regions (PR) 2007 37.9% 23.7% in EU-27
in intermediate regions 2007 33.8% 35.5% in EU-27
in predominantly urban regions 2007 28.3% 40.9% in EU-27
Rural population in PR regions (000 inhabitants) 2007 14 448.3 12.3% of EU-27
GDP
In EUR (current prices):
Million EUR 2010f 354 709.2 2.9% of EU-27
GDP per capita 2010f 9 288
In PPS:
Million PPS 2010f 578 323.9
GDP per capita 2010f 15 143 62 (EU-27=100)
Real GDP growth rate (% change on previous year) 2010f 3.5%
Gross value added
Agriculture, hunting and fishing (% of total GVA) 2009 3.6% 1.6% in EU-27
Financial aspects
Agricultural expenditure
Total expenditure (million EUR), of which: 2009 4 008.6 6.7% of EU-27
Direct payments (%) 2009 39.0% 65.1% in EU-27
Market measures (%) 2009 11.8% 11.7% in EU-27
Rural development (%) 2009 49.2% 23.3% in EU-27
Economic accounts of agriculture
Agricultural output
Agricultural goods output (million EUR), of which: 2010e 17 959.4 5.6% of EU-27
Crop output (%), of which: 2010e 50.6% 5.0% of EU-27
Cereals (%) 2010e 16.7% 7.5% of EU-27
Vegetables and horticultural products (%) 2010e 11.7% 4.2% of EU-27
Animal output (%), of which: 2010e 49.4% 6.4% of EU-27
Pigs (%) 2010e 10.8% 6.5% of EU-27
Milk (%) 2010e 17.2% 6.6% of EU-27
Gross value added at basic prices (million EUR) 2010e 6 445.8 4.7% of EU-27
Agricultural input
Total intermediate consumption (million EUR) 2010e 12 119.0 5.7% of EU-27
Agricultural income
Indicator A (% change on previous year) 2010e 18.4% 12.2% in EU-27
Farm structure
Holdings
Total (No), of which: 2007 2 390 960 17.5% of EU-27
UAA < 2 ha (%) 2007 44.2% 48.4% in EU-27
ESU < 1 (%) 2007 52.8% 46.7% in EU-27
Holder < 35 years (%) 2007 12.2% 6.3% in EU-27
Holder > 64 years (%) 2007 15.8% 32.7% in EU-27
UAA per holding (has) 2007 6.5 12.6 in EU-27
Labour force (in holdings of more than 1 ESU)
Persons (No), of which: 2007 2 830 010 17.3% of EU-27
Women (%) 2007 44.9% 39.3% in EU-27
Holders (%) 2007 39.7% 43.2% in EU-27
Agriculture in % of total employment 2008 14.0% 5.6% in EU-27(2009)
Sources: European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development and Eurostat. Updated: December 2010.

2
POLAND
2. POPULATION AND ECONOMY

Main regional data (at NUTS 3 level)

Population Employment
Area GVA
Year 2007 (1 000 (1 000
(km2) (Million EUR)
inhabitants) persons) (*)
Poland 173 772.6 14 448.3 74 390.0 5 341.4

Predominantly % of total area 55.6 37.9 27.3 35.2


Rural regions % in EU-27 56.6 23.7 16.6 21.4
(PR) % in EU-15 56.0 19.2 15.7 17.3
% in EU-12 58.4 40.8 29.8 37.6
Poland 107 859.6 12 888.1 84 078.6 4 838.9
% of total area 34.5 33.8 30.9 31.9
Intermediate
% in EU-27 34.3 35.5 31.8 34.6
Regions (IR)
% in EU-15 33.9 34.6 31.4 33.7
% in EU-12 35.3 38.6 36.1 37.9
Poland 31 111.2 10 784.2 113 603.7 4 993.9

Predominantly % of total area 9.9 28.3 41.8 32.9


Urban regions % in EU-27 9.2 40.9 51.6 44.0
(PU) % in EU-15 10.1 46.2 52.9 49.0
% in EU-12 6.3 20.6 34.1 24.5
Total area Poland 312 743.5 38 120.6 272 072.3 15 174.2
Source: European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development (2010 Rural Development Report).
Note: According to a revised urban-rural typology that classifies NUTS 3 regions based on the share of population in
rural grid cells: Predominantly Rural (PR) with more than 50% of the total population living in rural grid cells;
Intermediate Regions (IR) between 20-50%; Predominantly Urban (PU) less than 20%; existence of large urban
centers is taken into account to re-classify regions (European Commission, based on current OECD methodology,
2010). See also http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Urban-rural_typology (*) EU averages
exclude AT.

Gross domestic product

GDP 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010f


In million of EUR 272 092.0 311 001.5 363 153.8 310 484.4 354 709.2
% of EU-27 2.3 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.9
Per capita (in EUR) 7 136 8 159 9 528 8 138 9 288
Per capita (EU-27=100) 30 33 38 35 38

Real GDP growth rate 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010f


% change on previous year 6.2 6.8 5.1 1.7 3.5
Source: European Commission, DG for Economic and Financial Affairs, European Economic Forecast, Autumn 2010.
Updated: November 2010.

3
POLAND
3.1. AGRICULTURE: FINANCIAL ASPECTS

CAP expenditure

2008 2009 Total 2007-2009


Measures
1 000 EUR %
Decoupled direct aids 1 244 371.9 1 553 079.3 36.6 99.7
Other direct aids 3 254.5 9 160.3 0.1 0.3
Additional amounts of aid - - - -
Direct payments 1 247 626.4 1 562 239.5 36.7 100.0
Cereals 3 345.4 3 728.6 0.0 -0.4
Rice - - - -
Refunds on non-Annex I products 6 314.8 4 039.8 0.2 2.2
Food programmes 54 528.4 100 029.0 1.9 24.3
Sugar 81 822.8 377.9 1.2 16.2
Olive oil - - - -
Textile plants 125.4 163.0 0.0 0.1
Fruit and vegetables 20 148.7 41 337.3 0.7 9.0
Wine sector - - - -
Promotion 2 242.5 2 542.1 0.1 0.8
Other plant products/measures 345.7 141.2 0.0 0.1
Milk and milk products 10 019.1 20 982.7 0.5 6.0
Beef and veal 2 681.7 3 271.7 0.1 1.2
Sheepmeat and goatmeat - - - -
Pigmeat, eggs, poultry and other 24 126.0 10 841.1 0.4 5.2
Sugar Restructuring Fund 0.0 287 484.0 2.7 35.3
Market measures 205 700.5 474 938.3 7.7 100.0
Rural development 1 932 933.4 1 971 439.8 55.6 100.0
TOTAL 3 386 260.3 4 008 617.7 100.0 -
Note: Payments for direct payments and market measures; commitment payments for rural development.
Sources: European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development (2007-2009 EAGF Financial Reports) and
Commission Decision 2006/636/EC. Updated: October 2010.

Distribution of CAP expenditure (2007-2009)


100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Poland EU-27 EU-15 EU-12

Direct payments Market measures Rural development

4
POLAND
3.2. AGRICULTURE: FINANCIAL ASPECTS

Distribution of direct aids to the producers (2009 Financial year)

Indicative figures on the distribution of direct aid by size-class of aid (in 1 000 EUR)
60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
0 - <0.5 0.5 - 1.25 - 2 - <5 5 - <10 10 - <20 20 - <50 50 - 100 - 200 - 300 - >=500
<1.25 <2 <100 <200 <300 <500

Beneficiaries Payments

Financial year 2009


Size-class of aid
Beneficiaries Payments in EUR
(all direct payments)
x 1 000 % of total x 1 000 % of total
< 0 EUR 0.37 0.03% -30 0.00%
≥ 0 and < 500 EUR 709.33 50.44% 187 525 12.00%
≥ 500 and < 1 250 EUR 423.30 30.10% 337 120 21.58%
≥ 1 250 and < 2 000 EUR 130.83 9.30% 204 461 13.09%
≥ 2 000 and < 5 000 EUR 108.78 7.74% 322 822 20.66%
≥ 5 000 and < 10 000 EUR 22.33 1.59% 151 196 9.68%
≥ 10 000 and < 20 000 EUR 6.56 0.47% 88 132 5.64%
≥ 20 000 and < 50 000 EUR 3.17 0.23% 96 994 6.21%
≥ 50 000 and < 100 000 EUR 0.98 0.07% 67 270 4.31%
≥ 100 000 and < 200 000 EUR 0.36 0.03% 49 325 3.16%
≥ 200 000 and < 300 000 EUR 0.10 0.01% 22 825 1.46%
≥ 300 000 and < 500 000 EUR 0.05 0.00% 18 145 1.16%
≥ 500 000 EUR 0.02 0.00% 16 452 1.05%
Total 1 406.18 100.00% 1 562 237 100.00%
Source: European Commission, DG Agriculture and Rural Development, Report on the distribution of direct
aids to the producers (financial year 2009), February 2011.
Note: In order to protect the anonymity of the beneficiaries, numbers less than 10 have been made invisible
in this table.

5
POLAND
4.1. AGRICULTURE: ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

Agricultural output

2008 2009 2010e


Output components
Million EUR Million EUR % of total % of EU-27
Cereals: 4 096.3 2 490.2 3 005.6 16.7 7.5
Wheat and spelt 1 511.8 967.9 1 151.3 6.4 5.7
Rye and meslin 475.7 258.4 280.5 1.6 33.8
Barley 574.5 322.6 354.0 2.0 5.2
Oats and summer cereal mixtures 646.8 348.5 609.8 3.4 43.8
Grain maize 247.3 165.4 189.0 1.1 2.1
Rice - - - - -
Other cereals 640.4 427.4 421.2 2.3 30.6
Industrial crops: 1 171.5 1 051.1 1 110.9 6.2 7.1
Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits 744.6 622.0 688.7 3.8 7.2
Protein crops 83.7 64.4 55.2 0.3 7.5
Raw tobacco 32.5 39.5 69.1 0.4 12.7
Sugar beet 258.9 290.0 267.1 1.5 9.1
Other industrial crops 51.8 35.3 30.8 0.2 1.7
Forage plants 975.3 880.9 969.0 5.4 4.2
Vegetables and horticultural products 1 765.2 1 508.8 2 098.4 11.7 4.2
Potatoes 864.0 765.8 1 135.7 6.3 11.9
Fruits 1 463.9 705.3 752.3 4.2 3.6
Wine - - - - -
Olive oil - - - - -
Other crop products 32.5 21.4 23.2 0.1 0.8
Crop output 10 368.7 7 423.4 9 095.0 50.6 5.0
Animals: 5 353.9 4 884.1 4 866.4 27.1 6.0
Cattle 1 086.5 951.1 1 049.9 5.8 3.9
Pigs 2 591.3 2 362.4 1 934.6 10.8 6.5
Equines 46.4 30.4 32.5 0.2 4.4
Sheep and goats 6.8 3.9 4.0 0.0 0.1
Poultry 1 614.7 1 526.6 1 834.7 10.2 10.9
Other animals 8.3 9.9 10.7 0.1 0.4
Animal products: 4 285.1 3 409.9 3 998.0 22.3 7.0
Milk 3 346.7 2 451.7 3 096.3 17.2 6.6
Eggs 901.5 922.5 863.2 4.8 11.1
Other animal products 36.9 35.7 38.5 0.2 1.9
Animal output 9 639.0 8 294.0 8 864.4 49.4 6.4
Agricultural goods output 20 007.7 15 717.4 17 959.4 100.0 5.6
Gross value added at basic prices 6 773.0 5 436.8 6 445.8 - 4.7
Source: Eurostat, Economic Accounts for Agriculture (values at current producer prices). Updated: December 2010.

6
POLAND
4.2. AGRICULTURE: ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

Agricultural input

2008 2009 2010e 2009/2008 2010e/2009


Input components
Million EUR % change
Seeds and planting stock 291.9 215.3 222.8 -26.2 3.5
Energy 3 130.2 2 712.5 3 183.2 -13.3 17.4
Fertilizers and soil improvers 1 491.9 953.4 896.3 -36.1 -6.0
Plant protection products 624.2 707.4 774.8 13.3 9.5
Veterinary expenses 144.4 130.8 144.3 -9.4 10.3
Feedingstuffs 5 640.4 3 899.0 4 486.4 -30.9 15.1
Maintenance of materials 904.3 782.3 861.4 -13.5 10.1
Maintenance of buildings 623.3 533.5 587.4 -14.4 10.1
Agricultural services 506.4 425.2 476.4 -16.0 12.0
Other goods and services 400.7 322.6 352.2 -19.5 9.2
Total intermediate consumption 13 899.0 10 805.1 12 119.0 -22.3 12.2
Fixed capital consumption 1 605.9 1 301.0 1 483.8 -19.0 14.1
Source: Eurostat, Economic Accounts for Agriculture (values at current basic prices). Updated: December 2010.

Agricultural income

2008 2009 2010e 2009/2008 2010e/2009


Values at basic prices
Million EUR % change
Output of the agricultural "industry": 21 842.3 17 465.9 19 946.3 -20.0 14.2
Crop output 11 539.0 8 643.8 10 440.9 -25.1 20.8
Animal output: 9 639.0 8 297.6 8 900.1 -13.9 7.3
Animals 5 353.9 4 884.1 4 877.3 -8.8 -0.1
Animal products 4 285.1 3 413.5 4 022.8 -20.3 17.9
Agricultural services 506.4 425.2 476.4 -16.0 12.0
Secondary activities 157.9 99.4 128.9 -37.1 29.7
- Intermediate consumption 13 899.0 10 805.1 12 119.0 -22.3 12.2
= Gross value added at basic prices 7 943.3 6 660.8 7 827.3 -16.1 17.5
- Consumption of fixed capital 1 605.9 1 301.0 1 483.8 -19.0 14.1
- Taxes 432.8 336.2 387.9 -22.3 15.4
+ Subsidies 1 833.7 2 558.2 3 041.2 39.5 18.9
= Factor income 7 738.3 7 581.8 8 996.7 -2.0 18.7

Agricultural income (Indicator A) (2005 = 100) 108.9 129.7 153.6 19.1 18.4
Source: Eurostat, Economic Accounts for Agriculture (values at current basic prices; constant prices for Indicator A - see definition on page
9). Updated: December 2010.

7
POLAND
4.3. AGRICULTURE: ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

Output components (2006e-2010e average)

Cereals
Eggs
13.9% Industrial crops
Milk 4.4%
7.3%
18.1% Forage plants
5.9%

Vegetables and
Poultry horticultural
9.4% products
8.0%

Equines Potatoes
0.3% Cattle Fruits 4.3%
Pigs 6.3% 5.1%
16.8%
Other crop products
0.1%

Source: Eurostat, Economic Accounts for Agriculture (values at constant producer prices). Updated: December 2010.

Intermediate consumption (2006e-2010e average)

Other goods and Seeds and planting


Agricultural services services stock
3.9% 3.1% 1.9% Energy
Maintenance of 27.2%
buildings
5.1% Fertilizers and soil
improvers
Maintenance of 8.3%
materials
8.0%
Plant protection
Feedingstuffs Veterinary expenses products
36.0% 1.3% 5.3%

Source: Eurostat, Economic Accounts for Agriculture (values at constant basic prices). Updated: December 2010.

8
POLAND
4.4. AGRICULTURE: ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

Evolution of agricultural labour input


2 700
2 400
2 100
1 800
1 500
1 200
900
600
300
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e

Non-salaried (1000 AWU) Salaried (1000 AWU)

Source: Eurostat. Updated: December 2010.

Evolution of agricultural income (*) compared to wages and salaries


in other sectors of the economy
170

150

130

110

90

70

50
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e

Agricultural income (Indicator A) Wages and salary index - Industry


Wages and salary index - Construction Wages and salary index - Services

Note: No data for Poland wages and salary indexes.


Source: Eurostat. Updated: December 2010.

(*) The so-called indicator A is the real net value added at factor cost of agriculture per annual work unit (AWU). The net value added
at factor cost (factor income) is calculated by subtracting the consumption of fixed capital from gross value added at basic prices and
adding the value of subsidies less taxes. The AWU is defined as the work volume corresponding to one full-time employed worked.

9
POLAND
4.5. AGRICULTURE: ECONOMIC ACCOUNTS

Evolution of agricultural input and output prices


130

120

110

100

90
2000e 2001e 2002e 2003e 2004e 2005e 2006e 2007e 2008e 2009e 2010e

Input prices (intermediate consumption) Output prices

Source: Eurostat. Updated: December 2010.

Evolution of harmonized indexes of consumer prices


120

110

100

90

80
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

All items Food

Source: Eurostat. Updated: December 2010.

10
POLAND
5.1. FARM STRUCTURE

Structure of agricultural holdings (*)

2003 2007
Holdings
Total % Total %
< 2 ha 959 210 44.2 1 057 050 44.2
2-5 ha 485 610 22.4 580 230 24.3
5-10 ha 372 490 17.1 389 400 16.3
10-20 ha 246 710 11.4 239 270 10.0
By UAA
20-30 ha 60 510 2.8 64 400 2.7
30-50 ha 29 810 1.4 36 970 1.5
50-100 ha 11 330 0.5 15 790 0.7
> 100 ha 6 550 0.3 7 850 0.3
<1 1 115 900 51.4 1 262 820 52.8
1-2 313 900 14.5 361 420 15.1
2-4 284 860 13.1 299 820 12.5
4-8 239 260 11.0 221 560 9.3
By ESU 8-16 145 880 6.7 146 320 6.1
16-40 59 970 2.8 80 310 3.4
40-100 9 090 0.4 14 560 0.6
100-250 2 270 0.1 2 900 0.1
> 250 1 090 0.1 1 260 0.1
0 733 000 33.7 862 970 36.1
0-5 978 520 45.0 1 112 720 46.5
5-10 217 330 10.0 179 010 7.5
10-15 94 790 4.4 76 810 3.2
By LSU 15-20 51 440 2.4 46 020 1.9
20-50 78 390 3.6 88 780 3.7
50-100 11 420 0.5 16 600 0.7
100-500 6 000 0.3 7 050 0.3
> 500 1 320 0.1 990 0.04
< 35 years : 291 640 12.2
35-44 years : 516 690 21.6
By age of
45-54 years : 743 860 31.1
holder
55-64 years : 460 280 19.3
> 64 years : 378 480 15.8
Total 2 172 210 100.0 2 390 960 100.0
UAA in 1 000 ha 14 426 15 477
UAA per holding 6.6 6.5
Source: Eurostat, Farm Structure Survey. Updated: June 2009.

(*) UAA = Utilized agricultural area.


ESU = European size unit. For each activity on a farm, a standard gross margin (SGM) is estimated, based on the area (or the
number of heads) and a regional coefficient. The sum of all margins, for all activities of a given farm, is its economic size, expressed
in ESU (1 ESU = 1 200 Euro of SGM).
LSU = Livestock units. A LSU is equivalent to a dairy cow. The number of animals (heads) is converted into LSU using a set of
coefficients reflecting the feed requirements of the different animal categories.

11
POLAND
5.2. FARM STRUCTURE

Structure of farm labour force (*)

Holdings of less than 1 ESU - 2007


Family labour force Non family labour force
persons: 2 209 620
of which, % women: 48.4
AWUs: 516 940 AWUs: 7 770
Regular non
Spouses of the Other family Non regular
Holders family labour
holders members labour force
force
persons: persons: persons: persons:
1 262 470 545 190 401 960 2 280
of which, % of which, % of which, % of which, %
women: women: women: women:
41.6 65.6 46.2 21.5
AWUs: AWUs: AWUs: AWUs: AWUs:
300 770 134 950 81 220 1 550 6 220

Holdings of more than 1 ESU - 2007


Family labour force Non family labour force
persons: 2 770 120
of which, % women: 45.3
AWUs: 1 622 670 AWUs: 115 770
Regular non
Spouses of the Other family Non regular
Holders family labour
holders members labour force
force
persons: persons: persons: persons:
1 124 780 744 590 900 750 59 890
of which, % of which, % of which, % of which, %
women: women: women: women:
23.2 80.2 44.1 25.9
AWUs: AWUs: AWUs: AWUs: AWUs:
798 640 469 310 354 720 52 580 63 190

Total farm labour force (persons) 5 041 910


Total farm labour force (AWUs) 2 263 150
Source: Eurostat, Farm Structure Survey. Updated: June 2009.

(*) AWUs = Annual work units. An AWU is equivalent to a worker employed on a full time basis for one year.

12