FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS

WHAT IS FAULT LEVEL?
FAULT LEVEL AT ANY GIVEN POINT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY NETWORK IS THE MAXIMUM CURRENT THAT WOULD FLOW IN CASE OF A SHORT CIRCUIT FAULT AT THAT POINT.

PURPOSE OF FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS

FOR SELECTING SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES OF ADEQUATE SHORT CIRCUIT BREAKING CAPACITY. FOR SELECTING CIRCUIT BREAKERS & SWITCHES OF ADEQUATE SHORT CIRCUIT MAKING CAPACITY. FOR SELECTING BUSBARS, BUSBAR SUPPORTS, CABLE & SWITCHGEAR, DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND THERMAL & MECHANICAL STRESSES BECAUSE OF SHORT CIRCUIT. TO DO CURRENT BASED BETWEEN CIRCUIT BREAKERS. DISCRIMINATION

TYPES OF SHORT CIRCUITS

  

L–E L–L L–L–E L–L–L

(SINGLE LINE TO EARTH) (LINE TO LINE) (LINE TO LINE TO EARTH) (THREE PHASE)

SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS  IN-HOUSE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS & SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSERS ASYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTORS ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEM THROUGH THE TRANSFORMER    .

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT SOURCE : UTILITY SYSTEM THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WILL CONSIST OF FOLLOWING COMPONENTS :  THE AC COMPONENT WITH CONSTANT AMPLITUDE THE DECAYING DC COMPONENT  .

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT SOURCE : SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS & MOTORS / INDUCTION MOTORS THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WILL CONSIST OF FOLLOWING COMPONENTS :  THE AC COMPONENT WITH DECAYING AMPLITUDE THE DECAYING DC COMPONENT  .

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WAVEFORM CURRENT TOP ENVELOPE DECAYING DC COMPONENT TIME BOTTOM ENVELOPE .

V. SYSTEM GETTING POWER FROM UTILITY THROUGH TRANSFORMERS) : I K = IK .g. L.NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT SYMBOLS USED IK = INITIAL SYMMETRICAL RMS S/C CURRENT IK = STEADY STATE RMS S/C CURRENT iP = PEAK S/C CURRENT A = INITIAL VALUE OF DECAYING DC COMPONENT Note: FOR S/C FAR FROM GENERATOR (e.

CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS WHY ?  SIMPLIFIES CALCULATION  ACCURACY IS NOT MUCH AFFECTED  CALCULATED VALUES WILL BE HIGHER THAN ACTUAL & HENCE SAFE .

T. /JOINTS ARE NEGLECTED FAULT CURRENT FROM THE TRANSFORMER WOULD BE LIMITED BY THE SOURCE FAULT LEVEL TRANSFORMER TAP IS IN THE MAIN POSITION SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WAVEFORM IS A PURE SINE WAVE DISCHARGE CURRENT OF CAPACITORS ARE NEGLECTED .CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS WHAT ?       TYPE OF SHORT CIRCUIT : THREE PHASE BOLTED SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCES OF BUSBAR/SWITCHGEAR/C.

CALCULATION METHODS * DIRECT METHOD PER UNIT METHOD * .

ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT METHOD # # # # USES SYSTEM SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM DIRECTLY USES SYSTEM & EQUIPMENT DATA DIRECTLY USES BASIC ELECTRICAL EQUATIONS DIRECTLY EASIER TO COMPREHEND .

STANDARD THE FAULT LEVEL CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN THIS PRESENTATION IS AS GIVEN IN IS 13234 – 1992 (Indian Standard Guide for Calculating Short Circuit Currents in AC Electrical Networks up to 220kV) .

clearly indicating all the significant network elements. etc. short circuit protective devices. fault current contributors.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 1: Prepare a single line diagram of the electrical power supply and distribution network. .

Generator rated kVA.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 2: Get the following data: i) Transformer rated kVA. %R & %X values. rated secondary voltage of the transformer (UrT). rated voltage (UrG). rated sub-transient reactance (%x”d) & rated Power factor (Cos φrG). ii) .

.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 2: Get the following data: iii) Cable Resistance (RC) & Cable Reactance (XC) per unit length and the actual length of the cable used. iv) Motors’ rated voltages (UrM). rated currents (IrM) and locked rotor currents (ILR).

10 x (%R) x (kV)2 RT (in Ω) = -----------------------kVA . to obtain RT.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 3: Convert %R into Ohmic values.

10 x (%X) x (kV)2 XT (in Ω) = -----------------------kVA .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 4: Similarly. to obtain XT. convert %X into Ohmic values.

convert %x”d of the generator into Ohmic values. to obtain X G. 10 x (%x”d ) x (kV)2 XG (in Ω) = -----------------------kVA .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 5: Similarly.

the resistance of the generator. ‘RG’ is normally given as a % of ‘XG’. For LV Generators. it is: RG (in Ω) = 0.15 XG .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 6: Now.

Un c -----.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 7: Calculate a correction factor ‘KG’.-------------------------UrG 1 + [(x”d ) (Sin φrG)] KG = where. .

in Volts Generator Rated Voltage. in p. in Volts Voltage Correction Factor = 1. form √(1 – Cos2φrG) Rated Power Factor of the Generator .u.05 Sub-transient Reactance of the Generator.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH KG = Un = URG = c = = x ”d Sin φrG = CosφrG = Generator Correction Factor Nominal System Voltage.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 8: Now find out the Corrected Generator Resistance (RGK) & the Corrected Generator Reactance (XGK): RGK XGK = KG x RG = KG x XG .

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 9: Now find out the cable resistance & reactance for the actual length of cable used up to the point of fault: RL XL = = RC x LC X C x LC .

in Ω Actual length of cable up to the point of fault. in Ω Cable Reactance per km. in Ω Line or Lead Reactance. in Ω Cable Resistance per km. RL XL RC XC LC = = = = = Line or Lead Resistance.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH where. in m .

find out ‘Zk’. Zk Re Xe = = = √[(Re)2 + (Xe)2] RT or RGK + RL XT or XGK + XL .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 10: Now add all ‘R’ & all ‘X’ values.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 11: Now find out the initial symmetrical short circuit current. I”k: c Un ------√3 Zk I ”k = .

in Ω .05 for LV (for HV it is 1.10) = Equivalent Impedance up to the point of fault.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH where. in volts = Voltage Correction factor = 1. I ”k Un c Zk = Initial Symmetrical short circuit current. in Amperes = Nominal System Voltage.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 12: Determine the ‘X’/’R’ ratio up to the point of fault.98 e-3R/X) . Step 13: Calculate the Asymmetry Factor ‘’ (pronounced as ‘KHI’).  = (1.02 + 0.

calculate the peak current.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 14: Now. . ‘ip’ =  √2 I”k Step 15: Calculate the aggregate of the rated full load currents of all the motors at a particular location (ΣIrM).

. Or else. the motors’ contribution to short circuit has to be calculated.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 16: If (ΣIrM) at a particular location is less than 1% of the short circuit current contributed by other sources for a fault at that particular location. then contribution to the short circuit. need not be considered. from the motors in that particular group.

S. from the group of motors will be: I”kM = c 6 ΣIrM. the R. involving a cable I”kM = . if the S/C is away from the motor terminals.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 17: Assuming that the motors’ contribution has to be considered. if the S/C is at the motor terminals c 5 ΣIrM. Current contribution to the short circuit.M.

3 for an R/X ratio of 0. the peak current contribution from the motor group would be: ipM = M √2 I”kM where.42. M = 1.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 18: And. as in the case of LV Induction motors .

calculate the total fault level.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH Step 19: Now. (I”KT) and the Peak (ipT) at the fault location: I”KT and ipT = ip + ipM = I”K + I”KM . both R.S.M.

using the same formula: [ZT = {(10 x %Z x kV2)/(kVA)}]. convert this ‘%Z’. Now. one can get to know the transformer’s ‘%Z’ from the name plate.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’. . into ZT in Ω. What if the transformer’s ‘%R’ & ‘%X’ values are not known? Need not worry! However.

The resistance of the transformer in Ω (RT). can be got from one of the following ways: i) From the manufacturer’s test certificate By actual measurements. using either a low resistance measuring meter or a Kelvin’s Double Bridge ii) .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

iii) Or from the formula: RT = [(PkrT)/(3I2rT)]. PkrT = Transformer Full Load Copper Loss. where. in amperes .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’. in Watts IrT = Rated full load secondary current of the transformer.

. XT can be easily calculated by: XT = √[(ZT)2 – (RT)2]. Once you know ZT & RT.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

They can be taken as a guide for the calculations. . What if I don’t have any of the above data regarding RT? Transformer manufacturers give guidance values of the no-load loss. the full load loss & % impedance for a wide range of transformers in their catalogues.FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

75 4. For example.75 4. the following data is got from a leading transformer manufacturer kVA 160 200 250 315 400 500 NLL (W) 450 540 630 725 850 1040 FLL (W) 3000 3200 3800 4400 5500 6500 %Z 4.75 5 5 5 .FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.25 6. kVA 630 800 1000 1250 1600 NLL (W) 1200 1450 1800 1900 2300 FLL (W) 8000 9500 11500 13500 17000 %Z 5 5 5 6.25 .

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS .A CASE STUDY .

STEP 1 : SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM PCC TRANSFORMER 1600kVA 11  21  22  G 12  STANDBY GENERATOR 1250kVA )  )   ) 23  )   ) F1 13 F2 )  24   ) 350 A 300 A 300 A MCC 31 BUSBAR )    U/G CABLE )     CB SDF STARTER F3 M1 M2 M3 M4 50HP 100HP 30HP 150HP .

94 %X = 5.46 %Z = 5.8 Un = 415V STANDBY GENERATOR : .STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA TRANSFORMER : 11/0.433kV 1600kVA %R = 0.54 UrG = 415V 1250kVA %x d = 20 Cos rG = 0.

IrM = 135A M3.062 /kM X = 0. IrM = 200A (UrM = 415V. 21 TO 31= 100M INDUCTION MOTORS : M1. IrM = 70A M2.STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA CABLE : R = 0. IrM = 40A M4.079 /kM LENGTH OF CABLE. ILR = 6 IrM) .

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