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FAULT LEVEL AT ANY GIVEN

POINT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER

SUPPLY NETWORK IS THE

MAXIMUM CURRENT THAT

WOULD FLOW IN CASE OF A

SHORT CIRCUIT FAULT AT THAT

POINT.

PURPOSE OF FAULT LEVEL

CALCULATIONS

FOR SELECTING SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE

DEVICES OF ADEQUATE SHORT CIRCUIT

BREAKING CAPACITY.

OF ADEQUATE SHORT CIRCUIT MAKING CAPACITY.

CABLE & SWITCHGEAR, DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND

THERMAL & MECHANICAL STRESSES BECAUSE OF

SHORT CIRCUIT.

BETWEEN CIRCUIT BREAKERS.

TYPES OF SHORT CIRCUITS

L–L (LINE TO LINE)

L–L–E (LINE TO LINE TO EARTH)

L–L–L (THREE PHASE)

SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENTS

IN-HOUSE SYNCHRONOUS

GENERATORS

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSERS

THE TRANSFORMER

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENT

SOURCE : UTILITY SYSTEM

CONSIST OF FOLLOWING

COMPONENTS :

AMPLITUDE

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENT

SOURCE : SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS &

MOTORS / INDUCTION MOTORS

THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WILL

CONSIST OF FOLLOWING COMPONENTS :

AMPLITUDE

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

WAVEFORM

CURRENT

TOP ENVELOPE

DECAYING DC COMPONENT

TIME

BOTTOM ENVELOPE

NATURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENT

SYMBOLS USED

SYSTEM GETTING POWER FROM UTILITY THROUGH

TRANSFORMERS) : I K = IK

CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS

WHY ?

SIMPLIFIESCALCULATION

ACCURACY IS NOT MUCH

AFFECTED

CALCULATED VALUES WILL BE

HIGHER THAN ACTUAL & HENCE

SAFE

CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS

WHAT ?

BOLTED SHORT CIRCUIT

IMPEDANCES OF BUSBAR/SWITCHGEAR/C.T.

/JOINTS ARE NEGLECTED

FAULT CURRENT FROM THE TRANSFORMER

WOULD BE LIMITED BY THE SOURCE FAULT

LEVEL

TRANSFORMER TAP IS IN THE MAIN POSITION

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT WAVEFORM IS A

PURE SINE WAVE

DISCHARGE CURRENT OF CAPACITORS ARE

NEGLECTED

CALCULATION METHODS

* DIRECT METHOD

ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT METHOD

# USES SYSTEM SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

DIRECTLY

# USES SYSTEM & EQUIPMENT DATA

DIRECTLY

# USES BASIC ELECTRICAL EQUATIONS

DIRECTLY

# EASIER TO COMPREHEND

STANDARD

PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN THIS

PRESENTATION IS AS GIVEN IN

IS 13234 – 1992 (Indian Standard Guide

for Calculating Short Circuit Currents in

AC Electrical Networks up to 220kV)

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

the electrical power supply and

distribution network, clearly indicating

all the significant network elements,

fault current contributors, short circuit

protective devices, etc.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 2: Get the following data:

voltage of the transformer (UrT), %R & %X

values.

rated sub-transient reactance (%x”d) &

rated Power factor (Cos φrG).

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 2: Get the following data:

(XC) per unit length and the actual length of

the cable used.

(IrM) and locked rotor currents (ILR).

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

to obtain RT.

10 x (%R) x (kV)2

RT (in Ω) = ------------------------

kVA

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Ohmic values, to obtain XT.

10 x (%X) x (kV)2

XT (in Ω) = ------------------------

kVA

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

generator into Ohmic values, to obtain

X G.

10 x (%x”d ) x (kV)2

XG (in Ω) = ------------------------

kVA

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

generator, ‘RG’ is normally given as a

% of ‘XG’. For LV Generators, it is:

RG (in Ω) = 0.15 XG

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Un c

KG = ------ --------------------------

UrG 1 + [(x”d ) (Sin φrG)]

where,

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

KG = Generator Correction Factor

Un = Nominal System Voltage, in Volts

URG = Generator Rated Voltage, in Volts

c = Voltage Correction Factor = 1.05

x ”d = Sub-transient Reactance of the

Generator, in p.u. form

Sin φrG = √(1 – Cos2φrG)

CosφrG = Rated Power Factor of the Generator

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Generator Resistance (RGK) & the

Corrected Generator Reactance (XGK):

RGK = KG x RG

XGK = KG x XG

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 9: Now find out the cable resistance

& reactance for the actual length of cable

used up to the point of fault:

RL = RC x LC

XL = X C x LC

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

where,

XL = Line or Lead Reactance, in Ω

RC = Cable Resistance per km, in Ω

XC = Cable Reactance per km, in Ω

LC = Actual length of cable up to the

point of fault, in m

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 10: Now add all ‘R’ & all ‘X’ values;

find out ‘Zk’.

Zk = √[(Re)2 + (Xe)2]

Re = RT or RGK + RL

Xe = XT or XGK + XL

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 11: Now find out the initial

symmetrical short circuit current, I”k:

c Un

I ”k = -------

√3 Zk

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

where,

current, in Amperes

Un = Nominal System Voltage, in volts

c = Voltage Correction factor = 1.05

for LV (for HV it is 1.10)

Zk = Equivalent Impedance up to the

point of fault, in Ω

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 12: Determine the ‘X’/’R’ ratio up to

the point of fault.

‘’ (pronounced as ‘KHI’).

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 14: Now, calculate the peak current,

‘ip’ = √2 I”k

rated full load currents of all the motors at

a particular location (ΣIrM).

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 16: If (ΣIrM) at a particular location is

less than 1% of the short circuit current

contributed by other sources for a fault at

that particular location, then contribution to

the short circuit, from the motors in that

particular group, need not be considered.

Or else, the motors’ contribution to short

circuit has to be calculated.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 17: Assuming that the motors’ contribution

has to be considered, the R.M.S. Current

contribution to the short circuit, from the group

of motors will be:

motor terminals

the motor terminals, involving a

cable

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 18: And, the peak current contribution

from the motor group would be:

ipM = M √2 I”kM

where,

M = 1.3 for an R/X ratio of 0.42, as in the

case of LV Induction motors

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A STEP BY STEP APPROACH

Step 19: Now, calculate the total fault level,

both R.M.S. (I”KT) and the Peak (ipT) at the fault

location:

and

ipT = ip + ipM

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

are not known?

know the transformer’s ‘%Z’ from the name

plate. Now, convert this ‘%Z’, into ZT in Ω,

using the same formula:

[ZT = {(10 x %Z x kV2)/(kVA)}].

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

The resistance of the transformer in Ω (RT),

can be got from one of the following ways:

resistance measuring meter or a Kelvin’s

Double Bridge

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

iii) Or from the formula:

RT = [(PkrT)/(3I2rT)], where,

in Watts

IrT = Rated full load secondary current

of the transformer, in amperes

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

Once you know ZT & RT, XT can be easily

calculated by:

XT = √[(ZT)2 – (RT)2].

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

What if I don’t have any of the above data

regarding RT?

values

of the no-load loss, the full load loss & %

impedance for a wide range of transformers in

their catalogues. They can be taken as a guide

for the calculations.

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

For example, the following data is got from a

leading transformer manufacturer

160 450 3000 4.75

200 540 3200 4.75

250 630 3800 4.75

315 725 4400 5

400 850 5500 5

500 1040 6500 5

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS – DIRECT

METHOD – A FEW ‘IFS’ AND ‘BUTS’.

630 1200 8000 5

800 1450 9500 5

1000 1800 11500 5

1250 1900 13500 6.25

1600 2300 17000 6.25

FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS

- A CASE STUDY

STEP 1 : SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

TRANSFORMER STANDBY GENERATOR

1600kVA G

1250kVA

PCC

11 ) 12 )

)

13

21 ) 22 ) F1 F2 23 ) 24 )

MCC BUSBAR

31 )

U/G CABLE

) CB

F3

SDF

M1 M2 M3 M4 STARTER

50HP 100HP 30HP 150HP

STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA

TRANSFORMER : 11/0.433kV

1600kVA

%R = 0.94

%X = 5.46

%Z = 5.54

1250kVA

%x d = 20

Cos rG = 0.8

Un = 415V

STEP 2 : SYSTEM DATA

X = 0.079 /kM

LENGTH OF CABLE, 21 TO 31= 100M

M2, IrM = 135A

M3, IrM = 40A

M4, IrM = 200A

(UrM = 415V; ILR = 6 IrM)

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