Lecture # 7

Morphology Of Permanent Molars
In this lecture we will talk about permanent 1st molar , . but at first we will talk about molars in general

:slide #2
Class traitsmolars have 3 or more cusps but sometimes there is a (1 possibility to have a premolar with 3 cusps , so how can we ? distinguish between the two by counting the # of cusps buccally; premolars have.only one cusp buccally , but molars have at least two lingually, molars have one or two cusps , but the most (2 .common to have two .molars in general have 2 or 3 roots (3

:Slide #3
:(Arch traits ( to distinguish between upper & lower molars:Roots (1 Upper molars have 3 roots; 2B and 1L but lower molars have 2 .roots; 1M & 1D : Crown (2 In upper molars the crown is wider BL than MD (BL = (11.0mm , MD=10.0mm .(Lower molars the MD>BL (BL=10.0mm , MD=11.0mm :Cusps (3 In upper molars there're 4 unequal cusps but lower molars have .4 equal sized cusps


:When we look to the occlusal surface of upper molar we find Three major cusps belong to 1 unit (ML, MB &DB) which are * .(arranged in a tricuspid-triangular pattern (Trigon DL cusp which doesn't belong to the Trigon & this cusp is* .small in size and sometimes missing especially in 3rd molar U should know that the 4 equal sized cusps in lower molar belong to 1 unit In upper molars there's an oblique ridge which comes from (4 .ML to DB cusps , but in lower molars there's no oblique ridge Great Apes like Gorilla and Chimpanzee have the oblique ridges but monkeys don't have it , they've transverse ridges & their lower molars look like upper .molars 5) In upper molars the cusps are unequal in size (MB>DB) (ML > DL) -Remember in lower molars cusps are equal in size.

Slide #5:

Type trait ( to distinguish between 1st , 2nd & 3rd molars):

3rd molar

2nd molar

1st molar

1) When we go posteriorly the DL cusp reduces in size and may be missing in 3rd molar "as we mentioned previously" 2) 1st molar is the largest & shows the least morphological variation .

3) Cusp of carabelli which present on the ML cusp of the 1st molar .

Remember that 80% of molars have cusp of carabelli that means U may find a 1st molar without this cusp, sooooo if U get a molar without cusp of carabelli that doesn't mean this molar isn't the 1st molar .

Sometimes we've a cusp of carabelli in the max. 2nd molar in a very very low % , but of course we don't have in the 3rd molar .

4) Roots : As we go posteriorly the roots become distally inclined & much closer to each other and there's possibility to fuse in 3rd molar . 5) Line angles ( this point isn't mentioned in the slides ) As we go posteriorly the acute angles become more acute & the obtuse angles become more obtuse & the tooth become more rhomboidal .

Slide # 6:
Now we will talk about max. permanent 1st molar

Buccal aspect :
- MB & DB cusps are equal in height but the MB cusp is wider mesio-distally & the 2 cusps are separated by B groove that terminates halfway. - Slopes of DB are steeper than MB - The apex of DB cusp is sharper than MB - tip of ML cusp can be seen between the 2 B cusps bcz

the ML cusp is big.

Slide #7: -M profile is highly convex in occlusal 2/3s & flat or concave in
the cervical 1/3. On the other side D profile is entirely convex. -M HOC is 3/4 the distance from cervical line to marginal ridge, & the D HOC is 3/5 the distance from CL to MR …......... so M HOC is higher than D HOC ( higher : closer to O surface).
In all teeth the M HOC is higher than D HOC except the mand. 1st premolar in which the M &D HOCs are nearly in the same

level . -CL has 2 slightly curved segments separated by apical peak.

Slide #8:
Buccal surface : - When we look to the buccal surface we can see part of D surface bcz the angle between B &D surfaces is obtuse < on the other hand we can't see any part of the M surface bcz the angle between B & M surfaces is acute . - Cervical 1/3 is convex . - Occlusal 2/3s are flat . Roots (buccal surface) - 3 roots are visible - B bifurcation is at junction between cervical & middle 1/3s. - The area before bifurcation is called " Root Trunk " where we find a shallow vertical groove in the middle of it . - MB & DB roots are narrow and get closer to each other in the apical 1/3 .

- If we draw a line from the MB root apex it will pass through the MB cusp tip and this is a type trait bcz when we go posteriorly this line will pass distally to the MB cusp tip why ???? bcz the root inclines distally. - The longest L root is visible between the B roots .

Slide # 9 :

Lingual aspect :
-2 cusps are unequal in size : ML ( bigger ) DL ( smaller ) . - ML cusp makes 3/5s of MD width of the crown and this cusp is prominent & blunt . - DL cusp is rounded , shorter & narrower .
Remember that DL cusp in 1st molar is larger than 2nd &3rd molars .

- The 2 cusps are separated by L groove which terminate at the midway of L surface.

Slide # 10:
From the lingual aspect the M profile is convex except in the cervical 1/3 , and the D profile is entirely convex - L surface : • Evenly convex OC . • L groove divides L surface into M &D segments • Cusp of carabelli is on the M segment ( some races don't have this cusp ). - Roots : • 3 roots are visible . • Proximal outline of B roots are visible .

• About the L root @ Tapered with blunt apex . @ Has shallow vertical depression from CL to 2/3s @ If U draw a line from the L root apex it should pass through the mid portion of the crown .

Slide # 11 : Measial aspect :
- Maximum MD dimension at the cervix of the crown. - ML cusp is higher than MB. - B cervical 1/3 is strongly convex . - B outline continues lingually in a straight line . - L outline is uniformly convex . - L HOC is at the mid point , B HOC is very close to the cervical 1/3. - CL is slightly convex occlusaly.

Slide # 12 :
Mesial surface : - Mesial marginal ridge is marked by several tubercles & supplementary grooves ( type trait ) - Cervical 1/3 is flat or concave . - Occlusal 2/3s are convex . - Contact point is between middle & occlusal 1/3s Roots (Measial aspect): - 2 roots : MB & L. - MB is broad bucco-lingually . - L root is narrow & banana – shaped , curves L then B at the apex.


Both MB & L roots project beyond the crown profile ( outside the crown's limits ) and it's a type trait bcz in the 2nd & 3rd molars the roots become closer to each other .

Slide # 13 : Distal aspect :
- DB cusp is more prominent than DL . - Only small portions of M cusps are visible from distal aspect and it's a type trait bcz in 2nd & 3rd molars greater amounts of M cusps can be seen as the DMR becomes lower when we go posteriorly . - DMR is shorter than MMR that's why we can see part of the O surface from the D aspect while we can't see it from M aspect . - DMR rarely has tubercles . - B & L profiles are similar to those of M aspect . - CL is nearly straight .

Slide # 14 :
Distal surface : uniformly convex. Roots ( distal aspect ) • 3 roots are visible ( palatal , DB , MB ). •DB root is shorter & narrower than MB soooo we can see part of MB root .

Slide # 15: Occlusal aspect ( most important)


Square or rhomboidal shape but in lower molars is square or rectangular . MB & DL are acute angles . ML & DB are obtuse angles . 1/3 of B surface & 1/2 of L are visible . - In the B outline : D part is more lingually & the M part is more buccally sooo the maximum distance buccolingually should be in the mesial half .

Slide #16 :
Oblique ridge D ridge of MB cusp M ridge of DB cusp Transverse ridge joins the tips of MB & ML cusps . Oblique ridge joins the tips of ML & DB cusps Transverse ridge
Make a triangle ( trigon)


• • -

Trigon consists of 3 cusps : MB ,.ML ,.DB . DL isn't included in trigon .

Talon • Bears DL cusp & DMR . • Located disto-lingually to the trigon . st • Well-developed in 1 molar & reduces in size in 2nd & 3rd molars .

Slide # 17 & 18 : - Cusps in order of decreasing size:


M MR is longer & more prominent than D MR.


Major fossae : 1) Central fossa : - Located between the transverse & oblique ridges - The maximum pit of the central fossa is the central pit . 2) Distal fossa : located distal to the oblique ridge ( don't confuse between this fossa & the D triangular Fossa ).


Minor fossae : 1) M triangular fossa - Located between MMR & transverse ridge . - It contains M pit , MB & ML supplementary grooves 2) D triangular fossa : located next to the D MR .
Each cusp has 2 ridges 1 M & 1 D except the ML cusp .

The ML cusp has an M cusp ridge goes mesially but the D cusp ridge isn't going distally it goes disto-buccaly to make the oblique ridge . • ( This point may be an exam question ) The oblique ridge is composed by 2 things : 1) the triangular cusp ridge of DB cusp 2) the D cusp ridge of ML cusp
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Slide # 19:
§ - MD section • • • • - BL section • • - X-section • Pulp 2 horns, MB is higher Pulp chamber, roof & floor Canals, narrow Canal orifice Pulp chamber is wider 2 horns of equal height 3 canals

* This point isn't mentioned in the slides : 60% of population have 4 canals in this tooth that means one root contain 2 canals which is the ML root .

DONE by : Ghadeer Swaqed & Areej Al-lama'

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