INDEX

adolescence and body-correction, 119–32 advertisement for poor, by Robert Stevens, 168 ailments, related to sitting and eyestrain, 90 American colonies, overseas market, 93 anatomy, science of, 120 Andry, Nicholas, 120 on stays for posture, 126 on swaddling clothes, 112 on tightness of children’s stays, 122 Angier, Sarah, staymaker, Houndsditch, 76, 79 Rag Fair, East End of London, 92 apprentice staymakers, 83 mainly boys, 23 armour-like fronts of stays, whalebone, 185 artisans in clothing trade role in taste formation, 5 baleen (baleine) business, 12, 60 basting and ruling of cloth, 56–7 Baudouin, La Toilette, 200 Baylis, Thomas, bodice-maker, 163 bespoke stays, 145–6 inventory of goods, 25, 77 probate inventory, 1720, 91 success of, 94 bespoke and ready-made markets 143–5, 158, 160–2 Billers, Sir William Lord Mayor of the City of London, 59 billheads aim to attract rich, 143–4 for doctors, on stays for the lame, 124–5 James Lane, 124 William Brown, 1734, Southwark, 19

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bodicemakers Edward Calfe, St Giles, Cripplegate, 18, 67 Thomas Wilcocks, St Giles in the Fields, 67 bodices, worn by poorer women, 25 bodily form changes and health, 3, 4 Body Beautiful, 6 body correction instruments, 19, 125, 131 Holmes & Laurie, 128–9 body culture in eighteenth century, 45 body imperfection, view of, presumed need for stays, 138 body self-image, perceptions of, 191–5 body shape creation by stays, 4, 6, 97–8, 195 body-shaping for fashion, 157 Bone and Leather Stay Warehouse, 163–4 ‘The Bone Shop’, London, baleen business, 8 Bone shop, Billers and Poston, 59 boning of stays, 57 Bonnet, Le Tailleur (1750), 200 The Book of Trades 15, 24, 213 Ladies Dressmaker, 183 breast-feeding of infants, problems from stays, 107, 108 breasts area roundness, 206 cancer risk from constrictive stays, 108 enhancement by stays, 210 fullness exposure, 38 breeching of boys, 117 bridges of London, for transport, 65 Brown, William, Staymaker, 19 business partnerships of staymakers, 79 business women, appropriate conduct, 24 busks

– 277 –

278

Stays and Body Image in London culture in London, 65 curvature of the spine, 131 customer satisfaction promise, 160

dancing master, payment for, 147–9 danger of stay-fitting for children, 122 Cadogan, Dr, of Foundling Hospital, 114 Dashwood, Sir Francis Essay Upon Nursing, 113 Knights of St Francis club, 200 against swaddling of infants, 112–13 deformity Campbell, R. concealment of, with stays, 96 The London Tradesman, 13–15 prevention by staymakers’ skills, 131 on mantua-maker and woman’s body, 123 Dennel, A. F. (after P. A.Wille), 1780, La on shapeliness through staymaker, 123 Toilette, 200 on staymakers’ body forming, 96–7 Dent, John, staymaker in Soho charitable societies, 174 house renting, 70 childbed-linen provision, 111 design of stays, change in 1780s, 138 childbirth and stays-wearing, 95–6, 174 Devonshire, Duchess of child’s coat design, made by women, 27 on discomfort of stays, 185–6 child’s stays, 1780–1800 positive self-image, 193 scale drawing, 130 Dingler, George City of London business district, 78 murder of wife by stabbing, 99 Cleland, John doublets and stays, similarities, 182 Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, 49, Downing, Robert, staymaker 203–4 trial for stealing cloth coat, 74 client and dressmaker, 197 drapers clothes making for poor children Coleman, Mary, 74 instruction books on, 174–5 Dennis, Mary, 73–4, 92, 163, 168 clothing manufacture industry in London, 6 ready-made stays, 74, 162 clothing theft from child Dress and Corset Maker, Mrs Mortimer, 20 Jane Simms, 174 dress, and gender identity, 179 Colley, John dress for gentlewomen trial for theft, 1798, 79, 88–9 empowerment and disenfranchisement, Collyer, J. 181 The Parent and Guardian’s Directory 15 Dressers, Millinery & Laces Warehouse, 163 on bodicemaking, 26–7 Duke of Clarence and Dorothy Jordan, 209 on buckram as stiffener, 56 Dupin (after Le Clerc) on fine-drawing, 81 Tailleur Costumier Essayant un Cor à la on packthread spinner, 59 mode (1778), 200 Colonel Williamsburg Foundation Ede & Ravenscroft robe-makers well-worn pair of stays, 54 business records, 72 competitive market of staymaking, 159–60 elite society ladies, comments on looks, cone-like silhouettes, 30 191–3 corrective stays, 119, 132 English and French fashion corset (1805–15), 45 Lennox, Lady Sarah, 151–2, 192, 248, Corsets and Crinolines, by N. Waugh, 13 253, 265 creation of garments O’Brien, Lady Susan, 151–2, 190–3, cause of conflict between males and 263, 267 females, 12

description of, 33 eighteenth century, Churchill House Museum, 34 Byles, Reverend Dr Mather on breeching of his son, 117

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Index entertainment in London, 65 erotic nature of stays, 199–212 expenditure account, Miss Goreings, 146–9 eyelet holes, 58 eyesight, poor, from staymaking, 89

279

fabric, diaphanous, 207 fashion, importance of, in eighteenth century, 151, 191, 216 fashionable clothing for men, 182, 184 Favell, Michael, staymaker, Leicester Square, 74 stays stolen from, 171 female body, seen as flawed, 8, 97 female client and male tradesman, relationship, 153 female clothing, 2 creation of, as contested arena, 12 female fashion in London season importance to women, 60–1 female influence on stays’ design, 186 female staymakers, 3 leading role as sensual beings, 212 ‘feminization of fashion’, 181 ‘feminization’ of stays, 186 change of shape for breasts, 207 financial independence for women, 24 fire insurance policies reveal females as staymakers, 189 Fithian, Philip, Hatton, John, haberdasher, 79, 81 diary comments on stays-wearing, 133 multipurpose dwelling, Oxford Street, 76 Fitzjohn, Catherine, theft of clothing, 198 Flamand, Hector, Journeyman Staymaker, 86 Hayman, Francis Le Moine entreprenant (The Lecherous Fleming, Elizabeth, mantua-maker, 87 Monk), 200–1 Flude, John, Pawnbroker, billhead, 169–70, Margaret Tyres and Her Husband George 172 Rogers, 1750–2, 205 Freke, Elizabeth, inventory of goods, 135–6 health concerns, effect of stays, 8 French stays, 152–3 staymaking work by candlelight, 89 Gainsborough, Thomas high-waisted gowns, 190 Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, hip tabs, 131, 180 1785–8, 205–6 Hobsbawn, Eric, on shoemakers, 154 Mary, Countess Howe, 1760, 205 Hogarth, William Garsault, FranVois Alexandre de After, 202 Art du Tailleur, 11–12 The Analysis of Beauty, 180, 203 description of English stays, 36–8 Before, 202 on maternity stays, 100 ‘line of beauty’, cut of stays, 38, 50, 180, 206 stays for boys, 116

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gender and class relations, 220 influence on stays’ design, 179 relations of bespoke male staymakers and female consumers, 154 George, Hannah, staymaker, 88, 92 Gibbon, Mrs Lloyd Treatise on the Use and Effect of Anatomical Stays, 120 awareness of eroticism of stays, 210 child’s fainting, 122 constrictive stays, 108 health improvement with new stays, 187–8 patent for stays (1800), 109, 188 stays as bodily distortion correctors, 123 womb, pressure on, from stays, 109 Gillray, James, caricaturist The Devil to Pay (1791), 209 Female Curiosity (1778), 208 The Liberty of the Subject (1779), 208 The Morning after Marriage (1788), 208 Goreings, Miss, accounts, 145–50 Gray, Thomas on moulding men’s bodies with clothes, 182 Grearson, George, journeyman staymaker, 71 gussets at hips and breasts, 7, 186–7, 191

280

Stays and Body Image in London Lancashire gentlewomen in eighteenth century, 154 Lane, James orthopaedic instruments 124–5, 128 stays to prevent crookedness, 125 steel or belt trusses, billhead, 124–6, 128 Latter, Thomas, bespoke and ready-made, 162 Le Clerc Tailleur Costumier Essayant un Cor à la Mode, 1778, 200 Leach, Elizabeth stays from pawn shop, careful choice, 197 leather stays, Worthing Museum & Art Gallery 51, 52 scale drawing, 53 sign of poverty, 177 Lejeune, Arnoldus, staymaker business in rich area, 70 Leonard, John and Jane, theft accusation, 87 lightweight fabrics, 186 line and form of stays, 180 London East End staymakers, 78 London season, staymaking as seasonal work, 87 ‘loose woman’ 211 lower classes and poor, 9–10, 165–77 male and female stay-makers, 217 male customers’ reliance on tailor for fashion, 184 male staymakers and clients, 2 erotic designing, 199 male design of stays, 181 mantua-makers female, 14, 15, 24, 184–5 Joanna Clarke, 87 mantua wearing, 26 map key to Figure 2.1. location of staymakers in London, 80, 223 Marchmount, Countess of, 73 bill for garments, 72 client of William and Mary Shuddall, 145 Marsden, William theft of stays from, 85–6, 87

Marriage à la Mode, 202 The Rake’s Progress, 202 satire on upper-class dress, 98 ‘serpentine line’, 5, 180 stays as garments of reduction, 202, 203 ‘The Staymaker’ sketch, Happy Marriage series, 158 Taste in High Life, engraving, 98 The Wedding of Stephen Beckingham and Mary Cox 1729–30, 205 Holme, Randle The Academy of Armoury, 1688, 12–13, 14, 23, 25 description of busk, 33 description of stays, 29 Holmes & Laurie, London steel bodice- and truss-makers, 19 billheads for medical purposes, 128 House of Call, for journeymen staymakers, 83 idiopathic scoliosis, 128 infancy and childhood, stays in, 111–19 infant’s stays, eighteenth century, 114 scale drawing, 115 Jordan, Dorothy, actress, 209 journeymen staymakers, 71, 83 jumps late eighteenth century, 105 scale drawing, 106 Viney’s wife, 104, 105

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Keen, Rachel, poor woman robbed by Ann Fell, 137–8 Kendall, Anne violent attack by George Mason, 136–7 Kuchta, David on ‘nonfunctional immobility’ with stays, 181 labour division in staymaking trade, 24 Ladies’ Dress Maker 1805 Book of Trades, 196–7 engraving (1805), 183 Ladies Economical Assistant (1808) for cheap clothing, 166, 167 ladies’ instructions to staymakers, 196

Index Marston, William, staymaker theft by John Wild, 77–8, 84 masculine form of stays linear and angular, 180 masculinization and feminization of female form by male staymakers, 4, 180, 185 master staymakers top of hierarchy, 82 maternity stays 1760–80, 100, 101 1800–10, 110 medical practitioners sanction of Truss-Makers, 126 middle classes, 164 ready-made stays, 160, 162 Miller, Elizabeth, staymaker, 116 Mills, Philip, taylor (1724) inventory of goods, 16 ‘Probate Inventory’, 146 miscarriage as result of stays-wearing, 107 Moravian brethren religious revival, 21–2 Viney, Richard, Staymaker, as member, 156 moulding of men’s bodies, by tailors, 184 multipurpose dwellings for staymakers, 76 murder of Ann Pooley, 167 murder of infant for his stays by Susan Perry, 116, 174

281

Packer, Isaac, 163 inventory of goods, 77 probate inventory (1734), 91–2 street fairs, 164 packthread, 27, 59 Paine, Thomas, staymaking apprentice, 63 Parry, Richard, taylor, 77 inventory of goods, 16 Patmore, William, journeyman 77, 83 fall off working board, 90–91 poor staymaker, 68–9 trial for murder of wife, 89 pattern designing for stays, 86 pattern theft, 85–6 pawnbrokers in competition with clothing dealers, 173 as receivers of stolen goods, 170–3 pawnshops as markets for stays, 169 personal relationships with staymakers, 157 physical problems from tight lacing of stays in pregnancy, 107 Place, Francis, master tailor, 63, 83 on loose-lacing, 134–5 policies for staymakers, 19 Ponce, M. (after Baudouin) La Toilette, 1771, 200 population of London, 64 pornography Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (Cleland), 203 Napoleonic Wars post partum problem employment of women and children, 20 prolapsed uterus, 108 National Museum of American History Poston, William, Haberdasher, 59 linen stays, 119, 120 ‘pouter pigeon’ silhouette, neoclassical dress, scale drawing, 121 190 poverty among staymakers, 69, 156 Newport, Eleanor, staymaker, 73 Pownall, John, staymaker, 79 jumps to Mary Smith, 170 Hanover Square, London, 70 Rag Fair, East End of London, 92 pregnancy and stays, 100–10 ‘Obscene Prints’, Print Shops in London, 201 Prince of Wales and Mrs Fitzherbert, 208 Old Bailey Proceedings, 19 print collecting in London, 201–2 theft of ‘bodices’, 142 Pritchard’s theft of clothes and stays, 165 bespoke stays, female garments, 71–2 trial dialogue, 219–20 Pritchards’ Warehouse, Mrs Dodd, rich clitrial testimonies, 7 ent, 144–5 orthopaedic body garments, 124–5, 128, probate inventories as sources, 18, 81 131 physicality of working space, 77

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Stays and Body Image in London sculpture of female body, 2 S-curve, ‘line of beauty’ 207 Seamster, description, 13 female takeover for simple garments, 21 seamstresses, rights winning, 12 second-hand clothes dealers, sales to, 174 second-hand stays, 168 seductive and erotic image of stays, 10, 200–1, 217 self-image of women in stays, 193, 194–5, 217 separation of the breasts, 208 sexual awareness, ladies dressing, 200 sexuality and clothing, 3 Shackleton, Elizabeth stay wearing in late age, 136 shape of female body in stays cone-like and rigid, 30, 205 ‘share of taste’ client and dressmaker, 197 shoes, consumption and materiality, 154 shopping as leisure pursuit, 66 Shuddall, William and Mary Customers’ Ledger, 72–3 ready-made stays, 92 Siscotti Stay amd Fancy Corset maker, 163 size range of stays ready-made markets, 92 Smith, Mary, arrest for jump pawning, 73, 170 social history, lives of poor, voices for women, 220 social norm of stays wearing, 141, 198 social status, Miss Goreings, 149 Soemmerring, S. T., Engraving, 1793, 127 spine curvature, Nicholas Andry, 126 Stansfield, James, 84 helping Richard Viney, 71 Starzaker, William, staymaker, 79, 81 multipurpose dwelling, Strand, 76 Stay and Habit Maker, Fredrick Albrecht of Bath promoting women as staymakers, 188–9 stays wearing for corrective reasons for children, 215 staymaker, Thomas Roberts theft and pawning of stays, 67–8

profession or trade choice tailoring or staymaking, 15 prostitutes, Mary Ford and Charlotte Hughes, theft by, 194 Pullein, John, staymaker, Smithfield stolen handkerchiefs, 76, 81 Quincey, John, staymaker and warehouse labourer, 87 Rag Fair, East End of London, 92 rape case at Old Bailey, 193–4 raw materials of stays trade, 54 ready-made markets, 158, 163 bespoke, second-hand, 3, 161 retail businesses, 66, 81 Revolutionary wars employment of women and children, 20 Reynolds, Sir Joshua Selina, Lady Skipwith (1787), 205, 206 riding habits for women, 20 makers, 81 Riello, Giorgio, on shoemakers, 154 robe-makers, 81 Roberts, Thomas, staymaker, 70 theft of bespoke stays from his shop, 145, 170–1 Rocque, John grid of London with staymakers (1747), 80 plan of Southwark and Westminster, 78 Romney, George Adam Walker and His Family (1796– 1801), 207 room renting by staymakers, 74 Rowlandson, Thomas, comic artist, 208 Damp Sheets, 209 A Little Tighter, 209 Modern Antiques, 209 The Sculptor (Nollekins) (1800), 209 Rudderford, Henry, trade card, 93 Rudderforth’s billheads c. (1805–15), 152, 159 rural fairs for selling, 164 scoliosis, 131 sculpting, ingenious whalebone, fabric, buckram, card, paste, 59, 214

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Index staymakers arbiters of taste in fashion, 153 body-shapers, 139, 157 concentrations of, 79 delivery to clients, 150–1 establishments, grid location, London 80 important branch of tailoring, 5 interaction with, 198 male until 1780, 18 skills and expertise, 214 trade in London, 7, 63, 67, 70, 214–15, 218 staymaking shops, home and business, 75–6 staymaking tailor and client relationship implications, 5 staymaking tailors, 213 staymaking trade division of labour, 8 gender roles, effect on female body, 3 importance of, 11 seasonal work, diversification as key to success, 93 stays 1700–10, Castle Howard, 26 scale drawing, 31 bodice (1730–2), Gallery of Costume, Manchester, 117 scale drawing, 118 1735–50, Museum of London, 32 scale drawing, 35 1760–80, Gallery of Costume, Manchester, 36 scale drawing, 37 1760–80, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 46, 47 CT scan, 48 X-ray, 47 1760–80, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, 55 1775–85, Hereford and Worcester County Museum, 50 scale drawing, 51 1770–85, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 120 scale drawing, 121 1775–85, Worthing Museum & Art Gallery, 38 scale drawing, 39

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1780–1800, Worthing Museum & Art Gallery, 129 scale drawing, 130 1780–90, Churchill House Museum, Hereford, 40 1790–1805, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, 41 scale model, 42 1795–1810, Churchill House Museum, Hereford, 43 scale drawing, 44 body armour, 99 creation of, 2 dual role, seduction and respectability, 138, 203, 211 effect on unborn child, 100, 111 formative years’ assumed health reasons, 139 identity and self image, 1 importance in fashion, 143 for infants and children, 9, 113–14 lighter construction, 39 in love scenes, 209 for mature adults, 133, 136 Miss Goerings’s accounts, 149–50 objects of propriety, 205 for poor women, fashionability, 49 procurement of, for poor 216 as protection from blows, 137 ready-made 94 removal as preparation for lovemaking, 203 representation in art, 199–200 rigidity and shapelessness, 28 seductive and erotic, 199, 206–207 separate garments, 26 targets of thieves, from homes, shops, 142 tight-laced or loose, 134 unlacing as seductive, 204 stays and bodices, difference, 25 stays and outer bodice as one, 29–30 stealing charge against staymakers, 88 steel bodices, 129 steel or belt trusses, billhead, 124–6, 128 steel stays, to prevent crooked body in children, 124

284

Stays and Body Image in London trade directories, London addresses of Taylors and Staymakers, London, 18 staymakers survey, 1677, 17 trading-in stays, 159 trial proceedings, for personal information, 194 trial records forceful removal of stays from child, 143 trusses, 131–2 Truss-Makers irons for relief of lame, 126 tuberculosis, cancer and scoliosis stays as cause, 128 Tutt, William Staymaker Sarah Simpson, stitcher, 85 urbanization of English towns, 64 of London, 18th century, 64 Van Aken, Joseph A Musical party on a Terrace 1725, 205 victimization of older, poor women, 137 Victoria & Albert Museum pair of unlined stays, 54–5, 58 Viney, Richard, Staymaker, 70–71 betrayal by Stansfield, 84 breast of wife, lancing, 102–3 client Ann Gee, 168–9 diary of his work, 1744, 7–8, 21–2, 213, 221 comments on stays-wearing, 218–19 details of trade staymaking, 218 financial situation, 69–71 relations 219 rich source for rural worker, 221 health problems of wife and self, 89–90, 107 illness of baby son, 103–4 living quarters, 74–6 ready-made stays, 176 relationship with clients, 154–7 on rules and order in life, 82 setting up shopboard, 177 stay-making, 56–8 stays for children, 176 tailor in London first, 221

Stelfox, William, staymaker combination business, 81 theft problem, 87 stiffening devices in men’s clothes, 184 stigmatisation of poor, 178 Stiles, Thomas, staymaker, 79 Hanover Square, London, 70 Stitchers’ employment, 84 stomachers, 3, 32–3 post-partum, 104 and stays, 164 strait-lacing, 134 Strange Stay Maker bespoke and ready-made, 160–61 SunFire Offices Insurance Registers policies for staymakers, 19 swaddling of infants in Aristotle’s Compleat and Experience’d Midwife, 111–12 from fear of deformity, 112 leading to stays wearing, 112 Syfret’ Stay Warehouse guarantees fitting, 159–60 Sykes, George advertisement for poor, 168

tailor-designed men’s garments influence on women’s stays, 182 tailoring and staymaking, 15, 60–61 as one and the same, 1688, 14 separation, 11 Tailors and Mantua makers latter as female, 13 tailors, work of, 213 taste and perceptions of beauty, 197 textile and dress history, 220 The Taylor’s Complete Guide riding habits for women, 195–6 theft by the poor, 165 of clothing in eighteenth century, 142 and pawning of stays, 172 second-hand markets, 174 from staymakers, 86–7 Todd, John, staymaker, on House of Call, 83 town and country links, 66 trade cards of staymakers, 18

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Index wife’s childbirth and breast problems, 95, 101–8 work situation, 88 Von Soemmerring, Samuel Thomas anatomist and pathologist, 128 waist length changes, 30 Waller, T. Book of Trades (1805), 97–8 A General Description of all Trades, 13, 15 on bodicemaking, 26 on buckram stiffeners, 1747, 56 Washington, Martha on her stays-wearing, 133–4 wearing of stays, boys, girls, women, 2, 4 well-dressed and poor cause of suspicion, 166 Whalebone and Rattan trade, London, 59 whalebone, use of, 12, 27, 58, 60 White, Jane and Mary staymakers for pregnancy, 19–20 Wilcocks, Thomas St Giles in the Fields, bodicemaker, 18 Wild, John, foreman to William Marston side business, 85

285

theft of stays, 84 Wille, P. A. L’Essai du Corset, (A. F. Dennel) (1780), 200 Wilson, Stephen, staymaker theft problem, 76, 87 womb, pressure on, from stays, 108 women of elite, 143 women, role of, in history, 220 Women Stay-Makers, 19 women’s bodies flawed in natural state, 216 working-boards, 77 working hours, long for staymaking, 88 Worthing Museum and Art Gallery child’s stays 1780–1800, 131 Wright, Charles, staymaker, and bankruptcy, 88 Wright, Gilbert, journeyman staymaker trial for assault, 83 X-ray of stays (1760–80), 47 X-rays of stays in research, 7

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yellow stomacher, Ann Pooley, 167 Young, Alfred, on shoemakers, 154

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