Planning & BSS

Air interface
The Air Interface carries the Radio Waves.The Um interface is the interface between the MS and the BTS. Voice is modulated on a radio frequency carrier and transmitted on the Air Interface. The frequency used in GSM is in UHF range i.e. 30 -3000 MHz. Ultra high frequency radio waves are typically generated by oscillating charges on a transmitting antenna. In the case of a radio station, the antenna is often simply a long wire (a dipole) fed by an alternating voltage/current source, that is, charge is placed on the antenna by the alternating voltage source. We can think of the electric field as being disturbances sent out by the dipole source and the frequency of the oscillating electric field (the electromagnetic wave) is the same as the frequency of the source. Each antenna has a unique radiation pattern. This pattern can be represented graphically by plotting the received time-averaged power, as a function of angle with respect to the direction of maximum power in a log-polar diagram. The pattern is representative of the performance of the antenna in a test environment. However, it only applies to the freespace environment in which the test measurement takes place. Upon installation, the pattern becomes more complex, due to the extra factors affecting propagation under field conditions. Thus, the real effectiveness of any antenna is measured in the field.

Antenna Basics An antenna is a device that is made to efficiently radiate and receive radiated electromagnetic waves. There are several important antenna characteristics that should be considered when choosing an antenna for your application as follows: • Antenna radiation patterns • Power Gain • Directivity • Polarization Antenna Radiation Patterns An antenna radiation pattern is a 3-D plot of its radiation far from the source. Antenna radiation patterns usually take two forms, the elevation pattern and the azimuth pattern. The elevation pattern is a graph of the energy radiated from the antenna looking at it from the side as can be seen in Figure (a) . The azimuth pattern is a graph of the energy radiated from the antenna as if you were looking at it from directly above the antenna as shown in fig (b). When you combine the two graphs you have a 3-D representation of how energy is radiated from the antenna as shown in fig (c)

which comprises. This gain is most often referred to with the units of dBi. They are Linear.Power Gain The power gain of an antenna is a ratio of the power input to the antenna to the power output from the antenna. Circular Right Hand . Vertical. An isotropic antenna has a perfect spherical radiation pattern and a linear gain of one. which is logarithmic gain relative to an isotropic antenna. It is usually a ratio of radiation intensity in a given direction to the average radiation intensity. and circular. Gain (with reference to the isotropic radiator dBi) = Gain (with reference to λ /2-Dipole dBd) + 2. It may be regarded as the ability of the antenna to direct radiated power in a given direction. Horizontal and Oblique.15 dB Directivity The directive gain of an antenna is a measure of the concentration of the radiated power in a particular direction. which comprises. Polarization Polarization is the orientation of electromagnetic waves far from the source. There are several types of polarization that apply to antennas.

Part of this power is reflected at the antenna and is returned to the transmitter the forward and return power forms a standing wave with corresponding voltage minima and maxima (Umin/Umax).5 is standard within mobile communications.5 = 33 Ohms VSWR= [1+ (Reflection Coefficient)]/[1-(Reflection Coefficient)] . In this case the real component of the complex impedance may vary between the following values: Maximum Value: 50 Ohms x 1. A VSWR of 1. Elliptical Right Hand and Elliptical Left Hand. The power delivered from the transmitter can no longer be radiated without loss because of this incorrect compensation. Half-Power-Beam-Width This term defines the aperture of the antenna.5 = 75 Ohms Minimum Value: 50 Ohms : 1. VSWR An impedance of exactly 75 Ohm can only be practically achieved at one frequency. Circular Left Hand (LHCP). This wave ratio (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) defines the level of compensation of the antenna. For best performance the polarization of the transmitting antenna should be matched to that of the receiving antenna. These points are also called 3 dB points. The HPBW is defined by the points in the horizontal and vertical diagram. which show where the radiated power has reached half the amplitude of the main radiation direction. Polarization is most important to get the maximum performance from the antennas.(RHCP).

There are two methods of downtilting – – Mechanical downtilting Electrical downtilting.t the horizon. i. its value is always>= 0. Downtilting the antenna limits the range by reducing the field strength in the horizon. VSWR should be = 1. increased switching between the base station (handover) occurs. no signal is being reflected which is practically not possible. If the overlapping area between two cells is too large.e. Antenna downtilting is the downward tilt of the vertical pattern towards the ground by a fixed angle measured w. Different antennas and their comparison: Antenna downtilting The problem often faced is that the base station antenna provides an overcoverage. . when Reflection Coeffient is equal to 0. The above implies that VSWR is always >= 1 Ideally.Since Reflection Coefficient is the magnitude of ratio of the V(Reflected)/V(Transmitted) .There may even be interference of a neighbouring cell with the same frequency.with appropriate downtilt.r. the received signal strength within the cell improves due to the placement of the main lobe within the cell radius and falls off in regions approaching the cell boundary and towards the reuse cell.

If the front lobe is downtilted the back lobe is also downtilted by equal amount.90deg from antenna horizon. This is one of the potential drawback as compared to the electrical downtilt because coverage behind the antenna can be negatively affected as the back lobe rises above the horizon. Additionally . . In a mechanical downtilt as the front lobe moves downward the back lobe moves upwards. Electrical downtilting also reduces the gain equally at all angles on the horizon. Electrical Downtilt Electrical downtilt uses a phase taper in the antenna array to angle the pattern downwards. Electrical downtilt affects both front and back lobes. mechanical downtilt does not change the gain of the antenna at +/.Mechanical downtilting It consists of physically rotating an antenna downward about an axis from its vertical position. This allows the the antenna to be mounted vertically. .

random frequency modulation due to Doppler Shifts on different multipath signals and time dispersion caused by multipath delays. A diversity antenna system provides a number of receiving branches or ports from which the diversified signals are derived and fed to a receiver. The receiver then combines the incoming signals from the branches to produce a combined signal with improved quality in terms of signal strength or signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). GSM therefore extensively adopts diversity techniques that include 1. Multipath fading causes rapid changes in signal strength over a short distance or time. These signal fluctuations are known as ‘multipath fading’. Diversity techniques have been recognised as an effective means which enhances the immunity of the communication system to the multipath fading. When various incoming radiowaves arrive at the receiver antenna. 3. 4. the communication between the cell site and mobile is not by a direct radio path but via many paths. Hence the signal that arrives at the receiver is either by reflection from the flat sides of buildings or by diffraction around man made or natural obstructions. . they combine constructively or destructively. which leads to a rapid variation in signal strength. interleaving in time domain frequency hopping in frequency domain spatial diversity in spatial donmain polarization diversity in polarization domain Spatial and polarisation diversity techniques are realised through antenna systems. 2.Antenna diversity In a typical cellular radio environment.

Spatial diversity antenna systems The spatial diversity antenna system is constructed by physically separating two receiving base station antennas. As a result. both antennas receive independent fading signals. The types of the configuration used in GSM networks are: • horizontal separation • vertical separation Two antenna spatial diversity .Once they are separated far enough. the signals captured by the antennas are most likely uncorrelated.The further apart are the antennas. the more likely that the signals are uncorrelated.

. in reciprocal. receive two orthogonal polarised fields.Polarization diversity antenna systems A dual-polarisation antenna consists of two sets of radiating elements which radiate or. The antenna has therefore the ability to simultaneously transmit and receive two orthogonally polarised fields. The antenna has two input connectors which separately connect to each set of the elements.

and CBCH .  51 frame multiframe (26 per superframe) with a duration of 235. which have duration of 6. for downlink In GSM the frequency band is divided into channels of 200 KHz each. This multiframe is used to carry the logical channels FCCH. This multiframe is used to carry the logical channels TCH. SCH. comprising 51 TDMA frames. One hyperframe is divided into 2048 superframes.these TDMA timeslots are called physical channels. SDCCH.Channels in GSM In GSM frequency division duplex is used for duplex transmission.the TDMA frame cyclicaly repeat time after time. The longest recurrent time period of the structure is called hyperframe and has the duration of 3 h 28 min 53 sec 760 ms. SACCH. The superframe is itself subdivided into multiframes. There are two types of multiframes in the system:  26 frame multiframe (51 per superframe) with a duration of 120 ms. BCCH.In GSM each radio channel is divided into 8 time slots.Hence each time slot per user is allotted. These time slots are used for traffic as well as signalling. comprising 26 TDMA frames. Uplink refers to signal transmission from MS to BTS and downlink refers to signal transmission from BTS to MS. for GSM 900 for GSM 1800 890-915 MHz for uplink 935-960 MHz for downlink. The TDMA Frame Numbers (FN) are numbered from 0 to 2 715 647. FDM is combined with TDMA to increase the no of users.CCCH.12 seconds. SACCH and FACCH. .the duplex distance in GSM 900 is 45 MHz and that of GSM 1800 is 95 MHz.615 ms.4 ms. In TDMA each radio frequency channel is divided into consecutive periods of time known as time slots.Each time slot lasts for 0. Hence 125 carriers in GSM 900 and 375 carriers in GSM 1800.577 μsec thus 8 time slot last for 4. 1710-1785 MHZ for uplink 1805-1880 MHz.

For example. The logical channels are mapped onto the physical channels. They are traffic channels and signaling channels. speech is sent on the logical channel Traffic Channel (TCH). Logical Channels The logical channels can be separated into two categories. Each logical channel is used for a specific purpose such as paging.A variety of information is transmitted between the BTS and the MS. The information is grouped into different logical channels. · half rate TCH (TCH/H) .this channel carries information at a gross rate of 6.this channel carries information at a gross rate of 13 kbit/s.5 kbit/s. Signaling channels are subdivided into three categories: · Broadcast CHannels (BCH) · Common Control CHannels (CCCH) · Dedicated Control CHannels (DCCH) . call set-up and speech. There are two forms of TCHs: · full rate TCH (TCH/F) .

and BCCH the MS tunes to a BTS and synchronized with the frame structure in that cell. and second to allow the MS to synchronize to the frequency.The following sections describe specific channels within these categories. RACH is transmitted uplink only. SCH. BROADCAST CHANNELS (BCH) Frequency Correction CHannel (FCCH) On FCCH. The reason why the network may want to contact the MS could be an incoming call or an incoming short message. waiting for calls to arrive or making calls. it replies on the RACH requesting a signaling channel. including the MS’s identity number (IMSI) or a temporary number (TMSI). FCCH is transmitted downlink only. The information on PCH is a paging message. This serves two purposes. Synchronization CHannel (SCH) The MS needs to synchronize to the time-structure within this particular cell. Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) The MS must receive some general information concerning the cell in order to start roaming. Random Access Channel (RACH) The MS listens to the PCH to determine when it is being paged. First to make sure that this is the BCCH carrier. By listening to the SCH. SCH and BCCH in the new cell. it must listen to FCCH. The BTSs are not synchronized to each other. every time the MS camps on another cell. RACH can also be used if the MS wants to contact the network. SCH is transmitted downlink only. . maximum output power allowed in the cell and the BCCH carriers for the neighboring cells on which the MS performs measurements. and also ensure that the chosen BTS is a GSM base station. BSIC can only be decoded if the base station belongs to the GSM network. when setting up a mobile originating call. PCH is transmitted downlink only. The needed information is broadcast on the Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) and includes the Location Area Identity (LAI). BCCH is transmitted on the downlink only. COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS (CCCH) Paging Channel (PCH) At certain time intervals the MS listens to the PCH to check if the network wants to make contact with the MS. the MS receives information about the frame number in this cell and about BSIC of the chosen BTS. Therefore. For example. bursts only containing zeroes are transmitted.When the MS is paged. Using FCCH.

as well as the textual message transmission (short message and cell broadcast) in idle mode. SDCCH is transmitted both uplink and downlink. the MS sends averaged measurements on its own BTS (signal strength and quality) and neighboring BTSs (signal strength). FACCH works in stealing mode meaning that one 20 ms segment of speech is exchanged for signaling information necessary for the handover. the MS receives information concerning the transmitting power to use and instructions on the timing advance. Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) CBCH is only used downlink to carry Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) and uses the same physical channel as the SDCCH. The call set-up procedure is performed on the SDCCH. On the downlink.When call set-up is performed. SACCH is transmitted both uplink and downlink. the MS is told to switch to a TCH. . Under normal conditions the subscriber does not notice the speech interruption because the speech coder repeats the previous speech block. On the uplink. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) If a handover is required the FACCH is used. sent on the same physical channel).Access Grant Channel (AGCH) The networks assigns a signaling channel (Stand-alone Dedicated Control CHannel (SDCCH)) to the MS. DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS (DCCH) Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) The MS as well as the BTS switches over to the assigned SDCCH. This assignment is performed on the AGCH.e. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) The SACCH is associated with SDCCH or TCH (i. AGCH is transmitted downlink only.

a dummy page and a dummy burst is defined in the GSM recommendations. There are five different types of bursts. Synchronization Burst (SB): This burst is used for time synchronization of the MS. to cater for burst transmission from an MS that does not know the timing advance at the first access (or at handover).25 bit duration (30. This gives a bit time of 3.46 ms). Frequency correction Burst (FB): This burst is used for frequency synchronization of the MS. 1. Normal Burst (NB): This burst is used to carry information on traffic and control channels. . thus making it possible for the MSs to perform power measurements on the BTS in order to determine which BTS to use for initial access or which to use for handover. a dummy burst with a pre-defined set of fixed bits is transmitted.8 kbps. It contains a long training sequence and carries the information of the TDMA Frame Number (FN) and Base Station Identity Code (BSIC). Access Burst (AB): This burst is used for random access and handover access. 3. This means that the base station always transmits on the frequency carrying the system information. 4. Dummy Burst: This burst is transmitted when no other type of burst is to be sent. This dummy page is a page to a non-existing MS. This allows for a cell radius of 35 km.25 bits. The physical content of a TS is called a burst.BURST FORMATS The bit rate over the air interface is 270. The stealing flag is relevant only for TCH 2. It is characterized by a long guard period (68. It consists of zeroes only. CCCH is replaced by the dummy page. The access burst is used on the Random Access CHannel (RACH) and on the Fast Associated Control CHannel (FACCH) at handover. when there is no paging message to transmit. and includes a guard time of 8. The time interval of a TS thus corresponds to 156.692 ms (48/13 ms). In the other TSs not being used. In order to achieve this.25 bit duration or 252 ms). 5. For TCH it contains 114 encrypted bits.

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Mobile originated call .Call flow 1.

Mobile terminated call .2.

The following measurements is be continuously processed in the BSS: i) Measurements reported by MS on SACCH . Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal strengths received from surrounding cells is made in the MS. and the signal strength and quality measurements of the serving cell are reported back to the serving cell via the SACCH once in every SACCH multiframe. 4. Intercell intra BSC When handover takes place between two cells but within same BSC .Handover The GSM handover process uses a mobile assisted technique for accurate and fast handovers. 2. 5. During its idle time (the remaining seven timeslots). in order to maintain the user connection link quality and manage traffic distribution. 3. the MS switches to the BCCH of the surrounding cells and measures its signal strength.Down link RXLEV . The signal strength measurements of the surrounding cells. Prior to handover following process takes place: 1.Uplink RXLEV .Down link neighbor cell RXLEV ii) Measurements performed in BSS .Interference level in unallocated time slots Handover is done on five conditions – Interference – RXQUAL – RXLEV – Distance or Timing Advance – Power Budget The following are the types of handovers 1.Down link RXQUAL .it is within same BSC 2. Intracell When handover takes place between two sectors of same cell .MS-BS distance . 6. This information is evaluated by the BSS for use in deciding when the MS should be handed over to another traffic channel. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal strength of interference on its idle traffic channels.Uplink RXQUAL . These measurements are sent to the BSS for assessment.

The more frequencies are used in a particular cell.Rayleigh fading is location and frequency dependent. is described by the hopping sequence. Intercell inter BSC When handover take place between two cells which are located in diffent BSCs 4. . the common channels(BCCH. Process : The regular pattern by which a radio link changes carrier frequency. The reasons of using Frequency Hopping are: 1. a function is used which maps a particular TDMA frame to a radio frequency within the set of frequencies. To reduce complexity of the GSM system. SCH. but does not help much either. Frequency Hopping does not harm. Frequency Hopping changes the frequency used by a radio link every new TDMA frame in a regular pattern. Decreasing the probability of interference Frequency Hopping will spread the annoyance of interference over different mobile stations in a particular cell 2. Inter MSC When handover takes place between two cells which located in differnt MSCs Frequency Hopping The Frequency Hopping function permits the dynamic switching of radio links from one carrier frequency to another. the more Frequency Hopping can gain in suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading. Suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading Rayleigh fading (or multipath fading) is caused by different paths followed by the radio signal. Frequency Hopping will significantly improve the level of the air-interface performance.3. In order to calculate the hopping sequence. When the mobile station is stationary or moves at a slow speed. For this purpose the parameters used to calculate the hopping sequence are also transferred from the BTS to the mobile station. Rayleigh fading can cause coverage holes. However. Both the uplink and the downlink use the same hopping sequence. FCCH. using parameters such as TDMA frame number and number of frequencies in the set of frequencies. PAGCH and RACH) do not hop. The hopping sequence can have a cyclic pattern or a pseudo-random pattern. when the mobile station moves at a high speed.

Synthesized frequency hopping Some terms: HSN(Hopping Sequence Number): The HSN specifies the order in which the frequencies within the set of frequencies are going to hop.There are two types of frequency hopping schemes 1.these are the fixed frequencies and do not hop . Manual MAIO planning prevents adjacent channel interference within a cell as well as co. Basebang frequency hopping 2.if HSN is 0 then hopping takes place is cyclic fashion .and adjacent channel interference in co-sited cells when using frequency hopping BA(BCCH allocation): These are the frequencies allocated for BCCH. MA(mobile allocation): These frequencies are allocated for traffic channels to hop. MAIO(mobile allocation index offset) : Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is a frequency offset set for all Basic Physical Channels . Base band frequency hopping .fi it between 0 to 63 then hopping takes place in random manner.

all timeslots 1-7 hop over MA(f1.f3.f2. .this hopping group uses HSN-1.f4). MAIOs are different for different TRXs within the same hopping group hence no collisions. Frequency synthesized hopping: In this the BCCH TRX does not hop.in this scheme only one HSN is allocated.f3.f4).this hopping group uses HSN-2.As shown in fig the BCCH time slot does not hop.timeslot 0 of TRX 2-4 hop over MA(f2.

The following parameters are considered in transmission planning. These BSCs have to be further connected to MSCs. Satellite Communications. to control these sites. Now. and Radio Waves (900 MHz /1800MHzGSM frequency) to reach beyond a certain distance without interference.Transmission The inability of a BTS to cater more than a threshold of subscribers.e. Microwave link. it is possible to say that the power density Pd is related to the power transmitted Pt by the equation the power density at same distance is given by The received power is given by The effective aperture of isotropic antenna is given by Our formula for received power now becomes . A propagating electromagnetic wave has a power density Pd (in watts per square metre) associated with it. or Coaxial Cable. forces us to put a huge number of sites to cover our entire subscriber base. it can be Optical Fiber. The aperture (known for these purposes as the “effective aperture” Ae) of the antenna is measured in square metres and the antenna serves to convert the power density into an actual power Pr (the suffix “r” standing for “received”) in accordance with the formula Pr = Pd Ae Given that the surface area of a sphere of radius r is equal to 4πr2. they need to be connected to BSC. Free space loss The microwave antennas used for point to point links fall into the category of “aperture” antennas. This connection can be made by any type of transmission medium i. the parabolic dish antenna being the most common example.

So Path Loss = 20 log10 (4π ) + 20 log10 (r ) − 20 log10 (λ ) − Gt − Gr Solving we get Path Loss = 92. The Fade Margin FM is defined as : FM (dB) = PR (dBm) .Expressing in decibals Pr (dBm) = Pt (dBm) + Gt (dBi) + Gr (dBi) − 20 log10 (4π ) − 20 log10 (r ) + 20 log10 (λ ) Now (Pt-Pr = Path loss).4 + 20 log10 d + 20 log10 f − Gt − Gr Fade Margin The Radio Link is usually designed in such a way that the Received Power PR (Normal propagation conditions) is much greater than the Receiver Threshold PTH.4 + 20 log10 d + 20 log10 f − Gt − Gr When gain of antenna is 0 dBi then loss is called as free space loss FSL = 92. .PTH (dBm) A Fade Margin is required to compensate for the reduction in Rx power caused by Propagation Anomalies.

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