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Urban Agriculture for Healthy Cities:

A Study of Food Access in Brooklyn’s Community District 9


& The Programs of BK Farmyards

Arisara Srisethnil, Andrea San Buenaventura, Ashley Perry,


Tessa Scheele Morelli, & Erica Schapiro-Sakashita

The New School, May 2011

Cover Image Sources:


Community Board No. 9 Brooklyn 1
Get Out What You Put In 2
2
Acknowledgments

Bee Ayer, Farm Manager


BK Farmyards

Dr. Kristin Reynolds, Andrew W. Mellon Post-Doctoral


Fellow in Sustainable Urban Food Systems,
The New School

Table of Contents

Executive Summary pg. 4


Introduction pg. 5
Urban Agriculture pg. 5
BK Farmyards pg. 6
Demographics pg. 7
Food Access pg. 7
Vegetable consumption pg. 8
Health pg. 9 -10
Open Space and Land Availability pg. 11
Conclusion pg.11
Resources pg.11

Tomato plant at BK Farmyards


Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

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“New York City is faced with a health crisis: 700,000 New Yorkers have diabetes and over 3.1 million
residents are obese or overweight, as are 43% of elementary school students. Numerous studies have shown
the link between positive health outcomes and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, but disturbingly,
37% of New Yorkers live in areas without adequate access to healthy food. Residents need affordable ways
to introduce more fruits and vegetables into their diets.” 1

-Office of Manhattan Borough President Scott M. Stringer

Executive Summary

The number of people in New York City living under the federal poverty line is nearly twice the national average,
with Central Brooklyn being one of the poorest areas.2 Pressures including unemployment, health insurance issues and low
wages make it difficult for many city residents to pay for utilities, rent, and food for themselves and their families. As a result,
buying healthy food may not be a top priority. Individuals who struggle financially are more likely to purchase inexpensive
fats and sugars over fresh produce, which is more expensive on a per calorie basis.3 This problem is exacerbated by
inequalities in food distribution, as grocery stores can be sparse and fast food establishments comparatively abundant in
low-income communities.4 Limited food options, along with the environmental justice issue of a disproportionate scarcity of
green space and abundance of industry in some low-income areas, may contrinute to the documented range of health
issues among certain New York residents including obesity, diabetes, and asthma.

BK Farmyards is an urban farming organization working with residents of Community District 9 in Brooklyn, NY,
an area where issues of food insecurity and related health impacts are a lived reality. By integrating food education into
the school curriculum, providing Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) opportunities and local farmer’s markets, and
encouraging community engagement, BK is working to mitigate issues of access to healthy produce and active outdoor
space in order to promote general well-being and healthier lifestyles.

This report is the outcome of a civic engagement project in which undergraduate students at The New School in
Manhattan worked with BK Farmyards to learn about and participate in the organization’s work and to document some
of the food systems issues mentioned above. The focus on urban agriculture and its benefits is intended to increase the
quality of life for many Brooklyn residents.

Volunteers BK Farmyard’s produce


Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream* Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

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Introduction Methodology

This report is the product of an undergraduate class at The Our research has been conducted to verify health and
New School entitled “Urban Agriculture and Food Activism” environmental problems in Brooklyn Community District 9.
taught by Dr. Kristin A. Reynolds. After studying the place Using the New York City Community Data Portal, along with
of urban agriculture in the urban environment, with a focus data from the United States Census Bureau, we compiled a
on the social and economic structures and distributive literature review showing the connections between health
inequalities in the city that this practice addresses, students risks and impacted access to healthy food as well as the
collaborated with BK Farmyards to see their theory in health benefits of urban agricultural practices.
action, and produce a body of information that could be
made available to BK and to other interested parties
in order to support the organization’s efforts. Through What is Urban Agriculture?
research and analysis of the demographics, existing health
issues, food access and food distribution in the area, the
students sought to gain an understanding of the material What distinguishes urban agriculture is that it is almost
circumstances that underlie BK Farmyards’ service in necessarily integrated into the social and economic structure
Community District 9. Additionally, through , participation of the city. An urban farm in New York City uses urban
in workdays at BK’s Youth Farm at the High School for resources, the labor and collaboration of urban residents,
Public Service, and interaction with organizers and student is integrated into the local food system, and establishes
participants on site, students were able to gain a more direct associations between producer and consumer.5 The
holistic sense of the role that BK Farmyards plays in this fact that urban agriculture is an integral part of the city
Brooklyn community. Collaboration between New School system, and interacts with a variety of actors within that
students and BK Farmyards has allowed students to learn system, also means that it has the potential for profound
about urban agriculture and food activism through hands- social byproducts, such as providing food security, mitigating
on activities and applied research. It is also hoped that this health problems related to unhealthy food choices
report will help BK program directors to further develop and limited open space, and providing opportunities for
their platform to increase the availability and consumption of community engagement and empowerment.
healthy food in the Central Brooklyn area, while engaging Volunteers at HSPS
the community in over-all healthy practices.
Farm at HSPS

Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*


1. Office of Manhattan Borough President Scott M. Stringer
2. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
3. Kish, Stacy. “Healthy, Low-Calorie Foods Cost More on Average.” National Institute
of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). USDA, 19 Mar. 2008. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. http://www.
csrees.usda.gov/newsroom/impact/2008/nri/03191_food_prices.html.
4. Gottlieb, Robert, and Anupama Joshi. “Accessing Food.” Food Justice. Cambridge,
MA: MIT, 2010.
5.RUAF Foundation. “What is Urban Agriculture?”. Last modified 2011. http://www.ruaf.
org
Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

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Overview of BK Farmyards

BK Farmyards is a Brooklyn-based farming for food that is of little to no nutritional value. The farm
network working to bridge the rift between producers and presents an opportunity to engage with sustainable, healthy
consumers across the food system, and provide locally- food practices and learn principles of active stewardship.
grown, healthy, and affordable produce to the residents of Moreover, the farm hosts a cooking class, teaching students
Central Brooklyn. As a decentralized farming organization, nutrition as well as healthy and easy recipes using the
BK Farmyards works with various groups of aspiring farmers farm’s produce. By prompting students to consider where
and people interested in sustainable food practices. An their food comes from, BK Farmyards hopes to encourage
ongoing initiative at BK Farmyards is the conversion of them to make healthier food choices. The produce grown at
local residents’ backyards the farm is also sold through
into productive farms, a CSA and on-site weekly
turning existing green space There are over 52,000 acres of backyards in New York farmers market, where
into community-serving City that could be turned into an affordable means other Brooklyn residents can
agriculture. BK Farmyards of growing fresh food for local communities, as well pick up their slated share
is currently working with as integrating beautiful green space into the urban or a single carrot at a low
two backyard farms, Foxtrot environment.
6
cost. The organization also
Radish Farm and Papa Farm. offers consultation on urban
More recently, and of particular focus in this study, BK farming related projects, and a variety of internships and
Farmyards collaborated with the NYC non-profit Green apprenticeships with their backyard enterprise, school farm,
Guerillas to establish a half acre farm in March 2010 chicken program, CSA, farmers market, and composting
at the High School for Public Service in Crown Heights, program. Through these education and mobilization efforts
providing summer employment opportunities and a hands- BK farmyards works to extend the resources, skill sets, and
on educational space for students. One of the main aims of venues for Brooklyn residents to take an active part in this
BK Farmyards is to make healthy food accessible for young effort to improve access to nutritious and affordable food,
people, so often inundated with commercials and marketing and to community spaces, for sustaining healthier lifestyles.

Farm at HSPS

New School students participating at BK Farmyards


Image Source: Kristin Reynolds 3 Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream *

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Demographic Information for the neighborhoods served by BK Farmyards

BK Farmyards works in central Brooklyn, specifically the and/or state level. Over 4,800 residents received cash
neighborhoods of Crown Heights and Prospect Lefferts subsidies through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Gardens. These neighborhoods are located in the zip codes (TANF), 4,654 received Supplemental Security Income, and
11212, 11213, 11216, 11233, and 11238 7, which are part of 28,453 received Medicaid.15
Brooklyn’s Community District 9.8 The total land area is 1.6
square miles. As of 2000, The total population of the five
zip codes was 104,014.9 From the total population, 79,466
are Black/ African American, 11,733 residents are white,
8,581 are of Hispanic and 819 are Asian/ Pacific Islanders.
The population above 18 years of age was 79,466. The
population under 18 years was 29,691. As of 2000, the
median household income was $38,168.10 This was nearly
30% lower than the national median household income
of $52,029.11 The employment rate was 66.3%, while the
unemployment rate was estimated at 58.7%.12 Nearly 24%
of the population was living under the poverty level 13, a
threshold ranging from $10,956 for single family households
to $44,366 for families of nine or more. This statistic is
nearly twice the national average.14 As of 2009, a total of
37,993 residents received supported income on a federal Image Source: NYC DCP, Booklyn Comm. District 9 1

A Description of Food Access in Community District 9

Food access in North and Central Brooklyn is in a state a source of fresh food alternatives into the community,
of crisis, according to the New York City Department of providing locally and organically grown produce at an
Health and Mental Hygiene. One key issue is that there affordable price.
are far more bodegas than supermarkets in low-income
Brooklyn neighborhoods. Eight out of ten food stores in this 6. BK Farmyards. “What We Do”. Last modified May 2011. http://bkfarmyards.blogspot.
com/p/farms.html.
area are bodegas, typically offering a small selection of 7. New York State Department of Health. 2006.
nutritional foods, while providing a surplus of sugary snacks 8. Oasis NYC. Oasis Map. http://www.oasisnyc.net/map.aspx.
9. U.S. Census 2000.
and beverages with little to no nutritional value. According 10. ibid.
to the New York Department of Health and Mental 11. U.S. Census Bureau: State and County Quickfacts.
12. U.S. Census 2000, “Demographic of Brooklyn” http://www.census.gov/. Last modified
Hygiene, “Only 28% of bodegas carry apples, oranges, April 2011.
and bananas, compared with 91% of supermarkets...Leafy 13. ibid.
14. U.S. Census Bureau. “Poverty: 2008 and 2009: America Community Survey Briefs”.
green vegetables are available at few bodegas (about 1 Last modified September 2010.
in 10).”16 As there are 22 supermarkets compared to 307 15. NYC.gov: “Brooklyn Community District 9”. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_
info/bk09_info.shtml. Last modified 2011.
bodegas, many Brooklyn residents have very little access 16. New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. “Eating Well: Access to
to healthy, fresh food. Moreover, 73% of restaurants only Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/.../dpho-
brooklyn-report2006.pdf
offer take-out services, typically fast food chains, offering 17. ibid.
unhealthy products, favored for their large portions and Images:BK Farmyard’s Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/bkfarmyards/
NYC DCP Brooklyn Comm. Disctrict 9, http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_info/
low prices.17 BK Farmyards is taking direct action to bring bk09_info.shtml (May 2011).

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The “Locavore” Versus The Store Vegetable Consumption Using EBT

Local markets may prioritize taste and nutritional Although vegetable consumption remains low,
quality over the durability and stress tolerance that the New Yorkers are increasing their consumption through
industrialized market seeks. Processed and packaged various forms of state funding. In 2010, purchases made
vegetables undergo tremendous tissue and enzymatic using Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) at city farmer’s
changes that increase the risk for microbial spoilage, markets more than doubled, growing from $100,772 in
compromised food safety and loss of nutrients. Studies 2008 to $226,469 in 2009. In September 2009 alone,
have shown that a 5-10 day transportation and storage EBT usage went from $25,415 in 2008 to $62,816 in 2009.
lag between production and consumption leads to losses In addition, over 80% of EBT dollars were used to purchase
of 30-50% in nutritional constituents of produce.18 Crops fresh fruits and vegetables.21 This goes to show that there is
grown locally and organically, on the other hand, like those significant demand for healthier food, if made affordable.
at BK Farmyards, have a much higher nutritional value
overall.19 BK Farmyards also accepts Suplemental Nutritional
Assistance Program (SNAP) at their weekly farmer’s market,
making their produce more accessible for low-income
Vegetable Consumption community members.

Lack of access and high prices for fresh produce


ultimately limit the consumption of fruit and vegetables in
these Brooklyn communities. The U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture
recommend that people eat between 5 and 9 servings each
day, depending on age, sex, and level of physical activity.
A study conducted by the USDA found that low-income
residents in the US (up to 130% of the poverty line, meaning
households earning no more that 1.3 times the poverty
line) consumed less than one serving of vegetables each Image Source: Inside OKDHS 4
day. Averages vary depending on geographic location, Cherry Tomatoes grown at BK
however statistics show that lower income individuals, in
general, consume less fresh vegetables and fruit than
higher income individuals, and significantly less than the
USDA recommended daily amounts.20 This statistic can be
tied to the aforementioned food access issues in poorer
neighborhoods.
A 2004 Community Health Survey conducted by
New York City found that 90% of New Yorkers ate fewer
than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, while
14% ate none at all. According to the survey, in the areas
with the least consumption, the neighborhoods served by
BK being among them, as many as 1 in 4 adults reported
not eating a single fruit or vegetable the previous day.
Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

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Health Risks

Poor food choices resulting from limited access to highest rates in both cases.
healthy produce can lead to a range of health issues. The
linkages between sugar and fat intake and obesity have Results from 2009 from the Center for the Study of Brooklyn
been well established. Studies such as the NYC Community concluded that the rates of poor health, obesity and diabetes
Health Survey have also shown that increased vegetable have also increased throughout the borough since 2004.
consumption reduces risks of obesity and the related health
issues such as high cholesterol and blood pressure, asthma, Asthma is another serious health risk affecting urban
and diabetes. residents. According to the Department of Health, asthma is
the leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations,
The following graphs detail the 2004 rates of obesity and and missed school days in New York City. The following
diabetes in Central Brooklyn, compared to Brooklyn and graph shows the 2009 rates of asthma for overweight/
New York City more generally. Central Brooklyn has the obese as well as underweight/normal weight residents in
Brooklyn, compared to those in the rest of New York City.22
These levels have been tied to high concentrations of air
pollutants in these areas.23

Data Source: NYC Community Health Survey 2002, 03, 04 2

Data Source: 2009 Community Health Survey, Public Data Files 4

18. Shewfelt, RL 1990a, 1990b; Klein 1987. http://www.foodsecurity.org/


UAHealthArticle.pdf (April 2011).
19. Harvard Medical School, 2010, http://chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/food/
nutrition.html (April 2011).
20. USDA, Economic Research Service. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by Low-
Income Americans. January, 2009.
21. Grow NYC, “Food Stamp Sales” 2009, http://www.grownyc.org/ebthighlights (May
2011).
22. NYC Department of Health & Mental Hygiene, 2011, http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/
html/home/home.shtml (April 2011).
23. Corburna, Osleebb, and Porterb.“Urban asthma and the neighbourhood
environment in
New York City”. 2004
Images: BK Farmyard’s Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/bkfarmyards/ (May 2011)
Inside OKDHS, http://www.okdhs.org/library/newsltr/comm/ins/nwsfeat/fssd08182010.
htm (May 2011).
Data Source: NYC Community Health Survey 2002, 03, 04 3

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Urban Agriculture and Public Health Urban Farming and Student Health

Urban agriculture is able to mitigate existing health As a youth farm and educational space, BK’s Crown Heights
problems related to limited access and poor food choices project may benefit the community in many more ways than
by providing affordable and healthy produce grown within just increasing physical health. Benefits of close proximity
the community, integrating healthy food production into the to open, green space included higher standardized test
existing food structures of the city. Organizations like BK scores, higher graduation rates, a greater desire to attend
have the added value of providing educational programs college, and fewer reports of criminal behavior.25 For
for community members, particularly for the youth, to learn example, in a controlled study of 101 high school campuses
about the benefits of healthy eating habits. in southeastern Michigan, the academic achievement and
behavior of students were found to be in direct relationship
A 2008 study on the relationship between schoolyard to natural landscape exposure.
environments and student health concluded that students
with larger schoolyards have lower body mass index (BMI) Studies conclude that being outdoors increases children’s
values than students in smaller yards, due to increased mental well-being as well as their physical health. The
physical activity.24 BK Farmyards’ youth programs provide aforementioned study on schoolyards and student health
a means of schoolyard physical activity in an applied way. found that being exposed to nature can improve test scores,
Not only do students get exercise, but they gain a sense of overall mental health and the way children and teenagers
productivity and stewardship in doing so. perceive their surroundings.26 The initiatives of BK Farmyards
allow students to experience nature as productive and
Additionally, urban agriculture initiatives can develop vacant engaging space, having a potentially positive impact on
lots, grounds for asthma inducing particles, into open green their current and future lifestyle choices.
space. This has the ability to improve air quality and reduce Students of HSPS
rates of asthma in surrounding neighborhoods.

Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

Volunteers at HSPS

Volunteers at HSPS
Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream* Image Source: Bk Farmyards’ Flickr Photostream*

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Open Space & Land Availability Conclusion

Community District 9, Brooklyn The literature review accompanying this report


shows a diverse array of health benefits accompanying
the practice of urban agriculture. BK Farmyards provides
a source of healthy food at an affordable price, but it also
provides something more. As unhealthy lifestyles are having
an observed impact on increasingly younger populations,
introducing agriculture to schools can have a resounding
influence. Growing food on a schoolyard is an opportunity
for agricultural and nutritional education at a young age,
and a chance to create lasting, healthy lifestyles. It can
also serve as a source of exercise, leadership experience,
and community engagement.

Image Source: NYC DCP, Brooklyn Comm District 9 5 Resources

Above is a chart of Land Use in Brooklyn Community


District 9 in 2009. Only 1.7% of the land in District 9 For more information about the efforts of BK:
is being used for Open Space and Recreation. There is http://bkfarmyards.com/.
potential for the 1.3% of the land that is vacant to be used
to expand the efforts of BK Farmyards. This does not include For more information of public health in New York City:
the land that is part of commercial and residential spaces http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/home/home.shtml
that have land available for garden space.28
For more information on urban agriculture:
http://www.ruaf.org/

24. Ozdemir, A., & Yilmaz, O. (2008). Assessment of outdoor school environments and
physical
activity in Ankara’s primary schools. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 287-
300.
25. Matsuoka, R. H. (2008). High school landscapes and student performance. University
of Michigan,
26. Ozdemir, A., & Yilmaz, O. (2008). Assessment of outdoor school environments and
physical
activity in Ankara’s primary schools. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 287-
300.
27. NYC Department of City Planning, 2011 http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_info/
bk09_info.shtml (April 2011).
28. ibid.

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References

1. Office of the Manhattan Borough President. Red Tape, Green Vegetables: A Plant to Improve New York City’s Regulations for Community-Based Farmers
Markets. Apr. 2010. Web. <http://www.libertycontrol.net/uploads/mbpo/RTGVReport.pdf>.

2. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Health Disparities in New York City. Apr. 2010. Web. <www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/episrv/
disparitiesone.pdf>.

3. Kish, Stacy. “Healthy, Low-Calorie Foods Cost More on Average.” National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). USDA, 19 Mar. 2008. Web. 28 Apr. 2011.
<http://www.csrees.usda.gov/newsroom/impact/2008/nri/03191_food_prices.html>.

4. Gottlieb, Robert, and Anupama Joshi. “Accessing Food.” Food Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2010.

5. “What Is Urban Agriculture? | RUAF - Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security.” The RUAF Foundation | RUAF - Resource Centres on Urban
Agriculture and Food Security. RUAF Foundation. Web. 05 Apr. 2011. <http://www.ruaf.org/node/512>.

6. “What We Do.” Bk Farmyards Blog. Bk Farmyards. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <http://bkfarmyards.blogspot.com/p/farms.html>.

7. New York State Department of Health. “ZIP Code Definitions of New York City Neighborhoods.” 2006.
http://www.health.state.ny.us/statistics/cancer/registry/appendix/neighborhoods.htm. (April 2011).

8.”OASIS Map.” NYC Open Accessible Space Information System (OASIS). Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.oasisnyc.net/map.aspx>.

9. Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. Apr. 2011.

10. Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. Apr. 2011.

11. “Kings County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.” State and County QuickFacts. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36047.
html>.

12. U.S. Census 2000, “Demographic of Brooklyn” http://www.census.gov/. Last modified April 2011.

13. ibid.

14. U.S. Census Bereau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Poverty: 2008 and 2009 American Community Suvey Briefs. Sept. 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2011. <www.census.
gov/prod/2010pubs/acsbr09-1.pdf>.

15. “Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.
nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_info/bk09_info.shtml>.

16. United States. The New York City Deparmet of Health and Mental Hygene.“Eating Well: Access to Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn NYC Health”.
Nyc.gov. By Thomas R. Frieden and Michael R. Bloomberg. Brooklyn District of Public Health, 2006. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/.../
dpho-brooklyn-report2006.pdf>.

17.United States. The New York City Deparmet of Health and Mental Hygene.“Eating Well: Access to Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn NYC Health”.
Nyc.gov. By Thomas R. Frieden and Michael R. Bloomberg. Brooklyn District of Public Health, 2006. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/.../
dpho-brooklyn-report2006.pdf>.

18. Anne, Bellows C., Brown Katherine, and Smit Jac. Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture. Rep. Web. Apr. 2011. <http://www.foodsecurity.org/UAHealthArticle.
pdf>.

19. Harvard Medical School. “Healthy and Sustainable Food” 2010, http://chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/food/nutrition.html (April 2011).

20. USDA, Economic Research Service. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by Low-Income Americans. January, 2009.

21. “Food Stamp Sales.” GrowNYC. Web. Apr. 2011. <http://www.grownyc.org/ebthighlights>.

12
22. “Childhood Asthma Initiative.” Nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Web. Apr. 2011. <http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/asthma/
asthma.shtml>.

23. Corburna, Osleebb, and Porterb.“Urban asthma and the neighbourhood environment in
New York City”. 2004

24. Ozdemir, A., & Yilmaz, O. (2008). Assessment of outdoor school environments and physical
activity in Ankara’s primary schools. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 287-300.

25.Matsuoka, R. H. (2008). High school landscapes and student performance. University of Michigan.

26. Ozdemir, A., & Yilmaz, O. (2008). Assessment of outdoor school environments and physical
activity in Ankara’s primary schools. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 287-300.

27.”Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.nyc.
gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_info/bk09_info.shtml>.

27. ibid.

28. Kuo, Frances E. and Taylor, Andrea F. “A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence From a National Study”. American
Journal of Public Health. 94. (2004). 1580-1586.

Images:

1. Community Board No. 9 Brooklyn. The City of New York. Web. May 2011. <http://www.communitybrd9bklyn.org/listb_ rooklynm
_ apsn_ ew.asp>

2. Blog, “Get Out What You Put In” Beet Tattoo. <http://gorp.typepad.com/the_great_gorp_project/2009/08/index.html> (May 2011).

3. Reynolds, Kristin. ” New School Students at BKF” April 2011.

4. Inside OKDHS. “EBT at Farmers Market” 2011. <http://www.okdhs.org/library/newsltr/comm/ins/nwsfeat/fssd08182010.htm>.

5. BK Farmyards’ Flickr. “Various Images”. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/bkfarmyards> (All starred * images)

Graphs

1. Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.nyc.
gov/html/dcp/html/neigh_info/bk09_info.shtml>.

2. NYC Community Health Survey 2002, 03, 04, 2010. < http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/survey/survey.shtml>.

3. ibid.

4. NYC Department of Health & Mental Hygiene, 2011, http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/home/home.shtml (April 2011).

5. Brooklyn Community District 9 - New York City Department of City Planning.” New York City Community Portal. Nyc.gov. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.nyc.

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