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www.elsevier.com/locate/jprocont

control structure for MIMO processes with time delays

a,*

Tao Liu , Weidong Zhang a, Furong Gao b

a

Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

b

Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Received 27 February 2006; received in revised form 14 August 2006; accepted 25 August 2006

Abstract

An analytical decoupling control method is proposed for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) processes with multiple time

delays. The desired diagonal system transfer matrix is proposed ﬁrst in terms of the H2 optimal performance speciﬁcation, resulting

in the ideal desired decoupling controller matrix derived within the framework of a unity feedback control structure. It is demonstrated

that dead-time compensators must be enclosed in the decoupling controller matrix to realize absolute decoupling for MIMO processes

with multiple time delays. To alleviate the diﬃculties associated with the implementation, the ideal desired decoupling controller matrix is

transformed into a practical form using an analytical approximation approach. Correspondingly, the stability of the resultant control

system is assessed, together with its robust stability in the presence of process uncertainties. An on-line tuning rule for the single adjust-

able parameter of each column controllers in the decoupling controller matrix is given to cope with the process unmodeled dynamics.

Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the superiority of the proposed method over the recently improved decoupling control

methods.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: MIMO process; Time delay; Decoupling; H2 optimal performance speciﬁcation; Analytical approximation; Robust stability

istic equation of such a system transfer function matrix,

Eﬀective control of multivariable processes is a diﬃcult and then extended some previous decoupling/decentralized

issue in the context of process control. Because of loop control methods developed for linear multivariable systems

interactions, well established control methods for single- without time delay. Improved tuning capacity within the

input–single-output (SISO) systems can hardly be extended framework of a multivariable SP structure have been

to multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems [1,2]. reported [6,7] in terms of frequency response speciﬁcations

Besides, due to the existence of multiple time delays in such such as ultimate frequency and magnitude/phase margins.

a multivariable process, high gains are kept from being In contrast, based on the internal model control (IMC)

used in the individual control loops, resulting in sluggish structure [8], essentially similar to an SP structure,

system response and degraded decoupling regulation enhanced decoupling control methods have been proposed

[3,4]. Many diﬀerent control strategies have been developed [9–11] using some numerical optimization algorithms in

to overcome the aforementioned obstacles. On the basis of frequency domain. Subsequently, an analytical tuning

successful application of the Smith predictor (abbr. SP) for method [12] was derived to relieve such a computation

SISO systems, earlier literature [3,5] applied SP to MIMO eﬀort. About the same time, on-line sequential tuning

methods using frequency response data obtained from

*

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 21 34202019. relay feedback tests have been reported [13–16], while the

E-mail address: liurouter@ieee.org (T. Liu). simultaneous auto-tuning methods [17–19] have also been

0959-1524/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jprocont.2006.08.010

174 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

presented for some industrial multivariable processes with in the decoupling controller matrix are established to check

time delays. Owing to the primary requirement of decou- the closed-loop system stability in the presence of process

pling regulation for many industrial MIMO processes, a additive/multiplicative uncertainties. A corresponding

large number of existing methods utilized a decoupler aug- on-line tuning rule is also provided. Illustrative examples

mented to such a MIMO process to procure diagonal dom- are given in Section 6 to demonstrate the superiority of

inance of the system transfer matrix, and then conﬁgured the proposed method. Finally, conclusions are drawn in

the decentralized controllers by means of some up-to-date Section 7.

decentralized/multiloop control methods. For example,

recent Refs. [20–23] presented some decoupling control 2. Decoupling control preconditions

strategies based on dynamic decouplers, while the static

decoupler, i.e. the inverse of the process static gain transfer Consider the general transfer matrix form for a MIMO

matrix, was adopted in the recent literature [24–26]. How- process with time delays as the following:

ever, the requirements of properness and causality for 2 3

g11 g1m

implementation make it diﬃcult for dynamic decouplers 6 .

G¼6 .. .. 7

7

to be conﬁgured precisely, especially for MIMO processes 4 .. . . 5; ð1Þ

with high dimension or large time delays [13,20]. A static

gm1 gmm

decoupler, on the other hand, does not aﬀect dynamic

decoupling for the resultant system. It should be noted that where gij ¼ g0;ij ehij s ; i, j = 1, 2, . . . , m, of which g0,ij is a de-

although recently enhanced multiloop/decentralized con- lay-free, physically proper and stable transfer function. The

trol methods, e.g. Refs. [27–30], can achieve remarkable application of the widely adopted unity feedback control

improvement in system performance, tuning of the loop structure to the process is illustrated in Fig. 1, where di

controllers aims at the compromise between achievable sys- and do represent respectively load disturbances injected

tem performance and cross-interaction level among indi- into the process inputs and outputs, and n the system out-

vidual loops. This, inevitably, leads to performance put measurement noises. The closed-loop system transfer

degradation when compared to a MIMO control system matrix can be determined as

with a full controller matrix [4,8]. Therefore, when high

H ¼ GCðI þ GCÞ1 : ð2Þ

performance of both system response and decoupling regu-

lation is required, decoupling control strategies are pre- The decoupled system response transfer matrix, ideally,

ferred in engineering practice. should be in the form of

Recently, Wang et al. [31] presented a decoupling con- 2 3

h11 0 0

troller matrix design method within the framework of a 6 0 h

6 22 0 0 77

unity feedback control structure. By proposing a desirable 6 7;

H ¼6 .. .. .. 7 ð3Þ

system response transfer matrix, the executable decoupling 4 0 . . . 0 5

controller matrix was derived using a recursive-least-square

0 0 hmm

(RLS) optimization algorithm. Obvious improvement in

both system response and decoupling regulation can be where hii is a physically proper and stable transfer function,

found over other decoupling control methods developed and hij = 0 for i 5 j, i, j = 1, 2, . . . , m. That is, H should be a

recently. However, the numerical computation eﬀort seems non-singular diagonal transfer matrix, i.e., H = diag[hii]m·m

burdensome for practical implementation, and evaluation and det(H) 5 0.

of the control system robust stability was left open despite Combining Eqs. (2) and (3), the fundamental decoupling

that it is common to be faced with process uncertainties in precondition can be ascertained as det[G(0)] 5 0, i.e., the

practice. Based on the analytical controller design devel- multivariable process to be regulated must be non-singular

oped recently [12,32], this paper proposes a new analytical in essence, or in other words, not ill-conditioned. Many

design method for the decoupling controller matrix. As a existing decoupling control methods had based exactly on

result, the computation eﬀort can be relieved signiﬁcantly the process static gain matrix G(0) for the decoupler design.

and the resultant decoupling controller matrix can be con- This paper focuses on MIMO processes with det[G(0)] 5 0,

veniently tuned on line to cope with process uncertainties. that is, the process output responses deserve to be decou-

Besides, an intuitive approach in terms of the multivariable pled from each other in essence.

spectral radius criterion is presented for robust stability

analysis of the resultant control system. The paper is orga-

nized as follows: Section 2 brieﬂy introduces the decoupling

control preconditions for MIMO processes. In Section 3, di do

the desired system response transfer matrix is proposed r u y

C G

according to the H2 optimal performance speciﬁcation. -

The ideal desired decoupling controller matrix and its prac- n

tical form are derived analytically in Section 4. In Section

5, robust constraints for tuning the adjustable parameters Fig. 1. Conventional unity feedback control structure.

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 175

It can be seen from Eq. (2) that the controller matrix C It can be seen from Eq. (5) that each column controllers of

should be non-singular and bear the responsibility for C are related to the same diagonal element of H, i.e., all of

keeping (I + GC)1 stable. Furthermore, to make system cji (j = 1, 2, . . . , m) are corresponding to the same diagonal

operation easier, there should be no cross-interaction transfer function hii for i = 1, 2, . . . , m. Note that hi in Eq.

between tuning each column controllers of C since each (9) is positive, which can be identiﬁed through Eq. (6) using

column controllers have the same input signal and there the algebra of linear matrix. Some or even all of the ith col-

exists a mathematical postmultiplication relationship umn controllers cji (j = 1, 2, . . . , m) may not be physically

between G and C. Thereby, decoupling regulation for indi- realizable if the desired diagonal transfer function hii for

vidual system output variables can be conveniently imple- the ith system output response does not include an equiva-

mented on line. lent time delay to oﬀset hi. Also, it can be seen from Eq. (5)

that if the relative degree of the delay-free part of hii were

3. Desired system response transfer matrix lower than Ni, some or even all of cji (j = 1, 2, . . . , m) would

not be proper and thus cannot be physically implemented.

For a multivariable process, the achievable system out- In addition, det(G) may contain RHP zeros and if hii does

put responses are constrained by the process time delays not include these RHP zeros, each of cji (j = 1, 2, . . . , m)

and right-half-plane (RHP) zeros of the process transfer would be bundled with unstable poles, which is not allowed

matrix determinant [4,8]. What is the optimal desired sys- in practice.

tem response transfer matrix corresponding to the achiev- Considering the H2 optimal performance speciﬁcation

able system output responses? If this problem can be of IMC theory [8] with the above implementation con-

explicitly ascertained in the ﬁrst place, the ideal desired straints, the practical desired diagonal elements of the

decoupling controller matrix can then be inversely derived system response transfer matrix are proposed in the form

within the framework of a unity feedback control structure. of

Note that the inverse of H in Eq. (3) is also a diagonal Yqi

ehi s s þ zk

transfer matrix. Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (2), we obtain hii ¼ ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m; ð10Þ

ðki s þ 1Þ i k¼1 s þ zk

N

the following controller matrix:

1 1 1 adjðGÞ hii where ki is an adjustable parameter set for obtaining the

C ¼ G ðH IÞ ¼ diag ; ð4Þ

detðGÞ 1 hii mm desirable response performance for the ith process output

T variable, and zk (k = 1, 2, . . . , qi) are the RHP zeros of

where adjðGÞ ¼ ½Gij mm is the adjoint of the process trans- det(G) excluding those canceled by the common RHP zeros

fer matrix G, and Gij denotes the complement minor corre- of Gij (j = 1, 2, . . . , m), and qi is their number and zk the

sponding to each transfer element gij of G. Denote the complex conjugate of zk.

controller matrix C = [cij]m·m. According to the postmulti- With the above practical desired diagonal elements

plication relationship between a square matrix and a diag- shown in Eq. (10), it can be ascertained from Eqs. (5)–(9)

onal matrix, each column controllers of C can be derived as that at least one of each column controllers of C can be

Gij hii physically implemented in a proper and rational form,

cji ¼ ; i; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m: ð5Þ while the others of the corresponding column controllers

detðGÞ 1 hii

can be practically implemented in series with some speciﬁed

Let dead-time compensators. Thus, the desired diagonal system

response transfer matrix shown in Eq. (3) can be realized,

Gij resulting in decoupling regulation for the individual system

pij ¼ ¼ p0;ij eLij s ; i; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m; ð6Þ

detðGÞ output variables.

where p0,ij represents the ‘delay-free’ part of pij, that is, at The RHP zero number of det(G) can be ascertained

least one term in either of the nominator and denominator by observing its Nyquist curve. For the case of det(G)

polynomials of p0,ij does not include any time delay and with no RHP pole, the number of its Nyquist curve

thus is rational. It can be seen from Eqs. (4) and (6) that encircling the origin is equal to its RHP zero number

T

G1 ¼ ½pij mm . according to the Nyquist stability criterion. Alterna-

Deﬁne the ‘inverse relative degree’ of p0,ij to be nij tively, the RHP zeros of det(G) can be explicitly com-

(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , m), that is, the largest integer that satisﬁes puted using numerical solutions or any mathematical

software package.

snij 1 For MIMO processes with multiple time delays, det(G)

lim ¼0 ð7Þ

s!1 p0;ij may has inﬁnite many RHP zeros due to multiple time

delay terms involved. In the case that det(G) has inﬁnite

and let many RHP zeros but ﬁnite left-half-plane (LHP) zeros,

the desired system transfer matrix are proposed with the

N i ¼ maxfnij ; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; mg; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m; ð8Þ

following diagonal elements

hi ¼ maxfLij ; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; mg; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m: ð9Þ

176 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

/ðsÞeðhmax hmin Þs Y

qi

ehi s s zk characteristic equation actually have little impact on the

hii ¼ Ni ; achievable system performance.

ðki s þ 1Þ /ðsÞ k¼1

s zk

To sum up, the desired diagonal system response trans-

i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m; ð11Þ fer matrix forms are listed in Table 1 according to four pos-

sible cases of the RHP zero distribution of det(G) in the

where zk (k = 1, 2, . . . , qi) denote the ﬁnite LHP zeros of complex plane.

det(G) excluding those equal to the complex conjugates

of the common RHP zeros of Gij (j = 1, 2, . . . , m), and hmin

4. Decoupling controller matrix design

is the minimum of all the time delay factors involved in

det(G) and hmax is the corresponding maximum. /(s) is de-

According to the proposed diagonal system response

ﬁned from the following reformulation of det(G), i.e.

transfer matrix listed in Table 1, the ideal desired decou-

pling controller matrix C can be derived by using Eq. (5).

/ðsÞehmin s

detðGÞ ¼ ; For instance, with Case 2 that det(G) has ﬁnite RHP zeros,

wðsÞ each column controllers of the ideal desired decoupling

controller matrix can be derived as

where w(s) is the least common denominator of all terms of

det(G), and /(s) is the corresponding numerator polyno- ehi s

Qqi sþzk

Gij ðki sþ1ÞN i k¼1 sþz

mial, in which there exists at least one term that does not cideal;ji ¼ hi s

k

Qqi sþz ;

contain any time delay and thus is rational. Apparently, detðGÞ 1 e

Ni k¼1 sþz

k

ðki sþ1Þ k

det(G) has the same zeros with /(s). i; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m: ð12Þ

Note that /(s) in Eq. (11) is the complex conjugate of

/(s) and all the zeros of /(s) are located at the mirror

points of /(s) across the imaginary axis in the complex For a MIMO process with multiple time delays, it can be

plane. In fact, it can be seen that /(s) may include time seen from Eq. (6) that the ﬁrst part of Eq. (12) is not a ra-

prediction factors that are not allowed in a physical all-pass tional transfer function and thus diﬃcult to be imple-

ﬁlter, of which hmax hmin is the maximal time prediction mented in practice. In addition, the RHP zeros of det(G)

length. The second part of hii shown in Eq. (11), will cause RHP zero-pole cancellation in Eq. (12), trigger-

ing the decoupling controller matrix to behave in an unsta-

/ðsÞeðhmax hmin Þs Y

qi

s zk ble manner. A practical form is therefore required to

transform the ideal desired form of Eq. (12) for

/ðsÞ s zk

k¼1 implementation.

Using Eqs. (6)–(9), we rearrange Eq. (12) in the form

thus can be ideally viewed as an all-pass ﬁlter, contributing of

to achieving the H2 optimal performance speciﬁcation for

system output response. It should be noted that there inev- Dij eðhi Lij Þs 1

itably exists RHP zero-pole cancellation in this ﬁlter, cji ¼ N i Qqi

ehi s

Qqi sþzk ;

ðki s þ 1Þ k¼1 ðs þ zk Þ 1 ðk sþ1ÞN i k¼1 sþz

which, however, cannot be removed directly from the i k

approximate it for implementation. For this reason, an

analytical approximation method will be presented in Sec- where ki becomes the common adjustable parameter of

tion 4. Besides, it should be noted that although det[G(s)]/ each column controllers in C and

det[G(s)] can be directly utilized to conﬁgure the all-pass Y

qi

part of these diagonal elements, an additional all-pass ﬁl- Dij ¼ p0;ij ðs þ zk Þ: ð14Þ

ter, w(s)/w(s), will be unfavorably introduced, which k¼1

tends to degrade the achievable system performance and Note that the second part of cji has the following

thus is not recommended. properties:

For the case that det(G) has inﬁnite number of RHP and

LHP zeros, it is suggested to use those dominant RHP 1

zeros of det(G) to construct the desired system response

lim

s!1 e Yqi s þ zk ¼ 1;

hi s

ð15Þ

transfer matrix. This will facilitate the decoupling control- 1 k¼1 s þ z

ðki s þ 1ÞN i k

ler matrix to be analytically derived in a simple way, but at

1

the cost of certain system performance. Hence, a balance lim

s!0 ehi s Yqi s þ zk ¼ 1: ð16Þ

needs to be made by the users between the achievable con- 1 N k¼1 s þ z

trol system performance and the calculation complexity for ðki s þ 1Þ i k

deriving the corresponding controller matrix and its cost of

implementation. According to the frequency domain con- Thus it can be viewed as a special integrator with relative

trol theory, e.g. [4], oﬀ-dominant zeros of a control system degree of zero that is capable of eliminating the steady-

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 177

Table 1

Ideal desired forms of system response transfer matrix and decoupling controller matrix

det(G) hii (i = 1, 2, . . . , m) cji (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , m)

Case 1 No RHP zero Dij eðhi Lij Þs 1

ehi s ; Dij ¼ p0;ij :

ðki s þ 1ÞN i ehi s

ðki s þ 1ÞN i 1

ðki s þ 1ÞN i

[zk (k = 1, 2, . . . , qi) = the RHP Dij eðhi Lij Þs 1

zeros excluding those canceled Qi Yqi s þ zk ;

ðki s þ 1ÞN i qk¼1 ðs þ zk Þ ehi s

by the common RHP zeros of Y

qi 1

Gij(j = 1, 2, . . . , m)]

ehi s s þ zk ðki s þ 1ÞN i k¼1 s þ z

k

Case 3 Inﬁnite RHP and LHP zeros ðki s þ 1Þ k¼1 s þ zk

Ni

Y

qi

[zk (k = 1, 2, . . . , qi) = the Dij ¼ p0;ij ðs þ zk Þ:

dominant RHP zeros excluding k¼1

those canceled by the common

RHP zeros of

Gij (j = 1, 2, . . . , m)]

ehi s /ðsÞeðhmax hmin Þs

Ni

Case 4 Inﬁnite RHP but ﬁnite LHP ðki s þ 1Þ /ðsÞ Gij Dij wðsÞeðhmin hi Þs 1

zeros [zk (k = 1, 2, . . . , qi) = the Y s zk

q Qi ;

ðki s þ 1ÞN i qk¼1 Dij /ðsÞehi s

i

LHP zeros excluding those ðs zk Þ

1 Q

equal to the complex conjugates k¼1

s zk ðki s þ 1ÞN i qk¼1

i

ðs zk Þ

of the common RHP zeros of

Gij (j = 1, 2, . . . , m)] eðhmax hmin Þs Y

qi

Dij ¼ ðs zk Þ:

/ðsÞ k¼1

mented using a positive feedback control unit as shown

in Fig. 2. +

For Dij in Eq. (13), the linear fractional Padé expansion

has been shown to be able to approximate the similar func- h ii

tion with high accuracy [12,32], so it is adopted here for Dij

Fig. 2. Positive feedback control unit.

by

PU

ak s k

DU =V ¼ Pk¼0

V ; ð17Þ

k

k¼0 bk s where dk (k = 0, 1, . . . , U + V) are the constant coeﬃcients

of each term in the Maclaurin expansion series of Dij

where U and V are the user-speciﬁed orders to achieve the shown in Eq. (14), i.e.,

desirable system response performance speciﬁcation, and

the constant coeﬃcients ak and bk are determined by the 1 d k Dij

dk ¼ lim ; k ¼ 0; 1; . . . ; U þ V ð20Þ

following two matrix equations: k! s!0 dsk

a0 d0 0 0 0 b0

6 7 6 76 7

6 a1 7 6 d 1 d0 0 0 7 6 7 1; bk P 0;

6 7 6 76 b1 7 b0 ¼ ð21Þ

6 7¼6 76 7; ð18Þ 1; bk < 0:

6 .. 7 6 .. .. .. .. 76 .. 7

6 . 7 6 . . 76 7

4 5 4 . . 54 . 5

It should be noted that Eqs. (18) and (19) can be ob-

aU d U d U 1 d U 2 d U V bV tained by substituting Eq. (17) into the Maclaurin expan-

2 32 3 2 3 sion series of Dij and then comparing the constant

dU d U 1 d U V þ1 b1 d U þ1

6 76 7 6 7 coeﬃcients of the complex variable at both sides of the

6 d U þ1 dU d U V þ2 76 7 6 d U þ2 7

6 76 b2 7 6 7 equation.

6 76 7 6 7

6 .. .. .. .. 76 .. 7 ¼ 6 .. 7; ð19Þ

6 . . . 76

. 54 . 5 7 6 7 Remark. Note that a physical constraint for specifying U

4 4 . 5

and V, U V 6 Ni + qi, is required so that cji obtained by

d U þV 1 d U þV 2 dU bV d U þV substituting Eq. (17) into Eq. (13) can be proper and

178 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

realizable. Generally, V may be speciﬁed ﬁrst and then U For the nominal control system, it can be derived from

can be taken by U = V + Ni + qi so as to obtain the best Fig. 1 that the transfer matrix from the system inputs r, di,

approximation level. From a mathematical point of view, do and n to the outputs y and u is

2 3

r

" #

y GCðI þ GCÞ1 ðI þ GCÞ1 G I GCðI þ GCÞ1 GCðI þ GCÞ1 6d 7

6 i7

¼ 6 7: ð22Þ

u CðI þ GCÞ

1

CðI þ GCÞ G

1

CðI þ GCÞ

1

CðI þ GCÞ

1 4 do 5

n

it is preferred to reformulate p0,ij in Eq. (6) ﬁrst in the form It can be seen that r, do and n have similar impact on y and

of u. Hence, the stability analysis for the nominal system can

aðsÞ½1 þ g1 ðsÞer1 s þ þ gml ðsÞerml s be limited to the submatrix connecting r and di to y and u.

p0;ij ¼ ; In view of that G has been assumed to be non-singular and

bðsÞ½1 þ n1 ðsÞed1 s þ þ nmm ðsÞedmm s

stable, and that there exists an equivalent transformation

where a(s) and b(s) are rational polynomials, rk > 0 GC(I + GC)1 = I (I + GC)1, the suﬃcient and neces-

(k = 1, 2, . . . , m l), dk > 0 (k = 1, 2, . . . , m m), l < m sary condition for holding the nominal system stability

and m < m. U then can be taken initially as the order of can be concluded as that (I + GC)1 must be stable, which

a(s) and V the order of b(s), in view of that those terms may be checked graphically by using the Nyquist curve cri-

with time delays in the nominator and denominator decay terion, or numerically by computing whether det(I + GC)

much faster than a(s) and b(s) as s ! 1. It is obvious that has any RHP zeros.

increasing the orders of U and V will result in better In the presence of process uncertainties, the transfer

approximation level, but at the cost of higher computation matrix in Eq. (22) could become very complex and the

effort and implementation complexity. closed-loop control system may lose stability in an

As for the choice of b0 in Eq. (21), the purpose here is to intangible manner. How to assess all of the stabilizing set

keep all of bk (k = 0, 1, . . . , V) the same sign so as to exclude of C for various process uncertainties is diﬃcult and

any possibility of RHP zeros in the denominator of DU/V in has remained as an open issue in the process control

Eq. (17). This is a necessary but not sufﬁcient condition. community [4,33]. Here, the robust stability analysis is

The existence of such RHP zeros may be identiﬁed by the focused on the process additive, multiplicative input and

Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion. It is therefore suggested output uncertainties, which are commonly encountered

to utilize the Routh–Hurwitz criterion (or its simpliﬁed in engineering practice. Usually, the process additive

version [34]) to check the stability of such a high order uncertainties, shown in Fig. 3(a), can be viewed as param-

approximation before being used in practice. Nevertheless, eter perturbation to the process transfer matrix and the

_

the proposed approximation in terms of V 6 2 can be actual process family may be described as P A ¼ fG A ðsÞ :

_

directly utilized without such exercise, and thus is recom- GA ðsÞ ¼ GðsÞ þ DA g, where DA is assumed to be stable.

mended in engineering practice for simplicity. The process multiplicative input uncertainties, shown in

For other cases of the RHP zero distribution of det(G) Fig. 3(b), can be loosely interpreted as the process input

as categorized in Section 3, the desired decoupling control- actuator uncertainties _and the_ actual process family may

ler matrix can be derived analytically following a similar be described as PI ¼ fGI ðsÞ : GI ðsÞ ¼ GðsÞðI þ DI Þg, where

design procedure as the above. They are summarized in DI is assumed to be stable. The process multiplicative out-

Table 1, in which Dij of each case can be approximated put uncertainties, shown in Fig. 3(c), can be practically

in a rational form for implementation using Eqs. (17)–(21). viewed as the process output measurement uncertainties

and

_

the actual

_

process family may be described as PO ¼

5. Control system stability analysis fGO ðsÞ : GO ðsÞ ¼ ðI þ DO ÞGðsÞg, where DO is assumed to

be stable. Note that many other types of process

As analytical approximation is utilized to transform the unstructured or structured uncertainties may be incor-

ideal desired decoupling controller matrix in Table 1 for porated into the above-mentioned types of pro-

implementation, the stability of the resultant control sys- cess uncertainties in practice [4]. Hence, the robust

tem needs to be checked. Besides, there exist always the stability analysis presented in the following, without loss

process unmodeled dynamics in practice. Evaluation of of generality, can be applied to a wide variety of process

the control system robust stability needs to be conducted uncertainties.

in the presence of process uncertainties, and correspond- By reorganizing the perturbed control system in the

ingly, on-line tuning of the adjustable parameters in the form of the standard M D structure for robustness anal-

decoupling controller matrix needs to be studied to cope ysis [33], the transfer matrix from the outputs to inputs of

with the process uncertainties. DA, DI and DO can be derived respectively as

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 179

ΔA

ΔI ΔO

v v v

u + y u + y y′ + y

G G G

Fig. 3. The process additive (a), multiplicative input (b), and output (c) uncertainties.

1

M A ¼ CðI þ GCÞ ; ð23Þ Combined with Eq. (10), it can be seen that with small

1

adjustable parameter ki in the decoupling controller matrix

M I ¼ CðI þ GCÞ G; ð24Þ C, the corresponding ith system output response becomes

M O ¼ GCðI þ GCÞ :

1

ð25Þ faster, but the output energy of the ith column controllers

of C and their corresponding actuators grows larger, tend-

Note that MA, MI and MO hold stability provided that ing to surpass their output capacities in practice. Besides,

the nominal control system has been conducted more aggressive dynamic behavior of the ith system output

stable, i.e., the transfer matrix in Eq. (22) has been guarded response is likely to occur in the presence of process uncer-

stable. tainties. On the contrary, increasing ki will slow down the

Then using the small gain theorem, the robust stability corresponding ith system output response, but the output

constraints can be obtained as energy of the ith column controllers of C and their corre-

sponding actuators will be required smaller. Consequently,

1 1 less aggressive dynamic behavior of the ith system output

kCðI þ GCÞ k1 < ; ð26Þ

kDA k1 response will be yield in the presence of process uncertain-

1 1 ties. Therefore, tuning the adjustable parameters ki

kCðI þ GCÞ Gk1 < ; ð27Þ

kDI k1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , m) is a trade-oﬀ between the achievable system

1 response performance and the output capacities of C and

1

kGCðI þ GCÞ k1 < : ð28Þ its corresponding actuators.

kDO k1

Based on the robust stability analysis and our simula-

The robust stability constraints shown in Eqs. (26)– tion experience, it is suggested to set the adjustable param-

(28), however, are not analytical and the computation eters ki (i = 1, 2, . . . , m) within the range of (1.0–10)hi

eﬀort for H inﬁnity norm is considerably large, espe- initially, and then adjust them monotonously on line to

cially for MIMO processes with multiple time delays. achieve a desirable speciﬁcation of system output

To relieve the computation burden, the equivalent rela- responses.

tionship between the small gain theorem and the multivar- To cope with the process uncertainties, it is suggested to

iable spectral radius stability criterion [4] can be explored, increase monotonously the adjustable parameters ki

i.e., (i = 1, 2, . . . , m) of C on line, so that the nominal system

response will be gradually slowed down for better system

kMDk1 < 1 () qðMDÞ < 1 8x 2 ½0; 1Þ: robust stability. If by doing so, the control system perfor-

mance and robust stability are still not acceptable, the pro-

Thereby, the above robust stability constraints can be

cess re-identiﬁcation will need to be conducted to obtain a

reformulated respectively as

better process model for the derivation of C, so that the

1

qðCðI þ GCÞ DA Þ < 1 8x 2 ½0; 1Þ; ð29Þ process unmodeled dynamics can be eﬀectively reduced to

1

qðCðI þ GCÞ GDI Þ < 1 8x 2 ½0; 1Þ; ð30Þ

qðGCðI þ GCÞ1 DO Þ < 1 8x 2 ½0; 1Þ: ð31Þ

shown in Eqs. (29)–(31) can be checked graphically by

observing whether the magnitude plots of the left sides of

Eqs. (29)–(31) fall below the unity for all x 2 [0, +1). In

this way, the admissible tuning range of the adjustable

parameters of the decoupling controller matrix C can be

numerically ascertained. With a given bound of DA, DI or

DO, Eqs. (29)–(31) may be employed to evaluate the control

system robust stability. Even though the precise forms of

these uncertainties are usually not available in practice,

they may be characterized in the forms similar to those

illustrated in Section 6. Fig. 4. Nyquist curve of the transfer matrix determinant of Example 1.

180 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

2 3

achieve better nominal system performance and robust 1:986e0:71s 5:24e60s 5:984e2:24s

stability. 6 66:7s þ 1 400s þ 1 14:29s þ 1 7

6 7

6 7

6 0:0204e0:59s 0:33e0:68s 2:38e0:42s 7

6. Illustrative examples 6 7

G¼6 2 7:

6 ð7:14s þ 1Þ ð2:38s þ 1Þ2 ð1:43s þ 1Þ2 7

6 7

Two widely studied examples are employed here to dem- 6 7

4 0:374e7:75s 11:3e3:79s 9:811e1:59s 5

onstrate the eﬀectiveness and superiority of the proposed 22:22s þ 1 ð21:74s þ 1Þ2 11:36s þ 1

decoupling control method. The ﬁrst example is used for

the case that the process transfer matrix determinant has

The Nyquist curve of the process transfer matrix determi-

no RHP zero, and the second example is for one of the

nant is drawn in Fig. 4. It is seen that the Nyquist curve

opposite cases.

does not encircle the origin, so there is no RHP zero in

Example 1. Consider the widely studied 3 · 3 industrial det(G). Using Eq. (6) yields L11 = 0.71, L12 = 0.8,

distillation column [35] L13 = 1.4. Thus, h1 = 0.8 can be obtained from Eq. (9).

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 181

be derived from Eq. (8). Similarly, the use of Eqs. (6)–(9)

can yield h2 = 0.68, h3 = 1.85 and N2 = 2, N3 = 1. Accord-

ing to the design formula for Case 1 in Table 1, the diago-

nal elements of the desired system response transfer matrix

are obtained as

h11 ¼ ; h22 ¼ 2

; h33 ¼ :

k1 s þ 1 ðk2 s þ 1Þ k3 s þ 1

derived using the analytical design formulae given in

Table 1 and Eqs. (17)–(21). Wang’s method [31] had

demonstrated its superiority over many existing decou-

pling control methods for this process, and thus is Fig. 6. Magnitude plots of spectral radius for Example 1.

adopted here for comparison. To obtain the similar con-

troller orders with those of Wang’s method for a fair com- here for benchmark comparison as well as in Wang et al.

parison, the following executable controller matrix form is [31]. By adding a unit step change at t = 0, t = 200 and

given: t = 400 to the ternary setpoint inputs respectively, and a

c11 ¼ f1 e ;

ðk1 s þ 1Þð438:7353s þ 1Þ

12391s3 þ 746:2116s2 þ 9:7508s þ 0:0199

c21 ¼ f1 ;

ðk1 s þ 1Þð3940:3s2 þ 447:8424s þ 1Þ

1736:5s3 21:7287s2 0:8474s 0:002 2:2s

c31 ¼ f1 e ;

ðk1 s þ 1Þð4815:4s2 þ 449:8302s þ 1Þ

4773900s6 6620600s5 3286200s4 532380s3 41045s2 526:1791s 0:296 3:73s

c12 ¼ f2 2

e ;

ðk2 s þ 1Þ ð611700s4 þ 109510s3 þ 12128s2 þ 465:9313s þ 1Þ

13471000s6 þ 3306200s5 þ 892990s4 þ 117120s3 þ 6709:9s2 þ 142:0148s þ 0:3149

c22 ¼ f2 2

;

ðk2 s þ 1Þ ð336570s4 þ 33465s3 þ 9959:2s2 þ 461:3811s þ 1Þ

197040s5 104730s4 29099s3 4024:9s2 171:9233s 0:374 2:2s

c32 ¼ f2 e ;

ðk2 s þ 1Þ2 ð257300s4 þ 55907s3 þ 10254s2 þ 461:9346s þ 1Þ

400930s4 þ 33536s3 þ 1342:3s2 þ 31:5279s þ 0:2638 1:79s

c13 ¼ f3 e ;

ðk3 s þ 1Þð33025s3 þ 3869:9s2 þ 447:5041s þ 1Þ

16790s3 þ 1582:9s2 þ 39:2646s þ 0:0885

c23 ¼ f3 ;

ðk3 s þ 1Þð511:4853s2 þ 440:0233s þ 1Þ

2195s3 þ 212:3057s2 þ 5:2157s þ 0:01 0:26s

c33 ¼ f3 e ;

ðk3 s þ 1Þð1319:1s2 þ 441:8636s þ 1Þ

1 1 1 to each of the ternary process inputs at t = 600 simulta-

f1 ¼ 0:8s ; f2 ¼ 0:68s ; f3 ¼ 1:85s :

1 ke1 sþ1 1 ðke sþ1Þ2 1 ek3 sþ1 neously, we obtain the system responses shown in Fig. 5.

2

It should be noted that the simulation solver option is cho-

Note that f1, f2 and f3 can be implemented respectively

sen as ode5 (Dormand-Prince) and the simulation step size

using the feedback control unit shown in Fig. 2. The

is ﬁxed as 0.02 throughout this paper.

adjustable parameters are taken as k1 = 15, k2 = 12 and

k3 = 18 to have the similar rising speed of the system out- From Fig. 5, it is clearly seen that there is no overshoot

put responses with Wang’s method. It should be mentioned in the setpoint responses by using the proposed method,

that although a unit step change of the setpoint inputs is and the ternary process output responses are almost decou-

seldom adopted in engineering practice, it is performed pled from each other. Moreover, obviously improved load

182 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

disturbance rejection performance is obtained. It should be To demonstrate robustness of the proposed method, the

noted that better nominal system performance for the set- same perturbation tests are conducted as in Wang et al.

point tracking and the load disturbance rejection can be [31], that is, all the static gains of each element in the pro-

conveniently obtained in the proposed method by gradually cess transfer matrix are actually 40% larger, and in another

decreasing the adjustable parameters k1, k2 and k3 on line, case, all the time constants of each element in the process

or by using a higher order controller matrix form that can transfer matrix are assumed 40% larger to introduce the

be analytically obtained using the design formulae Eqs. unmodeled dynamics. According to the robust stability

(17)–(21). Besides, it should be mentioned that conventional analysis given in Section 5, the magnitude plots of spectral

PID controllers are not capable of obtaining acceptable radius for identifying robust stability of the corresponding

system response performance or even cannot stabilize the perturbed systems are shown in Fig. 6. It can be seen that

system output responses, due to the petty approximation both of the peak values (dotted and dash dot lines) are

capacity for the ideal desired decoupling controller matrix much less than the unity, indicating that the proposed

shown in Table 1. The same conclusion was illustrated in control system facilitates good robust stability. Corre-

Wang et al. [31] by using the Nyquist curve comparison. spondingly, the perturbed system responses are provided

Fig. 7. Perturbed system responses for Example 1 due to the process static gains (a) and time constants (b) variation.

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 183

respectively in Fig. 7(a) and (b). Note that Fig. 7(a) has

demonstrated also that the process static gains perturba-

tion does not aﬀect decoupling regulation of the system

output responses, as can be concluded from the analytical

controller matrix design procedure given in Section 4.

The corresponding ternary control outputs have varied lit-

tle compared with those shown in Fig. 5, and thus are omit-

ted for saving space.

To demonstrate robust stability of the proposed control

system against the process multiplicative uncertainties,

assume that there actually exist the process multiplicative

input uncertainties DI = diag[(s + 0.3)/(s + 1), (s + 0.2)/

(s + 1), (s + 0.2)/(s + 1)]3·3. This can be loosely interpreted

as the ﬁrst process input actuator has up to 100% uncer-

tainty at high frequencies and almost 30% uncertainty in

the low frequency range, while the other two process inputs

increase by up to 100% uncertainty at high frequencies and

by almost 20% uncertainty in the low frequency range. In

another case, assume that there exist the process multipli-

cative output uncertainties DO = diag[(s + 0.2)/(2s + 1),

(s + 0.2)/(2s + 1), (s + 0.3)/(2s + 1)]3·3, which can be

practically viewed as the ﬁrst two process output measure-

ments obtained from the corresponding sensors decrease by

up to 50% uncertainty at high frequencies and by almost

20% uncertainty in the low frequency range, while the third

process output measurement decreases by up to 50% uncer-

tainty at high frequencies and by almost 30% uncertainty in

the low frequency range. Fig. 6 has shown the correspond-

ing magnitude plots of spectral radius based on the

assumed DI (thin solid line) and DO (thick solid line), both

of which indicate that the proposed control system could

preserve robust stability well. The corresponding perturbed

system responses are shown in Fig. 8.

and Ray [9]

2 3

1:05e4:58s 0:32

6 1:64s þ 1 ð1:6s þ 1Þð1:61s þ 1Þ 7

6 7

G¼6 7:

4 1:18e15:2s 0:9 5

3:6s þ 1 ð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þ

It had been ascertained in Jerome’s paper that there are

inﬁnite many RHP zeros and four LHP zeros in the process

transfer matrix determinant, and the four LHP zeros are

Fig. 8. Perturbed system responses for Example 1 due to the process

the approximate roots of the following polynomial:

multiplicative uncertainties.

vðsÞ ¼ ð1:64s þ 1Þð4:0542s þ 1Þð40:459s2 þ 11:116s þ 1Þ:

Thereby, it follows that hmin = 4.58, hmax = 15.2, and /(s)

First, we write the process transfer matrix determinant is the polynomial within the square bracket of the numer-

in the form of ator and w(s) the denominator polynomial.

detðGÞ ¼ :

ð1:64s þ 1Þð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þð1:6s þ 1Þð1:61s þ 1Þð3:6s þ 1Þ

184 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

Subsequently, using Eqs. (6)–(9) yields h1 = h2 = 4.58 degraded response performance of the ﬁrst output variable,

and N1 = N2 = 2. So the diagonal elements of the desired is repeated here. In our proposed method, the adjustable

system response transfer matrix can be obtained using parameters are taken as k1 = 3.5 and k2 = 3.0 to obtain

Table 1 as the similar rising speed of the system output responses with

Jerome’s method. By adding a unit step change at t = 0 and

D/ðsÞe4:58s D/ðsÞe4:58s 150 respectively to the binary setpoint inputs, and an

h11 ¼ 2

; h22 ¼ 2

;

vðsÞðk1 s þ 1Þ vðsÞðk2 s þ 1Þ inverse step change of load disturbance with a magnitude

of 0.1 to the binary process inputs at t = 300 simulta-

where

D¼ :

0:945ð1:6s þ 1Þð1:61s þ 1Þð3:6s þ 1Þe10:62s 0:3776ð1:64s þ 1Þð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þ

Note that D cannot be directly implemented due to the neously, we obtain the system output responses shown in

RHP zero-pole cancellation. The proposed analytical Fig. 9.

approximation formula Eq. (17) is therefore used by taking From Fig. 9, it can be seen that entirely decoupled bin-

U = 2 and V = 1 for simplicity, resulting in its rational ary system output responses have been achieved by using

approximation the proposed method (solid line), and the second process

output response is comparable with that of Jerome’s

20:1786s2 þ 10:0787s þ 1:7624 method, baring from a small time delay that is employed

D2=1 ¼ :

0:5868s þ 1 to yield the decoupled output responses. Note that Jer-

ome’s method has resulted in severe oscillation in the ﬁrst

Then, the use of the design formula for Case 4 in Table 1 process output response and the oscillatory binary control

results in the decoupling controller matrix output signals are less likely acceptable from a practical

2 3

0:9F 1 ð1:64s þ 1Þ 0:32F 2 ð1:64s þ 1Þð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þ

6 2

2 7

6 ðk1 s þ 1Þ ðk2 s þ 1Þ ð1:6s þ 1Þð1:61s þ 1Þ 7

C ¼ Dc 6 7;

4 1:18F 1 ð1:64s þ 1Þð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þe15:2s 1:05F 2 ð4:5s þ 1Þð4:51s þ 1Þe4:58s 5

ðk1 s þ 1Þ2 ð3:6s þ 1Þ ðk2 s þ 1Þ2

method of sacriﬁcing the dynamic response performance

D2=1 ð1:6s þ 1Þð1:61s þ 1Þð3:6s þ 1Þ of one process output for improvement of the other process

Dc ¼ ;

vðsÞ output responses is worthless in contrast to the proposed

1 1 decoupling control method.

F1 ¼ D2=1 /ðsÞe4:58s

; F2 ¼ D2=1 /ðsÞe4:58s

: To compare the control system robust stability, assume

1 vðsÞðk sþ1Þ2 1 vðsÞðk sþ1Þ2

1 2 that all the time constants of the process transfer matrix are

actually 20% larger to introduce the unmodeled dynamics.

Note that both F1 and F2 can be practically implemented The perturbed system output responses are provided in

using the feedback control unit shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 10.

It should be noted that Jerome and Ray [9], based on the It is obvious again that the proposed decoupling control

standard IMC structure, suggested a controller matrix system holds good robust stability in the presence of these

design that seemed to be capable of dumping all of the severe process uncertainties. It should be noted that the

undesirable response dynamics on a single-output variable control outputs of the proposed control system have varied

to obtain apparently improved response performance of only slightly while those of Jerome’s method exhibited

the other output variables. For comparison, the optimiza- much severer oscillation, both of which are omitted for sav-

tion of the second output variable at the cost of severely ing space.

T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186 185

1.8 1.2

1.6

1

1.4

1.2 0.8

1

0.6

y1

y2

0.8

0.6 0.4

0.4 0.2

0.2

0

0 Proposed Proposed

Jerome Jerome

-0.2 -0.2

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

1.8 3

1.6

2

1.4

1.2 1

1

u1

u2

0

0.8

0.6 -1

0.4

-2

0.2 Proposed Proposed

Jerome Jerome

0 -3

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (sec) Time (sec)

1.8 1. 2

1.6

1

1.4

1.2 0.8

1

0.6

y2

y1

0.8

0.4

0. 6

0.4 0.2

0.2

0

0 Proposed Proposed

Jerome Jerome

-0.2 -0.2

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (sec) Time (sec)

(i.e. G1). New concepts of ‘inverse relative degree’ and

An analytical decoupling controller matrix design has ‘time delay’ have been introduced and deﬁned in this paper

been proposed within the framework of a conventional for each transfer element of G1. The resultant controller

unity feedback control structure that is widely adopted in design can be conducted with much reduced computation

engineering practice. It has been demonstrated that the eﬀort compared with recently improved decoupling control

proposed method can realize signiﬁcant or even absolute methods based on some numerical optimization algo-

decoupling regulation for the nominal system. The key lies rithms. The stability has been analyzed for both the

with the formulation of a practical desired closed-loop sys- nominal system and the perturbed system with process

tem transfer matrix in terms of the H2 optimal performance additive, multiplicative input and output uncertainties that

speciﬁcation and analysis of the non-minimum-phase are often encountered in practice. Tuning of the decoupling

186 T. Liu et al. / Journal of Process Control 17 (2007) 173–186

controller matrix for balance between the nominal system [15] S.H. Shen, C.C. Yu, Use of relay-feedback test for automatic tuning

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