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ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Laboratory Experiment 1 Circuits, Meters and Measurements
Work in Groups of two – share the workload. Don’t be the student who fails the prac exam because they watch a classmate do all the work You can either write answers on a hardcopy of this laboratory sheet, or you may prefer to keep a lab notebook (A4 exercise book) with answers to all the experiments. Key to success – keep physical notes. Write your results as you go
To understand: Basic electrical components and equipment Safe wiring and colour standards Simple measurements Basic voltage and current laws Measurement errors Linear and non-linear components
Adjustable Power Supply Two or three multimeters (measure current, voltage, resistance) Prototyping Board Patch Wires with banana plug connections Patch Leads Components: Resistors: 100 ohm, 120, 1K, 3.3K, 4.7K, 10M (x 3) LED (Light Emitting Diode) – any colour
Equipment Notes: The tutors will run through the operation of the equipment at the start of the laboratory experiment, and at stages throughout the experiment as new equipment is introduced. In this experiment you will be introduced to fundamental lab equipment which is used to construct, power and measure circuits and signals. You will be working with passive components inserted in prototyping boards (also called breadboards, as circuits used to literally be built on boards made for cutting bread. The wires were held in place with thumbtacks). We will use the terms breadboard, protoboard, prototyping board interchangeably. A circuit consists of one or more components arranged with some power source and possible load devices. Then we can measure voltage, current or resistance with appropriate connections. If you’re not familiar with the terms, ask your tutor/s about them. On the following couple of pages you will see pictures of the equipment you will use.
Laboratory Experiment 1 - Circuits, Meters and Measurements
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which has its measuring leads and selector arranged to measure different electrical signals. Symbols and pictures What you see next is a multimeter. The “ohm meter” is just the multimeter wired up to measure resistance in ohms. An open circuit is usually hundreds or thousands of millions of ohms. Various multimeter connections Laboratory Experiment 1 . Multimeter wired for OHMS Multimeter wired for DC Volts Multimeter wired for mA Multimeter wired for DC 20 Amps range Figure 2. Meters and Measurements Page 2 of 14 . This is usually displayed as “1.Circuits.” followed by blank digits or “OL”.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering You will work with the following two-terminal devices: Figure 1. which stands for overload. but could read up to 2 ohms due to resistance in the measuring leads. A short circuit is usually zero ohms.
the top horizontal holes are highlighted with different colours. banana leads. If you look at the picture below. Detail of white proto board Laboratory Experiment 1 . or the horizontal rows until YOU join them.Circuits. Some of these holes are connected together. Figure 3. meters. In the picture above. Meters and Measurements Page 3 of 14 . Note that the coloured posts around the protoboard are not connected to it until YOU join them with patch wires. prototyping board. Note that they may not be continuous across all protoboards . you can see a power supply. The purple vertical holes are joined in groups of 5 but they are not connected to their neighbouring columns. All the pink holes are joined together in groups of 25. One type of setup for measurements.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Picture 1. Prototyping board The small holes in the board allow electrical connection to wires and component leads. under the board. but the green and pink holes aren’t joined unless YOU join them with wires. For convention and ease of interpretation the paired rows at the top and bottom of the board are used for power rails and ground. so use patch leads to connect between desired “nodes”. as are the green ones. patch wires and components.
The top picture shows horizontal connections all the way across the board.blogspot.com/Solderless-Breadboards. SOME BOARDS HAVE A BREAK IN THE MIDDLE.html http://www. Meters and Measurements Page 4 of 14 .com/2011/01/bread-board.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering The pictures here show see-through views of various protoboards.robotroom.web-books. The bottom right part of figure 4 shows the metal strips that are behind each group of holes.com/eLibrary/Engineering/Circuits/DC/DC_5P8. Figure 4 .View of insides of proto boards Figure 4 is courtesy of http://www.htm Figure 5 Banana plugs Figure 6 Pliers and wire strippers Laboratory Experiment 1 . so beware.html For more pictures and examples of using breadboards try the following web links: http://electronics-madeeasy.Circuits. These strips are like pegs which hold the wires in place and they can hold 5 or 25 wires.
Laboratory Experiment 1 . White protoboard with banana plug posts As you can see there are different types of breadboards. Figure 8.Circuits.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Figure 7. and the holes at the base of each socket allow the screw-down terminals to connect to patch wires. Blue proto board with slightly different power rail connections to the white board The large “banana plug” sockets (posts) allow connections to patch leads. or you will not have a proper electrical connection. Make sure that any wires pushed through the hole in the base of each post do not have insulation covering the end. Meters and Measurements Page 5 of 14 . The posts are electrically isolated from the metal frame they are mounted in.
At the very bottom-right of the power supply is a fixed 5VDC output.Circuits.e. and the red terminal of the right output will be the positive rail. you can see controls for current and voltage.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Power supply Figure 9. The black terminal of the right output will be the zero volts rail. but up to 6 amps maximum.”. These allow the two different variable sections to be used in different ways. Series: This allows either a higher voltage than 32 V. Laboratory Experiment 1 . Laboratory power supply In Figure 9. “Series” and “Parallel”. or to treat the system as having a positive and negative voltage rail of up to 30 V. Independent: The output voltages and current are unrelated to each other. so the power supply can deliver the same voltage on each of the outputs.5 volts. Meters and Measurements Page 6 of 14 . The black terminal of the left output will be the negative voltage rail. These have a maximum output of 32 Volts DC. so one output could be 7. while the other is 24 volts. Parallel: This combination allows more than 3 amps to be supplied to a circuit. limited to 3 amps maximum output. Tracking: You can see some buttons below the words “Indep. The right-hand side of these two has been setup for 10 Volts DC and the cables would be plugged in to the black and red terminal posts just below the words “Tracking” and “Master”. + and – 15 volts. There are also two variable-output connections with 3 terminal posts. i.
It is important to make sure that only wire sits in this hole. Meters and Measurements Page 7 of 14 . If you push the wire too far through.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering The terminal posts have a through-hole in them where the joiner wire goes.Circuits. Through-hole in terminal post Correct method of placing wire in through-hole Wrong placement of wire Screw post down until wire is held firmly Preferred method for stripping insulation from wires Laboratory Experiment 1 . then only insulation will be attached and no electrical circuit exists.
which insulates the two segments. Here you will use one of the variable power supply outputs and adjust the voltage control whilst observing the values on the voltmeter.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Circuits on a breadboard: Figure 10. Figure 11. Example layout of protoboard.e. Meters and Measurements Page 8 of 14 . whereas the voltmeters show a more precise value. the one on the right is for a voltmeter. Connect up the following circuit. . ~ 5 volts.A simple electric circuit.13 volts The symbol on the left is for the power supply. Figure 11 shows the incorrect placement of a component on the left. Laboratory Experiment 1 . i. Figure 10 shows the approximate layout for Part 3 of this laboratory. The panel meters on the power supply are fairly coarse and show only the approximate voltage i.e. Repeat with the other voltmeter if it is a different model. Thus the resistor on the right can have different potentials on each leg Part 1. 5. Placement of components in protoboard The figures above show how to layout the components on the protoboard. and adjust the power supply to give voltages of approximately 2V. The resistor is shorted by the segment as all 5 of the holes in the segment are at the same voltage. 5V and 10V displayed on the voltmeter. The resistor on the right spans the gutter.Circuits.
To measure the voltage.Circuits. This is also V = IR. I. You may remember that current. V1 is the MEASURED voltage. Meter voltage Measured Volts 2 5 10 Theoretical current mA Measured current mA Laboratory Experiment 1 . place a red lead between the positive terminal (RED) of the power supply and the mA or A terminal on the meter. Refer to Picture 1 for a rough idea of layout and connections. Is is the supplied current. which is the power supply. then place another red lead between the COM terminal of the meter and one terminal post on the protoboard. Next. Connect up the following circuit. you can connect suitably coloured leads from a second meter to the posts you have just wired up. we take a black lead from the negative post (BLACK) of the power supply and connect it to a suitable post on the breadboard. – Simple Measurements. 5V and 10V. divided by the resistance R. and measure the current and voltage. is equal to the voltage V.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Part 2. so I = V/R. R = V/I. To measure current in this circuit we select the mA range on a meter. Vs is the Voltage Source. Meters and Measurements Page 9 of 14 . Now place the resistor in a suitable position in the breadboard and connect jumper wires from the selected posts to the ends of the resistor. for voltages of approximately 2V.
Loop 1: Theory Vs = V1 + V2 Experiment ............ Experiment . You won’t have enough meters to measure everything simultaneously................. – Kirchhoff’s Laws See Figure 10 above for hints on layout..........ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Part 3.......... confirm that it is correct from your experimental measurements.. Loop 3: Theory VS = V1 + V3 Experiment ... Connect up the following circuit.... Loop 2: Theory V2 = V3..... Meter probes used to “walk around”... Voltage: KVL is written in terms of symbols (such as Vs) for each loop...................... so use the probes on the voltmeter to “walk around” the circuit Current loops in the circuit........ Laboratory Experiment 1 .......................................... Meters and Measurements Page 10 of 14 .......Circuits. Theory . and measure each of the indicated currents and voltages.................You will cover this in week 2 of lectures......
...... Meters and Measurements Page 11 of 14 .......... PS = P2 = V2..I2 =........................... PS = ……...................Is ............................. P3 = V3.......... Node B: Theory Is = I1 Experiment .................... P1 + P2 + P3.......ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Current: Confirm Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) experimentally at each node: Node A: Theory I1 = I2 + I3 Experiment ... Ground: Theory I2 + I3 = Is Experiment .................................. Laboratory Experiment 1 .........................I3 = .....................I1 = .................................Circuits......................………................ Calculate the power dissipated by each Resistor...... P1 + P2 + P3 = ..................... and the total P1 = V1.... Power Delivered by Source = Power Consumed............ Power: Now calculate the power supplied by the power supply: Ps = Vs............
........ Are the measured voltages different to the theory? If so...... V1... Laboratory Experiment 1 ........ and measure each of voltages: VS......... V3 We would expect V1 = V2 = V3 = 2V...... We would expect the current Is to be 200nA.. Current meters can similarly affect circuits where voltages are very small.. why? A....................ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Part 4.................. SO BEWARE! Voltage V1 V2 V3 Theory 2 2 2 Measured Q...... HOWEVER..... Is = Vs / Rtotal = 6V / 30 Meg ohms...... Measurement Errors: Construct the following circuit..................... Meters and Measurements Page 12 of 14 ............... a voltmeter draws a current of perhaps 10-100 nA to make its measurement and this influences the result for circuits with very low currents.... ........ V2....Circuits.
Meters and Measurements Page 13 of 14 . You can also plot Vs versus I1 on the same graph. V1.Circuits. Laboratory Experiment 1 .ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Part 5 – Linear Components (Ohm’s Law) Vary the power supply so as to measure the voltage. You should get a straight line through the origin. The slope of the line should be the resistance. This is a LINEAR component. for the following values of current: (The ammeter can be placed between Vs and the 120 ohm resistor –like Part 2) Current Voltage V1 Vs 1mA 2mA 5mA 10mA 15mA 20mA 25mA Plot V1 versus I1.
Vary the power supply so as to measure the voltage. V1. Plot V1 versus I1. END OF EXPERIMENT Laboratory Experiment 1 . you can also plot Vs versus I1 on the same graph. which is connected to the negative supply. You should get a curved line. This is a NON-LINEAR component. Once again. Meters and Measurements Page 14 of 14 . The shorter lead is the cathode. LED is probably in backwards! – reverse it). for the following values of current: (The ammeter can be placed between Vs and the 120 ohm resistor –like Part 2) Current Voltage V1 Vs 1mA 2mA 5mA 10mA 15mA 20mA 25mA (Note: if LED is not “on” for voltages above about 3V. and current remains low.Circuits.ELEC1000 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Part 6 – Non-linear component.
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