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Chapter 10 – Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis

Exercises
Ex. 10.3-1 T = 2π / ω = 2 π /4
(a)

(b) v leads i by 30 − ( −70) = 100°

Ex. 10.3-2
v = 3cos 4t + 4sin 4t = (
(3)2 +(4) 2 cos 4t − tan −1 4
3 )=5 cos(4t −53° )
Ex. 10.3-3  12 
i = −5cos 5t +12sin 5t = ( −5)2 +(12)2 cos  5t −(180+ tan −1 ) =13 cos (5t −112.6° )
 −5 

Ex. 10.4-1
KCL: i s = v R + C dv dt
dv v Im
+ = cosωt
dt RC C

16
Try v f t = Acosωt + Bsinωt & plug into above D.E.

1
⇒ − ωAsinωt + ωBcosωt + 1 RC Acosωt +Bsinωt = 6 Im
C
cosωt

RI m ωR 2 C I m
equating sinωt & cosωt terms yields A = and B =
1+ ω 2 R 2 C 2 1+ ω 2 R 2 C 2

16
∴ vf t =
RI m
1+ ω 2 R 2 C 2
cosω t +
ωR 2 C I m
1+ ω 2 R 2 C 2
sinωt

v 1t6 =
RI m
f cos ωt − tan −1 (ωRC)
1+ ω R C
2 2 2

Ex. 10.4-2

jωL = j 3 × 1 = j 3
KVL : − 10 + j3I + 2I = 0
10 10∠0, 10
⇒I= = ,
= ∠− 56.3,
2+ j3 13 ∠56.3 13
10
∴ i (t) = cos(3t − 56.3, )
13

Ex. 10.5-1 10
= 4.24e − j45 = 3− j3
2.36e j45

255
Ex. 10.5-2
j 32 32e j90 32
= = e j (90-111) = 3.75 e − j21
−3+ j8 8.54e j111
8.54

Ex. 10.6-1
, jωt − j80°
(a) i = 4cos(ωt − 80 ) = Re{4e e }
∴ I = 4e − j80° = 4∠− 80,

(b) i = 10cos(ωt + 20° ) = Re{10e jωt e j20° }


∴ I = 10e j20° = 10∠20°

(c) i = 8sin(ωt − 20, ) = 8cos(ωt − 110, ) = 8Re{e jωt e − j110° }


∴ I = 8e − j110° = 8∠−110°

Ex. 10.6-2

(a) V = 10∠ − 140° = 10e − j140°


∴ v(t) = Re{10e − j140° e jwt } = 10cos(ωt −140° )

(b) V = 80 + j75 = 109.7∠43.2 ° = 109.7e j43.2°


∴ v(t) = Re{109.7e j43.2° e jωt } = 109.7 cos(ωt +43.2 ° )

Ex. 10.6-3

d
0.01 v + v = 10 cos 100 t
dt
(0.01)( j 100 )V + V =10
10
V= =7.071 ∠− 45°
1+ j
v = 7.071 cos 100 t A

256
Ex. 10.6-4
v s = 40cos100t = Re 4e j100tJ L
KVL : i(t) +10 × 10 −3
di(t)
dt
+
1
5×10 −3
I
−∞
t
i(t)dt = v S

Assume i(t) = Ae j100t where i s is complex number to be determined


Plugging into D.E. yields
4
Ae j100t + jAe j100t + ( − j2A)e j100t = 4e j100t ⇒ A = = 2 2 e j45°
1− j
1
so β = tan −1 = 45°
1

J
i(t) = Re2 2e j100t e j45° = Re 2 2 e j(100t -45° ) L=2 2 cos(100t + 45° )

Ex. 10.7-1
(a) v = Ri = 10(5cos100t) = 50cos100t
di
(b) v = L = 0.01 5( −100) sin100t = − 5sin100t = 5cos(100t +90° )

I I
dt
(c) v = 1C idt = 103 5cos100tdt = 50sin100t = 50cos(100t − 90° )

Ex. 10.7-2 dv −6 °
i=C = 10 × 10 [100( −500)sin(500t+30 )]
dt
= −0.5sin(500t+30° ) = 0.5sin(500t+210° ) = 0.5cos(500t+120° )

Ex. 10.7-3
From Figure Ex. 10.7 - 3 we get i(t) = I m sinωt ; I = I m ∠ − 90° A
v(t) = Vm cosωt ; V = Vm ∠0° V
i(t) = I m sinωt = I m cos(ωt − 90° )
The voltage leads the current by 90° , ∴ it is an inductor
V Vm ∠0° Vm
⇒ Z eq = = = ∠90° Ω
°
I I m ∠− 90 Im
Vm Vm
also Z eq = jωL = ωL∠90° ⇒ ωL = or L= (H)
Im ωI m

257
1 2.4 j 2.4
Ex. 10.8-1 ZR = 8 Ω, ZC = = = = − j 2.4 Ω, ZL1 = j 5 (2) = j 10 Ω,
j5
1 j j× j
12
ZL2 = j 5 (4) = j 20 Ω and VS = 5 ∠-90° V.

1 4 j4
Ex. 10.8-2 ZR = 8 Ω, ZC = = = = − j 4 Ω, ZL1 = j 3 (2) = j 6 Ω,
j3
1 j j× j
12
ZL2 = j 3 (4) = j 12 Ω and IS = 4 ∠15° V.

Ex 10.9-1

j10
V1 (ω ) = 5 e − j 90 = 3.9 e − j 51
8 + j10

j 20
V 2 (ω ) = 5 e − j 90 = 5.68 e − j 90
j 20 − j 2.4

V (ω ) = V1 (ω ) − V 2 (ω ) = 3.9 e − j 51 − 5.68 e − j 90
= 3.58 e j 47

Ex 10.9-2

8 ( j 6 ) j15
V1 (ω ) = 4 e = 19.2 e j 68
8 + j6

j12 ( − j 4 ) j15
V 2 (ω ) = 4 e = 24 e − j 75
j12 − j 4

V (ω ) = V1 (ω ) + V 2 (ω ) = 14.4 e − j 22

258
Ex. 10.10-1
Va V − Vb
KCL at Va : + a =1
4 − j2 − j10
⇒ (4 − j12) Va + ( −4 + j2) Vb =−20 − j40

V −V V °
KCL at V : b a + b + .5∠ − 90 = 0 ⇒ ( −2− j4)Va + (2− j6)Vb =10+ j20
b − j10 2+j4
( −20− j40) ( − 4+ j2)
(2− j6) −200+ j100
= 5∠ 296.5°
(10+j20)
Using Cramer's rule Va = =
(4− j12) ( − 4+ j2) −80− j60
( − 2− j4) (2-j6)

∴va (t)= 5 cos (100t+296.5° )= 5 cos (100t −63.5° )

Ex. 10.10-2
KVL a I1 : j15I1 + 10(I1 − I 2 ) = 20
⇒ (10+ j15)I1 −10I 2 = 20 (1)
KVL a I 2 : − j5I 2 +10(I 2 − I1 ) = − 30∠− 90°
⇒ − 10I1 + (10 − j5)I 2 = j30 (2)

From Cramer' s rule


20 −10
j30 10 − j5 200 + j200
I1 = = .°
= 2.263∠− 81
10+ j15 −10 75+ j100
−10 10 − j5
Now VL = ( j15)I1 = (15∠90° )(2.263∠− 81
. ° ) = 24 2 ∠82 °
∴ v L ( t) = 24 2 cos(ωt +82 ° )V

Ex. 10.10-3

Writing mesh equations:


(10 + j50)I1 −10I 2 = j30
−10I1 + (10 − j20)I 2 + j20I 3 = j50
j20I 2 + (30 − j10)I 3 = 0
Solving these equations gives
I1 = − 0.87 − j0.09, I 2 = −132 . + j1.27, I 3 = 0.5+ j1.05
Then
Va = 10(I1 − I 2 ) = 14.3∠− 72 ° V
Vb = Va + j50 = 36.6 ∠83° V
259
Ex 10.11-1

j10
V1 = 5 e − j 90 = 3.9 e − j 51
8 + j10

j 20
V2 = 5 e − j 90 = 5.68 e − j 90
j 20 − j 2.4

Vt = V1 − V 2 = 3.9 e − j 51 − 5.68 e − j 90
= 3.58 e j 47

8 ( j10 ) − j 2.4 ( j 20 )
Zt = + = 4.9 + j 1.2
8 + j10 − j 2.4 + j 20

Ex 10.11-2

j10
V1 (ω ) = 5 e − j 90 = 3.9 e − j 51
8 + j10

j 20
V 2 (ω ) = 5 e − j 90 = 5.68 e − j 90
j 20 − j 2.4

V (ω ) = V1 (ω ) − V 2 (ω ) = 3.9 e − j 51 − 5.68 e − j 90
= 3.58 e j 47

260
8 ( j 6 ) j15
V1 (ω ) = 4 e = 19.2 e j 68
8 + j6

j12 ( − j 4 ) j15
V 2 (ω ) = 4 e = 24 e − j 75
j12 − j 4

V (ω ) = V1 (ω ) + V 2 (ω ) = 14.4 e − j 22

Using superposition: v(t) = 3.58 cos ( 5t + 47° ) + 14.4 cos ( 3t - 22° )

Ex. 10.11-3
a) Turn off current source, use phasors with ω = 10 rad/sec

10⋅10
Z eq = − j = 5(1 − j)
10 − j10
KVL a: −10 + 5I1 + j15I1 + 5(1− j)I1 = 0
10
⇒ I1 = = 0.707∠− 45°
10 + j10
∴ i1 ( t) = 0.707cos(10t − 45° ) A

b) Turn off voltage source, ω = 0 rad/sec


10
Current divider I 2 = − 3 = −2 A
15

So by superposition i(t) = 0.707cos(10t − 45° ) − 2 A

1 1
Ex. 10.12-1 ω 2 = = = 106 ∴ ω = 1000rad sec
LC (1×10 −3 )(1×10 −3 )

Ex. 10.12-2
Diagram drawn with relative magnitudes arbitrarily chosen

261
Ex. 10.12-3 Two possible phasor diagrams for currents

∴ I LC = 425 9−415 9 = 20 = I
2 2
CL

Now if I LC = I L − I C ⇒ I C = 6 − 20 = − 14 ( impossible)
∴ from case (2) I CL = I C − I L ⇒ I C = 20 + 6 = 26

Ex. 10.14-1
R 1X1 ( X1 − jR 1 ) 1 1
Z1 = R1 = 1kΩ , X1 = = = 1kΩ
110006410 9
and
−6
R 12 +X12 ωC1
(1)(1)(1− j1) 1 1
∴ Z1 = = −j kΩ
1+1 2 2
Z 2 = R 2 = 1kΩ
Vo Z2 −1
∴ = − = = −1− j
Vs Z1 1 − j1
2 2

Problems
Section 10-3: Sinusoidal Sources

P10.3-1

(a) i(t) = 2 cos(6t +120° ) + 4 sin(6t − 60° )


= 2 (cos6t cos120° − sin6t sin120° )+4 (sin6t cos60° − cos6t sin60° )
= 2.46 cos6t +0.27 sin6t = 2.47 cos(6t − 6.26° )

(b)
v(t) = 5 2 cos8t +10 sin(8t + 45° )
= 5 2 cos8t +10[sin8t cos45° +cos8t sin45° ]
= 10 2 cos8t +5 2 sin8t
v(t) = 250 cos(8t − 26.56° ) = 5 10 sin(8t + 63.4 ° ) V

262
P10.3-2 2−π
ω = 2π f = 2π T = = 6283 rad sec
1×10−3
v(t) = Vm sin(ω t+φ ) = 100 sin(6283t+φ )

v(0) = 10 = 100 sinφ ⇒ φ = sin −1 (0.1) = 6°

So v(t) = 100 sin(6283t+6° )V

P10.3-3
ω 1200π
f = = = 600Hz
2π 2π
i(2 ×10 −3 ) = 300 cos(1200π(2 ×10 −3 ) + 55° ) = 3 cos(2.4 π +55° )
 180  = 432
°
but 2.4 π ×  π  °

So i(2 × 10 −3 ) = 300 cos(432 ° + 55° ) = 300 cos(127 ° ) = −180.5 mA

P10.3-4

P10.3-5

a) b)
A = 10 A = 10
T = 3.9ms− 0.6ms = 3.3ms 1
T= (10.9 ms− 0.9 ms) = 5ms
2π 2
ω= = 1900 rad s
T 2π
ω= = 1260 rad s
10 cos (θ) = 0.87 ⇒ θ = 30° T
10 cos (θ) = 0.87 ⇒ θ = 30°
v s (t) = 10cos (1900t +30° ) V
v(t) = 10cos (1260+30° ) V

263
Section 10-4: Steady-State Response of an RL Circuit for a Sinusoidal Forcing Function

P10.4-1
di di
L + R i = − v s yields + 120i = − 400 cos 300t
dt dt
Try i f = A cos 300t + B sin 300t
di f
= − 300 A sin 300t + 300B cos 300t
dt
yields − 300A +120B = 0 A = − 0.46
B = −1.15
()
and 300B+120A = −400 *
. sin 300t = 1.24 cos (300t − 68° ) A
so i(t) = − 0.46 cos 300t −115

P10.4-2
v dv dv
KCL : − i s + +C = 0⇒ + 500v = 500 cos 1000t
2 dt dt
Try v f = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t
dv f
= −1000A cos 1000t +1000B cos 1000t
dt
yields −1000A + 500B=0
solving A
()
= 0.2
and 1000B+500A=500 *
B = 0.4

so v (t)=0.2 cos 1000t +0.4 sin 1000t=0.447 cos (1000t − 63° ) V

P10.4-3

(j4) (.05) = j(0.2)

12e j45 ~12e j45


I(ω )= =(2⋅10−3 )e j45 ⇒ i(t)=(2) cos (4t+45° ) mA
6000+j(0.2) 6000

Section 10.5: Complex Exponential Forcing Function


a) Complex Numbers
P10.5-1
(5∠36.9 ° ) (10∠− 531. ° ) 50∠−16.2 ° 10∠−16.2 °
= = = 2 5∠10.36°
(4 + j3)(6 − j8) 10 − j5 5∠− 26.56°

P10.5-2

°  3 2∠− 45°  ° °
5∠ + 81.87  4− j3+  = 5∠ + 81.87 [4 − j3+ 3 5 ∠ − 36.87 ]
 °
5 2∠−8.13  

= 5∠+81.87° (4.48− j3.36) = 5∠+81.87° (5.6∠−36.87° ) = 28∠ +45° = 14 2 + j14 2

264
P10.5-3 A *C * (3− j7)5e − j2.3
= = 0.65− j6.31
B 6e j15

P10.5-4
(6∠120° ) ( −4 + j3 + 2e j15 ) = −12.1 − j21.3
so a= −12.1 and b= −213.

P10.5-5  3− b 
j tan −1 
a) Ae j120 = −4 + j(3 − b) = 4 2 +(3− b) 2 e  −4 
 3− b 
120 = tan −1
 −4  ⇒ b = 3 + 4 + tan (120° ) = −3.93

A = 4 2 +(3− b) 2 = 4 2 + (3− ( −3.93)) 2 = 8.00


b) −4 + 8 cosθ + j(b + 8 sinθ) = 3e − j120 = − 15
. − j2.6
2.5
−4 + 8 cosθ = −15 . ⇒ θ = cos−1 = 72 °
8
b + 8 sin (72 ° ) = − 26 ⇒ b = −10.2

c) −10 + j2a = Ae j60 = A cos 60° − jA sin 60°


−10 −20 sin 60
A = = −20; a = = − 8.66
cos 60° 2

b) Response of a circuit
P10.5-6 −j
Z R = 100, Z L = j(107 )(1 × 10 −3 ) = j 10,000, Z c = = − j 10,000
(107 )(10 ×10 −12 )
Vs . ∠90°
01
I(ω ) = = = 0.001∠90°
Z R +Z L +Z C 100 + j 10000 − j 10000
°
i(t) = 1 cos(ωt +90 ) mA, ω = 107 rad /sec.

P10.5-7
Z L = j(25 × 106 )(160 × 10 −6 ) = j 4000
−j
ZL = = − j 0.004
(25×106 )(10 ×10 −6 )
Z L / / Z c =− j 0.004

V 20∠45°
I(ω ) = = . ∠45°
= 01
Z R +Z c 200 − j 0.004
i(t) = 0.1 cos(ωt + 45° ) A

265
Section 10-6: The Phasor Concept

P10.6-1 Phasor ckt: Z = R = 300, Z = jω = j(1 × 105 )(1 × 10 −3 ) = j100


R L L
−j −j
Z = = = − j100
c ωC (1×10 )(0.1×10−6 )
5

V V V
KCL: + + = −I
ZL ZR ZC
yields V(ω ) = 1.5∠60°
so v(t) = 1.5 cos (ωt +60° ) V, ω = 105 rad sec

P10.6-2
Z R = R = 680Ω, Z L = jωL = j(1000)(500 × 10 −3 ) = j500
−j −j
ZC = = = − j303, I s (ω ) = 25×10 −3 ∠−120° A = 25∠−120° mA
−6
ωC (1000)(3.3×10 )

 Z  I
I 2 (ω ) =
Z 
C
S
T
Z T = Z1 + Z 2 = (680 + j500) + ( − j303)

 − j303  25∠−120 = 7575∠− 210°


I 2 (ω ) =  680+ j197  4 9 °

708∠16 °
= 10.7∠ − 226° = 10.7∠134 °

°
so i(t) = 10.7 cos (1000t +134 ) mA

P10.6-3
−j −j
Convert to phasor circuit: Z R = R; Z C = = = − j16000
ωC (500)(0.125×10 −6 )

VS = 2∠ − 90°
voltage divider

 − j16000  2∠− 90 = 416000∠− 90 942∠− 90 9 ° °

 20000− j16000  4 9
V(ω ) =  °
. ∠ − 141°
= 125
°
25612∠− 39
so v(t) = 1.25 cos (500t −141° ) V

266
Section 10-7: Phasor Relationships for R, L, and C Elements
P10.7-1 (a) Rotate 45° ⇒ I = 6 + j8 = 10∠53.1°
subtract 45°
I ′ = 10∠8.1° = 7 2 + j 2

(b) Rotate 90° ⇒ I = 10∠53.1°


add 90°
I ′ = 10∠143.1° = − 8 + j6

P10.7-2 (a) V1 = 3∠60° = 15


. + j2.598
V2 = 8∠− 22.5° = 7.391− j3.061
∴ V1 + V2 = 8.891− j0.463 = 8.90∠− 2.98°
⇒ v1 + v 2 = 8.90 cos(2t − 2.98° )

(b) v1 = 2 2 cos (4t − 90° ) ⇒ V1 = 2 2 ∠ − 90° = − j2 2


V2 = 10∠30° = 5 3 + j5
∴V1 + V2 = 5 3 + j(5− 2 2 ) = 8.93∠14.1°
⇒ v1 + v 2 = 8.93 cos(4t +14.1° )

P10.7-3 2A + 5B is pure imaginary and on the '+' imaginary axis


∴ 2 A sin θ = 5B sin(75° − θ)

4 9
2 5 2 sin θ = 5B sin(75° − θ)

= 20[sin 75° cos θ − cos 75° sin θ)


sin 75°
⇒ tan θ = =1 ∴θ =45°
°
1 + cos 75
2

so A = 5 2 ∠45° and B = 4∠90° +(75° − 45° ) = 4∠120°

P10.7-4
°
(a) v = 15 cos(400t+30 )

i = 3 sin(400t+30° ) = 3 cos (400t −60° )

∴v leads i by 90° ⇒ element is an inductor


v peak 15
Now ZL = = = 5 = ω L = 400L ⇒ L = 0.0125 H = 12.5 mH
i peak 3

(b) i leads v by 90° ∴ capacitor


v peak 8 1 1
Zc = = =4= = ⇒ C=277.77µF
i peak 2 ωC 900C

267
(c) v = 20 cos (250t + 60° )
i = 5 sin (250t +150° )=5 cos (250t +60° )
Since v & i are in phase ⇒ element is a resistor
v peak 20
∴R = = = 4Ω
i peak 5

P10.7-5
For algebraic addition, the rectangular form is convenient,
V1 = 150 cos( −30° ) + j150 sin( −30° ) = 130 − j75 V
V2 = 200 cos 60° + j200 sin60° = 100+ j173 V
By the rules for equality and addition
V = V1 + V2 = 230 + j98 = 250∠23.1° V
Thus v(t) = v1 (t)+v 2 (t) = 250 cos (377t +23.1° ) V

Section 10-8: Impedance and Admittance

P10.8-1 ω = 2 πf = 2 π(10 × 10 3 ) = 62830 rad sec


1
Z R = R = 36Ω YR = = 0.0278 S
36
1
Z L = jωL = j(62830)(160 ×10 −6 ) = j10Ω YL = = − 01
. j S
ZL
−j −j 1
ZC = = = − j 16Ω YC = = 0.0625 j S
ωC (62830)(1×10 −6 ) ZC

Yeq = YP = YR + YL + YC = 0.0278 − j0.00375 S = 0.027 ∠9 °


1
Z eq = = 36.5∠ 9 ° = 36 − j5.86 Ω
Yeq

P10.8-2
V −10 ∠ 40° °
Z = = = − 5000∠ − 155 Ω = 4532 + 2113 j = R + jω L
−I 2×10−3 ∠195°

2113 2113
so R =4532 Ω and L = = = 1.06 m H
ω 2×106

268
P10.8-3
j L R
− (R+jω L) −j
Z(ω )= ω C = C ωC

j 
+ (R+jω L) R+j ω L −
1 
ωC 
 ωC 

1   RL − R  ω L − 1 − j R + L  ω L − 1  
2
 L R  
 −  −  ω −     
ω C   C ω C 
j R j L
 C ω C   ω C   ω C C  ω C  
= 2
= 2
 1   1 
R 2 + ω L −  R 2 + ω L − 
 ωC   ωC 
So Z(ω ) will be purely resistive when
 ωL− 1  = 0 ⇒ ω  R
− 
2
R2
ωC
+
L
 ωC 
C
2
=
1
CL  L 
when R=6Ω , C=22µF, and L=27 mH, then ω =1278 rad /s.

P10.8-4 ω = 2 πf = 6283 rad sec


R
Zc R jωC
Z = ZL + = jωL +
R +Z c 1
R+
jωC
becomes (after manipulation)
R + j(ωL − ωR 2 C+ ω 3 R 2 LC 2 )
Z=
1+(ωRC) 2
Set real part equal to 100Ω to get C
R
= 100 ⇒ C=0.158µF
1+(ωRC) 2
Set imaginary part of numerator equal to 0 to get L
L − R 2 C + ω 2 R 2 LC 2 = 0 ⇒ L=0.1587 H

P10.8-5
ω = 2 πf = 6.28 × 106 rad sec
Z L = jωL= j (6.28 ×106 )(47 ×10 −6 ) = j 300
 1  300+ j300
 jωC  1 6
Z eq = Z c ||( Z R +Z L )= = 590.7
1
+ 300 + j300
jωC
300+300j
Rearranging 590.7 =
1+300jωC − 300ωC
or 590.7 − (590.7)(300ωC)+ j(590.7)(300ωC) = 300+ j300
equating imaginary terms
(590.7)(300ωC) = 300 ⇒ C=0.27 nF

269
Section 10-9: Kirchhoff’s Laws Using Phasors
P10.9-1

(a) Z1 = 3+ j4 = 5∠53.1° Z 2 = 8 − j8 = 8 2 ∠− 45°

(b) Total impedance = Z1 + Z 2 = 3+j4 + 8 − j 8 = 11 − j4 = 11.7∠− 20.0°

(c) 100∠0° 100 100


I= = = ∠20.0°
°
Z1 +Z 2 . ∠− 20
117 117
.
∴ i(t) = 8.55 cos (1250t +20.0° ) A

P10.9-2
Using voltage divider
 10  = 20∠0  
V10 = Vs  10− j10   10
° 10

2 ∠− 45 
°

= 0 2 ∠45°
°
∴v10 ( t) = 10 2 cos (100t +45 ) V

P10.9-3 160 ∠0°


I =
(a) ( −1326) (300 + j37.7)
− j1326 + 300+ j 37.7
160 ∠0°
= = 0.53 ∠5.9 °
303 ∠− 5.9 °
∴ i(t) = 0.53 cos (120πt +5.9 ° ) A

(b) 160∠0°
I=
( − j199)(300+ j251)
− j199 + 300 + j251
160∠0°
= °
= 0.625∠59.9 °
256∠− 59.9
∴ i(t)=0.625 cos (800πt +59.9 ° ) A

P10.9-4
Vs = 2 ∠30°
2 ∠30°
I = = .185 ∠ − 26.3°
6+ j12+3/ j
∴ i(t) = 0.185 cos (4t − 26.3° ) A

270
P10.9-5
j15 = j(2 π ⋅ 796)(3 ⋅ 10 −3 )
12
I= = 0.48 ∠ − 37
20+ j15
i(t) = 0.48 cos (2 π ⋅ 796t − 37 ° )

P10.9-6  Z 
current divider I =  Z + Z  I
1
s Z1 = R = 8, Z 2 = jωL = j3L
1 2

. ° , I s = 2 ∠−15°
I = B ∠− 5187

I . °
B ∠− 5187 Z1 8 8 ∠0°
so =
2 ∠−15°
= = =
 3L 
Is Z1 + Z 2 8 + j3L 82 + (3L) 2 ∠ tan −1  8 
Set angles and magnitude equal
 3L  ⇒ L=2 H
angles: +36.87 = + tan −1  8 
8 B
magnitude: = ⇒ B=16
.
2
64+9L 2

P10.9-7

The voltage V can be calculated using Ohm's Law.


V = (1.72 ∠-69) (4.24∠ 45) = 7.29∠-24
The current I can be calculated using KCL.
I = (3.05 ∠ -77) - (1.72∠ -69) = 1.34∠ -87
Using KVL to calculate the voltage across the inductor and then Ohm's Law gives:
24 - 4(1.34∠-87)
j 2L = ⇒ L=4
3.05∠-77

271
Section 10-10: Node Voltage and Mesh Current Analysis Using Phasors
(a) Node Voltage Analysis
P10.10-1 Draw phasor circuit and use nodal analysis VA ( VA − VC )
KCL at VA : − 2 + 10 + j5 = 0
⇒ (2 + j)VA − 2 VC = j20 (1)
( VC − VA ) VC
KCL at VC : +− (1+ j) = 0
j5 − j4
⇒ 4VA + VC = 20 − j 20 (2)

Using Cramer' s rule


(2 + j) j20
4 20 − j20 60 − j100 116.6 ∠− 59 °
Vc = = = . ∠− 64.7 ° V
= 116
(2+ j) −2 10+ j 101 ∠5.7 °
4 1

P10.10-2 (V −100) V V V
KCL at V: + + + =0
150 − j125 j80 250
⇒ V = 57.6 ∠22.9 °
100 − V
∴ IS = = .667 − .384 ∠22.9 ° = .347 ∠− 255
. °
150
V
IC = = 0.461 ∠112.9 °
125 ∠− 90°
V
IL = = 0.720 ∠− 67.1°
80∠90°
V
IR = = 0.230∠22.9 °
250

P10.10-3

V1 − Vs V1 V1 − V2
KCL at V1 : + + = 0
10 − j5 5+ j2
⇒ (11 + j2)V1 − (5 + j2)Vs = 10V2 (1)

V2 − V1 V
KCL at V2 : +I+ 2 = 0
5+ j2 8+ j3
⇒ (8 + j3)V1 = (13+ j5)V2 + (34 + j31)I (2)
° °
also V2 = 4I = 4(3∠45 ) = 12∠45 = 6 2 + j6 2 (3)

Plugging I and (3) into (2) yields


(8 + j3)V1 = 74.24 + j 290.62
300∠75.7 °
∴ V1 = °
= 351 . ° = 201
. ∠551 . + j28.8
8.54∠20.6

272
Now plugging V1 and V2 into (1) yields
(5+ j2)Vs = − 209.4 + j 4731
.
517.4∠113.9 °
∴ Vs = . ∠92.1° V
= 961
. °
5.38∠218

P10.10-4

Va Va − Vb
KCL at Va : + = 0 (1)
200 j100
V −V V V −12 .
KCL at Vb : b a + b + b =0
j100 − j50 j80
(2) into (1) yields Vb = 2.21 ∠ − 144 ° ⇒ Va = (1 / 4) Vb − 3 / 2 (2)

and from (2) Va = 0.55∠−144 ° −15 . ∠−171°


. = 197
∴ v a (t) = 1.97 cos (5000t −171° ) V
v b (t) = 2.21 cos (4000t −144 ° ) V

P10.10-5
KCL at Vo :
Vo V V − j20
+ o + o = 6∠0°
4+ j3 3− j4 1
. ° V
⇒ Vo = 16.31∠715

. °) V
v o ( t) = 16.31 cos (105 t + 715

P10.10-6

ω = 104 rad s
I s = 20∠53°

 1 + 1 + j  V +  − 1  V = 20∠5313
 20 40 60   40 
°
KCL at a: a b . (1)

 1  1 j j
KCL at b:  −  V +  − +  V − j80 V = 0
 40   40 40 80 
a b c (2)

−j  1 j
V + +  V = 0
KCL at c:
80
b
 40 80  c (3)

Solving (1) - (3) simultaneously for Va


Va = 2 ⋅240∠45° ; thus v a ( t) = 339.4 cos (ωt +45° )

273
P10.10-7

v X = sin (2 π ⋅ 400t), ω = 2 π ⋅ 400


R=100Ω
L R = 40mH
LS = 40mH, door opened
= 60mH, door closed

with the door open → VA −VB = 0 since bridge circuit is balanced

with the door closed → ZLR = j(800π )(0.04)=j100.5Ω

ZLS = j(800π )(0.06)=j150.8Ω

using nodal analysis


VB − VC VB j100.5
node B: + =0 ⇒VB = VC
R ZL R j100.5+100

for VC = VX =1 VB =0.709∠ 44.86°


VA − VC VA
node A : + =0 ⇒ VA =0.833∠33.55° for VC = Vx =1
R ZLS

∴VA − VB = .833∠33.55° −.709∠ 44.86° = (.694+j.460) −(.503+ j0.500) = .191− j0.040

VA − VB = 0.195∠−11.83°

P10.10-8

V1 − ( −1+ j) V1 V1 − V2
node V1 : + + =0 (1)
j2 2 − j2
V2 − V1 V2
node V2 : + −IC = 0 (2)
− j2 − j2

also : I C = 2I x = 2
 −1+ j "# =−1− j
! -2j #$
(3)

−3− j
Solving (1) through (3) yields V2 = = 2 ∠−135°
1+ j2
∴ v(t) = v 2 (t) = 2 cos (40t −135° ) V

274
P10.10-9
V2 = 0.7571∠66.7 °
V3 = 0.6064∠ − 69.8°
(K
Using: I = I +I K %K I = 0.3032 ∠20.2
1
V −V K
2
K 3
3
°

I =
2
3

j10 K
) yields2
&K I = 01267
2 . ∠−184 °

V KK K' I = 0195
1 . ∠36 °

− j2 K*
I =
3
3

so i1 (t)=0.195 cos (2t +36° ) A

(b): Mesh Current Analysis


P10.10-10

KVL loop1: (4 + j6)I1 − j6I 2 = 12 + j12 3 (1)


KVL loop2: − j6I 1 + (8 + j2)I 2 = 0 (2)

Using Cramer' s rule to solve I1


(12 + j12 3 )(8 + j2)
I1 = = 2.5∠29 ° = 2.2 + j1.2 A
(4+ j6)(8+ j2) − ( − j6)( − j6)

j6 6∠90°
from (2) I 2 = (2.5∠29 ° ) = °
(2.5∠29 ° ) = 182
. ∠105°
8+ j2 68∠14
Now VL = j6(I1 − I 2 )=(6∠90° )(2.5∠29 ° −182
. ∠105° )
= (6∠90° )(2.71∠−113
. °)
VL = 16.3∠78.7 ° V

and Vc = − j4I 2 = (4∠ − 90° )(182


. ∠105° ) = 7.28∠15° V

P10.10-11

Using voltage divider

V = 10∠0°
 5+-j10 "#
!1+5− j10 $
= 9.59∠ − 4.4 °

Now VL = −100(100V) = −9.59 × 104 ∠ − 4.4 = 9.59 × 104 ∠175.6°


∴ v L ( t) = 9.59 ×10 4 cos (108 t +175.6° ) V

275
P10.10-12

Three mesh equations: (1 − j) I1 + (j) I 2 + 0I 3 =10

j I1 − jI 2 + jI3 = 0
0I1 + jI2 + (1− j) I3 = j10
(1− j) 10 0
j 0 j
0 j 10 (1− j) 10 − j10
So I2 = = =10
(1− j) j 0 1− j
j −j j
0 j (1− j)

∴ i (t)=10 cos 103t A

P10.10-13

(2+ j4) −1 − j4 "#  I "# 10∠30 "#


°

## I ## = 0 ##
1
−1 (2 +1/ j4) −1 2

! − j4 −1 (3+ j4) $ !I $
3
! 0 #$

2+ j8
Using Cramer' s rule I3 = 10∠30° = 3.225 ∠44 °
12+ j 22.5
V = 2 I3
∴ v(t) = 6.45 cos (105 t + 44 ° ) V

P10.10-14

ω = 400 rad sec Vs = 375∠0°

KVL : j 75I1 − j100I 2 = 375 (1)


KVL : − j 100I1 +(100+ j100)I 2 = 0 (2)
Solving for I 2 yields I 2 = 4.5 + j1.5 ⇒ i 2 (t) = 4.74 ∠18.4 ° A

276
Section 10-11: Superposition, Thèvenin and Norton Equivalents and Source
Transformations
(a) Superposition Principle
P10.11-1 Use superposition

Vs = 12∠45° ω = 3000 rad sec


ω = 4000 rad sec Z L = j1500
Z L = j2000

V1 12∠45° − V2 −5∠0°
I1 = = = 3.3∠11.3° mA; I 2 = = . ∠153° mA
= 15
ZT 3000+ j2000 ZT 3000 + j1500
i(t ) = 3.3cos (4000 t +11.3° )+1.5 cos(3000t +153° ) mA

P10.11-2 Use superposition

−1∠45° 3
I ' (ω ) = = −0.166 × 10 −3 ∠45° I" = = 0.5mA
6000 + j0.2 6000
i(t) = i ' (t) + i '' = ( −0.166 cos (4t +45° ) + 0.5) mA
= [(0.166 cos (4t-135° ) +0.5)] mA

P10.11-3
Use superposition
4
v 2 = 5 sin 3t = 5 cos 3t − 90° 9

Note direction choice

' 12∠ 45° ° " 5∠−90° °


I (t) = = 2∠ 45 mA I (t) = = 0.833∠ − 90 mA
6000 + j0.2 6000 + j0.15
' '' ° °
i(t) = i (t) − i (t)=2 cos (4t+45 ) − 0.833 cos (3t − 90 ) mA

277
Section 10-11 (b): Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits
P10.11-4
Find Voc

Using voltage divider


 80 + j80  = 5∠− 30  80 2∠− 219.  °
Voc = 5 ∠− 30°
 80 + j80- j20   100∠36.90 
°
°

. °V
= 4 2 ∠− 219

Find Z T (Kill volatage source)

=
1− j206180 + j806 = 23 ∠ − 81.9 ° Ω
− j20 + 80 + j80

? have the equivalent circuit

P10.11-5

Find Voc
Voc − 2 Voc V
KCL at top: − 10 + oc = 0
j 10 − j5
⇒ Voc = − j100 3 = 100 3 ∠ − 90° V

Find I sc
Vx = 0 ⇒ I sc = 10∠0° A
Voc 100 ∠− 90°
ZT = = 3 = 10 3 ∠− 90° Ω
I sc 10∠0°
So have the equivalent circuit
Using voltage divider
 30  300
 30+  = − j 9 − j = 3313
. ∠ − 83.66 °

 Zt 
V = Voc V

So v1 t 6 = 3313. cos 420t − 83.66 9 V


°

278
P10.11-6

Find Voc KVL loop I1: 600I1 − j300(I1 − I 2 ) = 9


⇒ (600 − j300)I1 + j300I 2 = 9 (1)
KVL loop I 2 : − 2V+300I 2 − j300(I 2 − I1 ) = 0
also V= − j300(I1 − I 2 )
⇒ j3I1 + (1 − j3)I 2 = 0 (2)
°
Using Cramer’s rule for equations (1) and (2) ⇒ I 2 = .0124∠−16

∴Voc = 300I 2 = 3.71∠−16° V

Find I sc
KVL loop I sc : − 2 V − V = 0 ⇒ V=0
°
9 ∠0
∴ I sc = = .015∠0°
600

Voc 3.71∠−16°
So Z T = = = 247∠−16° Ω
I sc 0.015

P10.11-7
+
V = 100 − j100 = 100 2 ∠ − 45°

YIN = 1 Z = I V =
IN
20∠0°
100 2 ∠− 450°
16
= .1 2 ∠45° =.1+.1 j

Also YIN = j100c+


1 1
4 9
+ = j 100C − 140 + 110
j40 10
Equating the imaginary terms
100C − 140 = .1 ⇒ C = 1800 F

P10.11-8

a) Voc Node equation :


Voc Voc − (6 + j8) 3 Voc − (6 + j8) 
− j4
+
j2

2 
j2
=0


yields Voc = 3+ j4 = 5∠531

279
b) Node equation:
I sc
V
+
V
+
V − (6 + j8) 3 V − (6 + j8)

=0
"#
2 − j4 j2 2 j2 ! $
3 + j4
yields V =
1− j

V 3+ j4 Voc 2 − j2


Thus I sc = =
2 2 − j2
∴Z T =
I sc
= 3+ j4
3+ j4 
= 2 − j2

P10.11-9
1
Y1 = + jωC
R
1 1 R
Z1 = = =
Y1 1 + jωC 1+ jωRC
R

R R (1− ω 2 LC)+ jωL


Now Z IN = jωL + =
1+ jωRC 1+ jωRC
with L=97.5nH, C=39pF, ω =10 rad sec
8

R(1−.038) + j9.75 .962R+ j9.75


Z IN = =
1+ j0.0039R 1+ j0.0039R
for R=25Ω . ∠16.5° = 24.7 + j7.33Ω
Z IN = 258
for R = 50Ω Z IN = 48.2∠0.43° = 48.2 + j0.36Ω

P10.11-10
Y = G + YL + YC
1
Y= G when YL +YC = 0 or + jωC = 0
jωL
1 1 1
ωO = , fO = =
LC 2 π LC 2 π 39.6 ×10 −15
= .07998 ×10 7 Hz = 800 KHz
(80 on the dial of the radio)

280
V1 25
P10.11-11 Z1 = 50; I1 = = = 0.5 A
Z1 50
1 1
also Z 2 = = = − j200
jωC j(2000)(2.5×10 −6 )
V2 100
I2 = = = 0.5 A
Z2 200
and Z 3 = jωL = j(2000)(50 × 10 −3 ) = j100
V3 50
I3 = = = 0.5A
Z 3 100

Since I is the same for all three cases, Z thev and Z n must also be equal.
So Z t +Z1 = Z t +Z 2 = Z t +Z 3
or (R +50) 2 + X 2 = R 2 + ( X − 200) 2 =R 2 + ( X+100) 2

which requires that (X − 200) 2 = ( X +100) 2 ⇒ X = 50Ω


Using this in (R +50) 2 + (50) 2 = R 2 +( −150) 2 ⇒ R=175Ω
so Z t =175+ j50Ω and if Vt = Vt ∠0°
1
we get Vt = I1 Z t +R 1 =(0.5)[(175+50) 2 +(50) 2 ] 2 =115.25V

Section 10-11: (c) Source Transformation


P10.11-12
( − j3)(4)
Z1 = = 2.4∠ − 531.°
− j3+ 4
= 1.44 − j1.92

°
Z 2 = Z1 + j4 = 1.44 + j2.08 = 2.53∠55.3

. ∠− 37.9 ° = 2.77 − j2.16


Z 3 = 351

281
 351 37.9 °
 2.77. −∠−j2.16+2
∴ I = 2.85∠ − 78.4 ° 
I = 2.85∠ − 78.4 ° 4351
. ∠− 37.9 9 °
= 19
. ∠− 92 °

45.24∠− 24.4 9
A
°

P10.11-13

(200)( − j4)
ZP = = 4∠ − 88.8°
200 − j4

0.4∠− 44 °
I= = 4∠ − 44 ° mA; i(t)=4 cos (25000t − 44 ° ) mA
−4 j+100+ j4

Section 10-12: Phasor Diagrams


P10-12-1
V = −4 + j3
V1 = 3 + j3  3 
− V2 = −4 − j2
=5∠180° − tan −1
 4
*
V3 = −3 + j3
= 5∠143°

P10.12-2
10∠0°
I =
10+ j1− j10
= 0.74∠42 °

VR = RI = 7.4∠42 °
VL = Z L I = (1∠90° )(0.74∠42 ° ) = 0.74∠132 °
VC = Z C I = (10∠− 90° )(0.74∠42 ° ) = 7.4∠− 48°
VS = 10∠0°

282
P10.12-3 I = 72 3 + 36 3∠(140° − 90° ) + 144∠210° + 25∠φ
= 40.08 − j24.23+ 25∠φ
. ° + 25∠φ
= 46.83∠ − 3115
. °
Clearly for I to be maxima, the above 2 terms must add in same direction (in phase) ⇒ φ = −3115

Section 10-14: Phasor Circuits and the Operational Amplifier


P10.14-1
Vo (ω )  104 || − j104  −j 10 − j 225
H (ω ) = = −  = −10 = e
Vs (ω )  1000  1− j 2
 10 − j 225 
Vs (ω ) = 2 ⇒ Vo (ω ) =  e  2 = 10e
− j 225

 2 
vo (t ) = 10 cos (1000t − 225°) V

P10.14-2

VS − V1
I1 = (1)
R1
I1Z C = V1 (2)
− ( V1 − 0)
= I2 (3)
R2
V1 − V0
= I2 (4)
R3

R
V0 1+ 3 R
Using equations (1) through (4) yields = 2
VS 1+ jωR 1C1

P10.14-3
The equations are:
VS − V1
= I1 (1)
ZC
V1
= I1 (2)
R1
− ( V1 − 0)
= I2 (3)
R2
V1 − V0
= I2 (4)
R3

R3
V0 jωCR 1 (1+ R2 )
Solving these four equations yields =
VS jωCR 1 +1

283
P10.14-4
ω = 62832 rad sec
= 2 πf
VS = 5∠0° mV
Z C = − j1.6

Equations:
VS − V1 − ( V1 − 0)
= I1 (1) = I2 (3)
175 1000
V1 − 0 V1 − V0
= I1 (2) = I2 (4)
− j1.6 10K
Using equations (1) through (4) yields V0 = 0.5∠− 89 °
or v 0 (t) = 0.5cos(ωt − 89 ° ) mV

PSpice Problems
SP 10-1
Circuit:
v S = 10cos(6t + 45° ) V
iS = 2cos(6t + 60° ) A

Input file:
Vs 1 0 ac 10 45
L2 1 2 1
R3 2 3 3
C4 3 0 83.3m
Is 3 0 ac 2 60

.ac lin 1 0.9549 0.9549 ; ω = 6


.print ac Im(L2) Ip(L2)

.END
Output:
FREQ IM(L2) IP(L2)
9.549E-01 2.339E+00 -2.743E+01

So i(t) = 2.34 cos(6t − 27 ° ) A

284
SP 10-2
Circuit:

v S = 5cos(5t − 30° ) V

Input file:

Vs 1 0 ac 5 -30
L2 1 2 4
R3 2 3 12
C4 3 0 55.6m

.ac lin 1 0.7958 0.7958 ; ω = 5


.print ac Vm(2) VP (2)

.END
Output:
FREQ VM(2) VP (2)
7.958E-01 3.082E+00 -1.005E+02
So v 0 (t) = 3.08 cos(5t-100° ) V

SP 10-3
Circuit:
v S = 200cosωt
i S = 8cos(ωt +90° )
ω = 1000 rad sec

Note: The 100m: resistor was added to provide the dc path to ground required by Spice. Since the resistance is so
large, it has little effect on the solution calculated.

Input File:

V1 1 0 ac 200
R2 1 2 20
R3 2 3 20
L4 3 0 40m
R5 2 4 40
C6 4 5 50u
I7 0 5 ac 8 90
R8 5 6 20
C9 6 0 50u
R9 6 0 100MEG
.ac lin 1 159.15 159.15
.print ac Im(R5) Ip(R5)
.END
Output:
FREQ IM(R5) IP(R5)
1.592E+02 1.335E+00 -7.018E+01

So i(t) = 1.34 cos(1000t - 70° ) A


285
SP 10-4

v S = 4cosωt
ω = 2 πf
= 2 π(1000) rad sec

Input file:
V1 1 0 ac 4 0
C2 1 2 10n
R3 2 0 20K
R4 2 6 1000
R5 3 0 100
R6 3 4 100K
Vdummy 6 3 0
F7 4 3 Vdummy 100
R8 4 0 10K
C9 4 5 20n
R10 5 0 5K

.ac lin 1 1000 1000


.print ac Vm(5) VP (5)

Output:
VM(5) VP (5)
4.245E+01 -8.472E+01

So v(t) = 42.5 cos(ωt − 85° ) V

SP 10-5
i S = 2cos(3t +10° ) A
Circuit:
v S = 3cos(2t + 30° ) V

Input file:

Is 0 1 ac 2 10
C2 1 0 500m
R3 1 2 2
L4 2 3 4
Vs 0 3 ac 3 30

.ac lin 1 0.4776 0.4776


.print ac Im(C2) Ip(C2)

.END
Output:
FREQ IM(C2) IP(C2)
4.776E-01 1.999E+00 1.706E+01 So i(t) = 2 cos(2t +17 ° ) A

286
SP 10-6
Circuit:
v S = 5cos2t
i S = 5cos2t

Input file:
Vs 1 0 ac 5 0
R2 1 2 500m
C3 2 0 500m
C4 2 3 1
L5 2 3 500m
L6 3 0 250m
R7 3 0 1
Is 0 3 ac 5 0

.ac lin 1 0.3183 0.3183 ; ω = 2


.print ac Vm(2) VP (2)
.print ac Im(R7) Ip(R7)

.END
0utput:
FREQ VM(2) VP (2)
3.183E-01 2.236E+00 -2.657E+01
So v a (t) = 2.24 cos(2t − 27 ° ) V
FREQ IM(R7) IP(R7)
3.183E-01 4.472E+00 6.344E+01
and i(t) = 4.47 cos(2t +63° ) A

SP 10-7

Circuit:
v S = 4cos 500t V

See note on problem SP 10-3 for explanation.

287
Input file:
Vs 1 0 ac 4 0
R2 5 2 500
R3 2 0 2K
C4 2 0 200n
Vdummy 1 5 0
H5 3 2 Vdummy 300
R6 3 4 2K
C7 4 0 200n
R7 4 0 100MEG

.ac lin 1 795.8 ; w = 5000 rad/sec


.print ac Im(R2) Ip(R2)

.END

Output:
FREQ IM(R2) IP(R2)
7.958E+02 4.180E-03 3.103E+01

So i(t) = 4.18 cos(500t +31° ) mA

SP 10-8
Circuit:

f = 60 Hz
°
Use 1∠0 A test source
V
Then Z =
1∠0°

Input file:
Is 0 1 ac 1 0
L2 1 2 15m
R3 2 0 8
R4 1 0 5
R5 1 3 6
C6 3 0 400u
.ac lin 1 60 60 ; f = 60Hz
.print ac Vm(1) VP (1)
.END
Output:
FREQ VM(1) VP (1)
6.000E+01 2.784E+00 -3.831E+00

V
So Z = °
= 2.78∠ − 4 ° Ω
1∠0

288
SP 10-9

Circuit:
v S = 120sin(ωt + 30° )
f = 10 kHz

Input file:

Vs 1 0 ac 120 -60
R2 1 2 1000
L3 2 3 100m
C4 3 0 1000n

.ac lin 1 10e3 10e3


.print ac Im(R2) Ip(R2)
.END
Output:

FREQ IM(R2) IP(R2)


1.000E+04 1.891E-02 -1.409E+02
So i(t) 18.9 cos(ωt-141°)mA

Verification Problems
VP 10-1 Generally, it is more convenient to divide complex numbers in polar form. Sometimes, as in this
case, it is more convenient to do the division in rectangular form.

Express V1 and V2 as: V1 = − j 20 and V 2 = 20 − j 40


V1 V1 − V 2 − j 20 − j 20 − ( 20 − j 40 )
KCL at node 1: 2 − − = 2− − = 2+ j2−2− j2 = 0
10 j 10 10 j 10

KCL at node 2:
V1 − V 2 V2  V1  − j 20 − ( 20 − j 40 ) 20 − j 40  − j 20 
− + 3  = − + 3  = (2 + j 2) − (2 − j 4) − j 6 = 0
j 10 10  10  j 10 10  10 

The currents calculated from V1 and V2 satisfy KCL at both nodes, so it is very likely that the V1 and V2 are
correct.

289
VP 10-2
I 1 = 0.390 ∠ 39° and I 2 = 0.284 ∠ 180°

Generally, it is more convenient to multiply complex numbers in polar form.


Sometimes, as in this case, it is more convenient to do the multiplication in
rectangular form.

Express I1 and I2 as: I 1 = 0.305 + j 0.244 and I 2 = −0.284

KVL for mesh 1:


8 ( 0.305 + j 0.244 ) + j 10 ( 0.305 + j 0.244 ) − ( − j 5) = j 10

Since KVL is not satisfied for mesh 1, the mesh currents are not correct.

Here is a MATLAB file for this problem:

% Impedance and phasors for Figure VP 10-2


Vs = -j*5;
Z1 = 8;
Z2 = j*10;
Z3 = -j*2.4;
Z4 = j*20;

% Mesh equations in matrix form


Z = [ Z1+Z2 0;
0 Z3+Z4 ];
V = [ Vs;
-Vs ];
I = Z\V
abs(I)
angle(I)*180/3.14159

% Verify solution by obtaining the algebraic sum of voltages for


% each mesh. KVL requires that both M1 and M2 be zero.
M1 = -Vs + Z1*I(1) +Z2*I(1)
M2 = Vs + Z3*I(2) + Z4*I(2)

VP 10-3
V1 = 19.2 ∠ 68° and V 2 = 24 ∠ 105° V

KCL at node 1 :
19.2 ∠ 68° 19.2 ∠ 68°
+ − 4∠15 = 0
2 j6
KCL at node 2:
24 ∠105° 24 ∠105°
+ + 4∠15 = 0
− j4 j12

The currents calculated from V1 and V2 satisfy KCL


at both nodes, so it is very likely that the V1 and V2
are correct.

290
Here is a MATLAB file for this problem:

% Impedance and phasors for Figure VP 10-3


Is = 4*exp(j*15*3.14159/180);
Z1 = 8;
Z2 = j*6;
Z3 = -j*4;
Z4 = j*12;

% Mesh equations in matrix form


Y = [ 1/Z1 + 1/Z2 0;
0 1/Z3 + 1/Z4 ];
I = [ Is;
-Is ];
V = Y\I
abs(V)
angle(V)*180/3.14159

% Verify solution by obtaining the algebraic sum of currents for


% each node. KCL requires that both M1 and M2 be zero.
M1 = -Is + V(1)/Z1 + V(1)/Z2
M2 = Is + V(2)/Z3 + V(2)/Z4

VP 10-4

(3000)( − j1000)
ZP = = 949 ∠ − 72 ° = 300 − j900 Ω
3000 − j1000
VS 100 ∠0°
I= = = 0.2∠53° A
j500+Z P j500+300 − j900

Now using current divider:


 − j1000  40.2 ∠53 9= 63.3 ∠−18.5 mA
°
I1 =
 3000− j1000 
=
 3000  40.2 ∠53 9 = 190∠714. mA
° °
I2
 3000− j1000 

291
Design Problems

DP 10-1

1 R2
R2 =
jω C 1 + jω CR 2
R2 R2
Vo (ω ) 1 + jω CR 2 R1
=− =−
Vi (ω ) R1 1 + jω CR 2
R2
Vo (ω ) R1 j (180 − tan −1 ω CR 2 )
= e
Vi (ω ) 1 + (ω CR 2 )
2

Vo (ω ) tan (180 − 76 )
In this case the angle of is specified to be 104° so CR 2 = = 0.004 and the
Vi (ω ) 1000
R2
Vo (ω ) 8 R1 8 R2
magnitude of is specified to be so = ⇒ = 132 . One set of values
Vi (ω ) 2.5 1 + 16 2.5 R1
that satisfies these two equations is C = 0.2 µ F, R1 = 1515 Ω, R 2 = 20 kΩ .

DP 10-2
1 R2
R2 =
jω C 1 + jω CR 2
R2
Vo (ω ) 1 + jω CR 2 K
= =−
Vi (ω ) R2 1 + jω CR p
R1 +
1 + jω CR 2
R1 R1 R 2
where K = and R p =
R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2
Vo (ω ) K − j tan −1 ω CR p
= e
Vi (ω ) 1 + (ω CR p )
2

292
Vo (ω ) R1 R 2 tan ( 76 )
In this case the angle of is specified to be -76° so C R p = C = = 0.004
Vi (ω ) R1 + R 2 1000
Vo (ω ) 2.5
and the magnitude of is specified to be so
Vi (ω ) 12
K 2.5 R2
= ⇒ 0.859 = K = . One set of values that satisfies these two equations is
1 + 16 12 R1 + R 2
C = 0.2 µ F, R1 = 23.3 kΩ, R 2 = 142 kΩ .

DP 10-3 jω L R 2 L

Vo (ω ) R 2 + jω L R1
= =−
Vi (ω ) jω L R 2
1 + jω
L
R1 +
R 2 + jω L Rp
R1 R 2
where R p =
R1 + R 2
L
ω  L 
Vo (ω ) R1 j  90 − tan −1 ω


R p 
= e 
Vi (ω )  L 
2

1 + ω 

 Rp 

Vo (ω ) L L ( R1 + R 2 ) tan (90 − 14 )
In this case the angle of is specified to be 14° so = = = 0.1
Vi (ω ) Rp R1 R 2 40
L
40
Vo (ω ) 2.5 R1 2.5 L
and the magnitude of is specified to be so = ⇒ = 0.0322 . One set
Vi (ω ) 8 1 + 16 8 R1
of values that satisfies these two equations is L = 1 H, R1 = 31 Ω, R 2 = 14.76 Ω .

293
DP 10-4 jω L R 2 L

Vo (ω ) R 2 + jω L R1
= =−
Vi (ω ) jω L R 2
1 + jω
L
R1 +
R 2 + jω L Rp
R1 R 2
where R p =
R1 + R 2
L
ω  L 
Vo (ω ) R1 j  90 − tan −1 ω


R p 
= e 

Vi (ω )  L 
2

1 + ω 

 Rp 
Vo (ω )
In this case the angle of is specified to be -14°. This requires
Vi (ω )
L L ( R1 + R 2 ) tan (90 + 14 )
= = = −0.1
Rp R1 R 2 40
This condition cannot be satisfied with positive

DP 10-5
Y1 = 1/10
(K
K)
Z1 =10
Use the fact that
Z 2 = 1 jωC Y2 = jωC
KK
admittances in parallel
add and V(∑Y) = I
Z 3 = R + jωL Y3 = 1 R + jωL
*
So V(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 ) = I S with v(t) = 80 cos (1000t − θ) ⇒ V = 8∠ − θ
i S ( t ) = 10 cos 100t ⇒ I s =10∠0°

So have 80∠− θ
 1 + 1 + jωc"# =10∠0 °

!10 R + jωL $
⇒ R +10 −10ω 2 LC+ j (ωL+10ωRC)=1.25R + j1.25ωL
Equate real part: 40 − 40ω 2 LC=R (1)
Equate imaginary part: 40 RC=L (2)
Plugging (2) into (1) yields R=40(1− 4 ×10 7 RC 2 ) ω =1000 rad sec
Now try R=20Ω ⇒ 1− 2(1− 4 ×107 (20) C 2 )
which yields C=2.5×10 −5 F=25 µF
∴L=40 RC=0.02H=20mH
Now check θ : Y1 = 1/ 10 = 0.1
Y2 = j0.25
Y3 = 1/(20+ j20) = .025− j.025
∴Y=Y1 +Y2 +Y3 =.125 , so V=YI s =(.125∠0° )(10∠0° )=1.25∠0°
∴ θ =0° meets the design spec

294