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## survey with constructive

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LECTURE TWENTY FOUR – PHYS4100
Review

Two kinds of motions with different frequencies: ωslow << ωfast

 Berry phase:

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The Aharonov-Bohm Effect

## gauge transformation where Λ is any function of

position and time, without any effect on the fields (see today’s homework).

In quantum mechanics, however, potentials play a more essential role, for Hamiltonian is
expressed in ϕ and A, not E and B: . Nevertheless, the theory
is still said-to-be invariant under gauge transformation.

For a long time, it has been taken granted that in regions where E and B are zero, there
could not be any electromagnetic influences.

However, Aharonov and Bohm showed that vector potential A can affect quantum
behavior of a charged particle, when it moves through a region where the fields are zero.

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Consider a particle constrained to move in a circle of radius b. Along the axis runs a

## . is the magnetic flux through the solenoid.

There is no charge on the solenoid so the scalar potential ϕ is zero. The Hamiltonian is

## For a fixed ρ = b, the wavefunction depends only on φ. Using , we

have . Therefore,

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Defining , , and , one gets .

## condition at ϕ = 2π requires that . Hence,

Interestingly, the solenoid lifts the twofold degeneracy of the moving particle.

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More generally, consider a particle moving through a region where B = , but A

(homework).

## Putting this into , we get

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Now is the AB Effect. Consider an experiment in which a beam of electrons is split in
two, and passed either side of a solenoid, before recombined (see figure to the left).
The beams are kept away from the
solenoid so B = 0 but
is not
zero. One can use a double
slit shown to the right to
realize this experimentally.

The solenoid is not charged so V in the region is a constant. From our previous

## . The total phase difference is thus

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Aharonov-Bohm effect is a special case of Berry phase

Suppose the charged particle is confined in a box centered at R by a potential V(r – R).

Let where .

We have shown .

Therefore,

and in agreement

## with Aharonov and Bohm.

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Summary
 Measurable physical effect exists in regions when the field is

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Homework

## function of position and time) yield the same fields as ϕ and A.

Problem 10.7

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Ch 11. Scattering
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Partial wave
11.3 Phase shifts

## Damien West will give the lecture, as I

have to be at NSF on Thursday & Friday.

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Results of Exam 2
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10

0
30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-100

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