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comments. Many Thanks!

1

LECTURE TWENTY FOUR – PHYS4100

Review

Adiabatic Approximation

Two kinds of motions with different frequencies: ωslow << ωfast

Berry phase:

2

The Aharonov-Bohm Effect

position and time, without any effect on the fields (see today’s homework).

In quantum mechanics, however, potentials play a more essential role, for Hamiltonian is

expressed in ϕ and A, not E and B: . Nevertheless, the theory

is still said-to-be invariant under gauge transformation.

For a long time, it has been taken granted that in regions where E and B are zero, there

could not be any electromagnetic influences.

However, Aharonov and Bohm showed that vector potential A can affect quantum

behavior of a charged particle, when it moves through a region where the fields are zero.

3

Consider a particle constrained to move in a circle of radius b. Along the axis runs a

There is no charge on the solenoid so the scalar potential ϕ is zero. The Hamiltonian is

have . Therefore,

4

Defining , , and , one gets .

Interestingly, the solenoid lifts the twofold degeneracy of the moving particle.

5

More generally, consider a particle moving through a region where B = , but A

(homework).

6

Now is the AB Effect. Consider an experiment in which a beam of electrons is split in

two, and passed either side of a solenoid, before recombined (see figure to the left).

The beams are kept away from the

solenoid so B = 0 but

is not

zero. One can use a double

slit shown to the right to

realize this experimentally.

The solenoid is not charged so V in the region is a constant. From our previous

7

Aharonov-Bohm effect is a special case of Berry phase

Suppose the charged particle is confined in a box centered at R by a potential V(r – R).

Let where .

We have shown .

Therefore,

and in agreement

8

Summary

Measurable physical effect exists in regions when the field is

9

Homework

Problem 10.7

10

Reading for Class 25

Ch 11. Scattering

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Partial wave

11.3 Phase shifts

have to be at NSF on Thursday & Friday.

11

Results of Exam 2

14

12

10

0

30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-100

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