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jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx LUISANNY SAFFONT #9



Maturín, Mayo 2.011

[MOTHER´S DAY & LABOR DAY] Maturín, Mayo 2.011

Mother's Day History

The earliest tributes to mothers date back to the annual spring festival the Greeks
dedicated to Rhea, the mother of many deities, and to the offerings ancient Romans made to
their Great Mother of Gods, Cybele. Christians celebrated this festival on the fourth Sunday
in Lent in honor of Mary, mother of Christ. In England this holiday was expanded to
include all mothers and was called Mothering Sunday.

In the United States, Mother's Day started nearly 150 years ago, when Anna Jarvis,
an Appalachian homemaker, organized a day to raise awareness of poor health conditions
in her community, a cause she believed would be best advocated by mothers. She called it
"Mother's Work Day." Fifteen years later, Julia Ward Howe, a Boston poet, pacifist,
suffragist, and author of the lyrics to the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," organized a day
encouraging mothers to rally for peace, since she believed they bore the loss of human life
more harshly than anyone else.

In 1905 when Anna Jarvis died, her daughter, also named Anna, began a campaign
to memorialize the life work of her mother. Legend has it that young Anna remembered a
Sunday school lesson that her mother gave in which she said, "I hope and pray that
someone, sometime, will found a memorial mother's day. There are many days for men, but
none for mothers."

Anna began to lobby prominent businessmen like John Wannamaker, and

politicians including Presidents Taft and Roosevelt to support her campaign to create a
special day to honor mothers. At one of the first services organized to celebrate Anna's
mother in 1908, at her church in West Virginia, Anna handed out her mother's favorite
flower, the white carnation. Five years later, the House of Representatives adopted a
resolution calling for officials of the federal government to wear white carnations on
Mother's Day. In 1914 Anna's hard work paid off when Woodrow Wilson signed a bill
recognizing Mother's Day as a national holiday.

At first, people observed Mother's Day by attending church, writing letters to their
mothers, and eventually, by sending cards, presents, and flowers. With the increasing gift-

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[MOTHER´S DAY & LABOR DAY] Maturín, Mayo 2.011

giving activity associated with Mother's Day, Anna Jarvis became enraged. She believed
that the day's sentiment was being sacrificed at the expense of greed and profit. In 1923 she
filed a lawsuit to stop a Mother's Day festival, and was even arrested for disturbing the
peace at a convention selling carnations for a war mother's group. Before her death in 1948,
Jarvis is said to have confessed that she regretted ever starting the mother's day tradition.

Despite Jarvis's misgivings, Mother's Day has flourished in the United States. In
fact, the second Sunday of May has become the most popular day of the year to dine out,
and telephone lines record their highest traffic, as sons and daughters everywhere take
advantage of this day to honor and to express appreciation of their mothers.

Today Mothers Day is celebrated in several countries including US, UK, India,
Denmark, Finland, Italy, Turkey, Australia, Mexico, Canada, China, Japan and Belgium.
People take the day as an opportunity to pay tribute to their mothers and thank them for all
their love and support. The day has become hugely popular and in several countries phone
lines witness maximum traffic. There is also a tradition of gifting flowers, cards and others
gift to mothers on the Mothers Day. The festival has become commercialized to a great
extent. Florists, card manufacturers and gift sellers see huge business potential in the day
and make good money through a rigorous advertising campaign.

It is unfortunate to note that Ms Anna Jarvis, who devoted her life for the declaration
of Mothers Day holiday, was deeply hurt to note the huge commercialization of the day.

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[MOTHER´S DAY & LABOR DAY] Maturín, Mayo 2.011

Worker´s Day

Labour Day or Labor Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that
resulted from the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social
achievements of workers. The majority of countries celebrate Labour Day on May 1, and it
is popularly known as May Day and International Workers’ Day

Most countries celebrate Labour Day on May 1, known as May Day and
International Workers’ Day. In Europe the day has older significance as a rural festival
which is predominantly more important than that of the Labour Day movement. The
holiday has become internationalised and several countries hold multi-day celebrations
including parades, shows and other patriotic and labour-oriented events. However, in
Northern Europe, Walpurgis Night is celebrated on the preceding night and this holiday
merges with the Labour Day in some countries.

May 1 is a national holiday in Albania, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh,

Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile, Colombia, Costa
Rica, China, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Lebanon,Macedonia,
Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar (Burma), Nigeria, North Korea,
Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, the Philippines (spelled as "Labor Day"),
Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Serbia, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

May Day can refer to various labour celebrations conducted on May 1 that
commemorate the fight for the eight hour day. May Day in this regard is called
International Workers' Day, or Labour Day. The idea for a "workers holiday" began in
Australia in 1856; after a Stonemason's victory, April 22nd was "Eight-Hour Day", a public
holiday. With the idea having spread around the world, the choice of May 1st became a

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commemoration by the Second International for the people involved in the 1886 Haymarket

The Haymarket affair occurred during the course of a three-day general strike in
Chicago, Illinois, United States that involved common laborers, artisans, merchants, and
immigrants. Following an incident in which police opened fire and killed four strikers at the
McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. plant, a rally was called for the following day at
Haymarket Square. Towards the end of the rally, as police moved in to disperse the event
and opened fire on the unarmed crowd on the plea that an unknown assailant threw a bomb
into the crowd of police. The bomb and resulting police riot left at least a dozen people
dead, including one policeman. A sensational show trial ensued in which eight defendants
were openly tried for their political beliefs, and not necessarily for any involvement in the
bombing. The trial led to the eventual public hanging of four anarchists. The Haymarket
incident was a source of outrage from people around the globe. In the following years,
memory of the "Haymarket martyrs" was remembered with various May Day job actions
and demonstrations.

May Day has become an international celebration of the social and economic
achievements of the labour movement. Although the commemoration of May Day as
International Workers' Day received its inspiration from the United States, the U.S.
Congress designated May 1 as Loyalty Day in 1958 due to the day's perceived
appropriation by the Soviet Union. Alternatively, Labor Day traditionally occurs on the first
Monday in September in the United States. People often use May Day as a day for political
protest, such as the million people who demonstrated against far-right candidate Jean-Marie
Le Pen in France, or as a day for protest against government actions, such as rallies in
support of undocumented workers across the United States.

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