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..............................................................................................................................1

1 Introduction.........................................................................................................1

2 Design Method.....................................................................................................3

2.1 Selection of turbine type................................................................................3

2.1.1 Estimated Power Output..........................................................................3

2.1.2 Specific speed..........................................................................................4

2.1.3 Comparison of Turgo and Crossflow turbines...........................................4

2.2 Design of a Crossflow turbine........................................................................5

2.2.1 Method 1- SKAT generic T3 model...........................................................5

2.2.2 Method 2- Self design from classical Crossflow theory............................5

2.2.3 Method 3- Hybrid design..........................................................................5

2.3 Materials........................................................................................................6

3 Appendix 1...........................................................................................................8

3.1 Design from Classical theory.........................................................................8

3.2 Design from SKAT .........................................................................................8

3.2.1 Design variables......................................................................................8

3.3 Number of Intermediate disks:.......................................................................9

4 Appendix 2- Construction and Drawings............................................................10

4.1 Construction guidelines...............................................................................10

4.2 Drawings......................................................................................................10

.........................................................................................................................10

5 References.........................................................................................................11

1 INTRODUCTION

The following design proposal is a requirement of a project initiated by the Malawi

Industrial research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC). The project

demands the refurbishment of a Micro-hydro power scheme in rural Malawi in

order to supply electricity to a community. The turbine is expected to provide in

an annual average of 25kW of electrical power.

2 DESIGN METHOD

The location in Matandani already has substantial civil works for the hydropower

scheme. Known design data is available for average annual Flowrate and available

hydraulic head, and these are presented in Table 2-1

Design Factor

Q Flowrate (m3/s) 0.14

H Hydraulic head 29.7

(m)

Table 2-1 Design factors for turbine location

Using these design factors a decision can be made on the type of turbine to be

installed.

Using the design constants in Table 2-2 an estimate of power available can be

determined using Equation 2-1

ηtot ⋅ g ⋅ γ ⋅ Q ⋅ H

P= Equation 2-1

1000

Constant

ηtot Turbine efficiencyi 0.6

g Gravitational acceleration 9.81

(m/s2)

γ Specific gravity of water 1000

(kgm ) 3

P= = 24.5 kW

1000

i

Efficiency values for turbines have been calculated empirically and can vary from

60% (0.6) for a poorly constructed turbine to 75% (0.75) for a well designed and

manufactured turbine. For a worst-case situation 0.6 has been chosen.

2.1.2 Specific speed

To determine the type of turbine a value of specific speed (Ns) is required. The

turbine for this project should ideally match the generator with an assumed rated

speed of 500rpm., i.e: N=500

P

Ns = N Equation 2-2

H 5/4

24.474

Ns = 500 = 35 .67

29.7 5/4

Referring to standard specific speed boundaries, Table 2-3, the options for turbine

type were reduced to Turgo and Crossflow.

Turbine type Ns

Pelton 12-30

Turgo 20-70

Crossflow 20-80

Francis 80-400

Propeller and 340-

Kaplan 1000

Table 2-3 Specific speed values for alternative turbine types

Analysis of design parameters in 2.1.2 determined the potential development of a

Turgo or a Crossflow turbine. A comparison is given in Table 2-4.

Turgo Crossflow

30-300m head 2.5-100m head

Impulse turbine Impulse turbine

Good flow rate Will operate on light

load

High running speed Easy servicing

No seals to maintain Cheap

Tolerant to debris No need for flow

regulation

Easy servicing

Axial force on runner

shaft

Table 2-4 Comparison of Turgo and Crossflow turbines

Obviously there are benefits to both but the ease of design and low cost of the

Crossflow turbine meant it was the chosen type for this project.

By reviewing the literature of theory available there were three methods that had

the potential for development.

The Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology has over the years produced an

increasingly more efficient generic design for a Crossflow turbine. The T2 and T3

designs are free issue on the internet, but commercial licenses are available for

purchase to produce model T14.

The T3 design is considered “generic” because it contains all the design drawings

for manufacture, with all the variations in size and shape formed from varying

head and flowrate.

This design will give a good basis for the actual design proposal.

There are numerous publications available for the theoretical design of the main

components of a Crossflow turbine. The original theory work developed by Banki

and Michell, and further more recent developments have been neatly condensed

into a publication1 aimed specifically at being designer-friendly. This step-by-step

procedure will be shown in the following section.

Using the generic design available for the SKAT T3 model there was some scope

for alteration. Alterations to [1], explained in its follow-up document 2

suggest that

the optimum number of blades differs from those proposed by SKAT.

Using the procedure in [1] Appendix 1 was formulated, a summary of which is

given in Table 2-5

SKAT Design Hybrid

Item design dimens

ion

Outside blade diameter D1 200 421 200

(mm)

Inside blade diameter D2 133 295 133

(mm)

Blade chord length (mm) L - 73

Number of blades Z 32 16 15

Outside Blade spacing t 19 83 42

(mm)

Rotor axial length (mm) B 220 67 220

Table 2-5 Summary of design data

The SKAT design and construction notes can therefore be followed and altered

accordingly.

2.3 Materials

There is a vast selection of materials available for the construction of the hydro

turbine. Historically turbines have been fabricated out of materials available e.g.

wood, simple bolts, scrap sheet metal etc. The choice of material ultimately

determines the following:

• Longevity of the installation (rusting, rotting, seizing, fatigue)

• Cost of fabrication (including manufacturing techniques)

• Maintainability (access to spare parts e.g. bearings)

• Efficiency (smooth internal surfaces increase efficiency)

If the design is well built, to a good tolerance with maintenance in mind the long

term running and upkeep by a semi-skilled individual will be made more simple

and less prone to damage. This in turn results in less down-time of the turbine and

a better average performance.

The manufacturing facilities available lend themselves to the use of mild steel in

block and sheet form, welding, drilling and riveting, and the purchasing of

specialist parts such as the shaft bearings and drive belt.

Table 2-6 details the construction materials of the specific components of the

design.

Componen

Material Detail

t

Housing Mild steel sheet

Rotor shaft 2” Mild steel rod

Rotor Steel tube cut into strips Inside of steel tube is often used for low

blades or cost productions- but has a high surface

Steel plate rolled to roughness reducing efficiencies

correct curvature considerably. Achieving an accurate roll

with sheet metal is difficult.

Spacers Mild steel rod, various

diameters

Bushes Brass rod, various

diameters

3 APPENDIX 1

To produce the geometry of the rotor the following relationships are used:

Jet inlet angle is usually set at 16°. Hydraulic efficiency of the nozzle (ηh ) is

considered to be 0.95. Work coefficient of the turbine (Ψ) is set at 2.

Therefore:

Vu 22

Tangential flow velocity: U = = = 11 m/s

ψ 2

60 U 60 ×11

Rotor Outer diameter D1 = = = 0.42m

N π 500 × π

Diameter ratio = D2/D1 = 0.7

Inner diameter D2 = 0.7 x D1 = 0.7 x 0.21 = 0.295m

D1 − D2 0.21 − 0.147

Annulus width a= = = 0.063m

2 2

a 0.032

Blade spacing t= = = 0.083m

0.764 0.764

π × D1 π × 0.21

Number of blades Z= = = 16 blades

t 0.041

Z 1

Rotor length B = Q × × = 0.067m

4 π × D1 × V1sin16

We already know from the calculations in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 that the expected power

output and specific speed are 24.5kW and 71.3rpm respectively. The SKAT design

therefore allows the calculation of the rotor length bo from the following (where Qs

is the specific speed of the design, Qs= 0.15, and η=0.6)

102 × P 102 × 24 .7

bo = = =172 .95 mm

η × H × Qs × H 0.6 × 29 .7 × 0.15 × 29 .7

Taking the nearest design value bo becomes 220mm

Substituting this value into the values for bo in the SKAT design, the new hybrid

design can be produced for construction and testing

From a stress consideration, when the rotor length (B, bo) reaches certain values

the inlet force on the blade would produce bending. This bending over time would

produce fatigue and therefore permanent damage. This can be avoided by the

inclusion of intermediate disks along the rotor length. Table 3-7 has been

formulated from design data in Scheurer et. al3 in order to determine the

appropriate number of intermediate disks. Design flow for this location is 140 l/s.

rate disks

> 85 l/s 1

> 125 2

l/s

> 155 3

l/s

> 180 4

l/s

Table 3-7 Calculation of number of intermediate disks on runner shaft

4 APPENDIX 2- CONSTRUCTION AND DRAWINGS

The SKAT publication contains comprehensive design guidelines. In addition to

this a useful document to consult is the Compendium In Small Hydro (2002)4

which contains many of the referenced documents and further approaches to

Crossflow fabrication techniques.

4.2 Drawings

To be completed.

5 REFERENCES

1

Crossflow Turbine Design, Soft Technology Number 35, ATA Melbourne Australia, Ian Scales, p33-

39

2

Crossflow Turbine Design, Soft Technology Number 37, ATA Melbourne Australia, Ian Scales, p16-

17

3

Scheurer, H., Metzler, R., and Yoder, B., 1980. Small water turbine; instruction manual for the

construction of a Crossflow turbine. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE), Eschbom,

Germany.

4

Compendium in Small Hydro, Furze. J., University of Aarhus, 2002

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