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LUCRARE DE CERTIFICARE A COMPETENŢELOR LINGVISTICE LA LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
Elev propunător Selagea Alin
Prof. coordonator Şufană Felicia
Table of contents
Foreword………………………………………………………………………….........page 3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………........page 4 Chapter 1. Geography 1.1 General information…………………………………………………………....page 5 1.2 Regions………………………………………………………………………….page 5 1.3 Climate………………………………………………………………………….page 8 1.4 Climate and the economy ……………………………………………………..page 10 1.5 Flora&fauna Chapter 2. History 2.1 Alaska’s native people…………………………………………………………page 17 2.2 History of exploitation…………………………………………………………page 17 2.3 Oil ………………………………………………………………………………page 18 2.4 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ………………………………………..page 19 2.5 Politicians Bought and Sold …………………………………………………..page 20 Chapter 3. Demographics 3.1 Race and ancestry …………………………………………………………….page 21 3.2 Languages ……………………………………………………………………..page 22 3.3 Religion ………………………………………………………………………..page 22 Chapter 4. Economy 4.1 Energy ………………………………………………………………………....page 23 4.2 Permanent Fund ……………………………………………………………...page 24 4.3 Cost of living ………………………………………………………………….page 25 4.4 Agriculture …………………………………………………………………....page 25 Chapter 5. Transportation 5.1 Roads …………………………………………………………………………..page 26 5.2 Rail ……………………………………………………………………………..page 27 5.3 Marine transport ……………………………………………………………...page 27 5.4 Air transport …………………………………………………………………..page 28 5.5 Other transport ………………………………………………………………..page 29 2 ……………………………………………………………...page 12
Chapter 6. Law and government 6.1 State government ……………………………………………………………...page 30 6.2 State politics ……………………………………………………………………page 30 6.3 Taxes ....………………………………………………………………………...page 31 6.4 Federal politics ………………………………………………………………....page 31 Chapter 7. Cities, towns and boroughs ...………………………………..………….page 33 Chapter 8. Education …………………….…………………………………………..page 34 Chapter 9. Public health and public safety …….…………………………………...page 34 Chapter 10. Culture ………………………………………………………………….page 34 10.1 Libraries……………………………………………………………………….page 35 10.2 Music …………………………………………………………………………..page 35 Chapter 11. Alaska’s symbols…………………………………………………….....page 36 Outlook and conclusions..……………………………………………………………page 40 Bibliography...………………………………………………………………………...page 41
I have chosen “Alaska” because this is a land of vast natural splendour, abundant wildlife and few people. It offers unique experiences such as walking in wilderness, spectacular cruising through the fjords of the Inside Passage, and frontier towns rich in gold rush history. Alaska is one of USA’s most important and attractive regions and it will always let you unique experiences, especially for those who search for adventures. I have structured my work in eleven chapters. The first chapter is named “Geography” and you can find in it some general information about Alaska. Maybe a good reason to consider when deciding to visit this place is the natural landscape, so I believe that you should read this chapter as it relates many interesting things about the way Alaska looks like, which are the its regions and also some information about them, the diversity of flora and fauna, which makes this land so special and unique but also a few information about its climate. In the next chapter, “History”, there is a short summary of Alaska’s most important historical events, you can find how it was bought from Russia in 1867 for only 7.2 million USD, which was the impact of discovering large amounts of oil and who were the first people to live there. The next three chapters, “Demographics” , “Economy” and “Transportation” offer some information about the way people live in Alaska, the way its population varied during the time, some general information about the transport in Alaska, which are its main resources, airports and the most common activities practiced there, but also its role in USA’s economy. Chapter six and chapter seven, “Law and government” and “Cities, towns and boroughs” offer some details about Alaska’s internal organization, the state’s politics and which are the main cities from there, also including some information about these ones. The next three chapters, “Education” , “Public health and public safety” and “Culture” also allow you to find out some interesting things the cultural activities that take place in Alaska, the importance given to the environment’s protection but also some information about the music listened there or about the way you can get a book in order to read it.
people are attracted to this beautiful state for many interesting things. Introduction More than twice the size of Texas. There are 586. Alaska originally attracted explorers and people who dreamed of becoming rich during the famous gold rushes. It offers unique experiences such as walking in wilderness. remember: This is Alaska. sea kayaking and guided glacier hikes. That instant when the silence of a misty fjord is shattered by a pod of giant humpback whales. The work ends with some conclusions regarding Alaska’s perspectives and future development. it's a feeling you experience. Travelling in Alaska is like travelling no other place on earth. world famous sites. Alaska is the largest state in the USA. fur. spectacular cruising through the fjords of the Inside Passage. from the dry Arctic tundra to the moist rainforests. Alaska is a grand American vacation destination you don’t want to miss! 5 . then crashing back against the sea. Along with its beauty and size. Alaska encompasses dozens of ecosystems. Its sense of undiscovered wilderness and promise of adventure is still as strong today as it was in the past. While your floatplane flies over crystal glaciers. there are some very interesting information about them and I believe you should read them. abundant wildlife and few people. Alaska holds a great history. bait a rod for Alaska’s world famous King salmon fishing. as it has become an important land for the USA. breaching high into the air. This is real. This is the adventure of a lifetime. this 'Last Frontier' today lures travellers in search of an unspoilt beauty and close encounters with nature. Relax aboard a one-day cruise. Your delight when you spot a grizzly bear with a cub or two in tow. and having attracted thousands of pioneers in search of gold. Imagine your vacation in Alaska for one moment. toward the midnight sun. and timeless traditions Alaska isn't just a place you visit. and frontier towns rich in gold rush history.The last chapter allows you to find out which are Alaska’s symbols. and remember for a lifetime. that could offer many benefits and because of that the USA has a great interest on it. Known as the last frontier. fishing. Choose from wildlife viewing. logging and oil. pan for gold. a land of vast natural splendour. Now. Cruising the Inside Passage continues to rank as one the most popular things to do in Alaska.000 square miles of untamed wilderness here. and almost that many possibilities.
The coast then runs northwards indented by Bristol Bay. Moving inland. to the chain of the Aleutian Islands in the west. being only 84 km (52 miles) from mainland Russia. notwithstanding the huge quake of 1964. encompassing the Gulf of Alaska. Volcanic activity in Alaska is frequent. which flattened many parts of Anchorage.800 sq kilometres (586.518. particularly in the east where glaciers reach down to the sea. the coast of which is icebound for most of the year. Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet interrupt an otherwise never-ending coastline. Oil strikes indicate that Alaska may sit on one of the largest oil reserves in the world.412 sq miles) and is more than twice the size of Texas. 1.Beyond your dreams. it was an administrative territory of the US government from 1912 to 1959.640 miles) of rugged coastline and a wide array of scenery. Total landmass is 1. Within your reach! Alaska is a land of superlatives and adventure. Geography 1. Interior. South-central. The Great Land consists of five distinct regions: Inside Passage. The population is sparse and little damage to property or human life occurs. The southern coast sweeps in a wide arc from the south-east. the natural beauty and mineral wealth of the country as well as its prized fishing and timber industries. when it became the 49th State. makes it a desirable place. Not to mention its strategic position. It has 10.700 kilometres (6. the whole length of the coastal mountain ranges is geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes. Norton Sound and Kortzebue Sound and on to the Arctic Ocean. Far North and Southwest 1.2 Regions One scheme for describing the state's geography is by labelling the regions: 6 . it rises steeply.1 General information Today. The Alaska Peninsula separates the southern coast from the Bering Sea. although it still has problems with communications and agriculture.Alaska . Sometimes referred to as 'the last frontier' due to its small population and large opportunities.
which covers around 23. and Nunavut that are farther north are on islands). and marine mammals. Tourism.236 acres (77. bordered by both the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea.090 km2). • and shorelines. as well as the northern most town on the contiguous North American continent (cities in Greenland. Except for the very northernmost part of the Alaska Peninsula. brown bear. forestry and state government anchor the economy. but very important to the fishing industry. birds. encompassing 380 native villages and small towns such as Nome. Anchorage and many growing towns. also known as Southeast Alaska. such as Eagle River. Bethel. Bristol Bay and its watersheds. The Rat Islands region in the Western Aleutians is more than 200 miles (320 km) from the tiny settlements of Attu and Adak. Southwest Alaska includes Katmai and Kodiak Island and the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge.049. Barrow. and Wasilla. fishing.100 km2). The Arctic is Alaska's most remote wilderness. which covers 19. the geographic point most remote from permanent habitation on the US mainland. most famously. transportation. as well as Arctic tundra lands . • The Alaska Panhandle. The geography is marked by large braided rivers.• South Central Alaska is the southern coastal region and contains most of the state's population. less crowded part of the state. tundra landscapes. due to the almost constant high winds. is home to many of Alaska's larger towns including the state capital Juneau. tourism. The region comprises western Cook Inlet. the Northwest Territories. lie within this area. Petroleum industrial plants. The northeast corner of Alaska is dominated by the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. and Bristol Bay has the world's largest sockeye salmon fishery. and unconnected to the road system. A location in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska is 120 miles (190 km) from any town or village. Half of all fish caught in the U. Much of the northwest is covered by the larger National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska. the northernmost town in the United States. the many islands and channels of the Alexander Archipelago and extensive forests. caribou.000. and may be the 7 The Alaska Interior is home to Fairbanks. come from the Bering Sea. and two military bases form the core of the economy here.000 acres (93. and large populations of salmon. the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. It is sparsely populated. • Southwest Alaska is largely coastal. Palmer. such as the Yukon River and the Kuskokwim River. It is known for wet and stormy weather. tidewater glaciers.S. Kotzebue and. • The Alaskan Bush is the remote. south-western Alaska is almost completely treeless.
According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management.440 km2) of land and 1.000 miles (54.000 feet (3.7 m). exploded an atomic bomb underground here. Of these. within the same legal day. The Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon. the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres (350.) Alaska has more than 3 million lakes. The International Date Line jogs west of 180° to keep the whole state.000 km2). It is the most perfect volcanic cone on Earth.320 square miles (487.200 square miles (3. including a multitude of national forests. which is an occasionally smoldering volcano that rises to 10. for example. (Many sources say Turnagain has the second-greatest tides in North America. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Unimak Island.S. Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. and national wildlife refuges.250 square miles (5. and thus the entire North American continent. or 23.8% of the state. The Aleutian Islands chain extends west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula. but several areas in Canada have larger tides. even more symmetrical than Japan's Mount Fuji. western and southwest flatlands).S. One of North America's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm. covers 2.720 km) of tidal shoreline. on Amchitka Island. is home to Mount Shishaldin.loneliest place in the United States.000 square miles (41. Canada. comprising 16 million acres (65.747 km2) (mostly in northern. west of Anchorage on the mainland. approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U. 8 . Alaska has nearly 34. national parks. Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188. just south of Anchorage — tidal differences can be more than 35 feet (10.000 m) above the North Pacific. The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr. In 1971 the U. It is the World's largest wildlife Refuge. in the form of glacier ice.827 km2) alone.110 km2) of tidal zone. Frozen water. covers some 16. federal government as public lands.000 km²). With its myriad islands.
1. (2) a maritime continental zone which includes the western portions of Bristol Bay and west-central zones. Bird. as the name implies. In this zone the summer temperatures are moderated by the open waters of the Bering Sea. which falls into five major zones. and the northern extremes of the south coast zone.000 km2). Alaska is administratively divided into "boroughs". Chugiak.71% of Alaska's area has this status. Owing to the low population density. Currently (2000 census) 57.000 km2) are owned by 13 regional and dozens of local Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. and (5) an artic zone. and the interior basin.194m). Various private interests own the remaining land. Reference is made to the section of maps at the back. with 13. the 84.05% of the population. specifically to the map showing geographical subdivisions of Alaska. the south coast. but whereas some states use a three-tiered system of decentralization—state/county/township—most of Alaska uses only two tiers—state/borough. shown on the map as the arctic drainage division. For statistical purposes the United States Census Bureau divides this territory into census areas. most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough which. but winter temperatures are more continental in nature due to the presence of sea ice during the coldest months of the year. Alaska is also home of the Mount McKinley mountain range which is the largest mountain range in the United States (6. the State of Alaska owns 101 million acres (410. the Cook Inlet zone. totalling about 1% of the state. Fairbanks has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks). but is administered directly by the state government. Aleut and American Indian inhabitants of Alaska own one-ninth of the state. The climate zones are: (1) a maritime Zone which includes south-eastern Alaska.Of the remaining land area. and Indian. (3) a transition zone between the maritime and continental zones in the southern portion of the Copper River zone. (4) a continental zone make up of the remainders of the Copper River and west-central divisions. another 44 million acres (180. indirectly. Thus. has no intermediate borough government of its own. 9 . as opposed to "counties" or "parishes. Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1971 to form the Municipality of Anchorage. Girdwood. Peters Creek. containing the city proper and the bedroom communities of Eagle River. and south-western islands.3 Climate CLIMATIC ZONES – The geographical features already mentioned have a significant effect on Alaska’s climate." The function is the same.000 Eskimo.
Precipitation amounts decrease rapidly to the north.29 inches in 1976. in the city of Cordova (North Gulf of Alaska coast) with a measured amount of 14. In winter the lack of sunshine permits radiation to lower temperatures to the minus 50’s and occasionally colder for two or three weeks at a time. 1971.13 inches. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Alaska was minus 80 degrees at Prospect Creek on January 23. Snowfall extremes are all credited to a station at Thompson Pass.5 inches. The highest recorded temperature for the state is 100 degrees at Fort Yukon in June 1915. most of the areas of heavy snow have relatively mild temperatures which prevent total depths from becoming excessive. Elsewhere in the state. In the maritime 10 . Amounts decrease to near 60 inches on the southern side of the Alaska Range in the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Island sections. Precipitation extremes are of interest. With reference to total amounts (both rain and snow) and based on existing records. Yakutat averages 216 inches of snow annually and has a total annual precipitation (rain plus water equivalent of snow) of about 130 inches.PRECIPITATION – In the maritime zone a coastal mountain range coupled with plentiful moisture produces annual precipitation amounts up to 200 inches in the south-eastern panhandle. and up to 150 inches along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska. TEMPERATURE – Mean annual temperatures in Alaska range from the low 40’s under the maritime influence in the south to a chilly 10 degrees a long the Arctic Slope north of the Brooks Mountain Range. Snowfall makes up a large portion of the total annual precipitation. with an average of 12 inches in the continental zone and less than 6 inches in the arctic region. the greatest annual precipitation occurred at MacLeod Harbor on Montague Island in the Gulf of Alaska with 332. 1955. temperature contrasts are much more moderate. Average winter minimums in this area are 20 to 30 degrees below zero. The greatest seasonal temperature contrast between seasons is found in the central and eastern portion of the continental interior. Along the arctic slope. In this area summer heating produces average maximum temperatures in the upper 70’s with extreme readings in the 90’s. Barrow receives an average of 29 inches of snow annually and a total annual precipitation of slightly more than 4 inches. Fortunately. Total snow depths on the ground are controlled by the temperature of an area. The record measurements are: season (1952-53) 974.99 inches in November 1976. and 24-hour (December 1955) 62 inches. Present-day snow removal equipment is able to keep highways and airports operational. For example. The record maximum for 24 hours occurred on December 29. which is on the highway north of Valdez. This station also holds the record for monthly totals with 70. month (February 1953) 298 inches.
(using a wind chill chart developed by the U. If the temperature is a -49° F and the winds 10 mph. WIND – A normal storm track along the Aleutian Island chain. permitting passage with all types of heavy equipment. in the maritime-continental zones the range is from the low 60’s to 10 below zero. these winds will cause flooding during the time the winds are blowing onshore. Winter temperatures play a principal role in the flow of most of Alaska’s rivers. usually associated with mountainous terrain and narrow passes. the resulting equivalent temperature is -81° F.S. and all of the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific. 11 . Army) a temperature of a -13°F and an accompanying wind of 15 mph equals conditions that would be experienced with a temperature of –49 °F and no wind. or in fact any wind occurring in the areas of extreme winter cold. resulting in a variety of wind problems.zone the summer to winter range of average temperatures in from near 60 to the 20’s. Except for local strong wind conditions. Several rivers cease to flow completely during the coldest months. Direct exposure results in the frequent occurrence of winds in excess of 50 mph during all but the summer months. In many areas construction work and oil exploration is done in winter because both the ground and the streams are frozen hard enough from the use of the heaviest of equipment. thick layers of ice form. The arctic slopes has a range extending form the upper 40’s to 20 below zero. create a definite hazard to personnel exposed for even brief periods of time. has experienced winds on an estimated 139 mph (estimated because the wind recorder pen could only record up to 128 mph). Strong winds. For years. Winter storms moving eastward across the southern Arctic Ocean cause winds of 50 mph or higher along the arctic coast. Shemya. strong winds have taken their toll of both merchant and fishing vessels. Usually beginning in late October and extending into May (and sometimes early June for the northernmost steams). temperatures range from the low 60’s to near zero. For example. In the transition zone. An occasional storm will either develop in or move into the Bering Sea then move north or north-eastward. Wind velocities approaching 100 mph are not common but do occur. winds are generally light in the interior sections. creating strong winds along the western coastal area. the Alaska Peninsula. Because of the low flat ground in many places along the coast. on the western end of the Aleutian Islands.
1. FARMING – It is estimated that state-wide there are 18 to 20 million acres of land potentially suitable for cropland. but less than 20 thousand acres are actually under or have been under cultivation. This is a short growing season. Cattle and sheep are raised in areas of the Kenai Peninsula. The petroleum is then moved by oceangoing tankers to refineries in Alaska and the contiguous 48 states. silage. Some forested land exists in the central interior and south-western portions along major rivers like the Yukon and the Kuskokwim but. and the Aleutian Islands. The largest acreages are devoted to grass crops for hay. but the daily potential of 16 to 19 hours of sunshine each day produces some of the finest and largest vegetables grown anywhere. completed in 1977. especially potatoes. barren mountains and numerous glaciers limit the forests to about 10 to 20 percent of the total area. MINERAL – Oil is by far the most important mineral product at this time. The trans-Alaska pipeline. No commercial timber is found north of the Brooks Range or along the western coastal region. Production from the Prudhoe Bay field is now at 750.wooded areas in the state total approximately 100 million acres of both commercial and non-commercial timber. the Alaska Peninsula. South-eastern Alaska is and always has been the principal production area. Wind caribou herds foraging on portions of these lands have numbered in the hundreds of thousands and are an important source of protein in many Alaska villages.000 barrels per day and is projected to reach 1. are also important. Within the agricultural areas the growing season averages 80 to 110 days each year. a deepwater port in the northern Gulf of Alaska. In south-central Alaska high. and offshore Cook Inlet. Western interior forested areas are limited to small isolated patches without permafrost.4 Climate and the economy TIMBER . and small herds of reindeer are raised on the tundra lands of the Seaward Peninsula. transports this crude petroleum from the Prudhoe Bay field on the North Slope of Alaska to a refinery at North Pole and to Valdez. Commercial gas wells are 12 . Exploration for additional petroleum is in progress in several land areas and on the outer continental shelf from the Gulf of Alaska to the Beaufort Sea coast. Rangelands are widespread in the Alaska mainland.2 million barrels per day by the end of 1978. and limited mild production in the Matanuska Valley north of Anchorage and the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks provide fresh dairy products to local residents. Vegetable crops. Lumber and pulp mills are important contributors to the economy of that portion of the state. and pasture. Some commercial logging has occurred in the Tyonek area on the northwest shore of Cook Inlet and in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. to date. the Kenai Peninsula. has not been developed commercially. Current commercial production is at Prudhoe Bay.
Alaska is home to several various plants. Commercial fishing occurs along the entire Alaska coast but is heaviest in the south-eastern Bering Sea. It has the climate of the southern regions which can be compared to the climate of Washington and Oregon. and several other large deposits have been located but are not commercially mined. FISHING – The fishing industry. bornite is mined in the vicinity of Kobuk.producing in the Barrow area and the Kenai Peninsula. and platinum of the Bering Sea coast. is another leading industry in Alaska. along the Aleutian Islands. but shellfish particularly ding and tanner crab and shrimp. It has some of the most common plants and animals in the world.S. which includes the taking of crab and shrimp. yet we have some that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. zone of extended jurisdiction within 200 miles of the coast. TOURISM – Out-of-state visitors have been increasing in number each year. Coal is mined in the Healy area. This is particularly true if game hunting is included. Gold mining has resumed in the vicinity of Nome. Because of the airplane. Then there is the North Slope that can be compared to that of Siberia. 13 . animals. Halibut have also long been an important part of the harvest. moose. and around the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. Hunting for bear. All other types of mining area of a minor nature but are expected to develop as problems or transportation and production coasts are solved. and sheep draws hundreds of people to the state each year and contributes many thousands of dollars to the economy. tourism extends into nearly every part of the state. at least one Alaskan port has been listed among the top 10 U. and a large pipeline is expected to be built in the next 5 to 10 years to transport Prudhoe Bay gas to the lower 48 states.S. ports in terms of both pounds of fisheries products landed and total economic value of the landings. and insects because it is such a big and diverse state. A new fishery for bottom fish is emerging with the implementation of the U. Salmon have been the main product. are becoming more important. caribou. In recent years.
There are a wonderful variety of wild animals that live in Alaska.Alaska winters are harsh requiring most warm-blooded mammals to put on weight and grow heavier coats to prepare for the winter. Then there are other. Although a number the Alaskan animals are native to the area. Some winter residents avoid the whole climate challenge by hibernating. They replaced the wild herd that had died out about 500 years ago. In some large herbivores such as caribou and musk oxen. they stay home to protect the babies. Depending on where you visit. The Kodiak bear calls the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge his home. the brown or grizzly bear and the black bear. These plants. special nasal passages are designed to capture heat that would otherwise escape as steamy breath. The Musk Ox was also reintroduced in order to restore a species of Alaska native animals that hunters eliminated in 1865. Most of them reside on the Kodiak Island archipelago. it behoves you to exercise caution. as a camper or hiker may say. As home to the white polar bear. and insect are not all of the flora and fauna in Alaska by any means.700 brown bears living in Alaska. Bears are probably the most frequently seen wild animals that live in Alaska. The adult female bears are rarely seen on the road. Like any traditional housewife. birds or marine life. animals. These samples are just a few of the major flora and fauna of the interior. or. most of the Alaskan territory is considered bear country. Arctic wolves have specialized blood vessels in their paws that keep pad temperatures about one degree above freezing. Since they are often found near garbage dumpsters. Alaska bears are not only found in the wild. "beware" country. Many of the wild animals that live in Alaska can be found in the state's many wildlife refuges. They are often discovered in big cities such as Juneau. Anchorage and Fairbanks. more customized adaptations. There are several hundred American Bison in Alaska. 14 . others are introduced species. Alaska Native Animals Brown Bear There are over 2. Be particularly weary of mothers with cubs. 23 American Bison were transplanted to Alaska. In 1928. you can find a vast array of mammals. which was established in 1941 in order to protect some of the Alaska native animals.
Deer hunting is available in Southeast Alaska's coastal 15 . They will attack without provocation. If you are camping. they are considered to be a colour phase of the red fox. this is animal is a highly active predator.Since Mama Bear usually weighs between 400-600 pounds. make a lot of noise as you approach. you can bet that they don't have a membership to Curves. Bears do not like surprises. Papa Bear is even bigger. However. Be especially weary of moose. These include: · Sitka Black-Tailed Deer · Roosevelt Elk · Mountain Goat · Muskrat · Beaver · Red Squirrel · Snowshoe Hare Please remember that feeding the animals in Alaska can be dangerous to both humans as well as the animals themselves. Little Brown Bat Don't go into the attic! There are bats on the rafters! This tiny critter comes out at night to find the best places to do on insects. Weighing only 1/4 ounce.500 pounds. Foxes can occasionally be seen along the Alaska road system. Red Fox Red Fox can either be red or silver. Many of the animals in Alaska are introduced species. The type of Alaska hunting trip will vary throughout the entire state. Although some black foxes can be seen in Alaska. Its fur turns white in the winter. with weights up to 1. which means it often ends up as a coat on the backs of wealthy women. HUNTING IN ALASKA Hunting in Alaska is best described by region. do not keep food in your tent. If you are in bear country. it has no need of the gym! Short-Tailed Weasel Also known as ermine.
These partners will transport the game to Anchorage. South Central Alaska is famous for Dall sheep hunting. Alaskans harvest approximately 6. Alaska Moose Hunting If you are interested in Alaska moose hunting. Bear Hunting The best Alaska bear hunting areas are found in the tidal areas in Prince William Sound southward through the panhandle of Alaska. You will need to need to sign a transfer of possession form and drop the game of at one of Food Bank of Alaska's airline partners: Northern Air Cargo.000 moose. which can be transmitted to humans who eating infected meat that is not cooked thoroughly. consider donating the excess to the Alaskan Hunters Fighting Hunger program. moose were used as a source of food and clothing. but are not limited to dangerous game. anyone on an Alaska moose-hunting trip is legally bound to salvage this meat for human consumption. where game processors will clean. It also behoves you to realize that bears are extremely powerful animals that are capable of being dangerous to humans. 16 . Throughout the history of Alaska. early winter weather. and consider the services of an Alaska hunting guide. and distance from any viable source of help. they will defend their food supply against anyone who they perceive as an intruder. Today. whereas musk ox hunting is practiced on the tundra of western Alaska. Early May through early June is usually the best time for Alaska bear hunting. Alaska moose hunting was once the primary method 0f supplying meat to the mining camps. This is important to be aware of if you are hunting in Alaska. If you plan to use bear flesh for food. The world-famous Kodiak is known for Alaska bear hunting. This translates into 3. Although hunting in Alaska can be an exciting experience. there are inherent dangers associated with the sport. you will want to head for the hills of the Interior. Since this is high quality meat. you must be certain that it is well-cooked. they have been crucial to the development of the state. Observe all safety precautions. grind and package the game for use by the nonprofit agencies involved in feeding feed hungry men. If you end up with more moose meat than you will need. Because there are so many moose throughout Alaska. These include.000 to 8. ERA and Pentair. Alaska bears have been known to have trichinosis.5 million pounds of meat.rainforest. women and children throughout the entire state of Alaska. Although they are cautious and secretive.
Fishing vacationers who used an Alaska fly fishing guide only spend a few hours before they hook and land their fish.Alaska Fishing Guides Do you have dreams about catching that record-breaking king salmon or trophy rainbow trout? If you are planning a fishing trip to Alaska. the guidance of an Alaska fly-fishing guide would prove to be beneficial. an Alaska fly fishing guide may make help you optimize your time. it behoves you to engage the services of a guide. You can also find Alaska fishing guides that specialize in a specific type of fish. if you plan on fishing for halibut. Therefore. In this case. He will also be able to provide you with best fishing equipment and tackle. your best option is to obtain the services of professional Alaska fishing guides who work for an established Alaska fishing lodge. Experienced Alaska salmon fishing guides have valuable knowledge about boat 17 . The State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game statistics show that anglers who do not engage the services of an Alaska fly fishing guide will spend close to 40 hours fishing before they will even hook a fish. the highly experienced Alaska fishing guides can make your dreams come true! Although there are many fishing guides throughout the state. Your guide will have extensive knowledge about where to find the best fishing locations. Given that your Alaska fishing vacation may be of short duration. you should definitely consider the services of an Alaska salmon fishing guide. Since lodge owners will not sacrifice their reputations with unqualified guides. Additionally. but limber rods that contain small pulleys as guides. you should know that Alaska Halibut sport fishing tackle is highly specialized. Alaska halibut are usually caught on heavy duty. these Alaska fishing guides will definitely be licensed professionals. Unless you are a highly experienced angler. if you plan on fishing for any of the Alaskan breeds of salmon. Most fishing boat captains are reluctant to reveal the secrets of their techniques and fishing spots. a less experienced angler will lose a rod when they hook their first Alaska halibut by jigging.120 lb test lines Quite often. For example. the rods may have heavy-duty level wind reels with 60.
and the environment. comprising distinct languages.handling and water conditions. History 2. and Tsimshian of the south-eastern coastal rainforest. With nearly 24 hours of daylight during fishing season. the Aleut people of the Aleutian Chain and Pribilof Islands. and integral relations among humans.000 years. Haida. and oil." Subsistence is a word used to describe the hunting. Angoon 2.". animals. meaning the "great land" or "shores where the sea breaks its back" may be the source of the name "Alaska. Most of the Alaska salmon fishing guides take their guest out on powerboats that cruise along the Kenai River and the Kasilof Rivers. and traditions. then you're in a place where you're at a balance. you will have plenty of time for fishing on your Alaska vacation." The Aleut people have lived in the Aleutian Islands for approximately 6. cultures.1 Alaska Native Peoples The land now known as the state of Alaska has been continuously inhabited by Native peoples for thousands of years: the Tlingit. Why not make the most of that time by engaging the services of a fishing guide? Alaska and the fish are waiting! Book your trip now! 2. and the Inupiat of the northern coast of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Asian and European-American colonists in search of fur. fishing. The Aleut word alaxsxag or agunalaksh. 18 .2 History of Exploitation Alaska's recent history of the last 250 years is punctuated by a series of boom-and-bust cycles of exploitation of natural resources by European. whales. salmon. As Justice Thomas Berger writes in Village Journey: "The traditional economy is based on subsistence activities that require special skills and a complex understanding of the local environment that enables people to live directly from the land. and your kids. copper. the Athabascan tribes of the interior. or Russian fur traders. gold. the Yupik people of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and coastal southwest Alaska. love of the land. The native peoples of Alaska. and gathering traditions of Alaska Native peoples that includes the cultural and spiritual values of respect.Gabriel George. sharing. share a close connection with the land and sea. You look at the world that way and respect it and you see that it's providing you with a way of life. Promyshlenniki. "If you respect things and look at them as having a spirit or being.
" For Seward. Railroads and roads were built to facilitate the export of gold. People died from European diseases such as smallpox and measles for which they had no immunity. about 2 cents per acre. Alaska became the 49th state. In the sixty years following Vitus Bering's claim of Alaska for Russia in 1741.2 million USD. was built in 8 months at a cost of $138 million.000 to 2. Seward was widely criticized for the deal to acquire what some perceived as a frozen wasteland and the agreement became known as "Seward's folly. Early efforts to establish Alaska as a state failed. its interest in Alaska waned. In 1942. the agreement fulfilled his dream of manifest destiny. In 1867.arrived in Alaska in the 1740's. British Columbia and Delta Junction near Fairbanks. although in 1906 Alaska had a non-voting delegate in the U. the 1.3 Oil! In 1902. Secretary of State William H. The sovereign rights of the Alaska Native peoples were ignored in the transaction. Alaska's strategic military significance and growing economic importance with the prospect of oil." the Yankee whalers in search of whale oil and baleen. House of Representatives. the Aleut population declined from 15. The gold rush rapidly transformed Alaska.S.400 mile Alaska Canada Military Highway between Dawson Creek. copper. who nearly decimated the bowhead whale population in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in the mid-1800's. the New York Times reported: "An immense oil gusher was struck at Cotella 19 .S. In the decades that followed. Seward to sell Alaska to the United States for 7. and coal. gold strikes began in southeast Alaska and expanded into Interior Alaska and to the Bering Sea around Nome. the Tsar of Russia reached an agreement with then U. prompted Congress to approve Alaska's statehood in 1958. As Russia wiped out the sea otters.000. The northern coast of Alaska was invaded by the "original oil men from the South. 2. Traders from Siberia exploited the superior kayaking and hunting skills of the Aleut people by forcing them into slavery to kill sea otters from Alaska to Baja California. World War II and the Cold War highlighted Alaska's strategic importance and ended the Territory's political isolation. Outsiders with gold fever now numbered in the thousands.
" In the early 1950's. An important new industry is thus added to Alaska's resources. a small California company that later merged with Atlantic Refining and became ARCO. refining. with 15 offshore oil platforms. TAPS carried 2 million barrels of oil per day. with then Vice-President Spiro Agnew casting the deciding vote in the United States Senate. nationalization of Iran's oil fields and attempts to close the Suez Canal led oil companies to seriously approach potential oil reserves in Alaska." The Katalla discovery. history. Nearly one-tenth of the crude oil consumed in the United States flows from Prudhoe Bay through TAPS. Congress approved construction of the TransAlaska Pipeline System (TAPS). At peak capacity. The Kenai Peninsula and Cook Inlet region became an important producer of oil and natural gas. ANCSA was set up for failure. Oil companies began to purchase vast acreage in oil leases. Atlantic Richfield struck an 'elephant' field at Prudhoe Bay along the Beaufort Sea coast in 1968. After about 165 consecutive oil well failures by oil companies in Alaska. Irene Ryan. it became the country's largest oilfield. 1977 the first oil from Prudhoe Bay flowed southward. The search for commercial discoveries of oil had begun. In 1969. Five years after the Prudhoe Bay discovery. on-shore oil and gas production.[sic] on the south Alaskan coast. The well soon produced 900 barrels of oil per day. and transportation facilities. Oil companies honed in like sharks.S. about 110 miles southeast of Valdez. ANCSA was the largest land claim settlement in U. only resulted in a local boom and dreams were dashed when the small refinery was destroyed by fire in 1933. struck oil in the Swanson River area of the Kenai Peninsula in 1957. The pipeline. Richfield. ANCSA was negotiated by few who did not represent most Alaska Native people. Everyone thought I was nuts. On June 20. With a capacity of 10 billion barrels. 2. passed in 1971. Each Alaska Native became a stockholder and received 100 shares in one of twelve regional corporations.4 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Oil companies lobbied hard for the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) because they feared that Native claims along the proposed TAPS route might prohibit the granting of right of way. Alaska received over $900 million in one oil lease sale alone. ANCSA. large processing. operated by a consortium of seven oil companies forming Alyeska Pipeline Service Company. As Lillian Liliabas questioned: "Who 20 . the first commercially productive well in Alaska. traverses 800 miles from Prudhoe Bay to tidewater in Valdez on Prince William Sound. with over 5 million acres leased by the end of 1955. a geological engineer and bush pilot stated: "I felt people should be looking for oil instead of gold. gave Alaska Natives title to 44 million acres and $962 million to settle aboriginal land claims.
and the health and safety of its workers. Beaufort. Meanwhile. Sourdough. a move supported by Alaska's Congressional delegation. a state-managed trust fund created from oil royalties. and Cook Inlet.000 miles of Alaska's coastline was a culmination of government complacency. the industry is granted access to virtually the entire coastline of the Beaufort Sea and Cook Inlet through special area-wide state and vast federal lease sales. The village has lost its political and social autonomy. Alaska Native tribes are asserting their rights to protect their lands and subsistence way of life through legal and political avenues. Despite its failure to act responsibly.5 Politicians Bought and Sold Fully 85% of Alaska's government revenue comes from the oil and gas industry. With a special exemption for Cook Inlet. The tragic Exxon Valdez oil spill that poisoned over 1. and other prospects. Many Alaskans are lulled into complacency with the average of about $1. Plans to open the National 21 .voted for ANCSA? You won't find ten people on the Kuskokwim who voted for ANCSA. EPA allows the oil industry to dump millions of pounds of toxic waste each year. The state has spent millions of dollars to lobby Congress to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil development. The schism between rural and urban Alaskans continues to widen amid growing accusations that the state legislature is racist. A lower court ruling known as the Venetie decision established that ANCSA did not extinguish many tribal rights of self-governance. The State of Alaska spent hundreds of thousands of dollars and successfully battled to overturn this decision. human health and safety. 2. A recent report commissioned by the Alaska Forum for Environmental Responsibility concludes that "Alyeska's efforts are not sufficient to protect the environment TAPS crosses." Oil companies in Cook Inlet committed thousands of violations of their Clean Water Act permit from 1987-1995. Industry contributions also fill a hefty portion of the politicians' campaign chests. Gulf of Alaska.000 per year return on the Permanent Fund Dividend. The Minerals Management Service is offering lease sales in the Chukchi." "The imposition of a settlement of land claims that is based on corporate structures was an inappropriate choice. the oil industry receives little scrutiny from state and federal regulators."-Justice Thomas Berger. the industry encroaches on the borders of the Refuge through its Warthog. The lack of government oversight of the oil industry in Alaska has created serious problems that threaten the environment. In turn. from the risks of an aging pipeline.
382 401. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 4.068 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 5. the largest proportion of any state. The largest self-reported ancestry groups in the state are German 22 . 3. Demographics Historical populations 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Est. at 1. 128.062 births minus 25. state by area.469 people out of the state.851 550.418 people.42/km²).0% 9.8% 32.1 per square mile (1.S. and migration within the country produced a net loss of 9.887 people.3% of single-race Alaska residents were Caucasian and 15. It is the largest U. Wyoming. Census.5% The United States Census Bureau. at 5.994 people (that is 86.293. since the last census in 2000. with the next state. and one of the most sparsely-populated areas in the world.043 626.5%.9% 14.Petroleum Reserve are also proceeding. Alaska is the least densely populated state.97/km²). In 2000 Alaska ranked 48th out of 50 states by population.6% were Native American or Alaska Native.0 people per square mile (0. or 9.8% 36. which represents an increase of 59. Multiracial/Mixed-Race people are the third largest group of people in the state.293 %± — 75.8% 33. as of July 1.167 300.1 Race and ancestry According to the 2000 U.643 226. 3. 2008. and the 6th wealthiest (per capita income). 69.S. estimated Alaska's population at 686. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 60.9% of the population. totalling 6. 2008 Pop.362.932 686.
The next most common languages are Spanish (2. known locally as Native American languages. The large Eastern Orthodox (with 49 parishes and up to 50.000. In 1795. Intermarriage with Alaskan Natives helped the Russian immigrants integrate into society. The Wrangell-Petersburg area has many residents of Scandinavian ancestry and the Aleutians contain a large Filipino population. more and more Russian Orthodox churches gradually became established within Alaska. and other parts of south-central and southeast Alaska have many whites of northern and western European ancestry. The vast sparsely populated regions of northern and western Alaska are primarily inhabited by Alaska Natives. Alaska Native or American Indian (15.000 followers. 3. the largest single denominations are Mormons with 29.88%).156. British (9.(16.S. 3. As a result. 85.2 Languages According to the 2000 U.6%). A total of 5.000. and mainline Protestants had 37. as being the least religious in the U. Filipino (1.2%). Roman Catholics had 54. Alaska also has the largest Quaker population (by percentage) of any state.6%). Hindus are also represented through a number of temples and associations and adherents number over one thousand.54%).06%).359. and Orthodox with 20. Evangelical Protestants had 78.S. Fairbanks. Irish (10.070 members. only about 39% of Alaska residents were members of religious congregations. and Norwegian (4.000 to 5.87%). Census. Alaskan Hindus often share venues and celebrations with members of other religious communities including 23 . Southern Baptists with 22. along with Pacific Northwest states Washington and Oregon.7% of Alaska residents aged 5 and older speak English at home. After Catholics and Eastern Orthodox.460.8%). Most of the state's black population lives in Anchorage. and Iñupiaq (1.3 Religion Alaska has been identified. Yupik (2. According to statistics collected by the Association of Religion Data Archives. who are also numerous in the southeast.000 Jews in Alaska (for whom observance of the mitzvah may pose special problems). population is a result of early Russian colonization and missionary work among Alaska Natives. though Fairbanks also has a sizable black population. American (5. Anchorage. In 2003 there were 3. Estimates for the number of Alaskan Muslims range from 2. of which most are moribund. the First Russian Orthodox Church was established in Kodiak.7%).6%).959.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 22 indigenous languages.
with most foodstuffs and general goods imported from elsewhere. timber and wood products. dairy products. 4. gold. cod. There is also a growing service and tourism sector. Its per-capita GSP for 2006 was $43. 4. allowing the state to keep taxes low. and livestock. 7th in the nation. Its industrial outputs are crude petroleum. Military bases are a significant component of the economy in both Fairbanks and Anchorage. Employment is primarily in government and industries such as natural resource extraction. Manufacturing is limited. shipping.9 billion. coal. 45th in the nation. seafood processing. Alaska's main export product (excluding oil and natural gas) is seafood. natural gas.Sikhs and Jains. precious metals.748. Agriculture represents only a fraction of the Alaskan economy. Federal subsidies are also an important part of the economy. vegetables. primarily salmon. Economy The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports oil. Pollock and crab. Agricultural production is primarily for consumption within the state and includes nursery stock.1 Energy Alaska has vast energy resources. and transportation. Pertinent are the heat pipes in the column mounts The 2005 gross state product was $39. Tourists have contributed to the economy by supporting local lodging. Major oil and gas reserves are found in the Alaska 24 . Alaska's most important export. The oil and gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy. from the North Slope to Valdez. zinc and other mining. with more than 80% of the state's revenues derived from petroleum extraction.
the state legislature takes out 8 percent from the earnings. From its initial principal of $734.North Slope (ANS) and Cook Inlet basins.30-$0. transportation.g. and the remaining 5 percent is distributed to all qualifying Alaskans. and lignite coal basins. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline can pump up to 2.000. substantial coal deposits are found in Alaska’s bituminous.269. Additionally. subbituminous.4 trillion cubic feet (2. Alaska's economy depends heavily on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for heating. The United States Geological Survey estimates that there are 85.2 Permanent Fund The Alaska Permanent Fund is a legislatively controlled appropriation established in 1976 to manage a surplus in state petroleum revenues from the recently constructed TransAlaska Pipeline System. seasonal usage peaks.1 million barrels (330. Though wind and hydroelectric power are abundant and underutilized. Prudhoe Bay (North America's largest oil field) alone accounts for 8% of the United States domestic oil production. with special low-cost electric interties) were judged uneconomical (at the time of the report. 2001) due to low (<$0. Alaska accounts for 1/5 (20%) of domestically produced United States oil production. puts 3 percent back into the principal for inflation proofing.00 in 2008 (which included a one-time $1200 "Resource Rebate"). nearby petroleum development infrastructure and many other factors. Alaska ranks second in the nation in crude oil production. 4. According to the Energy Information Administration. technically recoverable gas from natural gas hydrates on the Alaskan North Slope.000 barrels per day (64. ranging from $331. Prudhoe Bay on Alaska’s North Slope is the highest yielding oil field in the United States and on North America. To qualify for the Alaska State Permanent Fund one must have lived in the state for a minimum of 25 . typically producing about 400. Alaska also offers some of the highest hydroelectric power potential in the country from its numerous rivers.000 m3) of crude oil per day.000 m³/d). prices in rural areas are generally significantly higher but vary widely depending on transportation costs. dividends from the fund's annual growth have been paid out each year to eligible Alaskans. Starting in 1982. electric power and light. Every year.50/Gal) fuel prices. proposals for state-wide energy systems (e. The cost of a gallon of gas in urban Alaska today is usually $0.60 higher than the national average. long distances and low population. more than any other crude oil pipeline in the United States.420 km3) of undiscovered. Large swaths of the Alaskan coastline offer wind and geothermal energy potential as well.29 in 1984 to $3. the fund has grown to $40 billion as a result of oil royalties and capital investment programs.
and maintain constant residency. it is still one of the highest in the country. which can consist of reindeer fat. relatively little farming occurs in Alaska. Most food in Alaska is transported into the state from "outside". Federal government employees. and shipping costs 26 . about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Anchorage. Alaska has an abundance of seafood. 4. Many rural residents come into these cities and purchase food and goods in bulk from warehouse clubs like Costco and Sam's Club. with the primary fisheries in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific. Hunting for subsistence. rural Alaska suffers from extremely high prices for food and consumer goods.4 Agriculture Due to the northern climate and steep terrain. However. particularly in remote Bush communities. The primary crops are potatoes. but the long sunny summer days make for productive growing seasons. Most farms are in either the Matanuska Valley. primarily caribou.3 Cost of living The cost of goods in Alaska has long been higher than in the contiguous 48 states. where the cost of living has dropped somewhat in the past five years. about 60 miles (97 km) southwest of Anchorage. Many Alaskans fish the rivers during Salmon season to gather significant quantities of their household diet while fishing for subsistence. while the cost of living has gone down. and sheep is still common in the state. the Eskimo ice cream. dried fish meat and local berries. Fairbanks (Wal-Mart in March 2004). seal oil. The introduction of big-box stores in Anchorage. lettuce. receive a Cost of Living Allowance usually set at 25% of base pay because. Farmers exhibit produce at the Alaska State Fair. if they are available at all. and cabbage.12 months. Some have embraced the free shipping offers of some online retailers to purchase items much more cheaply than they could in their own communities. "Alaskan Grown" is used as an agricultural slogan. An example of a traditional native food is Akutaq. moose. corn. and Juneau also did much to lower prices. 4. This has changed for the most part in Anchorage and to a lesser extent in Fairbanks. or on the Kenai Peninsula. compared to the rest of the country due to the relatively limited transportation infrastructure. The short 100-day growing season limits the crops that can be grown. carrots. and seafood is one of the few food items that is often cheaper within the state than outside it. or both. particularly United States Postal Service (USPS) workers and active-duty military members. sport.
The state capital.000 or less.0 km) the tunnel was the longest road tunnel in North America until 2007. Juneau.1 Roads Alaska has few road connections compared to the rest of the U. subsistence hunting and gathering is an essential activity because imported food is prohibitively expensive.make food in the cities relatively expensive. an active Alaska Railroad tunnel recently upgraded to provide a paved roadway link with the isolated community of Whittier on Prince William Sound to the Seward Highway about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Anchorage. Transportation 5. The cost of importing food to villages begins at $0. In rural areas. The state's road system covers a relatively small area of the state. 5.07/lb and rises rapidly to $0. is not accessible by road.00. Fuel for snow machines and boats that consume a couple gallons per hour can exceed $8.5 miles (4.S. The tunnel is the longest combination road and rail tunnel in North America.50/lb or more. The cost of delivering a 7-pound gallon of milk is about $3. The western part of Alaska has no road system connecting the communities with the rest of Alaska. At 2. linking the central population centres and the Alaska Highway. or building a road connection from Haines. One unique feature of the Alaska Highway system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel. 27 . the principal route out of the state through Canada.50 in many villages where per capita income can be $20. only a car ferry. which has spurred several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system.
It continues to offer one of the last flag stop routes in the country. coal from the Usibelli coal mine near Healy to Seward and gravel from the Matanuska Valley to Anchorage. Denali. The cities. towns and villages in the state do not have road or highway access. the only modes of access involve travel by air. or the sea. the ever-improving paved highway system began to eclipse the railroad's importance in Alaska's economy. the railroad provides the only transportation to rural homes and cabins in the area.e. though famed for its summertime tour passenger service. passing through Anchorage. crossing the border at White Pass Summit. In recent years. until construction of the Parks Highway in the 1970s.. the railroad provided the only land access to most of the region along its entire route. Eklutna. moving freight into Alaska while transporting natural resources southward (i. often arriving by cruise liner at Skagway. Talkeetna. This line is now mainly used by tourists.) The Alaska Railroad was one of the last railroads in North America to use cabooses in regular service and still uses them on some gravel trains. A stretch of about 60 miles (100 km) of track along an area north of Talkeetna remains inaccessible by road. Palmer and North Pole. played a vital role in Alaska's development.3 Marine transport Most cities. and Fairbanks. It links north Pacific shipping through providing critical infrastructure with tracks that run from Seward to Interior Alaska via South Central Alaska. the White Pass and Yukon Railroad also partly runs through the State from Skagway northwards into Canada (British Columbia and Yukon Territory). It featured in the 1983 BBC television series Great Little Railways. In northern Southeast Alaska. 28 . river. and region served by ARR tracks are known state-wide as "The Railbelt". with spurs to Whittier. 5. The railroad. the Alaska Railroad (ARR) played a key role in the development of Alaska through the 20th century.2 Rail Built around 1915. towns. Wasilla. villages.5.
In recent years. mainly connecting the Pacific Northwest to Southeast Alaska and. Several times each summer. and to a lesser extent Fairbanks. Washington and Prince Rupert.4 million were visitors). Regular flights to most villages and towns within the state that are commercially viable are challenging to provide. large cruise ships began creating a summertime tourism market.7 million via air travel. Alaska Airlines is the only major airline offering in-state travel with jet service (sometimes in combination cargo and passenger Boeing 737-400s) from 29 . The Inter-Island Ferry Authority also serves as an important marine link for many communities in the Prince of Wales Island region of Southeast and works in concert with the Alaska Marine Highway. towns along the north gulf coast. the population of Ketchikan sharply rises for a few hours when two ships dock to debark more than a thousand passengers each while four other ships lie at anchor nearby. to a lesser degree. British Columbia in Canada via the Inside Passage to Skagway. Anchorage itself.4 million total arrivals to Alaska were counted.Alaska's well-developed state-owned ferry system (known as the Alaska Marine Highway) serves the cities of Southeast. The system also operates a ferry service from Bellingham. 1. 5. so they are heavily subsidized by the federal government through the Essential Air Service program. 1. accounting air for Alaska's Alaskan extremely well-developed bush services—an novelty. Anchorage recently completed extensive remodeling and construction at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport to help accommodate the upsurge in tourism (in 2000–2001. are serviced airlines. the Gulf Coast and the Alaska Peninsula. by Air many travel major is the cheapest and most efficient form of transportation in and out of the state. the latest year for which data is available. 2.4 Air transport Cities not served by road or sea can be reached only by air or by hiking/dogsled. waiting their turn at the dock.
The "Serum Run" is another sled dog race that more accurately follows the route of the famous 1925 relay. 30 .661 residents. leaving from the community of Nenana (southwest of Fairbanks) to Nome. PenAir. and other larger communities as well as to major Southeast and Alaska Peninsula communities. Various races are held around the state. but the best known is the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. where flights bound for remote villages without an airstrip carry passengers. 5. primary transportation in summer is by all-terrain vehicle and in winter by snowmobile or "snow machine. and many items from stores and warehouse clubs. the official distance is set at 1049 miles). state: out of the estimated 663. Much of this service can be attributed to the Alaska bypass mail program which subsidizes bulk mail delivery to Alaskan rural communities. a 1150-mile (1850 km) trail from Anchorage to Nome (although the mileage varies from year to year. any time after the mid-late 1920s). Mushers from all over the world come to Anchorage each March to compete for cash. In areas not served by road or rail. Perhaps the most quintessentially Alaskan plane is the bush seaplane. The smallest towns and villages must rely on scheduled or chartered bush flying services using general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan. The world's busiest seaplane base is Lake Hood. located next to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita of any U. The race commemorates the famous 1925 serum run to Nome in which mushers and dogs like Togo and Balto took muchneeded medicine to the diphtheria-stricken community of Nome when all other means of transportation had failed. cargo. 8. dog mushing is more of a sport than a true means of transportation. The bulk of remaining commercial flight offerings come from small regional commuter airlines such as Era Aviation.Anchorage and Fairbanks to regional hubs like Bethel. the most popular aircraft in use in the state. or about one in 78. In modern times (that is. Dillingham. and Frontier Flying Service. prizes. Kodiak." as it is commonly referred to in Alaska. Kotzebue.5 Other transport Another Alaskan transportation method is the dogsled.550 are pilots. The program requires 70% of that subsidy to go to carriers who offer passenger service to the communities. Nome. and prestige.S.
including those regarding criminal prosecutions. Superior courts are courts of general jurisdiction. while district courts only hear certain types of cases. Local political communities have often worked on issues related to land use development. and individual rights. including misdemeanor criminal cases and civil cases valued up to $100. though the federal law remains in force. The Governor of Alaska serves four-year terms. fishing. The state has possessed an independence movement favouring secession from the 31 . the nominee for governor and nominee for lieutenant governor run together on the same ticket. Alaska Natives. Senators serve four year terms and House members two.6. which require stewardship. but during the general election. Alaska's court system has four levels: the Alaska Supreme Court. The lieutenant governor runs separately from the governor in the primaries. The superior and district courts are trial courts. a legislative branch consisting of the Alaska House of Representatives and Alaska Senate. The Alaska Legislature consists of a 40-member House of Representatives and a 20member Senate.1 State government Like all other U. The Supreme Court and the Court Of Appeals are appellate courts. while organized in and around their communities.000. Law and government 6. the superior courts and the district courts. states. tourism.2 State politics Alaska has been characterized as a Republican-leaning state with strong libertarian tendencies. juvenile delinquency. and habeas corpus. and a judicial branch consisting of the Alaska Supreme Court and lower courts. The Supreme Court hears civil appeals and may in its discretion hear criminal appeals. These have been given ownership over large tracts of land. Alaska is governed as a republic. have been active within the Native corporations.] 6.S. Alaska is the only state in which possession of one ounce or less of marijuana is completely legal under state law.000 employees state-wide. with three branches of government: an executive branch consisting of the Governor of Alaska and the other independently elected constitutional officers. The State of Alaska employs approximately 15. The Court Of Appeals is required to hear appeals from certain lower-court decisions. the court of appeals.
Republican Governor Wally Hickel was elected to the office for a second term in 1990 after leaving the Republican ship and briefly joining the Alaskan Independence Party ticket just long enough to be re-elected. one of seven states that do not levy an individual income tax. Other local taxes levied include raw fish taxes. He subsequently officially rejoined the Republican fold in 1994. including new state laws that directly affect the tax division. Fairbanks has one of the highest property taxes in the state as no sales or income taxes are assessed in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). No state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate fewer times. and be one of only five states with no state sales tax. 6. with the Alaska Independence Party labelled as one of "the most significant statelevel third parties operating in the 20th century". the state's Electoral College votes have been won by the Republican nominee in every election since statehood. but has yet to be approved. and South Dakota. Superior states were Wyoming. but some have not always been elected under the official Republican banner. typically 3% to 5%. Most Alaskan governors have been conservatives. liquor and tobacco taxes. gaming (pull tabs) taxes. severance taxes. and one of two states that has neither. A percentage of revenue collected from certain state taxes and license fees (such as petroleum. This allows it to have the lowest individual tax burden in the United States. Alaska supported Democratic nominee Lyndon 32 . and B&B 'bed' taxes. reports regularly on the state's revenue sources.United States. Nevada. 6. except for 1964. leading law makers to increase taxes dramatically on other goods such as liquor and tobacco.3 Taxes To finance state government operations. The Department also issues an annual overview of its operations.5%. In 2008 the Tax Foundation ranked Alaska as having the 4th most "business friendly" tax policy. aviation motor fuel. For example.4 Federal politics In presidential elections. 89 municipalities collect a local sales tax. The Department of Revenue Tax Division. While Alaska has no state sales tax. from 1% to 7. tire taxes and fuel transfer taxes. motel. telephone cooperative) is shared with municipalities in Alaska. generally Republicans. A sales tax for the FNSB has been voted on many times. hotel. Alaska depends primarily on petroleum revenues and federal subsidies.
After being elected governor in 2002. Ted Stevens was defeated by Mark Begich.S. he resigned from the Senate and appointed his daughter. House of Representatives. its longest-serving member. This seat is currently being held by Republican Don Young. This loss also meant that the Senate Republican caucus could avoid the spectacle of having to throw out Stevens. Republican Frank Murkowski held the state's other senatorial position. In 2006 Frank Murkowski was defeated in the Republican primary by Sarah Palin. As of 2004. She won a full six-year term in 2004. Matanuska-Susitna Borough and South Anchorage typically have the strongest Republican showing. 59. 2008. despite recent attempts to close primaries. State Representative Lisa Murkowski as his successor. although the 1960 and 1968 elections were close. McCain's running mate was Sarah Palin. Johnson in the landslide year of 1964. In response to a subsequent ballot initiative. well over half of all registered voters have chosen "Non-Partisan" or "Undeclared" as their affiliation. the city of Juneau and midtown and downtown Anchorage have been strongholds of the Democratic party. states. who was declared the winner of the election by virtue of having an insurmountable lead during the counting process.B. Because of its population relative to other U. who was re-elected to his 19th consecutive term in 2008. On November 19. The Alaska Bush. 33 . who in 2008 became the Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States. the state legislature attempted to amend the law to limit the length of gubernatorial appointments. Republican John McCain defeated Democrat Barack Obama in Alaska. the state's governor and the first Alaskan on a major party ticket.83%. Alaska has only one member in the U. following his conviction on seven felony corruption charges.S.49% to 37.
states. However. A recording district is a mechanism for administration of the public record in Alaska. as most of the other U. towns and boroughs Anchorage.700 people in 2006. the boroughs do not cover the entire land area of the state. but it is divided into boroughs. 225..744 of whom live in the urbanized area. The area not part of any borough is referred to as the Unorganized Borough. Alaska's largest city Alaska's capital city. etc. Cities. The state is divided into 34 recording districts which are centrally administered under a State Recorder.7. unlike county-equivalents in the other 49 states. Many of the more densely populated parts of the state are part of Alaska's sixteen boroughs.S. fee schedule. by area. Juneau. for accepting documents into the public record. and Anchorage are the three largest cities in the U. The state's most populous city is Anchorage. The Unorganized Borough has no government of its own.S. Juneau Alaska is not divided into counties. which function somewhat similarly to counties in other states. but the U. The richest location in Alaska by per capita income is Halibut Cove ($89.S. Sitka. All recording districts use the same acceptance criteria.895). 34 . Census Bureau in cooperation with the state divided the Unorganized Borough into 11 census areas solely for the purposes of statistical analysis and presentation. home to 278.
this is in part linked to alcohol abuse. Alaska has had a problem with a "brain drain". including Mt. and Alaska Pacific University. Many of its young people. The University of Alaska has attempted to combat this by offering partial four-year scholarships to the top 10% of Alaska high school graduates. Accredited universities in Alaska include the University of Alaska Anchorage. Many rural communities in Alaska have outlawed its import. Nenana Student Living Center in Nenana. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka. Public health and public safety Alaska residents have long had a problem with alcohol use and abuse. World Ice Art Championships in Fairbanks. and the Stikine River Garnet Fest in Wrangell. University of Alaska Southeast. Domestic abuse and other violent crimes are also at high levels in the state. via the Alaska Scholars Program. 35 . University of Alaska Fairbanks.8. Culture Some of Alaska's popular annual events are the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race that starts in Anchorage and ends in Nome. leave the state after high school graduation and do not return. In addition. and Galena High School in Galena. 43% of the population attends or attended college. Suicide rates for rural residents are higher than urban. the Alaska Hummingbird Festival in Ketchikan. 9. the state operates several boarding schools. Education The Alaska Department of Education and Early Development administers many school districts in Alaska. 10. This problem directly relates to Alaska's high rate of Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) as well as contributing to the high rate of suicides and teenage pregnancies. There are more than a dozen colleges and universities in Alaska. including most of the highest academic achievers. the Sitka Whale Fest. The Stikine River features the largest springtime concentration of American Bald Eagles in the world.
the Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival the Anchorage Folk Festival.give informal performances in the lobby of the Alaska Native Medical Centre in Anchorage on weekday evenings. though the Fairbanks Symphony Orchestra and Juneau Symphony are also notable. it celebrates the flag of Alaska. folk singer-songwriter Libby Roderick. at its gallery in Anchorage. and the Sitka Summer Music Festival. 36 . though there are several volunteer and semiprofessional organizations in the state as well. Inupiaq or Yupik drummers and dancers -. 10. the Athabascan OldTime Fiddling Festival. metal/post hardcore band 36 Crazyfists and the group Pamyua. Rasmuson Library in Fairbanks. including the Alaska Folk Festival. both on the internet. The most prominent symphony in Alaska is the Anchorage Symphony Orchestra. the Z. and the UAA/APU Consortium Library. also in Anchorage. the Sitka Jazz Festival. Alaska is one of three states (the others are Delaware and Rhode Island) that does not have a Carnegie library. and at the Alaska House New York. traditional Aleut flautist Mary Youngblood. The Anchorage Opera is currently the state's only professional opera company. The Alaska Native Arts Foundation promotes and markets Native art from all regions and cultures in the State. Loussac Library in Anchorage. J.Inuit. the Elmer E. 10. 109 Mercer Street in SoHo. Prominent musicians from Alaska include singer Jewel. Alaska Natives -. The official state song of Alaska is "Alaska's Flag". There are many established music festivals in Alaska.2 Music Influences on music in Alaska include the traditional music of Alaska Natives as well as folk music brought by later immigrants from Russia and Europe.1 Libraries The four main libraries in the state are the Alaska State Library in Juneau. Their purpose is to enhance self-esteem among Native people and to encourage crosscultural exchanges among all people. 500 West Sixth Avenue.The Alaska Native Heritage Centre celebrates the rich heritage of Alaska's 11 cultural groups. which was adopted in 1955.
Alaska has almost one square mile for each person in the state (New York has . above sea level.003).5 inches.29 inches were recorded. Alaska is the largest state in the union. Mountains Alaska has 17 of the 20 highest peaks in the U. means The Great One. The largest glacier is the Bering Glacier Complex at 2. covering about five percent of the state. Caves At over 2 miles in mapped length.932 (2000 Census). Denali.000 glaciers. Nearly half of the state’s residents live in Anchorage.S. almost 2. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Alaska was minus 80 at Prospect Creek.000 miles long.S. Weather The greatest annual precipitation in Alaska occurred in MacLeod Harbor in Prince William Sound where 332.000 square miles. El Capitan Cave on Prince of Wales Island is the longest cave in North America Islands Kodiak and Prince of Wales Island in Alaska are the largest and third largest islands in the United States Water The Yukon River. There are more active glaciers and ice fields in Alaska than in the rest of the inhabited world. is 20.320 ft.412 square miles it is one-fifth the size of the Lower 48.250 square miles (approximately the size of Delaware). McKinley. is the third longest river in the U. Glaciers Alaska has an estimated 100.11. Record snowfalls were recorded north of Valdez at 974. State population Alaska’s population is 626. Mt. At 586.000 rivers in Alaska and over 3 million lakes. 37 . The largest. Alaska’s symbols Name The word Alaska comes from the Aleut term Alyeska which means The Great Land. the Indian name for the peak. There are more than 3. Lake Iliamna. encompasses over 1. the highest peak in North America.
Several have erupted in recent times. More than 3. it has 33. Including islands. Lawrence Island) points in the United States.500 bald eagles gather to feed on salmon. are located in Alaska.Compass Points Alaska boasts the northernmost (Point Barrow).2. including 1.5 on the Richter scale. Amazing Birds The largest known concentration of bald eagles in the world spend time each fall and winter along the Chilkat River in Southeast Alaska. the easternmost (Semisopochnoi Island in the Aleutians). Each year. with a magnitude of 9. National Forests The nation’s two largest national forest. three have occurred in Alaska. and the western most (St. 1964.000 that measure above 3. Literally billions of birds of more than 440 different species occur in Alaska.904 miles of coastline. Alaska has approximately 5.640 miles of mainland coastline. Alaska’s map 38 . the Tongass and the Chugach. Of the ten strongest earthquakes ever recorded in the world. Earthquakes North America’s strongest recorded earthquake. Volcanoes There are more than 70 potentially active volcanoes in Alaska. rocked Alaska March 27.000 earthquakes. Coastline Alaska has 6.
State Motto: North to the Future State Flower: Wild Forget-Me-Not State Bird: Willow Ptarmigan State Fossil: Woolly Mammoth State Insect: Four-spotted Dragonfly 39 .
State Tree: Sitka Spruce State Fish: Chinook Salmon 40 .
transportation. At the same time. and particularly basic research. and other natural resources. The end of the Cold War has undermined the long-standing national security rationale under which federal R&D-both defense and civilian-has prospered since the 1950s. and habitation problems the state faces due to its climate and its volcanic and seismic activity. the continued extraction of the state's oil. will need to be funded by the federal government as public goods. The survival of the North Pacific fisheries. the preservation of its wildlife and unique natural environment. While most areas of R&D. and the provision of modern living standards for all citizens while preserving the independence and cultural heritage of Alaska's native peoples-all of these and more require the generation and application of new knowledge through research and development. While the amount of money that the federal government puts into R&D in Alaska-and into R&D on Arctic issues performed outside of the state-is small relative to the national R&D picture. efforts to balance the federal budget by 2002 have created a climate of unprecedented austerity in federal discretionary expenditures. The federal government is the only body that has the resources and capabilities to sustain much of the R&D vital to Alaska's interests.12. however. however. federal agencies provide nearly three-fourths of all R&D funding in Alaska. its importance to the Alaska's future is difficult to overestimate. solutions to the special construction. 41 . federal funding for R&D has begun to decline. Much. Some of this research and development will be paid for and conducted by profit-seeking industrial firms. Outlook and conclusions The future of Alaska will be heavily influenced by the contributions of science and engineering R&D. As noted above. Alaskans therefore have an especially strong interest in federal R&D funding trends and the future of the federal R&D system-and we stand at a critical juncture for that system. gas. the nation's research efforts may well become an unwitting casualty of the budget wars. After many years of growth. far more than their 36 percent share of R&D in the nation as a whole. continue to have strong bipartisan support in Congress and the Administration.
wikipedia.13.ro • www. Bibliography • www.com 42 .google.
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